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Sample records for catt negative result

  1. Negative results: negative perceptions limit their potential for increasing reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Negative results are an important building block in the development of scientific thought, primarily because most likely the vast majority of data is negative, i.e., there is not a favorable outcome. Only very limited data is positive, and that is what tends to get published, albeit alongside a sub-set of negative results to emphasize the positive nature of the positive results. Yet, not all negative results get published. Part of the problem lies with a traditional mind-set and rigid publishing frame-work that tends to view negative results in a negative light, or that only tends to reward scientists primarily for presenting positive findings. This opinion piece indicates that in addition to a deficient mind-set, there are also severe limitations in the availability of publishing channels where negative results could get published. PMID:26149259

  2. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-31

    This study introduces a new type of cumulative seismic attribute (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.

  3. The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS – Part 1: Model description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS. CATT-BRAMS is an on-line transport model fully consistent with the simulated atmospheric dynamics. Emission sources from biomass burning and urban-industrial-vehicular activities for trace gases and from biomass burning aerosol particles are obtained from several published datasets and remote sensing information. The tracer and aerosol mass concentration prognostics include the effects of sub-grid scale turbulence in the planetary boundary layer, convective transport by shallow and deep moist convection, wet and dry deposition, and plume rise associated with vegetation fires in addition to the grid scale transport. The radiation parameterization takes into account the interaction between the simulated biomass burning aerosol particles and short and long wave radiation. The atmospheric model BRAMS is based on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, with several improvements associated with cumulus convection representation, soil moisture initialization and surface scheme tuned for the tropics, among others. In this paper the CATT-BRAMS model is used to simulate carbon monoxide and particulate material (PM2.5 surface fluxes and atmospheric transport during the 2002 LBA field campaigns, conducted during the transition from the dry to wet season in the southwest Amazon Basin. Model evaluation is addressed with comparisons between model results and near surface, radiosondes and airborne measurements performed during the field campaign, as well as remote sensing derived products. We show the matching of emissions strengths to observed carbon monoxide in the LBA campaign. A relatively good comparison to the MOPITT data, in spite of the fact that MOPITT a priori assumptions imply several difficulties, is also obtained.

  4. Computer-assisted targeted therapy (CATT) for prostate radiotherapy planning by fusion of CT and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Both, Stefan; Viswanath, Satish; Hahn, Stephen; Feldman, Michael; Rosen, Mark; Tomaszewski, John; Vapiwala, Neha; Patel, Pratik; Madabhushi, Anant

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive, quantitative imaging framework for improved treatment of prostate cancer via computer-assisted targeted therapy (CATT) to facilitate radiotherapy dose escalation to regions with a high likelihood of disease presence. The framework involves identification of high likelihood prostate cancer regions using computer-aided detection (CAD) classifier on diagnostic MRI, followed by mapping of these regions from MRI onto planning computerized tomography (CT) via image registration. Treatment of prostate cancer by targeted radiotherapy requires CT to formulate a dose plan. While accurate delineation of the prostate and cancer can provide reduced exposure of benign tissue to radiation, as well as a higher dose to the cancer, CT is ineffective in localizing intraprostatic lesions and poor for highlighting the prostate boundary. MR imagery on the other hand allows for greatly improved visualization of the prostate. Further, several studies have demonstrated the utility of CAD for identifying the location of tumors on in vivo multi-functional prostate MRI. Consequently, our objective is to improve the accuracy of radiotherapy dose plans via multimodal fusion of MR and CT. To achieve this objective, the CATT framework presented in this paper comprises the following components: (1) an unsupervised pixel-wise classifier to identify suspicious regions within the prostate on diagnostic MRI, (2) elastic image registration to align corresponding diagnostic MRI, planning MRI, and CT of the prostate, (3) mapping of the suspect regions from diagnostic MRI onto CT, and (4) calculation of a modified radiotherapy plan with escalated dose for cancer. Qualitative comparison of the dose plans (with and without CAD) over a total of 79 2D slices obtained from 10 MR-CT patient studies, suggest that our CATT framework could help in improved targeted treatment of prostate cancer.

  5. Large Deviation Results for Generalized Compound Negative Binomial Risk Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-chao Kong; Chen Shen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we extend and improve some results of the large deviation for random sums of random variables.Let {Xn;n≥1} be a sequence of non-negative,independent and identically distributed random variables with common heavy-tailed distribution function F and finite mean μ∈R+,{N(n);n≥0} be a sequence of negative binomial distributed random variables with a parameter p ∈(0,1),n≥0,let {M(n);n≥0} be a Poisson process with intensity λ0.Suppose {N(n);n≥0},{Xn;n≥1} and {M(n);n≥0} are mutually results.These results can be applied to certain problems in insurance and finance.

  6. Thank you to reviewers of negative results in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alcantara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The mission of The All Results Journals:Biol is the communication of excellent research work obtaining negative results from all fields of biology and biomedicine. Clearly, a scientific journal’s greatest responsibility toward the scientific community is to ensure that all contributions accepted for publication are rigorously but fairly reviewed, specially in a journal of negative results like this. For this reason, all manuscripts published in the journal are reviewed by expert referees. The final quality of papers accepted for publication depends to a considerable extent on the reviewers, who give valuable constructive criticism to the authors. The input and dedication of all our reviewers are highly appreciated by both the editors and the authors.

  7. Results of combination treatment for triple-negative breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Sekundova; V.I. Borisov; A. M. Sdvizhkov

    2014-01-01

    The authors give the results of treatment in 128 patients with operable triple-negative breast cancer (BC). All the patients underwent surgical intervention, the volume of which depended on the stage of the disease. The efficiency of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as well as pre- and postoperative radiotherapy was evaluated. The side effects of different treatment options were analyzed. Five-year relapse-free and overall survival rates were traced in this patient group. It is conclude...

  8. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem to be made. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on gas, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is capable of accurate predictions

  9. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on neutral gas atoms, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is able of accurate predictions

  10. Short term non-chemical approach to Tuta absoluta and thrips : CATT shows promise against quarantine pests

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arkesteijn; Y. Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Pests such as insects, mites and nematodes don’t just cause damage, in the case of quarantine pests they can also limit exports. In cooperation with the sector, entomologist Yutong Qiu tested the possibility of using Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) in the post harvest phase to control these pests in a non-chemical way. Within the short term this approach is expected to successfully control Tuta absoluta in tomatoes and thrips in chrysanthemums and peppers.

  11. Re-mining positive and negative association mining results

    OpenAIRE

    Demiriz, Ayhan; Ertek, Gürdal; Ertek, Gurdal; Atan, Tankut; Kula, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    Positive and negative association mining are well-known and extensively studied data mining techniques to analyze market basket data. Efficient algorithms exist to find both types of association, separately or simultaneously. Association mining is performed by operating on the transaction data. Despite being an integral part of the transaction data, the pricing and time information has not been incorporated into market basket analysis so far, and additional attributes have been handled using ...

  12. Association between the −794 (CATT5–8  MIF Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Western Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Valdés-Alvarado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is related to the progression of atherosclerosis, which, in turn, is a key factor in the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. MIF has a CATT short tandem repeat (STR at position −794 that might be involved in its expression rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the −794 CATT5–8  MIF gene polymorphism and susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population. This research included 200 ACS patients classified according to the criteria of the American College of Cardiology (ACC and 200 healthy subjects (HS. The −794 CATT5–8  MIF gene polymorphism was analyzed using a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The 6 allele was the most frequent in both groups (ACS: 54% and HS: 57%. The most common genotypes in ACS patients and HS were 6/7 and 6/6, respectively, and a significant association was found between the 6/7 genotype and susceptibility to ACS (68% versus 47% in ACS and HS, resp., P=0.03. We conclude that the 6/7 genotype of the MIF −794 CATT5–8 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to ACS in a western Mexican population.

  13. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? 40.127 Section 40.127 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO,...

  14. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building. PMID:22360605

  15. False-negative results of breast core needle biopsies – retrospective analysis of 988 biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm and the most common cause of death among women. The core needle biopsy is becoming a universal practice in diagnosing breast lesions suspected of malignancy. Unfortunately, breast core needle biopsies also bear the risk of having false-negative results. 988 core needle breast biopsies were performed at the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, between 01 March 2006 and 29 February 2008. Malignant lesions were diagnosed in 426/988 (43.12%) cases, atypical hyperplasia in 69/988 (6.98%), and benign lesions in 493/988 (49.90%) cases. Twenty-two out of 988 biopsies (2.23%) were found to be false negative. Histopathological assessment of tissue specimens was repeated in these cases. In 14/22 (64%) cases, the previous diagnosis of a benign lesion was changed. In 8/22 (36%) cases, the diagnosis of a benign lesion was confirmed. False-negative rate was calculated at 2.2%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses resulting from a radiological mistake was estimated at 36%. The rate of false-negative diagnoses, resulting from histopathological assessment, was 64%. False-negative results caused by a radiological error comprised 1.5% of all histopathologically diagnosed cancers and atypias (sensitivity of 98.5%). There were no false-positive results in our material - the specificity of the method was 100%. Histopathological interpretation is a substantial cause of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy. Thus, in case of a radiological-histopathological divergence, histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens should be repeated. The main radiological causes of false-negative results of breast core needle biopsy are as follows: sampling from an inappropriate site and histopathological non-homogeneity of cancer infiltration

  16. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  17. HIV antibody assay that gave false negative results: multicentre collaborative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B G; Parry, J. V.; Mortimer, P P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify false negative results arising from the use of a commercial kit to detect antibody to HIV-1 and HIV-2 between July 1995 and March 1996. DESIGN: The 56 laboratories in the United Kingdom that were using the assay were asked to retrieve and retest specimens with an alternative assay for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Details of false negative results were obtained and these serum samples further investigated. SUBJECTS: 24,181 patients tested with the assay who were reported as being ne...

  18. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and specificity for aneuploidy detection, false positives are possible due to isolated placental mosaicism, vanishing twin or cotwin demise, and maternal chromosome abnormalities or malignancy. Results. We report a case of false negative cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening due to fetoplacental mosaicism. An infant male with negative cfDNA screening result was born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal chromosome and FISH studies on a blood specimen revealed trisomy 13 in 20/20 metaphases and 100% interphase nuclei, respectively. FISH analysis on tissues collected after delivery revealed extraembryonic mosaicism. Conclusions. Extraembryonic tissue mosaicism is likely responsible for the false negative cfDNA screening result. This case illustrates that a negative result does not rule out the possibility of a fetus affected with a trisomy, as cffDNA is derived from the placenta and therefore may not accurately represent the fetal genetic information.

  19. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Hoppman, Nicole L.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Sattler, Christopher A.; Borowski, Kristi S.; Wick, Myra J.; Highsmith, W. Edward; Aypar, Umut

    2016-01-01

    Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and specificity for aneuploidy detection, false positives are possible due to isolated placental mosaicism, vanishing twin or cotwin demise, and maternal chromosome abnormalities or malignancy. Results. We report a case of false negative cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening due to fetoplacental mosaicism. An infant male with negative cfDNA screening result was born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal chromosome and FISH studies on a blood specimen revealed trisomy 13 in 20/20 metaphases and 100% interphase nuclei, respectively. FISH analysis on tissues collected after delivery revealed extraembryonic mosaicism. Conclusions. Extraembryonic tissue mosaicism is likely responsible for the false negative cfDNA screening result. This case illustrates that a negative result does not rule out the possibility of a fetus affected with a trisomy, as cffDNA is derived from the placenta and therefore may not accurately represent the fetal genetic information. PMID:26998368

  20. Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology: The Role of Negative Results in Outcome Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan; Gutkin, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    Article discusses the role that negative results or "no-difference" findings play in research and research reviews of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Argues for publication of these findings in school psychology journals when they occur in the context of development of empirically supported interventions and translations…

  1. Multiple stool examinations for ova and parasites and rate of false-negative results.

    OpenAIRE

    Marti, H; Koella, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model that shows the relationship between the number of stool examinations for ova and parasites and the rate of false-negative results is described. An analysis of 1,869 patients with three stool examinations revealed various sensitivities for different parasites.

  2. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hochstenbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result.

  3. Misconceptions and negative attitudes towards the metabolic effects of Ramadan fasting, resulting in fasting avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Shadman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess public knowledge about the effects of Ramadan fasting on various aspects of health and its association with fasting decision-making. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 subjects. The association between fasting and participants’ knowledge and attitudes toward Ramadan fasting, anthropometric measurements, physical activity, depression, anxiety, stress, dietary intake, and prior history of diseases was evaluated. The results indicated an adverse correlation between negative attitudes towards the effects of Ramadan fasting and adherence to fasting (P

  4. Why do ecologists aim to get positive results? Once again, negative results are necessary for better knowledge accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez–Abraín, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesis testing is commonly used in ecology and conservation biology as a tool to test statistical–population parameter properties against null hypotheses. This tool was first invented by lab biologists and statisticians to deal with experimental data for which the magnitude of biologically relevant effects was known beforehand. The latter often makes the use of this tool inadequate in ecology because we field ecologists usually deal with observational data and seldom know the magnitude of biologically relevant effects. This precludes us from using hypothesis testing in the correct way, which is posing informed null hypotheses and making use of a priori power tests to calculate necessary sample sizes, and it forces us to use null hypotheses of equality to zero effects which are of little use for field ecologists because we know beforehand that zero effects do not exist in nature. This is why only ‘positive’ (statistically significant results are sought by ecologists, because negative results always derive from a lack of power to detect small (usually biologically irrelevant effects. Despite this, ‘negative’ results should be published, as they are important within the context of meta–analysis (which accounts for uncertainty when weighting individual studies by sample size to allow proper decision–making. The use of multiple hypothesis testing and Bayesian statistics puts an end to this black or white dichotomy and moves us towards a more realistic continuum of grey tones.

  5. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  6. Interpretation of negative results in fine needle aspiration of discrete pulmonary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, A J; McIvor, J; Seed, W A; Husain, O A; Metaxas, N

    1986-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was carried out on a consecutive series of 181 percutaneous fine needle aspiration biopsies of discrete pulmonary lesions, in which the outcome was established in 95%. In primary bronchial carcinoma the technique had a sensitivity of 86%. There was no relationship between the size, location, or radiological appearance of the lesion and the incidence of false negative results. The principal reason for failure to diagnose malignancy was inadequacy of the material provided for cytological examination. For metastatic neoplasms of non-bronchial origin the procedure had a sensitivity of 42% and a significantly greater false negative rate than for primary bronchial malignancy. For the entire series 72 (40%) of the procedures failed to produce a definite diagnosis, 29 (40%) of these cases subsequently proving to be malignant. A positive diagnosis was established in only 16% of patients with benign conditions. Review of published reports and consideration of the role of this and other biopsy techniques in the investigation of discrete pulmonary lesions lead to the conclusion that needle aspiration biopsy seems particularly appropriate in the investigation of inoperable patients with probable bronchial carcinoma in whom sputum cytology and bronchoscopy do not yield a diagnosis. PMID:3824273

  7. Development of a negative ion measurement probe and initial results of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A negative ion probe for the measurement of extractable negative ion current in a plasma has been developed and tested. This probe was designed in accordance with the single aperture of the negative ion source accelerator developed at JAERI. The probe consists of a plasma electrode, an extraction electron in which a pair of permanent magnet is inserted for the electron suppression, and an ion collective cup. At first, we confirmed the accuracy of the measurement by comparing the measured value with the H- current actually extracted in a small negative ion source. Then the negative ion current in the ECR ion source was measured. After these experiment, it was confirmed that the probe is effective for comparing the extractable negative ion current in various ion sources and for the measurement of spatial distribution of negative ions in a plasma. (author)

  8. Milk composition and its relationship with weaning weight in Charolais catte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Inocencio Pacheco Contreras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of a number of non-genetic factors on milk components and estimate their indirect relationships with weaning weight (WW205, the percentages of protein, fat, lactose and solids non-fat in Charolais cows from Mexico were estimated. Lactation period (LP and calving season (CS had significant effects on protein and fat, whereas lactose and solids non-fat were only affected by the LP. Sire line and age of the dam had significant effects on calf birth weight, while CS affected WW205. Residual correlations between milk components and WW205 suggest a low but significant correlation with lactose. These results demonstrate the importance of several non-genetic factors on the composition of milk from Charolais cows managed under extensive cow-calf production systems and the indirect relationships between these factors and the weaning weight of a calf.

  9. Secondary emission of negative ions and electrons resulting from electronic sputtering of cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondary ion emission of negative ions and electrons from alkali salts bombarded with high energy (9 MeV) Ar+++ is discussed. Quite different features are observed according to the nature of the salt investigated (halide or oxygenated). In the case of cesium, the electron emission from halides is characterized by intense electron showers (several hundred electrons) with narrow distributions in intensity and orientation. Conversely, for oxygenated salts, these distributions are broader, much less intense (one order of magnitude), and the ion emission exhibits an dissymmetry, which has never been observed for inorganics. This last result is interpreted in terms of radiolysis of the oxygenated salt, a process well documented for gamma-ray irradiation, but not yet reported in secondary ion emission. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  10. Understanding of a negative bowel screening result and potential impact on future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Karen N; Weller, David; Smith, Steve;

    2016-01-01

    ) emotional response to a negative FOBt, (ii) understanding the limitations of FOBt screening, (iii) symptom knowledge and interpretation and (iv) over-reassurance from a negative FOBt. Participants were reassured by a negative FOBt, but there was variability in the extent to which the result was interpreted......BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using a faecal occult blood test (FOBt) has the potential to reduce cancer-related mortality. Symptom vigilance remains crucial as a proportion of cancers will be diagnosed between screening rounds. A negative FOBt has the potential to influence how...... participants respond to future symptoms of CRC. OBJECTIVE: To explore (i) understanding of a negative FOBt and (ii) the potential impact of a negative FOBt upon future symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology utilizing focus groups with participants who received a negative...

  11. Commissioning and First Results of the ITER-Relevant Negative Ion Beam Test Facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For heating and current drive the ITER NBI system requires a negative hydrogen ion source capable of delivering above 40 A of D- ions for up to one hour pulses with an accelerated current density of 200 A/m2 . In order to limit the power loads and ion losses in the accelerator, the source must be operated at a pressure of 0.3 Pa at maximum and the amount of co-extracted electrons must not exceed the amount of extracted negative ions. As presently these parameters have not yet been achieved simultaneously, also due to a lack of adequate test facilities, the European ITER domestic agency F4E has defined an R&D roadmap for the construction of the neutral beam heating systems. An important step herein is the new test facility ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) for a large-scale extraction from a half-size ITER RF source which was constructed in the last 2 years at IPP Garching. The early experience of the operation of such a large RF driven source (1 x 1 m2 with an extraction area of 0.1 m2) will give an important input for the design of the Neutral Beam Test Facility PRIMA in Padova and the ITER NBI systems and for their commissioning and operating phases. PRIMA consists of the 1 MeV full power test facility MITICA, operational 2017, and the 100 kV ion source test facility SPIDER, operational 2015. The aim of the design of the ELISE source and extraction system was to be as close as possible to the ITER design; it has however some modifications allowing a better diagnostic access as well as more flexibility for exploring open questions. The extraction system is designed for the acceleration of 20 A of negative hydrogen ions of up to 60 kV. Plasma operation of up to one hour is foreseen; but due to the limits of the IPP HV system, pulsed extraction only is possible. ELISE went into operation in spring 2012 with first plasma and beam pulses. The paper discusses critical issues of the manufacturing and describes the commissioning phases of

  12. 'CATT' A project on Co-operation and Technology Transfer on Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management for EU Member States with Small Nuclear Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the European Union's (EU) 25 countries have considerable inventories of long-lived radioactive waste that will remain potentially hazardous for many thousands of years. Of these, several have advanced concepts and programmes for the treatment and disposal (and other long - term management options) for spent fuel and long-lived radioactive waste. Collectively, these Member States have spent the equivalent of many billions of euros in developing such concepts and some have further developed the concepts into proposed operational facilities. Member States with small nuclear programmes, face the expensive and daunting prospect o f developing their own concepts for dealing with their spent fuel and high level waste. One answer would be to seek solutions which could take advantage of the investment costs in the technology and underpinning science already incurred in the more established programmes. Thus technology transfer between Member States in areas of high level waste and spent fuel encapsulation, repository development etc. would allow the establishment of disposal facilities within any Member State for it to deal with its own wastes. The national waste management organisations of the UK (Mirex), Sweden (SKB), German y (DBE), Lithuania (RATA), Bulgaria (DPRAO) and Slovenia (ARAO), together with JRC of the Netherlands, are to undertake a project under the auspices of the EU's 6. R and D Framework Programme (FP6). The 18 month project will examine the technical, intellectual property, legal, financial and societal implications of the idea. It goes by the acronym 'CATT' - 'Cooperation and technology transfer on long term radioactive waste management for Member States with small nuclear programmes'. This paper describes the CATT project which will look at technology transfer methodologies by which Member States could co-operate. It covers the potential issues which may arise and ho w these may be addressed. (authors)

  13. False negative NIPT results: Risk figures for chromosomes 13,18 and 21 based on chorionic villi results in 5967 cases and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. van Opstal (Diane); M. Srebniak (Malgorzata); J. Polak (Joke); F.A.T. de Vries (Femke); L.C. Govaerts (Lutgarde); M. Joosten (Marieke); A. Go (Attie); M.F.C.M. Knapen (Maarten); C.D.F. van den Berg (Cardi); K.E.M. Diderich (Karin); R-J.H. Galjaard (Robert-Jan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytog

  14. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing : Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochstenbach, R; Page-Christiaens, G C M L; van Oppen, A C C; Lichtenbelt, K D; van Harssel, J J T; Brouwer, T; Manten, G T R; van Zon, P; Elferink, M; Kusters, K; Akkermans, O; Ploos van Amstel, J K; Schuring-Blom, G H

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed di

  15. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  16. Publication Trend of Clinical Trials with Negative Results Funded by Pharmaceutical Industries for the 2007-2012 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.

  17. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C): Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia-García, Inés; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.; García-Arellano, Samuel; Hernández-Bello, Jorge; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold), while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects. PMID:25972622

  18. FALSE-NEGATIVE DENGUE CASES IN RORAIMA, BRAZIL: AN APPROACH REGARDING THE HIGH NUMBER OF NEGATIVE RESULTS BY NS1 AG KITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo O. A. Acosta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22% positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection.

  19. Approach to Perturbative QCD Results in Transition Amplitudes of Nucleon Negative-Parity Resonances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yu-Bing

    2004-01-01

    The scaling behaviors of the nucleon resonance transition amplitudes from perturbative QCD (PQCD) are utilized to parametrize the amplitudes of the first negative-parity nucleon resonance S11 (1535). Our analysis indicates that the constraints of the transition amplitude for the S11 resonance at the limit Q2 →∞ by QCD sum rule calculations are not applicable at a moderate Q2 range of 2.5 ~ 4 Ge V2 compared with the present available data if the contribution of S11 is dominant in the Q2 limit.

  20. Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61). PMID:24814751

  1. New results on catalyzed big bang nucleosynthesis with a long-lived negatively charged massive particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been proposed that the apparent discrepancies between the inferred primordial abundances of 6Li and 7Li and the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) can be resolved by the existence of a negatively charged massive unstable supersymmetric particle (X-) during the BBN epoch. Here, we present new BBN calculations with an X- particle utilizing an improved nuclear reaction network including captures of nuclei by the particle, nuclear reactions and β decays of normal nuclei and nuclei bound to the X- particles (X nuclei), and new reaction rates derived from recent rigorous quantum many-body dynamical calculations. We find that this is still a viable model to explain the observed 6Li and 7Li abundances. We also show that with the new rates the production of heavier nuclei is suppressed and there is no signature on abundances of nuclei heavier than Be in the X--particle catalyzed BBN model as has been previously proposed. We also consider the version of this model whereby the X- particle decays into the present cold dark matter. We analyze this paradigm in light of the recent constraints on the dark-matter mass deduced from the possible detected events in the CDMS-II experiment. We conclude that based upon the inferred range for the dark-matter mass, only X- decay via the weak interaction can achieve the desired 7Li destruction while also reproducing the observed 6Li abundance.

  2. 49 CFR 40.129 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing laboratory confirmed non-negative drug test results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and/or refusal to test because of adulteration or substitution. (b) Before you report a verified negative, positive, test cancelled, refusal to test because of adulteration or substitution, you must have... manner (see §§ 40.163-40.167 ). (f) With respect to adulteration or substitution test results, check...

  3. A patient with AL amyloidosis with negative free light chain results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Paolo; Valentini, Veronica; Ferraro, Giovanni; Basset, Marco; Russo, Francesca; Foli, Andrea; Palladini, Giovanni; Merlini, Giampaolo

    2016-06-01

    The detection and quantification of amyloidogenic monoclonal light chains are necessary for the diagnosis and evaluation of response to treatment in AL amyloidosis. However, the amyloid clone is often small and difficult to detect. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who was referred to our Center in April 2013 after syncope and the identification of left ventricular hypertrophy at echocardiography, suspected for amyloidosis. A commercial agarose gel electrophoresis immunofixation (IFE) did not reveal monoclonal components in serum and urine. The κ serum free light chain (FLC) concentration was 21.5 mg/L, λ 33 mg/L (κ/λ ratio 0.65), NT-proBNP 9074 ng/L (u.r.l. <332 ng/L) and an echocardiogram confirmed characteristic features of amyloidosis. The abdominal fat aspiration was positive and the amyloid typing by immune-electron microscopy revealed λ light chains deposits. A high-resolution (hr) IFE of serum and urine showed a faint monoclonal λ component in the urine. A bone marrow biopsy showed 8% plasma cells (BMPC) and a kappa/lambda light-chain restriction with λ light chain on immunofluorescence. The diagnosis of AL (λ) amyloidosis with cardiac involvement was made. In May 2013, patient was started on cyclophosphamide, bortezomib and dexamethasone. After six cycles, serum and urine hr-IFE were negative, the bone marrow biopsy showed 3% BMPC without light chain restriction by immunofluorescence, and a decrease of NT-proBNP was observed (5802 ng/L).Thus, treatment was discontinued. In this patient the amyloid clone could be detected only by in house hr-IFE of urine and bone marrow examination. The detection of the small dangerous amyloidogenic clone should be pursued with a combination of high-sensitivity techniques, including assessment of BMPC clonality. Studies of novel tools, such as mass spectrometry on serum and next-generation flow cytometry analysis of the bone marrow, for detecting plasma cell clones in AL amyloidosis and other monoclonal light

  4. Some results of experimental investigations of boiling crisis at the low and negative coolant discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary analysis of results received at experimental investigations of boiling crisis under conditions of the direct and reverse water flow rate through simplified model of fuel assembly is submitted

  5. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Cao; Nicole L. Hoppman; Sarah E Kerr; Sattler, Christopher A.; Borowski, Kristi S.; Wick, Myra J.; Edward Highsmith, W.; Umut Aypar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and speci...

  6. Bias from industry trial funding? A framework, a suggested approach, and a negative result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Jodie; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Bias from funding sources of trials would threaten their validity. Meta-analyses of high quality acute pain and migraine trials were used to explore the hypothesis that industry funding of clinical trials produced more favourable results than non-profit sponsorship. Analyses were planned to evaluate whether industry-sponsored trials had different results from trials funded by academic or other non-profit sources, but of 176 trials, only two were supported by non-profit sources, while 31 provided no statement of support. An alternative method is proposed within industry-sponsored trials, looking at conflicting industry interests for the same drug, used either as test or comparator treatment. Fifty-three trials used an analgesic as test and 90 as comparator, allowing comparisons to be made for aspirin 600/650 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, paracetamol (acetaminophen) 1000 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg and sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg. Only for sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg, with the outcome of headache response at 2 h, was there any significant difference between the drug used as a test or as a comparator. The direction was for higher (worse) NNTs with sumatriptan as comparator. Investigating potential industry bias through the funding source of trials is unlikely to be adequate because of a dearth of trials funded by non-profit organisations. We propose a method based on potential conflict of interest within industry-sponsored trials. Using this method, established clinical trial results in acute pain and migraine appear to be unbiased. PMID:16495012

  7. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  8. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  9. Quaternary pollen analysis in the Iberian Peninsula: the value of negative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Carrión

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Most unsuccessful palynological work is never published. As a consequence, pollen analysts waste time re-processing sterile sediments, and the available literature exhibits a uniformly positive record of success in pollen extraction. Here we report failures with Quaternary pollen analyses in the Iberian Peninsula; that is, case studies where it was not possible to extract palynomorphs for pollen counting. Both totally sterile and partially sterile sites are considered. Sites and perspectives for future studies are suggested. The majority of the failed studies are open-air archaeological and palaeontological sites, caves and rockshelters, but there are prominent cases of success. Peat bogs have provided positive results, but only with sequences formed under continuous sedimentation processes in marshy environments. Lakes are often successful sites, but a multi-core strategy, following the facies change along a transect from the shore to the depositional centre, is recommended for saline lacustrine deposits, salt marshes and lagoons, especially when there is evidence of temporary desiccation. Cave and rockshelter infills should be considered case-by-case, and these sites definitely require a palyno-taphonomical approach to post-depositional processes. Indurated deposits are sometimes surprising in their high pollen concentration, but one must be prepared for sterility. Coprolites have been insufficiently exploited, and offer a great potential, especially those of Pleistocene Crocuta. This article shows that venturing into sediments assumed a priori to be 'difficult', like fluvial terraces, slope deposits, speleothems, cave travertines, and palaeosols, may nevertheless be successful. A summary is proposed of the various factors causing sterility, before, during and after sedimentation.

  10. Occurrence of False Positive Results for the Detection of Carbapenemases in Carbapenemase-Negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Shudan; Guo, Yan; Xiong, Zizhong; Hu, Fupin; Zhu, Demei; Zhang, Yingyuan

    2011-01-01

    Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Three hundred and one E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were investigated. All ...

  11. Cyberbullying as a negative result of cyber-culture of Slovak children and adolescents: selected research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá Katarína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-culture points out the life in cyberspace and goes beyond national cultures. It is particularly attractive for the young people who use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT to express their attitudes, values, beliefs and thinking. Those do not need to be necessarily in accordance with the standards of an individual society. Cyberculture becomes dangerous. Great risk lies in cyberbullying that represents negative impact of cyber-culture on human behavior. The aim of the study is to detect cyberbullying as a negative impact of cyber-culture among of Slovak children and adolescents. The research was carried out on a sample of 1619 11-18-year old respondents (average age was 14.51. Results of cyberbullying research carried out using Latent Class Analysis (LCA have proved the appropriateness of 3-latent-class module. Relative entropy of the module reached 0.915. It was demonstrated that 52.9% of respondents belonged to the group of uninvolved, 42.7% were victims and 4.4% were victims-aggressors. Being a negative consequence of cyber-culture, cyberbullying is a challenge that educators - including other assisting professions - face when educating children and adolescents to orientate in cyberspace, behave responsibly, express themselves in a way that would not interfere others’ integrity and identity (personal and virtual. The study was written under VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR a SAV č. 1/0244/15: “Detekcia a riešenie kyberšikany”.

  12. False Negative NIPT Results: Risk Figures for Chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 Based on Chorionic Villi Results in 5967 Cases and Literature Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Van Opstal

    Full Text Available Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT demonstrated a small chance for a false negative result. Since the "fetal" DNA in maternal blood originates from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV, some false negative results will have a biological origin. Based on our experience with cytogenetic studies of CV, we tried to estimate this risk. 5967 CV samples of pregnancies at high risk for common aneuplodies were cytogenetically investigated in our centre between January 2000 and December 2011. All cases of fetal trisomy 13, 18 and 21 were retrospectively studied for the presence of a normal karyotype or mosaicism < 30% in short-term cultured (STC- villi. 404 cases of trisomies 13, 18 and 21 were found amongst 5967 samples (6,8%. Of these 404 cases, 14 (3,7% had a normal or low mosaic karyotype in STC-villi and therefore would potentially be missed with NIPT. It involved 2% (5/242 of all trisomy 21 cases and 7.3% (9/123 of all trisomy 18 cases. In 1:426 (14/5967 NIPT samples of patients at high risk for common aneuploidies, a trisomy 18 or 21 will potentially be missed due to the biological phenomenon of absence of the chromosome aberration in the cytotrophoblast.

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility and beta-lactamase production of selected gram-negative bacilli from two Croatian hospitals: MYSTIC study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenic, B; Goic-Barisic, I; Budimir, A; Tonkic, M; Mihajkevic, L J; Novak, A; Sviben, M; Plecko, V; Punda-Polic, V; Kalenic, S

    2010-06-01

    The meropenem yearly Susceptibility Test Information Collection (MYSTIC) programme is a global, longitudinal resistance surveillance network that monitors the activity of meropenem and compares its activity with other broadspectrum antimicrobial agents. We now report the antimicrobial efficacy of meropenem compared to other broad-spectrum agents within the selective Gram-negative pathogen groups from two Croatian Hospitals investigated between 2002-2007. A total of 1510 Gram-negative pathogens were tested and the minimum-inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method according to CLSI.There was no resistance to either imipenem or meropenem observed for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis in both medical centers. High resistance rates of K. pneumoniae to ceftazidime (18%), cefepime (17%) and gentamicin (39%) are raising concern. Acinetobacter baumannii turned out to be the most resistant Gram-negative bacteria with 81% resistant to ceftazidime, 73% to cefepime, 69% to gentamicin and 71% to ciprofloxacin. Almost 20% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were resistant to imipenem, 13% to meropenem, 69% to gentamicin and 38% to ciprofloxacin.The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in E. coli was 10% and in K. pneumoniae 49%. PCR and sequencing of the amplicons revealed the presence of SHV-5 in nine E. coli strains and additional tem-1 beta-lactamase five strains. Five K. pneumoniae strains were positive for bla(SHV-5 )gene. Eight ESBL positive Enterobacter spp. strains were found to produce tem and CtX-m beta-lactamases. Plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases were not found among K. pneumoniae, E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Three A. baumannii strains from Zagreb University Center were identified by multiplex PCR as OXA-58 like producers. Six A. baumannii strains from Split University Center were found to possess an ISAba1 insertion sequence upstream of bla(OXA-51 )gene. According to our results

  14. The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12: the result of negative phrasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 is used routinely as a unidimensional measure of psychological morbidity. Many factor-analytic studies have reported that the GHQ-12 has two or three dimensions, threatening its validity. It is possible that these 'dimensions' are the result of the wording of the GHQ-12, namely its division into positively phrased (PP and negatively phrased (NP statements about mood states. Such 'method effects' introduce response bias which should be taken into account when deriving and interpreting factors. Methods GHQ-12 data were obtained from the 2004 cohort of the Health Survey for England (N = 3705. Following exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the goodness of fit indices of one, two and three factor models were compared with those of a unidimensional model specifying response bias on the NP items, using structural equation modelling (SEM. The hypotheses were (1 the variance of the responses would be significantly higher for NP items than for PP items because of response bias, and (2 that the modelling of response bias would provide the best fit for the data. Results Consistent with previous reports, EFA suggested a two-factor solution dividing the items into NP and PP items. The variance of responses to the NP items was substantially and significantly higher than for the PP items. The model incorporating response bias was the best fit for the data on all indices (RMSEA = 0.068, 90%CL = 0.064, 0.073. Analysis of the frequency of responses suggests that the response bias derives from the ambiguity of the response options for the absence of negative mood states. Conclusion The data are consistent with the GHQ-12 being a unidimensional scale with a substantial degree of response bias for the negatively phrased items. Studies that report the GHQ-12 as multidimensional without taking this response bias into account risk interpreting the artefactual factor structure as denoting 'real' constructs

  15. French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-12-01

    In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

  16. Occurrence of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    Full Text Available Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Three hundred and one E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were investigated. All produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs but were susceptible to carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The MHT was performed using the standard inoculum of test organisms recommended by the CLSI. Genes that encoded ESBLs and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 301 clinical isolates, none of the isolates conformed to the criteria for carbapenemase screening recommended by the CLSI. The susceptibility rates for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem all were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 301 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, none produced carbapenemase. The MHT gave a positive result for 3.3% (10/301 of the isolates. False positive results can occur when the MHT is used to detect carbapenemase in ESBL-producing isolates and clinical laboratories must be aware of this fact.

  17. Real-Time PCR for Measles Virus Detection on Clinical Specimens with Negative IgM Result in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, Touria; Tajounte, Latifa; Alla, Amal; Khebba, Fatima; Ahmed, Hinda; Mulders, Mick N.; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; El Aouad, Rajae

    2016-01-01

    Since the confirmation of measles cases represents an important indicator regarding the performance of the measles-elimination program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the routine procedures followed in Morocco for the laboratory confirmation of measles cases. Suspected cases reported between January 2010 and December 2012 were assessed for the timeliness of the sample collection, occurrence of measles clinical symptoms, and the results of the laboratory diagnoses. For 88% of the 2,708 suspected cases, a clinical specimen was collected within 7d of rash onset, of which 50% were IgM-positive and 2.6% were equivocal. The measles symptoms were reported in 91.4% of the cases; the occurrence of symptoms showed a positive association with the serological results (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9883, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2238–4.0157). Of the negative samples, 52% (n = 116) tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These results are in favor of using molecular detection to complement serological diagnosis in the context of measles surveillance approach in Morocco. In addition, the introduction of additional laboratory methods for differential diagnosis is required for the final classification of suspected cases with maculopapular rash and fever in the context of the measles elimination program. PMID:26812434

  18. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed

  19. Negative pressure wound therapy: Potential publication bias caused by lack of access to unpublished study results data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT is widely applied, although the evidence base is weak. Previous reviews on medical interventions have shown that conclusions based on published data alone may no longer hold after consideration of unpublished data. The main objective of this study was to identify unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs on NPWT within the framework of a systematic review. Methods RCTs comparing NPWT with conventional wound therapy were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. Every database was searched from inception to May 2005. The search was updated in December 2006. Reference lists of original articles and systematic reviews, as well as congress proceedings and online trial registers, were screened for clues to unpublished RCTs. Manufacturers of NPWT devices and authors of conference abstracts were contacted and asked to provide study information. Trials were considered nonrandomised if concealment of allocation to treatment groups was classified as "inadequate". The study status was classified as "completed", "discontinued", "ongoing" or "unclear". The publication status of completed or discontinued RCTs was classified as "published" if a full-text paper on final study results (completed trials or interim results (discontinued trials was available, and "unpublished" if this was not the case. The type of sponsorship was also noted for all trials. Results A total of 28 RCTs referring to at least 2755 planned or analysed patients met the inclusion criteria: 13 RCTs had been completed, 6 had been discontinued, 6 were ongoing, and the status of 3 RCTs was unclear. Full-text papers were available on 30% of patients in the 19 completed or discontinued RCTs (495 analysed patients in 10 published RCTs vs. 1154 planned patients in 9 unpublished RCTs. Most information about conference abstracts and unpublished study information referring to trials that were unpublished at the

  20. Risk factors for false-negative results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay in non-HIV-infected patients with culture-confirmed tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Park, Moo Suk; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Se Kyu; Chang, Joon; Kang, Young Ae

    2011-07-01

    Limited information is available on the risk factors for false-negative results with the new generation of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) tests in non-HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB). We sought to identify risk factors for false-negative QFT-GIT results in culture-confirmed TB patients. We reviewed the microbiological, laboratory, radiographic, and clinical data of 362 patients with positive M. tuberculosis cultures who received QFT-GIT tests at a Korean tertiary hospital between September 2006 and March 2010. Of these, 311 (85.9%) had true-positive and 51 (14.1%) had false-negative results. The false-negative group was more likely to have immunosuppressant diseases and lower platelet, protein, and albumin levels than the true-positive group. An immunosuppressive condition was an independent risk factor for false-negative QFT-GIT results in non-HIV-infected patients with active TB (odds ratio, 2.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-6.47; P = .006). Careful interpretation of negative QFT-GIT results is thus necessary in immunocompromised patients suspected of having active TB. PMID:21546200

  1. Negative energy blowup results for the focusing Hartree hierarchy via identities of virial and localized virial type

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    We establish virial and localized virial identities for solutions to the Hartree hierarchy, an infinite system of partial differential equations which arises in mathematical modeling of many body quantum systems. As an application, we use arguments originally developed in the study of the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (see work of Zakharov, Glassey, and Ogawa--Tsutsumi) to show that certain classes of negative energy solutions must blow up in finite time. The most delicate case of this ana...

  2. Factors that Predict Negative Results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeon, Kyeongman; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Ryu, Yon Ju; Choi, Jae Chol; Kim, Ho Cheol; Koh, Won-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Interferon-γ release assays such as the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT) are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, whether latent or manifesting as disease. However, a substantial number of persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) have negative QFT-GITs. Information on host factors contributing to false-negative and indeterminate results are limited. Methods A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed with 1,264 culture-confirmed TB ...

  3. Genetic Variability in Probe Binding Regions Explains False Negative Results of a Molecular Assay for the Detection of Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Carmen; Kaur, Simrandeep; Teh, Zhi-Yong; Xu, Helen; Nasir, Amna; Lai, Yee-Ling; Khan, Erum; Ng, Lee-Ching; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C

    2016-07-01

    Dengue fever is currently the most prevalent disease caused by mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Despite being potentially fatal, there are no specific antiviral therapies for Dengue virus (DENV) infections. Therefore, early, accurate, and rapid diagnosis plays an important role in proper patient management. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a probe-based real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay against that of a conventional RT-PCR assay in three sample cohorts from Pakistan (n = 94) and Singapore (first cohort; n = 559, second cohort; n = 123). The Pakistan cohort also included a comparison with virus isolation. The rRT-PCR assay showed relatively lower overall sensitivity (20.2%) in the Pakistan cohort than that in first (90.8%) and second (80.5%) Singapore cohorts. Surprisingly, the overall sensitivity of rRT-PCR assay was lower compared with the virus isolation (26.6%) among Pakistan samples, indicating a high percentage (79.8%) of false negatives due to rRT-PCR assay. The analysis of sequences of failed and successful DENV isolates indicated mismatches in probe binding regions as the likely cause of rRT-PCR assay failure. Our observations testify the importance of utilizing a combination of methods for dengue diagnostics and surveillance. We emphasize that a thorough understanding of the genetic composition of local DENV populations as well as regular monitoring of the performance and reviewing of probe/primer sequences are essential to maintain a consistently high diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based assays. PMID:27172387

  4. Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    Full Text Available Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse, but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74. Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02, and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

  5. Breast Cancer Risk Perceptions among Relatives of Women with Uninformative Negative BRCA1/2 Test Results: The Moderating Effect of the Amount of Shared Information

    OpenAIRE

    Himes, Deborah O.; Clayton, Margaret F.; Gary W. Donaldson; Ellington, Lee; Buys, Saundra S.; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2015-01-01

    The most common result of BRCA1/2 mutation testing when performed in a family without a previously identified mutation is an uninformative negative test result. Women in these families may have an increased risk for breast cancer because of mutations in non-BRCA breast cancer predisposition genes, including moderate- or low-risk genes, or shared environmental factors. Genetic counselors often encourage counselees to share information with family members, however it is unclear how much informa...

  6. Genetic antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Gram-negative sepsis - impact on time to results in a routine laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommedal, Øyvind; Aasen, Johanne Lind; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic testing of positive blood cultures is among the most critical tasks performed by clinical microbiology laboratories, and the total analysis time from sampling to results should be kept as short as possible. By providing identification of pelleted bacteria directly from positive blood-cultures, MALDI-TOF MS opens for relatively low-complex species-adjusted genetic susceptibility testing from the same bacterial pellet. In our lab routine, we prospectively evaluated a rapid in-house real-time PCR targeting the most common aminoglycoside and cephalosporin resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and measured time to preliminary susceptibility reporting for 138 samples. The results were compared to direct phenotypic susceptibility testing with interpretation after 6 h and overnight incubation respectively. Results from the genetic susceptibility testing were available for 69.5% (96/138) of the positive blood cultures within 24 h after sample collection. No phenotypic susceptibility results were available at this time. Compared to overnight direct susceptibility testing, the average time from sample collection to preliminary susceptibility reporting was reduced with 43%, from 45 h and 5 min to 25 h and 44 min, providing an earlier adjustment of antimicrobial therapy for 12 patients. Minor logistic adjustments have the potential to save yet another 4 h. PMID:27197792

  7. Monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD is useful to predict prognosis of adult patients with Ph-negative ALL: results of a prospective study (ALL MRD2002 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagafuji Koji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT for patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in first complete remission (CR1 is much more intensive than multi-agent combined chemotherapy, although allogeneic HSCT is associated with increased morbidity and mortality when compared with such chemotherapy. Minimal residual disease (MRD status has been proven to be a strong prognostic factor for adult patients with Ph-negative ALL. Methods We investigated whether MRD status in adult patients with ALL is useful to decide clinical indications for allogeneic HSCT. We prospectively monitored MRD after induction and consolidation therapy in adult patients with Ph-negative ALL. Results Of 110 adult ALL patients enrolled between July 2002 and August 2008, 101 were eligible, including 59 Ph-negative patients. MRD status was assessed in 43 patients by the detection of major rearrangements in TCR and Ig and the presence of chimeric mRNA. Thirty-nine patients achieved CR1, and their probabilities of 3-year overall survival and disease-free survival (DFS were 74% and 56%, respectively. Patients who were MRD-negative after induction therapy (n = 26 had a significantly better 3-year DFS compared with those who were MRD-positive (n = 13; 69% vs. 31%, p = 0.004. All of 3 patients who were MRD-positive following consolidation chemotherapy and did not undergo allogeneic HSCT, relapsed and died within 3 years after CR. Conclusions These results indicate that MRD monitoring is useful for determining the clinical indications for allogeneic HSCT in the treatment of ALL in CR1.

  8. Identification of an intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene through a re-evaluation of negative next generation sequencing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Teresa; Fanin, Marina; Savarese, Marco; Piluso, Giulio; Angelini, Corrado; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    A large mutation screening of 504 patients with muscular dystrophy or myopathy has been performed by next generation sequencing (NGS). Among this cohort of patients, we report a case with a severe form of muscular dystrophy with a proximal weakness in the limb-girdle muscles. Her biopsy revealed typical dystrophic features and immunohistochemistry for α- and γ-sarcoglycans showed an absent reaction, addressing the clinical diagnosis toward a sarcoglycanopathy. Considering that no causative point mutation was detected in any of the four sarcoglycan genes, we re-evaluated the NGS data by careful quantitative analysis of the specific reads mapping on the four sarcoglycan genes. A complete absence of reads from the sixth exon of the β-sarcoglycan gene was found. Subsequent array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis confirmed the result with the identification of a novel 3.3 kb intragenic deletion in the SGCB gene. This case illustrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach involving clinicians and molecular geneticists and the need for a careful re-evaluation of NGS data. PMID:27108072

  9. Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3He and 4He concentrations in 2- to 6-mg samples of palladium-black from the interior of Arata-style cathodes were investigated using a tungsten wire furnace on-line to an ultrahigh sensitivity static mass spectrometer. The detection limit of the mass spectrometer was ∼104 atoms 3He and 108 atoms 4He, and the mass resolution of 1 part in 620 was sufficient to cleanly resolve 3He from H3 and HD. Three specimens of palladium-black (A, B, and C) were from hollow Pd cathodes that had generated excess heat in D2O electrolysis experiments carried out by Arata and Zhang in their laboratory. One specimen of Pd-black (D) had not been used in any electrolysis experiment. A total of twelve samples, three from each specimen, were analyzed. The 3He and 4He concentrations were variable as if due to sample inhomogeneity. Two samples (C-1 and B-1) showed apparent 4He of 4.4 x 109 atoms/mg and 6.6 x 109 atoms/mg, respectively, and three (A-3, B-2, and D-3) showed excess 3He from 77 to 1096 x 103 atoms/mg relative to the atmospheric 3He/4He ratio. Seven samples showed no apparent excess of 3He or 4He. Five samples of the aluminum foil used to wrap Pd-black samples were also analyzed and gave mean values of 13 ± 18 x 103 atoms/mg and 1.50 ± 0.66 x 109 atoms/mg for 3He and 4He, respectively. The values for Al and Pd-black are comparable to the 1978 results of Mamyrin, Khabarin, and Yudenich, who examined helium isotopes in many ordinary metals and other materials including Al and Pd. At present, there is no evidence for the very much larger concentrations (1016 to 1017 atoms/mg) of 3He and 4He that Arata and Zhang claim to have detected in similar specimens of Pd-black from Pd cathodes subjected to D2O electrolysis

  10. Factors that Predict Negative Results of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Patients with Culture-Confirmed Tuberculosis: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Soo Kwon

    Full Text Available Interferon-γ release assays such as the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test (QFT-GIT are designed to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, whether latent or manifesting as disease. However, a substantial number of persons with culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB have negative QFT-GITs. Information on host factors contributing to false-negative and indeterminate results are limited.A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed with 1,264 culture-confirmed TB patients older than 18 years who were subjected to the QFT-GIT at one of the six hospitals between May 2007 and February 2014. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection were excluded. Clinical and laboratory data were collected in South Korea.Of all patients, 87.6% (1,107/1,264 were diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 12.4% (157/1,264 with extrapulmonary TB. The rate of negative results was 14.4% (182/1,264. The following factors were highly correlated with false-negative results in the QFT-GIT: advanced age (age ≥ 65 years, odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.39, bilateral disease as determined by chest radiography (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.72, malignancy (OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.30-4.49, and lymphocytopenia (total lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L, OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.21-2.87.Consequently, QFT-GIT results need to be interpreted with caution in patients with these host risk factors such as the elderly, bilateral disease on chest radiography, or malignancy, or lymphocytopenia.

  11. Suppression of telomere-binding protein TPP1 resulted in telomere dysfunction and enhanced radiation sensitivity in telomerase-negative osteosarcoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Weiguang [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Wu, Qinqin [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Changzhou Tumor Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Wu, Changping, E-mail: wcpzlk@163.com [Department of Oncology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Zhou, Yunfeng, E-mail: yfzhouwhu@163.com [Hubei Cancer Clinical Study Center, Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of TPP1 shortened telomere length in telomerase-negative cells. • Down-regulation of TPP1 induced cell apoptosis in telomerase-negative cells. • Down-regulation of TPP1 increased radiosensitivity in telomerase-negative cells. - Abstract: Mammalian telomeres are protected by the shelterin complex that contains the six core proteins POT1, TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, TRF2 and RAP1. TPP1, formerly known as TINT1, PTOP, and PIP1, is a key factor that regulates telomerase recruitment and activity. In addition to this, TPP1 is required to mediate the shelterin assembly and stabilize telomere. Previous work has found that TPP1 expression was elevated in radioresistant cells and that overexpression of TPP1 led to radioresistance and telomere lengthening in telomerase-positive cells. However, the exact effects and mechanism of TPP1 on radiosensitivity are yet to be precisely defined in the ALT cells. Here we report on the phenotypes of the conditional deletion of TPP1 from the human osteosarcoma U2OS cells using ALT pathway to extend the telomeres.TPP1 deletion resulted in telomere shortening, increased apoptosis and radiation sensitivity enhancement. Together, our findings show that TPP1 plays a vital role in telomere maintenance and protection and establish an intimate relationship between TPP1, telomere and cellular response to ionizing radiation, but likely has the specific mechanism yet to be defined.

  12. Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children Estimated by a Test-Negative Case-Control Design Study Based on Influenza Rapid Diagnostic Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Tomidokoro, Yuka; Sekiguchi, Shinichiro; Mitamura, Keiko; Fujino, Motoko; Shiro, Hiroyuki; Komiyama, Osamu; Taguchi, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoko; Narabayashi, Atsushi; Myokai, Michiko; Sato, Masanori; Furuichi, Munehiro; Baba, Hiroaki; Fujita, Hisayo; Sato, Akihiro; Ookawara, Ichiro; Tsunematsu, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kono, Mio; Tanaka, Fumie; Kawakami, Chiharu; Kimiya, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takao; Iwata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in children 6 months to 15 years of age in 22 hospitals in Japan during the 2013–14 season. Our study was conducted according to a test-negative case-control design based on influenza rapid diagnostic test (IRDT) results. Outpatients who came to our clinics with a fever of 38°C or over and had undergone an IRDT were enrolled in this study. Patients with positive IRDT results were recorded as cases, and patients with negative results were recorded as controls. Between November 2013 and March 2014, a total of 4727 pediatric patients (6 months to 15 years of age) were enrolled: 876 were positive for influenza A, 66 for A(H1N1)pdm09 and in the other 810 the subtype was unknown; 1405 were positive for influenza B; and 2445 were negative for influenza. Overall VE was 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39–52). Adjusted VE against influenza A, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, and influenza B was 63% (95% CI, 56–69), 77% (95% CI, 59–87), and 26% (95% CI, 14–36), respectively. Influenza vaccine was not effective against either influenza A or influenza B in infants 6 to 11 months of age. Two doses of influenza vaccine provided better protection against influenza A infection than a single dose did. VE against hospitalization influenza A infection was 76%. Influenza vaccine was effective against influenza A, especially against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, but was much less effective against influenza B. PMID:26317334

  13. Breast Cancer Risk Perceptions among Relatives of Women with Uninformative Negative BRCA1/2 Test Results: The Moderating Effect of the Amount of Shared Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Deborah O; Clayton, Margaret F; Donaldson, Gary W; Ellington, Lee; Buys, Saundra S; Kinney, Anita Y

    2016-04-01

    The most common result of BRCA1/2 mutation testing when performed in a family without a previously identified mutation is an uninformative negative test result. Women in these families may have an increased risk for breast cancer because of mutations in non-BRCA breast cancer predisposition genes, including moderate- or low-risk genes, or shared environmental factors. Genetic counselors often encourage counselees to share information with family members, however it is unclear how much information counselees share and the impact that shared information may have on accuracy of risk perception in family members. We evaluated 85 sisters and daughters of women who received uninformative negative BRCA1/2 results. We measured accuracy of risk perception using a latent variable model where accuracy was represented as the correlation between perceived risk (indicators = verbal and quantitative measures) and calculated risk (indicators = Claus and BRCAPRO). Participants who reported more information was shared with them by their sister or mother about her genetic counseling session had greater accuracy of risk perception (0.707, p = 0.000) than those who reported little information was shared (0.326, p = 0.003). However, counselees shared very little information; nearly 20 % of family members reported their sister or mother shared nothing with them about her genetic counseling. Family members were generally not aware of the existence of a genetic counseling summary letter. Our findings underscore the need for effective strategies that facilitate counselees to share information about their genetic counseling sessions. Such communication may help their relatives better understand their cancer risks and enhance risk appropriate cancer prevention. PMID:26245632

  14. Role of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in the re-staging of prostate cancer patients with biochemical relapse and negative results at bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuccio, Chiara; Castellucci, Paolo [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Hematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola - Malpighi, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo [Urology Unit, Department of Specialist Surgery and Anaesthesiology, Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola - Malpighi, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Guidalotti, Pier Luigi; Gavaruzzi, Gilberto; Montini, Gian Carlo; Nanni, Cristina [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Hematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola - Malpighi, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Marzola, Maria Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Via Tre Martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Rubello, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.rubello@libero.it [Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre, ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Via Tre Martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Hematology Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico Sant' Orsola - Malpighi, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    Aim: to evaluate the utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in prostate cancer (PC) patients who have demonstrated a biochemical recurrence and a negative bone scintigraphy (BS). Materials and methods: 123 consecutive PC patients (mean age 67.6 years; range 54-83) with a biochemical relapse (mean PSA value 3.3 ng/mL; range 0.2-25.5) after radical prostatectomy (RP) were included in our retrospective study. Patients underwent a BS that resulted negative and a {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within 4 months from BS (range: 1 day to 4 months; mean: 2.5 months). Validation of results was established by: (1) a positive biopsy, (2) a positive subsequent BS, CT or MR and (3) a normalization of {sup 11}C-choline uptake after systemic therapy or a progression of the disease. Results: {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 42/123 patients (34.1%). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected lesions in: bone (10 patients), lymph-nodes (20 patients), bone and lymph nodes (7 patients), bone and lung (1 patient), lymph-nodes and lung (1 patient), local relapse (3 patients). Overall, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT showed a total of 30 unknown bone lesions in 18/123 (14.6%) patients. Conclusion: {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT showed a better sensitivity than BS in patients with biochemical relapse after RP: {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT detected unknown bone lesions in 18/123 (14.6%) patients.

  15. Negative Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Barkman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I will compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus. Unusual? Yes. But my intention herein is not a general comparison; rather, I want to explore to what extent these two men accepted what I call “negative happiness.” What is negative, and by extension, positive, happiness? I think we can prepare ourselves for this distinction with two analogous distinctions: (1) the distinction between positive and negative freedom, wherein positive freedom sees true freedom as interna...

  16. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography in patients with Crohn's disease using a negative oral contrast material: initial results of a noninvasive imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reittner, Pia; Goritschnig, Toria; Doerfler, Otto [Department of Radiology, Karl Franzens Medical School and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Petritsch, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Thomas [Department of Internal Medicine, Karl Franzens Medical School and University Hospital Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Preidler, Klaus W.; Szolar, Dieter H. [Diagnostikum Graz Sued West, Weblinger Guertel 25, 8054 Graz (Austria)

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively define the role of multiplanar spiral CT enterography with a new negative oral contrast material for noninvasive assessment of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with established Crohn's disease prospectively underwent spiral CT enterography at 45-60 min after distension of the small bowel with 1400 ml of a negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk water enema). Spiral CT scans were obtained 50 s after administration of intravenous contrast material with the following parameters: 5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table feed; and 3-mm reconstruction interval. The adequacy of bowel opacification, luminal distension, and the contribution of two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted imaging were assessed by two observers. Spiral CT imaging findings were compared with results of enteroclysis as well as endoscopic and histological findings in all patients. Spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk water enema was well tolerated in 29 of 30 patients. Findings on spiral CT enterography were comparable with those of barium studies in 25 of 30 patients, superior to those on barium studies in 4 patients, and inferior in 1 patient (p<0.05). The addition of multiplanar reformatted images to axial spiral CT scans significantly improved observers' confidence in image interpretation (p<0.05) but did not reveal additional abnormalities. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk excellently provides information in patients with Crohn's disease. This technique accurately depicts the level of small bowel obstruction and the extent of inflammatory small bowel disease and its extraluminal complications. (orig.)

  17. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography in patients with Crohn's disease using a negative oral contrast material: initial results of a noninvasive imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to prospectively define the role of multiplanar spiral CT enterography with a new negative oral contrast material for noninvasive assessment of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with established Crohn's disease prospectively underwent spiral CT enterography at 45-60 min after distension of the small bowel with 1400 ml of a negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk water enema). Spiral CT scans were obtained 50 s after administration of intravenous contrast material with the following parameters: 5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table feed; and 3-mm reconstruction interval. The adequacy of bowel opacification, luminal distension, and the contribution of two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted imaging were assessed by two observers. Spiral CT imaging findings were compared with results of enteroclysis as well as endoscopic and histological findings in all patients. Spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk water enema was well tolerated in 29 of 30 patients. Findings on spiral CT enterography were comparable with those of barium studies in 25 of 30 patients, superior to those on barium studies in 4 patients, and inferior in 1 patient (p<0.05). The addition of multiplanar reformatted images to axial spiral CT scans significantly improved observers' confidence in image interpretation (p<0.05) but did not reveal additional abnormalities. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk excellently provides information in patients with Crohn's disease. This technique accurately depicts the level of small bowel obstruction and the extent of inflammatory small bowel disease and its extraluminal complications. (orig.)

  18. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  19. Fractal negations

    OpenAIRE

    Mayor Forteza, Gaspar; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    1994-01-01

    From the concept of attractor of a family of contractive affine transformations in the Euclidean plane R², we study the fractality property of the De Rham function and other singular functions wich derive from it. In particular, we show as fractals the strong negations called k-negations.

  20. False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi’s Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%. Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (P<0.01. Small size (<10 mm and patches found on endoscopy were significantly associated with FNRs (P<0.05. Findings of submucosal tumor (SMT with ulceration were significantly associated with true-positive results (P<0.05. In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance. An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features.

  1. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography phantom study: intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents may cause false-negative results in assessment of vesicoureteral reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ce-VUS) is commonly requested simultaneously to other diagnostic imaging necessitating intravenous contrast agents. To date there is limited knowldedge about intravesical interactions between different types of contrast agents. To assess the effect of excreted intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents on the intravesical distribution of ultrasound contrast within contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Iodinated (iomeprol, iopamidol) and gadolinium-based (gadoterate meglumine) contrast agents were diluted to bladder concentration and injected into balloons filled with saline solution. CT scans were performed to assess the contrast distribution in these phantoms. Regions of interest were placed at the top and bottom side of each balloon and Hounsfield units (HU) were measured. Three other balloons were filled with saline solution and contrast media likewise. The ultrasound contrast agent sulphur hexafluoride was added and its distribution was assessed using sonography. MDCT scans showed a separation of two liquid layers in all bladder phantoms with the contrast layers located at the bottom and the saline solution at the top. Significant differences of the HU measurements at the top and bottom side were observed (P < 0.001-0.007). Following injection of ultrasound contrast agent, US showed its distribution exclusively among the saline solution. False-negative results of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography may occur if it is performed shortly after imaging procedures requiring intravenous contrast. (orig.)

  2. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography phantom study: intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents may cause false-negative results in assessment of vesicoureteral reflux in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Simon; Sauer, Alexander; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Petritsch, Bernhard; Herz, Stefan; Blanke, Philipp; Bley, Thorsten A.; Wirth, Clemens [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Derlin, Thorsten [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ce-VUS) is commonly requested simultaneously to other diagnostic imaging necessitating intravenous contrast agents. To date there is limited knowldedge about intravesical interactions between different types of contrast agents. To assess the effect of excreted intravenous iodinated and gadolinium-based contrast agents on the intravesical distribution of ultrasound contrast within contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography. Iodinated (iomeprol, iopamidol) and gadolinium-based (gadoterate meglumine) contrast agents were diluted to bladder concentration and injected into balloons filled with saline solution. CT scans were performed to assess the contrast distribution in these phantoms. Regions of interest were placed at the top and bottom side of each balloon and Hounsfield units (HU) were measured. Three other balloons were filled with saline solution and contrast media likewise. The ultrasound contrast agent sulphur hexafluoride was added and its distribution was assessed using sonography. MDCT scans showed a separation of two liquid layers in all bladder phantoms with the contrast layers located at the bottom and the saline solution at the top. Significant differences of the HU measurements at the top and bottom side were observed (P < 0.001-0.007). Following injection of ultrasound contrast agent, US showed its distribution exclusively among the saline solution. False-negative results of contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography may occur if it is performed shortly after imaging procedures requiring intravenous contrast. (orig.)

  3. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone

  4. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, Olga, E-mail: olga.vujovic@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Cherian, Anil [Station Health Centre, Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, Moray (United Kingdom); Dar, A. Rashid [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Stitt, Larry [Department of Biometry, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  5. Frequency and perceived severity of negative experiences during medical education in Germany – Results of an online-survery of medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Gágyor, Ildikó; Hilbert, Nadine; Chenot, Jean-François; Marx, Gabriella; Ortner, Tuulia; Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Scherer, Martin; Wedeken, Sven; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Negative experiences during the course of medical education have been reported in many countries, but little is known about the perceived severity of these experiences. We studied for the first time how often students at a medical university in Germany have had negative experiences, and how severe they perceive these to be. Method: We asked medical students in an online survey whether they felt adequately appreciated, had experienced peer rivalry, verbal abuse by their mentors, physical...

  6. Negative Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Barkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus. Unusual? Yes. But my intention herein is not a general comparison; rather, I want to explore to what extent these two men accepted what I call “negative happiness.” What is negative, and by extension, positive, happiness? I think we can prepare ourselves for this distinction with two analogous distinctions: (1 the distinction between positive and negative freedom, wherein positive freedom sees true freedom as internal control over oneself, while negative freedom sees true freedom as the lack of external coercion, and (2 the distinction between charity and unselfishness, wherein charity stresses selfdenial,though not as an end in itself, whereas unselfishness emphasizes notprimarily doing good things for others but rather going without them ourselves. Thus, in regard to positive and negative happiness, we can say that while positive happiness sees true happiness as a substantial good that makes virtue a constituent of happiness and regards happiness as something more than the avoidance of suffering, negative happiness sees true happiness as simply the absence of suffering.

  7. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  8. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Jeffery L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1 plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1 that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections.

  9. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  10. Trimodality bladder-sparing approach without neoadjuvant chemotherapy for node-negative localized muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer resulted in comparable cystectomy-free survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To retrospectively review the efficacy and organ preservation experience for muscle-invasive bladder cancer by trimodality therapy at our institution. Between July 2004 and February 2012, seventy patients (M/F = 55/15; median age = 69 years) of lymph node negative localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer were treated primarily with trimodality approach including transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) prior to combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (CCRT). Radiotherapy consisted of initial large field size irradiation with 3D conformal technique (3D-CRT), followed by cone-down tumor bed boost with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. The median total doses delivered to bladder tumor bed and whole bladder were 59.4Gy and 40.0Gy, respectively. No patient received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Weekly cisplatin was administered during radiotherapy. Toxicity was scored according to the RTOG criteria. Tumor response was evaluated both cystoscopically and radiographically 3 months after treatment. The numbers of patients with T2, T3 and T4 lesions were 41, 16 and 13, respectively. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 2 and 5 year were 65.7%, 51.9% and 50.8%, 39.9%, respectively, after a median follow-up time of 24 months. Local-regional control and distant metastasis free survival at 2 year were 69.8% and 73.5%, respectively. Complete response (CR) rate assessed three month after CCRT was 78.1%. Ten patients (20%) had local recurrence after initial CR (n = 50), 3 of them were superficial recurrence. One patient underwent radical cystectomy after recurrence. The overall 5-year bladder intact survival was 49.0% (95% CI, 35.5% to 62.5%). Acute toxicities were limited to grade 1-2. One patient developed late grade 3 GU toxicity. Our result suggested that trimodality bladder-sparing approach without NAC or dose-intensification could be well-tolerated with a high CR rate and bladder preserving rate for muscle-invasive bladder

  11. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban;

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for...... catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and...

  12. A phenomenon of direct conversion of ionizing energy resulting from the formation of negative droplets by electron capture during condensation of a vapour even without electronic affinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electromotive force is produced between a cold and a hot electrode immersed in an ionized vapour. It is shown that the dissymmetry thus created consists in the formation of heavy, negative charge carriers following the condensation of the vapour in the volume close to the cold electrode. The electromotive forces produced are explained on the basis of a decrease in the floating potential of the cold electrode. (author)

  13. Effect of voluntary counselling and testing and a negative HIV result on risk behaviour: a qualitative longitudinal study in a Zambian mining community

    OpenAIRE

    Sikasote, Janet Precious Banda

    2010-01-01

    Background: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling up access to Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT) services as a strategy for HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. The international and national push to achieve targets for anti-retroviral therapy scale up has emphasised VCT as an entry point to treatment, with follow-up mostly directed at those who test positive. Yet over 60% of those testing are HIV negative. Limited understanding of how HIV voluntary counselling and testing...

  14. Stagnations of increasing trends in negative pressure with repeated cavitation in water/metal Berthelot tubes as a result of mechanical sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate effects of mechanical sealing on negative pressures in water/metal tube Berthelot systems, trends in negative pressure are observed through runs of temperature cycles below 90 deg. C in two systems made of metals having small amounts of gas inclusions. The first system is a pre-degassed all-stainless-steel tube/plug system. The steel is a special product for vacuum engineering. The second is the same tube sealed with plugs made of silver solidified one-dimensionally in a vacuum furnace. A new type of trend, stagnation for intermediate cycles is found in both systems so long as sealing distortion of each plug is small in amount. The stagnation period for the first system is longer than that for the second one. A metallurgical mechanism of a gas-being-replenished crevice model is proposed: distorted parts of metals undergo heat-treatment during runs of temperature cycles, and the heat-treatment enhances the rates of impurity gas transports to crevices on the metal surface where cavitation occurs, and the transport causes the stagnation for cycles during which the rates are still high

  15. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Jeppesen, D L; Kolte, L;

    2001-01-01

    and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P <.001) and reduced thymic output in infants of HIV-positive mothers were found (frequency of CD4(+) cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P <.001......). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to...... generate fewer T cells in FTOCs. In conclusion, lower numbers of naive CD4(+) cells and reduced thymic output in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers may be due to impaired progenitor cell function....

  16. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. Design This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Setting Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Participants Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA BCG and 2133 randomised (73 premature) to the control group. Interventions BCG vaccination 0.05 ml was given intradermally in the upper left arm at the hospital within seven days of birth. Children in the control group did not receive any intervention. Parents were not blinded to allocation. Main outcome measures Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age BCG vs. control, 95% confidence interval; -3.7 to 2.4), p = 0.67, corresponding to an effect size of Cohen’s d = -0.015 (-0.082 to 0.052). The mean difference in ASQ score for premature children at 22 months was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). Conclusions A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108 PMID:27123570

  17. An MTANN CAD for detection of polyps in false-negative CT colonography cases in a large multicenter clinical trial: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Sheu, Ivan; Epstein, Mark; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Lostumbo, Antonella; Rockey, Don C.; Dachman, Abraham H.

    2008-03-01

    A major challenge in computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is the detection of "difficult" polyps which radiologists are likely to miss. Our purpose was to develop a CAD scheme incorporating massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs) and to evaluate its performance on false-negative (FN) cases in a large multicenter clinical trial. We developed an initial polyp-detection scheme consisting of colon segmentation based on CT value-based analysis, detection of polyp candidates based on morphologic analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis based on 3D pattern features for classification. For reduction of false-positive (FP) detections, we developed multiple expert 3D MTANNs designed to differentiate between polyps and seven types of non-polyps. Our independent database was obtained from CTC scans of 155 patients with polyps from a multicenter trial in which 15 medical institutions participated nationwide. Among them, about 45% patients received FN interpretations in CTC. For testing our CAD, 14 cases with 14 polyps/masses were randomly selected from the FN cases. Lesion sizes ranged from 6-35 mm, with an average of 10 mm. The initial CAD scheme detected 71.4% (10/14) of "missed" polyps, including sessile polyps and polyps on folds, with 18.9 (264/14) FPs per case. The MTANNs removed 75% (197/264) of the FPs without loss of any true positives; thus, the performance of our CAD scheme was improved to 4.8 (67/14) FPs per case. With our CAD scheme incorporating MTANNs, 71.4% of polyps "missed" by radiologists in the trial were detected correctly, with a reasonable number of FPs.

  18. Negative result of an experiment aimed at verifying a report on cold nuclear fusion in systems of the NaxWO3/(D;D-T) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of an experiment aimed at verifying the conclusions drawn in the studies that were performed at the Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry (IHE, Yekaterinburg) and which report the observation of neutron emission due to low-temperature dd fusion in NaxWO3/deuterium systems are presented. Within statistical errors, the excess of the neutron yield above the background level is not observed in our experiment for the interaction of deuterium and deuterium-tritium mixture with oxide tungsten bronze. The hypothesis that hot dt fusion is possible in such systems is not confirmed either. The results of this study cast some doubt on the validity of the conclusions drawn in the IHE reports. At a 90% confidence level, an upper limit on the intensity In of a hypothetical neutron source associated with dd and dt fusion in the single crystals of oxide tungsten bronze is estimated to be 5x10-3 s-1

  19. [Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: a report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Nobuko; Inomata, Naoko; Morita, Akiko; Kirino, Mio; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2009-02-01

    We report two cases of anaphylactic reactions to peach with negative result of ImmunoCAP to peach. Case 1 is a 35-year-old man, who felt an itch in his oral cavity immediately after ingesting a whole fresh peach. He rapidly developed generalized urticaria, dyspnea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. He recovered after treatment at a local hospital, thereafter he was referred to our hospital because ImmunoCAP conducted for screening allergens revealed a negative test result to peach and the cause of anaphylaxis remained unclear. He had a history of pollinosis. He reported that he previously felt an itch on his oral cavity after ingesting melon, watermelon, apple, and strawberry. Serum total IgE was 436 IU/ml. CAP-RAST revealed negative results to peach, strawberry and kiwi. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with raw peach pulp, canned peach pulp, strawberry and kiwi were positive. Case 2 is a 30-year-old woman who felt an itch on her oral cavity accompanied by blepharedema, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating peach. She had a history of pollinosis. She reported that she previously developed urticaria after ingesting an apple. Serum total IgE was 85 IU/ml. ImmunoCAP revealed negative results to peach and apple. SPTs with canned yellow peach, strawberry and apple were positive. Consequently, the two patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to peach, and allergic symptoms have never recurred since they avoided ingesting peach. Furthermore, in two patients ImmunoCAP to rPru p 1, rPru p 3, and rPru p 4 were negative. However, in IgE-immunoblotting of peach, serum IgE antibodies of two patients were bound to approximately 10 kDa proteins. Meanwhile, the cross-reactivity between Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apple, apricot, and plum, has been reported. These results suggest that in patients, who are suspected of having peach anaphylaxis and show a negative ImmunoCAP result to peach, the additional testing, such as SPT with

  20. Atypical false negative results of 67Ga scintigraphy and 18F-F.D.G. PET-CT in a patient with sarcoidosis and bilateral breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the case of a patient with biopsy proven sino-nasal sarcoidosis and a bilateral breast cancer that was unknown at the time of 67Ga scintigraphy and 18F-F.D.G. PET-CT. 67Ga scintigraphy showed low sensibility in the assessment of sarcoidosis localizations. Conversely, multiple foci of intense 18F-F.D.G. uptake were assessed suggesting the presence of active granulomatous disease in sino-nasal region, rhino pharynx, skin and several peripheral lymphadenopathy, which were not previously detected by conventional evaluation. On the other hand, an atypical focal accumulation of 67Ga uptake was showed in right breast parenchyma, proving to be a grade III infiltrating canalar carcinoma coexistent with pleomorphic type, without axillary metastatic lymphadenopathy. Surprisingly, no 18F-F.D.G. uptake abnormalities were detected in the right breast in correspondence of 67Ga pathological uptake. The whole of these results is discussed according to histological nature of the lesions and the data of the literature. (authors)

  1. BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS: Laser chromatography (negative results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, V. A.

    1989-11-01

    An experimental study was made of the influence of cw CO2 laser radiation on gas-adsorption chromatography of SF6, CH2Cl2, and BCl3. Resonant excitation of molecules by laser radiation did not alter the duration of their retention in a chromatograph column. A reduction in the retention time was attributed to nonresonant heating of the column walls by laser radiation.

  2. Rh(D)阴性献血者不规则抗体检测的结果分析%Analysis the result of irregular antibody test in Rh (D) negative donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 周英; 吕文彬; 陈雪; 迭敏; 龚希

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析Rh(D)阴性献血者不规则抗体检测的结果,探讨在献血者血液Rh(D)阴性确认试验时,进行不规则抗体检测的必要性.方法 用间接抗人球蛋白法进行Rh(D)阴性确认试验及抗体筛选试验、抗体鉴定试验,盐水法进行Rh表现型的检测.结果 1205份Rh(D)阴性献血员标本中,抗体筛选试验阳性的标本有20份,经过抗体鉴定,其中抗-D 10份,抗-M 6份,非特异性抗体2份,抗-Lea 1份,冷自身抗体1份.结论 Rh(D)阴性献血者抗体筛选阳性率高达1.66%,较以往报道的正常人群抗体筛选阳性率高.在临床供血上,其高检出率对临床用血安全有较为重要的意义,对Rh(D)阴性献血者更应该进行不规则抗体检测.%Objective To analyze the result of irregular antibody test in Rh (D) negatie donors, discuss in the necessity of irregular antibody test in Rh (D) negative confirmation experiment among the blood testing with Rh ( D) negative donors. Methods Rh (D) negative confirmation experiment antibody screening and antibody Identification test using indirect antiglobulin test(IAT) , The Rh phenotype were determined by saline method. Results among 120S samples of Rh (D) negative donors, 20 samples antibody screening test is positive. And after antibody Identification test, Among them 10 samples were anti- 0 , 6 samples were anti- M, 2 samples were Nonspecific antibody, 1 sample was anti- Le,l sample was cold antibody. Conclusion The positive rate of Antibody screening in Rh ( D) negative donors is 1. 66% . It is greater than Previous reports of the normal population positive antibody screening. The higher positive rate of Antibody screening has Important clinical significance in blood supply, therefore Rh ( D) negative donors more should do irregular antibody test.

  3. On French negation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Zeijlstra

    2009-01-01

    Two main characteristics of French negation are (i) that the language is a so-called Negative Concord (NC) language; and (ii) that French exhibits so-called embracing negation. NC refers to the phenomenon where multiple negative expressions yield only one negation. Embracing negation means that the

  4. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Bhisham

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed and the inherent similarity of the two designs is discussed. Further, the modified expansion chamber is combined with an array of stretched membranes and the resulting structure is analyzed for double negative behavior.

  5. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus and a double negative structure

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhisham; Sun, Chin-teh

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic negative bulk modulus metamaterial based on the concept of expansion chambers is proposed. It is shown that addition of a neck region to an ordinary expansion chamber improves its transmission loss characteristics at low frequencies and the resulting structure displays a negative bulk modulus behavior. Additionally, membrane based metamaterials are analyzed. Using FEM, the negative density behavior of a membrane carrying a center mass and of a tensioned membrane array is analyzed ...

  6. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation as...... meaning of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive...

  7. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction...

  8. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed

  9. Think (Gram) negative!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  10. 杭州地区体检人群乙型肝炎病毒标志物阴性结果分析%Analysis of negative results of hepatitis B virus markers in healthy population in Hangzhou district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟毓红; 戴宇; 张松照

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析2014年杭州地区体检人群乙型肝炎病毒血清学五项标志物(HBV‐M )全阴模式的分布特征,为预防和控制HBV‐M阴性人群感染乙型肝炎病毒(HBV )提供对策。方法采用 ELISA 对体检人群的血液标本进行 HBV‐M (HBsAg、HBsAb、HBeAg、HBeAb和HBcAb)检测。对保存的300例 HBV‐M阴性标本,分别使用化学发光免疫分析法检测 HBsAg、HB‐sAb和PROCLEIX ULTRIO棆 Assay检测HBV‐DNA ,对 HBV‐DNA反应性标本进行病毒载量测定。结果在检测的9143例体检者的标本中,2213例标本为 HBV‐M阴性,阴性率为24.20%;男女 HBV‐M 阴性率比值为1∶1.21。使用化学发光免疫分析法和PROCLEIX ULTRIO棆 Assay分别检测出1例低浓度的HBsAg标本(HBsAb及 HBV DNA均无反应性),4例低浓度的HBsAb标本(HBsAg及 HBV DNA均无反应性),2例 HBV‐DNA反应性标本(HBV‐M 阴性)。其中1例 HBV‐DNA反应性标本定量检测为560 IU/mL。结论杭州地区ELISA HBV‐M 阴性的体检人群中,少数人可检出低浓度的 HBsAg或 HBsAb或HBV DNA。针对ELISA HBV‐M阴性人群,建议接种乙肝疫苗前进行HBV‐M和HBV‐DNA定量检测,以确定是否需要接种乙肝疫苗及接种乙肝疫苗的方案。%Objective To analyse the distribution characteristics of negative pattern of hepatitis B virus Markers (HBV‐M ) in healthy population in Hangzhou district in 2014 ,and provide strategy for the prevention and control of HBV infection in HBV‐M negative population .Methods The HBV‐M (HBsAg ,HBsAb ,HBeAg ,HBeAb and HBcAb) in blood specimens of health examina‐tion population were tested by using ELISA .For 300 cases preserved HBV‐M negative specimens ,HBsAg and HBsAb were detec‐ted by using chemiluminescence immunoassay and HBV‐DNA was detected by using PROCLEIX ULTRIO® Assay .The viral load of HBV‐DNA reactive sample was quantitatively determined .Results Among 9 143

  11. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    complementizer and the subject. This little-studied phenomenon is referred to as preposed negation. The article investigates the syntax and semantics of preposed negation from a primarily descriptive point of view. It is argued that preposed negation is associated with negated verum-focus of a clause lacking an...... (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects and...

  12. Wie häufig und belastend sind negative Erfahrungen im Medizinstudium? – Ergebnisse einer Online-Befragung von Medizinstudierenden [Frequency and perceived severity of negative experiences during medical education in Germany – Results of an online-survery of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gágyor, Ildikó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Negative experiences during the course of medical education have been reported in many countries, but little is known about the perceived severity of these experiences. We studied for the first time how often students at a medical university in Germany have had negative experiences, and how severe they perceive these to be.Method: We asked medical students in an online survey whether they felt adequately appreciated, had experienced peer rivalry, verbal abuse by their mentors, physical abuse or mistreatment, sexual harassment, racial or ethnic discrimination, or any other kind of mistreatment.Results: Of 391 students, 56% stated that they felt insufficiently appreciated, 51% had experienced rivalry, and 34% had suffered verbal abuse. Fifty-nine percent of the students felt highly aggrieved because of verbal abuse, while 46% were aggrieved by the ongoing rivalry and 32% by the lack of appreciation. Significantly fewer students felt upset because they were passed over or ignored (21%. Generally, female students felt more often aggrieved by these negative experiences than their male colleagues.Conclusion: Of the possible negative experiences, the less prominent ones such as lack of appreciation or verbal abuse are not only frequent, they are also perceived as very upsetting. Medical teachers should reflect this more in their day-to-day dealings with students and aim to improve on their contact with the students accordingly.[german] Zielsetzung: Negative Erfahrungen im Medizinstudium sind bereits in vielen Ländern untersucht worden. Wenig ist jedoch darüber bekannt, welche Erfahrungen als belastend empfunden werden. In dieser Studie sollten – zum ersten Mal in Deutschland – Studierende nach der Häufigkeit negativer Erfahrungen und der daraus resultierenden Belastung befragt werden.Methodik: Medizinstudierende wurden online zu Wertschätzung, Konkurrenz, verbal unangemessener Behandlung, körperlicher Maßregelung, sexueller

  13. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  14. Origins of elements building travertine and tufa: New perspectives provided by isotopic and geochemical tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teboul, P.-A.; Durlet, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Virgone, A.; Girard, J.-P.; Curie, J.; Lopez, B.; Camoin, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    Fluid/rock interaction represents a major process in the formation of calcitic or aragonitic travertine and tufa (CATT). In most cases, CATT is associated to limestone dissolution somewhere along the hydrogeological pathway. However, a wide array of other substratum (basalts, rhyolites, carbonatites, ultramafics, granites, dolomites, evaporites) can act as potential source of elements involved in the formation of CATT. This study reports on the evaluation of potential geochemical tracers linking CATT to their substratum, and unravelling the origin of elements. A large database was established from available literature data as well as new data acquired in the frame of this study for a set of Modern to Recent CATT (Ligurian ophiolites, Italy; the Chaine des Puys, Limagne graben and Paris Basin, France; Reunion Island, Indian Ocean; Jebel Oust, Tunisia). Four most reliable tracing methods are identified (1) δ13C and δ18O cross-plot allows distinguishing epigean (minδ13C = - 27.2 ‰, maxδ13C = 0.9 ‰, meanδ13C = - 12.3 ‰ for N = 314) from hypogean systems (minδ13C = - 4 ‰, maxδ13C = 11.7 ‰, meanδ13C = - 2.87 ‰ for N = 198). Very low δ13C values (- 4 ‰ associated to negative δ13C values are specifically indicative of an ultramafic source rock. (2) Barium and strontium cross-plot helps to discriminate different groups of source rocks amongst the hypogean CATT: (i) source rocks composed of mixed limestones, evaporites, and dolomites are characterised by low barium ( 400 ppm) contents, (ii) mafic and granitic source rocks are undifferentiated and display similar barium (from 15 to 930 ppm) and high strontium (> 200 ppm) contents, (iii) the carbonatite group is characterised by its exceptional high barium and strontium values. In epigean CATT, a pure limestone source rock usually relates to very low barium and strontium contents (rocks generally display low strontium content ( 50 ppm). (3) Relatively high beryllium content (> 30 ppm) in CATT seems to

  15. Analysis of Negative Correlation Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zou Xiu-fen

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes negative correlation learning for designing neural network ensembles. Negative correlation learning has been firstly analysed in terms of minimising mutual information on a regression task. By ninimising the mutual information between variables extracted by two neural networks, they are forced to convey different information about some features of their input. Based on the decision boundaries and correct response sets, negative correlation learning has been further studied on two pattern classification problems. The purpose of examining the decision boundaries and the correct response sets is not only to illustrate the learning behavior of negative correlation learning, but also to cast light on how to design more effective neural network ensembles. The experimental results showed the decision boundary of the trained neural network ensemble by negative correlation learning is almost as good as the optimum decision boundary.

  16. Efficacy and safety of adding an agent to bevacizumab/taxane regimens for the first-line treatment of Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from seven randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The combined therapy of bevacizumab (BEV) with taxane (paclitaxel or docetaxel) has shown an improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) and objective remission in Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (LR/MBC). However, there was no benefit in overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding an agent to the BEV/taxane regimens for the treatment of Her2-negative patients with LR/MBC in a first-line setting. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases for eligible trials. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0 freeware package. We calculated the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS and OS. The odds ratio (OR) was used to calculate objective response rate (ORR) and grade 3/4 drug-related adverse events. The heterogeneity of study outcomes was calculated by the χ2 test or I2 statistics. Results A total of 1,124 patients from seven randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Our meta-analysis showed that the ORR was significantly improved in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group when compared with the BEV/taxane-based doublet group (OR =1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.67, P=0.03). A subset analysis showed that a similar result was achieved in the triplet group in which a cytotoxic agent was added (OR =1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.95, P=0.01). However, the PFS and OS had no statistically significant differences between the two groups (HR =0.87, 95% CI: 0.68–1.13, P=0.31; HR =0.98, 95% CI: 0.82–1.16, P=0.78, respectively). Regarding safety, thromboembolic events, fatigue, and diarrhea (all $grade 3) were more frequently observed in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group (OR =3.8, 95% CI: 1.86–7.79, P=0.0003; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.27, P=0.03; OR =2.1, 95% CI: 1.29–3.41, P=0.003, respectively). Other toxic effects had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Our

  17. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  18. Negative refraction by photonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi

    Artificially engineered optical materials composed of nano-structures have unique optical properties which are not available with naturally occurring materials. Thanks to the rapid development in nano-fabrication and numerical modeling technologies, photonic nano-structures such as metamaterials and photonic crystals and various optical devices made by these optical materials create many novel applications and offer new prospects for manipulating light. For instance, both metamaterials and photonic crystals can exhibit negative refraction and negative refractive indexes. As a result, superlens with the capability of achieving imaging with sub-wavelength resolution can be realized. In this dissertation, a new negative index metamaterial architecture based on metallic nanoclusters, negative refraction phenomena in photonic crystals and optical devices implemented with negative index photonic crystals for imaging applications are presented. The nanocluster based metamaterials, which utilizes the magnetic Mie resonances of clusters of metallic inclusions, allow us to achieve negative index materials at optical frequency region. Meanwhile, bottom-up fabrication techniques such as self-assembly can be used, which is suitable for large-scale manufacturing and applicable to 3D structures. On the other hand, negative refraction and sub-wavelength imaging by a mechanically tunable photonic crystal structure were investigated. Using a honeycomb lattice photonic crystal composed of a silicon-polyimide membrane, a mechanically tunable superlens with a tunable frequency bandwidth was numerically demonstrated. Additionally, a graded negative index lens made of photonic crystals, which is capable of focusing plane waves, exhibits superior focusing properties such as low chromatic aberrations and broadband operation. Prisms structures made of negative index photonic crystals can offer useful imaging properties such as image inversion and magnification. These devices have the

  19. Acoustic metamaterial with negative density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated a one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with negative effective density using an array of very thin elastic membranes. We observed acoustic equivalence of the plasma oscillation at ωc=735 Hz. The metamaterial was opaque in the frequency range from 0 to 735 Hz, and was transparent above 735 Hz. We report direct observation of negative acceleration in this acoustic medium below 735 Hz. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial have the same form as that of metals with negative permittivity. We also provide a simple theory to explain the experimental results.

  20. Personality, Negativity, and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron C. Weinschenk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have recently started to integrate personality traits into models of political participation. In this paper, we present the results of a survey experiment (N = 724 designed to test whether negative political messages differentially impact people with different personality traits. We found evidence that individuals with high scores on agreeableness were less likely, and individuals with high scores on extraversion were more likely, to report intending to participate in politics than their counterparts after being exposed to negative political messages. Agreeableness and extraversion also interacted with negative messages to influence specific intentions to make a political donation, attend a meeting, rally, or event, and volunteer for a political campaign. We also found suggestive evidence that agreeableness interacted with negativity to influence turnout intentions. The results of this study have important implications for the study of political engagement, the ways in which people interact with political information, and the practice of democratic politics.

  1. Primitive Virtual Negative Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiyoung

    2008-01-01

    Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

  2. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  3. Interpretations of Negative Probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a frequency interpretation of negative probability, as well as of extended probability, demonstrating that to a great extent, these new types of probabilities, behave as conventional probabilities. Extended probability comprises both conventional probability and negative probability. The frequency interpretation of negative probabilities gives supportive evidence to the axiomatic system built in (Burgin, 2009; arXiv:0912.4767) for extended probability as it is demonstra...

  4. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  5. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  6. Broncoscopia no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro negativa Bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with negative sputum smear microscopy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Jacomelli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a acurácia diagnóstica da broncoscopia em pacientes com suspeita clínica ou radiológica de tuberculose, com baciloscopia negativa ou incapazes de produzir escarro. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de 286 pacientes com suspeita clínica/radiológica de tuberculose pulmonar e submetidos à broncoscopia - LBA e biópsia transbrônquica (BTB. As amostras de LBA foram testadas por pesquisas diretas e culturas de BAAR e de fungos, e as de BTB por exame histopatológico. RESULTADOS: Dos 286 pacientes estudados, a broncoscopia contribuiu para o diagnóstico em 225 (79%: tuberculose pulmonar em 127 (44%; inflamações crônicas inespecíficas em 51 (18%; pneumocistose, infecções fúngicas ou nocardiose em 20 (7%; bronquiolite obliterante com pneumonia em organização, alveolites ou pneumoconioses em 14 (5%; neoplasias pulmonares ou metastáticas em 7 (2%; e micobacterioses não tuberculosas em 6 (2%. Para o diagnóstico de tuberculose, o LBA mostrou sensibilidade e especificidade de 60% e 100% respectivamente, havendo um aumento importante da sensibilidade quando associado à biópsia (84% e à baciloscopia após a broncoscopia (94%. Complicações controláveis decorrentes do procedimento ocorreram em 5,6% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: A broncoscopia representa um método diagnóstico confiável para pacientes com tuberculose pulmonar, apresentando baixos índices de complicações. A associação de biópsia transbrônquica ao lavado broncoalveolar elevou a sensibilidade diagnóstica do método e permitiu o diagnóstico diferencial com outras doenças.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bronchoscopy in patients with clinical or radiological suspicion of tuberculosis who were unable to produce sputum or with negative sputum smear microscopy results. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 286 patients under clinical or radiological suspicion of having pulmonary tuberculosis and submitted to

  7. Visual content of words delays negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. PMID:25463550

  8. Association of Mutations in the Basal Core Promoter and Pre-core Regions of the Hepatitis B Viral Genome and Longitudinal Changes in HBV Level in HBeAg Negative Individuals: Results From a Cohort Study in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Poustchi, Hossein; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Freedman, Neal David; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although certain HBV mutations are known to affect the expression of Hepatitis e antigen, their association with HBV viral level or clinical outcomes is less clear. Objectives: We evaluated associations between different mutations in the Basal Core promoter (BCP) and Pre-core (PC) regions of HBV genome and subsequent changes in HBV viral DNA level over seven years in a population of untreated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) participants in Northeast of Iran. Materials and...

  9. Negative tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade

  10. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  11. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  12. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  13. Negative Effective Density in An Acoustic Metamaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sam Hyeon; Park, Choon Mahn; Seo, Yong Mun; Wang, Zhi Guo; Kim, Chul Koo

    2008-01-01

    We report theoretical and experimental results for a new type of homogenized acoustic metamaterials with negative effective mass density. We constructed one-dimensional metamaterial, which is a tube with an array of very thin elastic membranes placed inside. This structure exhibited negative effective density in the frequency range from 0 to 735 Hz. The experimental result is in excellent agreement with our theoretical model that predicts negative effective density below a cut-off frequency. ...

  14. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  15. Carbon-negative biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem, in ways that are already technically feasible and practicable. The key to carbon negativity is to see it not as technically determined but as an issue of strategic choice, whereby farmers and fuel producers can decide how much carbon to return to the soil. Biochar amendment to the soil not only sequesters carbon but also enhances the fertility and vitality of the soil. The time is approaching when biofuels will be carbon negative by definition, and, as such, they will sweep away existing debates over their contribution to the solution of global warming. (author)

  16. Tunneling with negative tension

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Kate

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new family of thin-wall instantons, with negative tension bubble walls, that mediate tunneling between Minkowski or de Sitter vacua. Some of these instantons can have exponentially enhanced tunneling rates, and would dominate the Euclidean path integral, representing a severe non-perturbative instability in any theory which supports them. We give two constructions of these instantons in theories which are perturbatively stable, but violate the null energy condition. One construction uses a scalar field theory with higher-derivative kinetic term, and is similar to the Coleman-de Luccia positive tension instanton. The other construction employs a negative-tension boundary arising from Z_2 orbifolding: it resembles a "bubble of nothing" which nucleates and grows, consuming the surrounding de Sitter or Minkowski spacetime. We explain how the spectral flow for fluctutations about the thin-wall tunneling solutions automatically protects causality, for both positive and negative tension instantons. We ...

  17. Negative Probabilities and Contextuality

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio; Oas, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has been a growing interest, both in physics and psychology, in understanding contextuality in experimentally observed quantities. Different approaches have been proposed to deal with contextual systems, and a promising one is contextuality-by-default, put forth by Dzhafarov and Kujala. The goal of this paper is to present a tutorial on a different approach: negative probabilities. We do so by presenting the overall theory of negative probabilities in a way that is consistent with contextuality-by-default and by examining with this theory some simple examples where contextuality appears, both in physics and psychology.

  18. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen ...

  19. Exploring Impact: Negative Effects of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Egbert, Henrik; Sedlarski, Teodor

    2011-01-01

    he sociological literature on social networks emphasizes by and large positive network effects. Negative effects of such networks are discussed rather rarely. This paper tackles negative effects by applying economic theory, particularly neoclassical theory, new institutional theory and the results from experimental economics to the concept of social networks. In the paper it is assumed that social networks are exclusive and since exclusiveness affects the allocation of resources, negative ext...

  20. Negative muon spin rotation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of the experimental project using negative muon spin rotation at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reported. The following were discussed briefly: the bound muon g factors from the viewpoints of the relativistic and nuclear polarization effects, strange depolarization phenomena in terms of the difference between the muonic-atom probe and its equivalent nuclear probe, application of the μ- 0 probe to studies of magnetic oxides, and total muon capture rates in the actinide region. (U.S.)

  1. How do negative emotions impair self-control? A neural model of negative urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; Powell, David K; Andersen, Anders H; DeWall, C Nathan

    2016-05-15

    Self-control often fails when people experience negative emotions. Negative urgency represents the dispositional tendency to experience such self-control failure in response to negative affect. Neither the neural underpinnings of negative urgency nor the more general phenomenon of self-control failure in response to negative emotions are fully understood. Previous theorizing suggests that an insufficient, inhibitory response from the prefrontal cortex may be the culprit behind such self-control failure. However, we entertained an alternative hypothesis: negative emotions lead to self-control failure because they excessively tax inhibitory regions of the prefrontal cortex. Using fMRI, we compared the neural activity of people high in negative urgency with controls on an emotional, inhibitory Go/No-Go task. While experiencing negative (but not positive or neutral) emotions, participants high in negative urgency showed greater recruitment of inhibitory brain regions than controls. Suggesting a compensatory function, inhibitory accuracy among participants high in negative urgency was associated with greater prefrontal recruitment. Greater activity in the anterior insula on negatively-valenced, inhibitory trials predicted greater substance abuse one month and one year after the MRI scan among individuals high in negative urgency. These results suggest that, among people whose negative emotions often lead to self-control failure, excessive reactivity of the brain's regulatory resources may be the culprit. PMID:26892861

  2. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of backreactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as $B$ in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact $B^2$ scaling of the probe limit resul...

  3. Negative und positive Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Scharpf, F.

    2008-01-01

    Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den Wirkungen der europäischen Integration auf das Grundproblem traditioneller wie moderner Politischer Ökonomie: Die Arbeitsteilung zwischen Staat und Markt. Im Mittelpunkt steht die "negative Integration" und ihr einzigartiger Erfolg bei der Beseitigung der in den Nachkriegsjahrzehnten gewonnenen Kontrolle des Nationalstaates über seine ökonomischen Außengrenzen. Durch die "Konstitutionalisierung" des Wettbewerbsrechts haben die Europäische Kommission ...

  4. Negative agency costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Thépot

    2009-01-01

    Managerial opportunism is commonly considered as destructive for the parties involved in an agency relationship. Using a close formulation to Jensen and Meckling’s equity model, we consider an agency relationship between a manager and an investor. The latter is assumed to benefit from a market power through external funding opportunities. For high values of the prevailing rate of interest, we prove that the agency costs can be negative, either when the manager or the investor acts as the lead...

  5. An advanced negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, Alexey A., E-mail: gonchar@iop.kiev.ua; Dobrovolsky, Andrey N.; Goretskii, Victor P. [Institute of Physics National Academy of Science in Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    The results of investigation of emission productivity of negative particles source with cesiated combined discharge are presented. A cylindrical beam of negative hydrogen ions with density about 2 A/cm{sup 2} in low noise mode on source emission aperture is obtained. The total beam current values are up to 200 mA for negative hydrogen ions and up to 1.5 A for all negative particles with high divergence after source. The source has simple design and can produce stable discharge with low level of oscillation.

  6. Avoiding Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2013-01-01

    As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac Equation. The Dirac Equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical world. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless question, "Do negative probabilities exist in quantum mechanics?" In an effort to answer this question, we arrive at the conclusion that depending on the choice one makes of the quantum probability current, one will obtain negative probabilities. We thus propose a new quantum probability current of the Klein-Gordon theory. This quantum probability current leads directly to positive definite quantum probabilities. Because these negative probabilities are in the bare Klein-Gordon theory, intrinsically a result of negative energie...

  7. Acoustic metamaterial with negative modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present experimental and theoretical results on an acoustic metamaterial that exhibits a negative effective modulus in a frequency range from 0 to 450 Hz. A one-dimensional acoustic metamaterial with an array of side holes on a tube was fabricated. We observed that acoustic waves above 450 Hz propagated well in this structure, but no sound below 450 Hz passed through. The frequency characteristics of the metamaterial has the same form as that of the permittivity in metals due to the plasma oscillation. We also provide a theory to explain the experimental results.

  8. Negative refractive index metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie J. Padilla

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered materials composed of designed inclusions can exhibit exotic and unique electromagnetic properties not inherent in the individual constituent components. These artificially structured composites, known as metamaterials, have the potential to fill critical voids in the electromagnetic spectrum where material response is limited and enable the construction of novel devices. Recently, metamaterials that display negative refractive index – a property not found in any known naturally occurring material – have drawn significant scientific interest, underscoring the remarkable potential of metamaterials to facilitate new developments in electromagnetism.

  9. Negatively buoyant starting jets

    OpenAIRE

    Marugán-Cruz, C.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Martínez-Bazán, C.

    2009-01-01

    The initial development of negatively buoyant jets has been investigated experimentally and numerically, focusing on the role played by gravity in the evolution of the leading vortex ring. Under the experimental conditions considered in this work, the densimetric Froude number, Fr= ρjU²j/[(ρ₀ − ρj) gD] , which represents the ratio between the jet momentum and the buoyancy forces, emerges as the most relevant parameter characterizing the dynamics of the flow. Two different flow regimes h...

  10. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  11. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  12. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  13. Polarized negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  14. Polarized negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H- and D- beams in excess of 10 μA can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 μA, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized 3He- ions is followed by some concluding remarks

  15. Moral expressivism and sentential negation

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Neil

    2011-01-01

    This paper advances three necessary conditions on a successful account of sentential negation. First, the ability to explain the constancy of sentential meaning across negated and unnegated contexts (the Fregean Condition). Second, the ability to explain why sentences and their negations are inconsistent, and inconsistent in virtue of the meaning of negation (the Semantic Condition). Third, the ability of the account to generalize regardless of the topic of the negated sentence (the Generalit...

  16. Compound heterozygosity for COL7A1 mutations in twins with dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: A recessive paternal deletion/insertion mutation and a dominant negative maternal glycine substitution result in a severe phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Anton-Lamprecht, I.; Ebschner, U. [Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Amano, S.; Burgeson, R.E. [Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    We have previously demonstrated genetic linkage between the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) and the dominant (DDEB) and recessive (RDEB) forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) and have subsequently identified pathogenetic mutations in several families. Mutations in DDEB identified thus far are glycine substitutions in the collagenous domain of COL7A1, while the most severe forms of RDEB result from premature termination codon (PTC) mutations on both alleles. In this study, we performed mutation analysis in the COL7A1 gene in twins who displayed a severe DEB phenotype. Mutational analysis revealed a paternal 2-bp deletion/1-bp insertion in exon 56, designated 5103CC{yields}G, which results in a frameshift and downstream PTC. Analysis of the maternal COL7A1 allele revealed a glycine-to-arginine substitution in exon 91 (G2351R). Careful questioning of the mother revealed that she and her father had a history of shedding of toenails and occasional poorly heating erosions, consistent with a mild form of DDEB. Immunoprecipitation of type VII collagen from fibroblasts of the twins revealed a marked reduction in intracellular protein production, consistent with the drastic reduction in mRNA transcript from the paternal mutant allele, while the majority of polypeptides bearing the glycine substitution appeared to be degraded intracellularly. Thus, the severe RDEB phenotype in the probands results from compound heterozygosity for one glycine substitution and one PTC mutation in COL7A1. 40 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  18. Negative Entropy of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  19. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  20. Improved UV-B screening capacity does not prevent negative effects of ambient UV irradiance on PSII performance in High Arctic plants. Results from a six year UV exclusion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.;

    2010-01-01

    Long-term responses of ambient solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated on Salix arctica and Vaccinium uliginosum in a High Arctic heath ecosystem in Zackenberg, northeast Greenland. Over a period of six years, UV exclusion was conducted in the growing season by means of filters: 60% UV......-B-absorbing compounds. Salix increased its specific leaf area, while Vaccinium decreased it. UV exclusion increased the PItotal in both species during all six years of experimentation. This response was governed by a significantly decreased RC/ABS, a marginally non-significant increased ETo/TRo and a significantly...... increased TRo/ABS = FV/FM and REo/ETo. These results demonstrate the current level of ambient UV-B to decrease PSII performance significantly in these High Arctic plants. It appears that the two plant species both have improved their UV-screening capacity, but through different strategies, although this did...

  1. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  2. Variations in the Produce-Associated Microbiota and the Occurrence Frequency of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Gram-Negative Bacteria Result in Different Level of Ingestion Risks

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Osama

    2016-04-01

    A monitoring effort that spanned across one and a half years was conducted to examine three types of produce-associated microbiota. Produce type was determined to be the predominant factor affecting the microbial communities. Other significant factors that resulted in differences in the microbial populations were the origin and sampling date. Specifically, produce-associated microbiota among lettuce and tomatoes clustered based on the sampling period. Through molecular and cultivation-based approaches, sporadic presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii was detected on lettuce and cucumbers during certain periods of sampling. Quantitative microbial risk assessment denoted varying levels of ingestion risks associated with different types of produce. In particular, the risks arising from ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae in the lettuce were higher than the acceptable annual risk of 10-4. Commonly used approaches to clean and wash the produce were insufficient in removing majority of the produce-associated microbiota. More invasive cleaning approaches or thorough cooking of the produce would be required to mitigate the associated risks. Most of the current reports of ESBL-positive bacterial isolates were identified in nosocomial environment. However, the carriage of such drug-resistant bacteria in food that is consumed daily

  3. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  5. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  6. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  7. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  8. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  9. Negative temperatures and the definition of entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swendsen, Robert H.; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    The concept of negative temperature has recently received renewed interest in the context of debates about the correct definition of the thermodynamic entropy in statistical mechanics. Several researchers have identified the thermodynamic entropy exclusively with the "volume entropy" suggested by Gibbs, and have further concluded that by this definition, negative temperatures violate the principles of thermodynamics. We disagree with these conclusions. We demonstrate that volume entropy is inconsistent with the postulates of thermodynamics for systems with non-monotonic energy densities, while a definition of entropy based on the probability distributions of macroscopic variables does satisfy the postulates of thermodynamics. Our results confirm that negative temperature is a valid extension of thermodynamics.

  10. Malaria Vaccine Trial Results Are Negative, but Important

    OpenAIRE

    Moorthy Vasee S; Imoukhuede Egeruan B; Milligan Paul; Bojang Kalifa; Keating Sheila; Kaye Pauline; Pinder Margaret; Gilbert Sarah C; Walraven Gijs; Greenwood Brian M; Hill Adrian S. V

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many malaria vaccines are currently in development, although very few have been evaluated for efficacy in the field. Plasmodium falciparum multiple epitope (ME)- thrombospondin-related adhesion protein (TRAP) candidate vaccines are designed to potently induce effector T cells and so are a departure from earlier malaria vaccines evaluated in the field in terms of their mechanism of action. ME-TRAP vaccines encode a polyepitope string and the TRAP sporozoite antigen. Two vaccine vec...

  11. Contingent negative variation of mood disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingzhi Lu; Wenbin Zong; Qingtao Ren; Jinyu Pu; Jun Chen; Juan Li; Xingshi Chen; Yong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Studies on brain-evoked potential and contingent negative variation (CNV) in mood disorder remain controversial. To date, no CNV difference between unipolar and bipolar depression has been reported. Brain-evoked potentials were measured in the present study to analyze CNV in three subtypes of mood disorder (mania, unipolar depression, and bipolar depression), and these results were compared with normal controls. In the mania group, CNV amplitude B was greater than in controls, and the depression group exhibited lower CNV amplitude B and smaller A-S'2 area, and prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency. The CNV comparison between unipolar and bipolar depression found that the prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency was only in unipolar depression. These results suggest that prolonged post-imperative negative variation latency is a characteristic of unipolar depression, and CNV amplitude change is a state characteristic of mood disorder patients.

  12. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...

  13. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H- ion formation and the neutralization of H- ion, and some of new processes of H- ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  14. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  16. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2012-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with...

  17. An electromagnetic trinity from "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability"

    CERN Document Server

    Lakhtakia, A

    2001-01-01

    An electromagnetic trinity comprising vacuum, anti--vacuum, and nihility is postulated -- after making use of materials with "negative permittivity" and "negative permeability" -- to illuminate the structure of electromagnetic theory, at least insofar as the relationship of phase velocity with Poynting vector is concerned.

  18. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  19. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  20. Queries with Guarded Negation (full version)

    CERN Document Server

    Barany, Vince; Otto, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A well-established and fundamental insight in database theory is that negation (also known as complementation) tends to make queries difficult to process and difficult to reason about. Many basic problems are decidable and admit practical algorithms in the case of unions of conjunctive queries, but become difficult or even undecidable when queries are allowed to contain negation. Inspired by recent results in finite model theory, we consider a restricted form of negation, guarded negation. We introduce a fragment of SQL, called GN-SQL, as well as a fragment of Datalog with stratified negation, called GN-Datalog, that allow only guarded negation, and we show that these query languages are computationally well behaved, in terms of testing query containment, query evaluation, open-world query answering, and boundedness. GN-SQL and GN-Datalog subsume a number of well known query languages and constraint languages, such as unions of conjunctive queries, monadic Datalog, and frontier-guarded tgds. In addition, an a...

  1. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  2. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin;

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...

  3. Negative phototropism of rice root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is often believed that the stem of higher plants has characteristics of positive phototropism, and the root shows no phototropism or no sensitivity to light though the root of Arabdopsis was reported possessing characteristics of negative phototropism. In this study, a distinct negative phototropism of the root system of rice seedlings was observed.

  4. Three chamber negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential

  5. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe;

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the...... impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  7. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative. PMID:23152948

  8. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age.......We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...

  9. Assessment of Negative Self-Image and Fear of Negative Evaluation Among Adolescents and Young Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agbu Jane-Frances; Ibida Ebele

    2014-01-01

    Concern with real or imagined defect in physical appearance can become a major preoccupation during adolescence and young adult years. This is because, changes of puberty, rapid physical growth, and resulting sexual maturation that characterizes this age can trigger feelings of self-consciousness and awkwardness about body-image perceptions. In addition, the "perfect" body-image as dictated in the social culture could become a measure of self-worth, and this is capable of triggering negative self-image and social anxiety among adolescents. This study seeks to assess the incidence of negative self-image (preoccupation with real or imagined defect in physical appearance) and social anxiety characterized by fear of negative evaluation, among adolescents and young adults. Samples of 329 participants in the age range of 16-25 were drawn from the first and second years students of Federal University Wukari and University of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet as well as NSII (Negative Self-Image Inventory) and revalidated version of FNE (Fear of Negative Evaluation). Findings revealed that there is a correlation between negative self-image and fear of negative evaluation; males manifested higher symptoms of negative self-image than females; young adults aged 21-25 presented higher negative self-image that those aged 16-20, adolescents and young adults from Lagos metropolis experience higher manifestation of fear of negative evaluation than those from Wukari axis. This study therefore adds to knowledge in this area.

  10. Negative Database for Data Security

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Anup; Eirinaki, Magdalini

    2011-01-01

    Data Security is a major issue in any web-based application. There have been approaches to handle intruders in any system, however, these approaches are not fully trustable; evidently data is not totally protected. Real world databases have information that needs to be securely stored. The approach of generating negative database could help solve such problem. A Negative Database can be defined as a database that contains huge amount of data consisting of counterfeit data along with the real data. Intruders may be able to get access to such databases, but, as they try to extract information, they will retrieve data sets that would include both the actual and the negative data. In this paper we present our approach towards implementing the concept of negative database to help prevent data theft from malicious users and provide efficient data retrieval for all valid users.

  11. Negative Effects from Psychological Treatments: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, David H.

    2010-01-01

    The author offers a 40-year perspective on the observation and study of negative effects from psychotherapy or psychological treatments. This perspective is placed in the context of the enormous progress in refining methodologies for psychotherapy research over that period of time, resulting in the clear demonstration of positive effects from…

  12. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Patrick; La Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incen...

  13. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say t...

  14. Elastic properties of water under negative pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, A.D.; Grimsditch, M. (Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)); Bodnar, R.J. (Department of Geological Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Using Brillouin scattering we have investigated the elastic properties of water under negative pressures. The samples were H[sub 2]O liquid--vapor inclusions in [alpha]-quartz which could be heated to their homogenization temperatures (in the range 120--370 [degree]C); on cooling, negative pressures as high as 1000 bars were reached before a vapor bubble nucleated. The velocity of sound results obtained from our Brillouin experiments indicate that nucleation occurs long before reaching the mechanical instability region where the bulk modulus is zero.

  15. Quarks possibly are negative mass magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear gravitational effects require magnetic monopoles to have negative mass. We therefore propose the hypothesis that quarks are magnetic monopoles of negative mass. The positive mass of hadrons is explained as a result of the positive binding energy from the interaction of negative mass quarks. The production of free quarks would be accompanied by the delivery of a very large amount of energy in excess of the hadronic rest mass energy. Consistently with the smallness of the CP violation the interaction is assumed to be a Heisenberg-type magnetic charge exchange force. The negative mass hypothesis may explain the difficulty to produce free quarks. Free quarks could be produced in very strong magnetic fields of the order approximately 1017 Gauss which may occur in the focus of short wave X-ray laser beams and in the gravitational collapse of massive astronomical objects, explaining the large energy output believed to be associated with quasars. By doping solid material with negative mass quarks one could obtain superstrong materials, and macroscopic bodies approaching arbitrarily close a state of zero rest mass. The most profound consequence of such a state of matter would be in the attainability of relativistic velocities for macroscopic bodies. (orig.)

  16. Acoustic resonant states on the interface between density-negative and modulus-negative metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. H. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, M. K.; Lee, S. H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nikitov, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-15

    We observed resonant states on the interface between the acoustic metamaterials of negative effective mass density and negative effective modulus, which were based on membranes and side holes, respectively. All resonances excited by placing the driving pressure at different places have the same spatial pressure distribution and resonance frequency. The amplitude decayed exponentially on both sides of the interface. We present experimental results on the spatial and the spectral characteristics of the resonant states.

  17. Acoustic resonant states on the interface between density-negative and modulus-negative metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We observed resonant states on the interface between the acoustic metamaterials of negative effective mass density and negative effective modulus, which were based on membranes and side holes, respectively. All resonances excited by placing the driving pressure at different places have the same spatial pressure distribution and resonance frequency. The amplitude decayed exponentially on both sides of the interface. We present experimental results on the spatial and the spectral characteristics of the resonant states.

  18. A new bivariate negative binomial regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroughi, Pouya; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a new form of bivariate negative binomial (BNB-1) regression which can be fitted to bivariate and correlated count data with covariates. The BNB regression discussed in this study can be fitted to bivariate and overdispersed count data with positive, zero or negative correlations. The joint p.m.f. of the BNB1 distribution is derived from the product of two negative binomial marginals with a multiplicative factor parameter. Several testing methods were used to check overdispersion and goodness-of-fit of the model. Application of BNB-1 regression is illustrated on Malaysian motor insurance dataset. The results indicated that BNB-1 regression has better fit than bivariate Poisson and BNB-2 models with regards to Akaike information criterion.

  19. Scalar-tensor theory of gravitation with negative coupling constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, L. L.; Eby, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of a Brans-Dicke scalar-tensor gravitation theory with a negative coupling constant is considered. The admissibility of a negative-coupling theory is investigated, and a simplified cosmological solution is obtained which allows a negative derivative of the gravitation constant. It is concluded that a Brans-Dicke theory with a negative coupling constant can be a viable alternative to general relativity and that a large negative value for the coupling constant seems to bring the original scalar-tensor theory into close agreement with perihelion-precession results in view of recent observations of small solar oblateness.

  20. Effects of suppressing negative memories on intrusions and autobiographical memory specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerts, Elke; Hauer, Beatrijs J. A.; Wessel, Ineke

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether avoidance of negative memories results in intrusions as well as reduced memory specificity. Healthy participants suppressed memories of either a negative or a neutral autobiographical event. Individuals who suppressed negative memories tended to demonstrate smaller increa

  1. Strategies for positive and negative relevance feedback in image retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Muller ., Henning; Muller, Wolfgang; Marchand-Maillet, Stéphane; Squire, David

    2000-01-01

    Relevance feedback has been shown to be a very effective tool for enhancing retrieval results in text retrieval. In content-based image retrieval it is more and more frequently used and very good results have been obtained. However, too much negative feedback may destroy a query as good features get negative weightings. This paper compares a variety of strategies for positive and negative feedback. The performance evaluation of feedback algorithms is a hard problem. To solve this, we obtain j...

  2. Negative Refraction experiments in Photonic Crystal prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodo, Plarenta; Parimi, Patanjali. V.; Lu, Wentao. T.; di Gennaro, Emiliano; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2004-03-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated negative refraction in metallic photonic crystal (PC) prisms [1]. The refracted fields in the parallel plate waveguide (PPW) are measured by an automated dipole antenna, which scans the desired area, while the free space (FS) measurements, performed in a anechoic chamber, are measured by a rectangular X-band horn that swings in an arc in far field area. Both TE and TM excitation modes are used in FS experiments. Numerical calculations of the band structure and equi-frequency surface simulations are used to determine frequency regions of negative refraction of the triangular lattice PC. Angle of refraction determined by theoretical simulations and experimental results, are in exceptional good agreement, yielding the negative refraction index. FS and PPW refraction experimental results agree remarkably with simulations. 1. "Negative Refraction and Left-handed electromagnetism in Microwave Photonic Crystals", P.V Parimi, W.T Lu, P.Vodo J. Sokoloff and S.Sridhar, cond-mat/0306109 (2003)

  3. Dynamic behavior of stay cables with passive negative stiffness dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye; Li, Jin-Yang; Spencer, Billie F., Jr.

    2016-07-01

    This paper systematically investigates the dynamic behavior of stay cables with passive negative stiffness dampers (NSD) installed close to the cable end. A passive NSD is modeled as a combination of a negative stiffness spring and a viscous damper. Through both analytical and numerical approaches, parametric analysis of negative stiffness and viscous damping are conducted to systematically evaluate the vibration control performance of passive NSD on stay cables. Since negative stiffness is an unstable element, the boundary of passive negative stiffness for stay cables to maintain stability is also derived. Results reveal that the asymptotic approach is only applicable to passive dampers with positive or moderate negative stiffness, and loses its accuracy when a passive NSD possesses significant negative stiffness. It has been found that the performance of passive NSD can be much better than those of conventional viscous dampers. The superior control performance of passive NSD in cable vibration mitigation is validated through numerical simulations of a full-scale stay cable.

  4. Reduced specificity of negative autobiographical memories in repressive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraerts, Elke; Dritschel, Barbara; Kreplin, Ute; Miyagawa, Liv; Waddington, Joanne

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined memory specificity of autobiographical memories in individuals with and without a repressive coping style. It seems conceivable that reduced memory specificity may be a way to reduce accessibility of negative experiences, one of the hallmark features of a repressive coping style. It was therefore hypothesized that repressors would show reduced specificity when retrieving negative memories. In order to study memory specificity, participants (N = 103) performed the autobiographical memory test. Results showed that individuals with a repressive coping style were significantly less specific in retrieving negative experiences, relative to control groups of low anxious, high anxious, and defensive high anxious individuals. This result was restricted to negative memory retrieval, as participants did not differ in memory specificity for positive experiences. These results show that repressors retrieve negative autobiographical memories in an overgeneral way, possibly in order to avoid negative affect. PMID:23200428

  5. Atomic negative-ion resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors attempt to give a comprehensive discussion of observations of atomic negative-ion resonances throughout the periodic table. A review of experimental and theoretical approaches to the study of negative-ion resonances is given together with a consideration of the various schemes that are used for their classification. In addition to providing, where possible, tabulated data for the energies, widths, and symmetries of these states, the authors also attempt to highlight regularities in their behavior both within groups of the periodic table and along isoionic sequences

  6. Sigma models with negative curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold Hn, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O (n , 1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  7. Sigma Models with Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Manohar, Aneesh V

    2016-01-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold H^n, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O(n,1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  8. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Duke, Lisa A.; Ross, Sylvia A.; Allen, Daniel N.

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly comorbid with schizophrenia and may be associated with higher levels or lower levels of negative symptoms. In the current study, we attempted to clarify the relationship between PTSD and negative symptoms by examining the proportion of patients meeting various negative symptom criteria in a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia alone or schizophrenia and comorbid PTSD. Results indicated that the presence of PTSD in schizophrenia was ass...

  9. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkal, E.; Velchev, I.; Ma, C-M.; Smolyakov, A.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). A finite thickness slab can be totally transparent to a \\textit{p}-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for certain values of ...

  10. Locally Symetric Finsler Spaces In Negative Curvature.

    OpenAIRE

    Foulon, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    E. C{fiverm ARTAN} introduced the Riemannian locally symmetric spaces, as the one whose curvature tensor is parallel. They also howe their name to the fact that for each point the geodesic reflexion is a local isometry. The aim of this note is to announce a strong rigidity result for Finsler spaces. Namely we show that a negatively curved locally symmetric (in the first above sense) Finsler space is isometric to a Riemann locally symmetric space.}

  11. Negative spiral CT in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical outcome of non-anticoagulated patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE) and no symptoms or signs of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following a negative contrast medium-enhanced spiral CT of the pulmonary arteries (s-CTPA). Material and Methods: During a 24-month period, 739 of 751 patients underwent s-CTPA with acceptable diagnostic quality for clinically suspected acute PE. All patients who had a CT study not positive for PE were followed up with a questionnaire, a telephone interview and review of all medical reports, including autopsies and death certificates for any episodes of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during a 3-month period. Results: PE was diagnosed in 158 patients. Of the remaining 581 patients with a negative s-CTPA, 45 patients were lost to follow-up. 88 patients were excluded because of anticoagulation treatment (cardiac disorder n=32, chronic VTE or acute symptomatic DVT n=31, PE diagnosed at pulmonary angiography n=1, thrombus prophylaxis during diagnostic work-up or other reasons than VTE n=24) and 7 patients undergoing lower extremity venous studies because of symptoms of DVT (all negative). Thus, 441 patients with a negative s-CTPA and no DVT symptoms, venous studies or anticoagulant treatment constituted the follow-up cohort. Four of these patients had proven VTE (all PE) during the 3-month follow-up period. Two of the PE episodes contributed to the patient's death. Conclusion: Patients with clinically suspected acute PE, no symptoms or signs of DVT and a negative single slice s-CTPA using 3-5 mm collimation, may safely be left without anticoagulation treatment unless they are critically ill, have a limited cardiopulmonary reserve and/or if a high clinical suspicion remains

  12. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  13. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < ‑1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  14. Dynamically variable negative stiffness structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher B.; Shahan, David W.; Smith, Sloan P.; Keefe, Andrew C.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    Variable stiffness structures that enable a wide range of efficient load-bearing and dexterous activity are ubiquitous in mammalian musculoskeletal systems but are rare in engineered systems because of their complexity, power, and cost. We present a new negative stiffness–based load-bearing structure with dynamically tunable stiffness. Negative stiffness, traditionally used to achieve novel response from passive structures, is a powerful tool to achieve dynamic stiffness changes when configured with an active component. Using relatively simple hardware and low-power, low-frequency actuation, we show an assembly capable of fast (100×) dynamic stiffness control. This approach mitigates limitations of conventional tunable stiffness structures that exhibit either small (humanoid robotic limbs and lightweight adaptive vibration isolators. PMID:26989771

  15. Closed incision negative pressure therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willy, Christian; Agarwal, Animesh; Andersen, Charles A;

    2016-01-01

    Surgical site occurrences (SSOs) affect up to or over 25% of patients undergoing operative procedures, with the subset of surgical site infections (SSIs) being the most common. Commercially available closed incision negative pressure therapy (ciNPT) may offer surgeons an additional option to manage...... of Controlled Trials using key words 'prevention', 'negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT)', 'active incisional management', 'incisional vacuum therapy', 'incisional NPWT', 'incisional wound VAC', 'closed incisional NPWT', 'wound infection', and 'SSIs' identified peer-reviewed studies published from 2000....... A majority presented data supporting ciNPT use. Numerous publications reported SSI risk factors, with the most common including obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ); diabetes mellitus; tobacco use; or prolonged surgical time. We recommend that the surgeon assess the individual patient's risk factors...

  16. Photosynthesis and negative entropy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Robert C; Engelmann, Enrico; Garlaschi, Flavio; Casazza, Anna Paola; Zucchelli, Giuseppe

    2005-09-30

    The widely held view that the maximum efficiency of a photosynthetic pigment system is given by the Carnot cycle expression (1-T/Tr) for energy transfer from a hot bath (radiation at temperature Tr) to a cold bath (pigment system at temperature T) is critically examined and demonstrated to be inaccurate when the entropy changes associated with the microscopic process of photon absorption and photochemistry at the level of single photosystems are considered. This is because entropy losses due to excited state generation and relaxation are extremely small (DeltaS 0.98 and xi > 0.92 respectively, and which, in principle, function with negative entropy production. It is demonstrated that for the case of xi > (1-T/Tr) entropy production is always negative and only becomes positive when xi < (1-T/Tr). PMID:16139784

  17. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  18. Cosmology with Negative Absolute Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J P P; Lewis, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al (2013) has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion ($w<-1$) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  19. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  20. Can wormholes have negative temperatures?

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Tae; Kim, Sung-Won

    2003-01-01

    We study (3+1) Morris-Thorne wormhole to investigate its higher dimensional embedding structures and thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the wormhole is embedded in (5+2) global embedding Minkowski space. This embedding enables us to construct the wormhole entropy and Hawking temperature by exploiting Unruh effects. We also propose a possibility of negative temperature originated from exotic matter distribution of the wormhole.

  1. Mismatch Negativity: Translating the Potential

    OpenAIRE

    JuanitaTodd

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory event-related potential has become a valuable tool in cognitive neuroscience. Its reduced size in persons with schizophrenia is of unknown origin but theories proposed include links to problems in experience-dependent plasticity reliant on N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors. In this review we address the utility of this tool in revealing the nature and time course of problems in perceptual inference in this illness together with it...

  2. Quantum Complexity and Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Zhao, Ying

    2016-01-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k-local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system: classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  3. Quantum information can be negative

    OpenAIRE

    Horodecki, Michal; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Winter, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Given an unknown quantum state distributed over two systems, we determine how much quantum communication is needed to transfer the full state to one system. This communication measures the "partial information" one system needs conditioned on it's prior information. It turns out to be given by an extremely simple formula, the conditional entropy. In the classical case, partial information must always be positive, but we find that in the quantum world this physical quantity can be negative. If...

  4. In defense of negative temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, J.

    2016-03-01

    This pedagogical comment highlights three misconceptions concerning the usefulness of the concept of negative temperature, being derived from the usual, often termed Boltzmann, definition of entropy. First, both the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies must obey the same thermodynamic consistency relation. Second, the Boltzmann entropy does obey the second law of thermodynamics. Third, there exists an integrating factor of the heat differential with both definitions of entropy.

  5. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355. ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  6. Effect of the streamed negative ions on dust acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of streaming negative ions in the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) is investigated, including nonlinear effects such as dust charge fluctuation, dust temperature, and the negative ions. The streaming velocity of the negative ions played an essential and effective role in the DAWs characteristics. The dust charge fluctuation shows a remarkable decrease with the negative ions concentration decrement. Increasing of negative ions temperature causes an increase of the dust charge for different ratios of streaming velocity to thermal velocity (υ). Also, both of the amplitude and the width of the soliton solutions have shown strong dependence on υ as well as on the negative ions concentration. The results of this study will be useful for a better understanding of crystallization in dust plasma, especially phase transition governed from fluid state to solid state, and in a variety of modern technology applications such as fabrication of the semiconductor. (author)

  7. New negative resist design with novel photo-base generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yun; Wu, Cheng Han; Su, Yu-Chang; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chang, Ya-Hui; Chang, Ching-Yu; Ku, Yao-Ching

    2013-03-01

    An alternate negative tone resist is investigated for advanced lithography. Unlike conventional negative tone development (NTD) resists developed with organic solvent, this negative resist use TMAH as its developer. Thermal acid generator (TAG) and photo base generator (PBG) are proposed for this resist. PBG decomposes and generates alkali at the exposed area and neutralizes the acid from TAG. Hence, positive resist can produce negative tone image (NTI), and gain better optical contrast than positive tone imaging. The new negative resist reported in this paper also shows better resolution than conventional negative resist. Several optimization studies are also reported. In addition, major limitations on further improving resist resolution are also pointed out in this paper. The solution proposed has been proven workable from experimental results. This opens the possibility to combine better optical contrast from NTI, high resist resolution from positive resist resin, and better development contrast from TMAH solution.

  8. Negative-stiffness-mechanism vibration isolation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platus, David L.

    1992-02-01

    A new type of vibration isolation system offers significant improvement in performance compared with current state-of-the-art systems. The system uses negative-stiffness mechanisms to cancel the stiffness of a spring suspension. Reduction in stiffness magnifies the damping inherent in the system creating a practical means for achieving high hysteretic damping. The result is a simple, compact 6-DOF passive isolation system capable of system resonant frequencies below 0.2 Hz and first isolator resonances above 100 Hz. Resonant transmissibilities below 1.4 can be achieved with transmissibilities at the higher frequencies close to that of the ideal undamped system. The negative-stiffness mechanisms can cancel the stiffness of power cables, hoses or other lines connected to payloads. This paper develops the theory, describes typical configurations and summarizes test data with prototype systems.

  9. Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance-A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Susan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inductors are bulky and costly but reducing the size of the inductors reduces the quality factor. There is also a fundamental limitation of using inductor that it cannot be suitable for the micro miniature structure and integrated circuits applications. Because of these limitations, inductors cannot be used in most of the analog circuit applications. Hence simulated inductors are used as an alternative. In case the simulated inductor becomes floating some linear transformation is used which results in the formation of a new D element called the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance (FDNR. This paper presents an overview of the basic circuits of simulating the Frequency Dependent Negative Resistance and its various applications in analog circuits in the place of floating inductor.

  10. Simulations of negative ion plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to accurately model beams of negative ions in high current sources makes reasonable to refine the simulation mesh up to fractions of the Debye length λD, which is typically 0.01 mm. Even if simulations were finally possible in two space dimensions, still the role of one-dimensional (1D) model to clarify the physics of sheath and presheath structure and the stability of numerical solvers is fundamental. Here a 1D model with negative ion production from the extraction wall/grid is considered, coupled to a driver plasma which acts as an electron and proton reservoir at a variable plasma potential. A bias voltage between lateral walls and the extraction wall is also included. Particle motion is modeled with diffusion equations, also for protons; electrons are magnetized and Poisson equation is solved everywhere. The inverted sheath formation and the H- forward current result sensitive to bias voltage.

  11. Non-negative Wigner functions for orbital angular momentum states

    OpenAIRE

    Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L. L.; Klimov, A. B.; J. Rehacek; Hradil, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The Wigner function of a pure continuous-variable quantum state is non-negative if and only if the state is Gaussian. Here we show that for the canonical pair angle and angular momentum, the only pure states with non-negative Wigner functions are the eigenstates of the angular momentum. Some implications of this surprising result are discussed.

  12. Non-negative Wigner functions for orbital angular momentum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Wigner function of a pure continuous-variable quantum state is non-negative if and only if the state is Gaussian. Here we show that for the canonical pair angle and angular momentum, the only pure states with non-negative Wigner functions are the eigenstates of the angular momentum. Some implications of this surprising result are discussed.

  13. Decidability for some justification logics with negative introspection

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Justification logics are modal logics that include justifications for the agent's knowledge. So far, there are no decidability results available for justification logics with negative introspection. In this paper, we develop a novel model construction for such logics and show that justification logics with negative introspection are decidable for finite constant specifications.

  14. Production of rare-earth atomic negative ion beams in a cesium-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The desire to study negative ion structure and negative ion-photon interactions has spurred the development of ion sources for use in research and industry. The many different types of negative ion sources available today differ in their characteristics and abilities to produce anions of various species. Thus the importance of choosing the correct type of negative ion source for a particular research or industrial application is clear. In this study, the results of an investigation on the production of beams composed of negatively-charged rare-earth ions from a cylindrical-cathode-geometry, cesium-sputter-type negative ion source are presented. Beams of atomic anions have been observed for most of the first-row rare-earth elements, with typical currents ranging from hundreds of picoamps to several nanoamps

  15. Negative hydrogen ion yields at plasma grid surface in a negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen (H−) ion yield from the plasma grid due to incident hydrogen ions and neutrals has been evaluated with the surface collision cascade model, ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) coupled to a negative surface ionization models. Dependence of negative ion fractions upon the velocity component normal to the surface largely affect the calculation results of the final energy and angular distributions of the H− ions. The influence is particularly large for H− ions desorbed from the surface due to less than several eV hydrogen particle implact. The present calculation predicts that H− ion yield can be maximized by setting the incident angle of hydrogen ions and neutrals to be 65 degree. The Cs thickness on the plasma grid should also affect the yields and mean energies of surface produced H− ions by back scattering and ion induced desorption processes

  16. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style. PMID:17087538

  17. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...

  18. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing may also find applications outside of optics, in acoustics, fluid mechanics or quantum physics, wherever waves obey the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation.

  19. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  20. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie;

    incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...... seroma formation (52%) compared to standard care. The reduction in wound dehiscence was not statistically significant. The numbers needed to treat were 3 (seroma), 17 (dehiscence), and 25 (infection). Methodical heterogeneity across studies led to downgrading quality of evidence to moderate for infection...

  1. Migration between Positive and Negative

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Diane Paula Corina

    2012-01-01

    The migration phenomenon represents one of the most important issues equally for the recipient and source countries. This paper presents the effects of migration in Romania, as source country, from the point of view of market labour, education and consumption. Analysing the effects of migration we can conclude that is difficult for a country like Romania to draw a general conclusion. On the one hand, we can say that there are a lot of positive effects but on the other hand we remark negative ...

  2. Contextual Risk, Maternal Negative Emotionality, and the Negative Emotion Dysregulation of Preschool Children from Economically Disadvantaged Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Ackerman, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between contextual risk, maternal negative emotionality, and preschool teacher reports of the negative emotion dysregulation of children from economically disadvantaged families. Contextual risk was represented by cumulative indexes of family and neighborhood adversity. The results showed a direct…

  3. Negative Binomial-Lindley Distribution and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zamani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The modeling of claims count is one of the most important topics in actuarial theory and practice. Many attempts were implemented in expanding the classes of mixed and compound distributions, especially in the distribution of exponential family, resulting in a better fit on count data. In some cases, it is proven that mixed distributions, in particular mixed Poisson and mixed negative binomial, provided better fit compared to other distributions. Approach: In this study, we introduce a new mixed negative binomial distribution by mixing the distributions of negative binomial (r,p and Lindley (θ, where the reparameterization of p = exp(-λ is considered. Results: The closed form and the factorial moment of the new distribution, i.e., the negative binomial-Lindley distribution, are derived. In addition, the parameters estimation for negative binomial-Lindley via the method of moments (MME and the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE are provided. Conclusion: The application of negative binomial-Lindley distribution is carried out on two samples of insurance data. Based on the results, it is shown that the negative binomial-Lindley provides a better fit compared to the Poisson and the negative binomial for count data where the probability at zero has a large value.

  4. On the negative flux occurrence in gamma radiation transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of negative angular fluxes caused by polynomials representations of the scattering cross section used in the solution of gamma radiation transport problem in the energy multigroup model is discussed. A basic problem was defined, for which accuracy results furnished by the F sub(N) method was used as reference to evaluate S sub(N) results with and without using negative flux fix-up. The results show that the occurrence of negative angular flux affects the values calculated by the S sub(N) method for the albedos of the most high energy group while the transmission factors of the group are not affected. (E.G.)

  5. Plasma Beam Interaction with Negative glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature coaxial gun has been used to study the effect of the energy spectrum of the ejected plasma on the interaction with negative glow region in a normal glow discharge. The peak discharge current flow between the coaxial electrodes was 5.25 K A as a single pulse with pulse duration of 60 MUs. Investigations are carried out with argon gas at pressure 0.4 Torr. The sheath thickness of the ejected plasma from the coaxial discharge was 6 cm with different densities and energies. The spectrum of electron energy varies between 6 eV and 1 eV, while the electron density varies between 5 x 1012 cm -3 and 4x1013 cm -3. The peak velocity of the ejected plasma was 0. 8 x 105 cm sec-1 in the neutral argon atoms. Argon negative glow region used as base plasma has an electron temperature of 2.2 eV and electron density of 6.2 x107 cm-3. It had been found that the velocity of the ejected plasma decreased when it moves in the negative glow region and its mean electron temperature decreased. The results are compared with the theory of beam interaction with cold plasma

  6. A computational approach to negative priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrobsdorff, H.; Ihrke, M.; Kabisch, B.; Behrendt, J.; Hasselhorn, M.; Herrmann, J. Michael

    2007-09-01

    Priming is characterized by a sensitivity of reaction times to the sequence of stimuli in psychophysical experiments. The reduction of the reaction time observed in positive priming is well-known and experimentally understood (Scarborough et al., J. Exp. Psycholol: Hum. Percept. Perform., 3, pp. 1-17, 1977). Negative priming—the opposite effect—is experimentally less tangible (Fox, Psychonom. Bull. Rev., 2, pp. 145-173, 1995). The dependence on subtle parameter changes (such as response-stimulus interval) usually varies. The sensitivity of the negative priming effect bears great potential for applications in research in fields such as memory, selective attention, and ageing effects. We develop and analyse a computational realization, CISAM, of a recent psychological model for action decision making, the ISAM (Kabisch, PhD thesis, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, 2003), which is sensitive to priming conditions. With the dynamical systems approach of the CISAM, we show that a single adaptive threshold mechanism is sufficient to explain both positive and negative priming effects. This is achieved by comparing results obtained by the computational modelling with experimental data from our laboratory. The implementation provides a rich base from which testable predictions can be derived, e.g. with respect to hitherto untested stimulus combinations (e.g. single-object trials).

  7. Negative Stress Margins - Are They Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Lee, Darlene S.; Mohaghegh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Advances in modeling and simulation, new finite element software, modeling engines and powerful computers are providing opportunities to interrogate designs in a very different manner and in a more detailed approach than ever before. Margins of safety are also often evaluated using local stresses for various design concepts and design parameters quickly once analysis models are defined and developed. This paper suggests that not all the negative margins of safety evaluated are real. The structural areas where negative margins are frequently encountered are often near stress concentrations, point loads and load discontinuities, near locations of stress singularities, in areas having large gradients but with insufficient mesh density, in areas with modeling issues and modeling errors, and in areas with connections and interfaces, in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transitions, bolts and bolt modeling, and boundary conditions. Now, more than ever, structural analysts need to examine and interrogate their analysis results and perform basic sanity checks to determine if these negative margins are real.

  8. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  9. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  10. 心理干预对血液透析治疗的尿毒症患者负面心理和皮肤瘙痒的影响%Effects of psychological intervention on the negative emotions and uremic pruritus as a result of treatment with L-carnionc plus hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蔚蔚; 张旭珍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand the effects of psychological intervention on the negative emotions and uremic pruritus resulting from treatment with a combination of L-carnionc and hemodialysis .Method 94 patients with uremic admitted to our hospital from December 2009 to October 2013 were divided into two groups randomly .The control group (n=46) were treated with L-carnionc plus hemodialysis and current nursing; The experimental group ( n =48 ) were treated with psychological intervention in addition to the treatment provided to the control group .The effects of the intervention was evaluated according to SCL-90, SAS and SDS;The symptoms of uremic pruritus of the two groups before and after treatment were compared .Findings The total effective rate of the control group was considerably lower than that of the experimental group (69.56%VS 93.75%).The difference had statistical significance (χ2 =9.274,P=0.002).Before intervention, there was no statistical difference in SCL-90, SAS and SDS between the two groups (P>0.05).After intervention, the psychological factors of SCL-90 of the experimental group was significantly lower than those of the control group ( P<0. 05).Further more, the standard score of SAS and SDS of patients in the experimental group both were significantly lower than those in the control group after 2 and 4 weeks'intervention (P<0.05).Conclusion The study Findings shows that psychological intervention can significantly reduce negative emotions and uremic pruritus resulting from treatment with Hemodialysis plus L-carnionic .%目的:探讨心理干预对左卡尼丁联合血液透析治疗的尿毒症患者负面心理和皮肤瘙痒的影响。方法采用随机数字法将94例左卡尼丁联合血液透析治疗的尿毒症患者分为对照组(n=46)和干预组(n=48),对照组给予常规护理,干预组常规护理加以心理干预。运用心身症状自评量表( SCL-90)、Znug焦虑自评量表( SAS

  11. Chiral Negative-Index Metamaterials in Terahertz

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shuang; Park, Yong-Shik; Li, Jensen; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Negative index metamaterials (NIMs) give rise to unusual and intriguing properties and phenomena, which may lead to important applications such as superlens, subwavelength cavity and slow light devices. However, the negative refractive index in metamaterials normally requires a stringent condition of simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability. A new class of negative index metamaterials - chiral NIMs, have been recently proposed. In contrast to the conventional NIMs, chira...

  12. Acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: Is a negative CT angiogram enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To determine the negative predictive value of 16 channel multisection computed tomography angiography (CTA) for detecting aneurysms in spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. Materials and methods: The prospectively collected cerebral angiogram database of Department of Neuroradiology, Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre was used to identify 200 consecutive patients who had undergone DSA for SAH. Of these, 176 had undergone CTA prior to DSA. Clinical details and radiology reports were correlated and images of positive investigations reviewed. Results: DSA showed one or more cerebral aneurysms in 105 (60%) patients. These were correctly reported on CTA in 100. CTA was reported negative for aneurysms in 74 patients. Of these five were false negative and had aneurysms detected on DSA. In the CTA/DSA negative group, 11 (16%) patients had classical perimesencephalic clinical syndrome and blood distribution. There were two false positives at CTA. For ruptured cerebral aneurysms, CTA had 95.2% sensitivity, 97.2% specificity, 98.1% positive predictive value, and 93.2% negative predictive value. Conclusion: The sensitivity and negative predictive value of CTA for ruptured aneurysms remains imperfect. Continued use of DSA is recommended in most patients with a negative CTA after acute SAH. Confirmation of a negative CTA result with DSA may not be routinely required in patients with perimesencephalic syndrome

  13. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.

  14. Stability of Negative V'' Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative-V'' systems are more intrinsically stable than shearstabilized systems in that they are completely stable to the pure interchange instability. However, they are unstable to a ballooning mode instability which is essentially a tied interchange localized to a part of a line of force which has adverse curvature. For infinite conductivity this mode leads to a critical value βc of β, the ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures, below which it is stable. This critical value is given by an approximate expression that involves: the relative variation ΔU/U of U = ∫dℓ/B, where the integration is over. the length L of the region of adverse curvature; and L. The variation is that from the axis to the boundary of the plasma at radius a. In its simplest form this formula is βc = g(U/ΔU) (π2a2/L2), where g is a constant of order one. This formula has been justified by a correct stability analysis for the negative-V'' systems of Johnson. If the.resistance of the plasma is nonzero, then the tying of the interchange by the regions of favorable curvature is relaxed and the ballooning mode becomes a resistive-ballooning mode. This mode is always unstable and for β c its growth rate is approximately oR = m2/βc τclass where m is the azimuthal mode number and τclass is the classical diffusion time. If the negative-V'' systems also have a sheared magnetic field, then oR is reduced for large m. Also, it is expected that oR is limited by finite gyration radius effects for large m. On the basis of these considerations it is speculated that the maximum effective value of m is about 10. Thus, βc becomes a figure of merit for the resistive-ballooning mode and must be comparable with one for a successful confinement system. Hence large ΔU/U or large L are unfavorable to stable confinement. (author)

  15. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  16. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  17. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse

  18. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... infection. However, the treatment is relatively costly compared to standard postoperative dressings and thus it was important to consider the rationale for using iNPWT before introducing the treatment in a clinical setting. This thesis assesses the current evidence of whether iNPWT reduces post......-surgical wound complications when applied to closed surgical incisions. The meta-analysis showed that iNPWT appears to reduce the risk of post-surgical wound infection and seroma formation in high-risk wounds compared with standard postoperative dressings in selected surgical procedures. The thesis comprises a...

  19. An Evaluation of Personality Traits and Negative Life Events in Explaining Negative Coping Strategies among Drug Dependent People: The Mediating Role of Negative Affects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A beigi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to examine the relationship of personality traits and negative life events with coping styles with the mediating role of negative affects in drug dependent people. Method: This was a correlational study wherein the number of 152 participants (drug users completed Cloninger temperament and character inventory, Paykel life events inventory, positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS, and Endler & Parker’s coping inventory for stressful situations. Results: Novelty seeking had an indirect effect on emotional coping styles. Although anger had a mediating role in this relationship, it did not play such a role in the relationship of low self-directedness and negative life events with emotional coping styles. Harm avoidance had a direct effect on avoidant coping styles. Fear and sadness played a mediating role in the structural relationship of harm avoidance and negative events with avoidant coping styles. Reward dependence had an indirect effect on avoidant coping styles. Sadness had a mediating role in the structural relationship between reward dependence and avoidant coping styles. Conclusion: People with traumatic personality traits show negative affects by experiencing stressful negative events which leads to traumatic coping style, including addiction.

  20. Current concepts in negative pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lisa M

    2015-05-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is becoming recognized in veterinary medicine as a viable option for the management of complex wounds. NPWT has many advantages over traditional wound care and results in quicker and improved wound healing in many instances. This article discusses the art and science of NPWT, as well as the many current indications, complications, advantages and disadvantages, and future directions of NPWT in small animal veterinary medicine. This therapy will likely have a growing role in veterinary medical practice for complicated wound management and other usages in coming years. PMID:25744142

  1. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    CERN Document Server

    Fourkal, E; Ma, C M; Smolyakov, A

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). A finite thickness slab can be totally transparent to a \\textit{p}-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for certain values of the incidence angle and wave frequency corresponding to the excitation of the surface modes. At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region.

  2. Brownian motion: absolute negative particle mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Alexandra; Eichhorn, Ralf; Regtmeier, Jan; Duong, Thanh Tu; Reimann, Peter; Anselmetti, Dario

    2005-08-18

    Noise effects in technological applications, far from being a nuisance, can be exploited with advantage - for example, unavoidable thermal fluctuations have found application in the transport and sorting of colloidal particles and biomolecules. Here we use a microfluidic system to demonstrate a paradoxical migration mechanism in which particles always move in a direction opposite to the net acting force ('absolute negative mobility') as a result of an interplay between thermal noise, a periodic and symmetric microstructure, and a biased alternating-current electric field. This counterintuitive phenomenon could be used for bioanalytical purposes, for example in the separation and fractionation of colloids, biological molecules and cells. PMID:16107829

  3. Longer tau lifetime and negative T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gauge model of generation nonuniversality proposed in 1981 predicted that the tau lifetime should be longer than expected from the standard model. It also yields a necessarily negative contribution to the parameter T which can be measured at the Z peak. Both of these theoretical results are now supported by experimental data. A future decisive test of this model would be the discovery of new W and Z bosons with nearly degenerate masses of a few TeV. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  4. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  5. On Paraconsistent Weakening of Intuitionistic Negation

    CERN Document Server

    Majkic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    In [1], systems of weakening of intuitionistic negation logic called Z_n and CZ_n were developed in the spirit of da Costa's approach(c.f. [2]) by preserving, differently from da Costa, its fundamental properties: antitonicity, inversion and additivity for distributive lattices. However, according to [3], those systems turned out to be not paraconsistent but extensions of intuitionistic logic. Taking into account of this result, we shall here make some observations on the modified systems of Z_n and CZ_n, that are paraconsistent as well.

  6. Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Astrid; Mills, Daniel S; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. PMID:25214467

  7. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver. PMID:26226491

  8. Underpowered samples, false negatives, and unconscious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadillo, Miguel A; Konstantinidis, Emmanouil; Shanks, David R

    2016-02-01

    The scientific community has witnessed growing concern about the high rate of false positives and unreliable results within the psychological literature, but the harmful impact of false negatives has been largely ignored. False negatives are particularly concerning in research areas where demonstrating the absence of an effect is crucial, such as studies of unconscious or implicit processing. Research on implicit processes seeks evidence of above-chance performance on some implicit behavioral measure at the same time as chance-level performance (that is, a null result) on an explicit measure of awareness. A systematic review of 73 studies of contextual cuing, a popular implicit learning paradigm, involving 181 statistical analyses of awareness tests, reveals how underpowered studies can lead to failure to reject a false null hypothesis. Among the studies that reported sufficient information, the meta-analytic effect size across awareness tests was d z = 0.31 (95 % CI 0.24-0.37), showing that participants' learning in these experiments was conscious. The unusually large number of positive results in this literature cannot be explained by selective publication. Instead, our analyses demonstrate that these tests are typically insensitive and underpowered to detect medium to small, but true, effects in awareness tests. These findings challenge a widespread and theoretically important claim about the extent of unconscious human cognition. PMID:26122896

  9. The Influence of Negative Surprise on Hedonic Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kieling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After some time using a product or service, the consumer tends to feel less pleasure with consumption. This reduction of pleasure is known as hedonic adaptation. One of the emotions that interfere in this process is surprise. Based on two experiments, we suggest that negative surprise – differently to positive – influences with the level of pleasure foreseen and experienced by the consumer. Study 1 analyzes the influence of negative (vs. positive surprise on the consumer’s post-purchase hedonic adaptation expectation. Results showed that negative surprise influences the intensity of adaptation, augmenting its strength. Study 2 verifies the influence of negative (vs positive surprise over hedonic adaptation. The findings suggested that negative surprise makes adaptation happen more intensively and faster as time goes by, which brings consequences to companies and consumers in the post-purchase process, such as satisfaction and loyalty.

  10. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. PMID:27287753

  11. A Weighted Likelihood Ratio of Two Related Negative Hypergeomeric Distributions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Titi Obilade

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider some related negative hypergeometric distributions arising from the problem of sampling without replacement from an urn containing balls of different colours and in different proportions but stopping only after some specifi number of balls of different colours have been obtained.With the aid of some simple recurrence relations and identities we obtain in the case of two colours the moments for the maximum negative hypergeometric distribution,the minimum negative hypergeometric distribution,the likelihood ratio negative hypergeometric distribution and consequently the likelihood proportional negative hypergeometric distributiuon.To the extent that the sampling scheme is applicable to modelling data as illustrated with a biological example and in fact many situations of estimating Bernoulli parameters for binary traits within afinite population,these are important first-step results.

  12. Autobiographical memories for negative and positive events in war contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.

  13. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  14. Negative refraction of a three-dimensional metallic photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoudi, A; Alizadeh, R; Adeli, R; Mahmoudi, Ali; Semnani, Abbas; Alizadeh, Ramazan; Adeli, Roohollah

    2007-01-01

    A metamaterial with a negative effective index of refraction is made from a three-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystal with a metallic basis embedded in foam. It has been simulated with Ansoft HFSSTM in a frequency range from 7.0 to 12.0 GHz. Simulated results tested experimentally and negative refraction verified in some frequencies. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with simulations.

  15. Negative Biopsy after Referral for Biopsy-Proven Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Lee, Jun Haeng; Min, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Repeat endoscopy with biopsy is often performed in patients with previously diagnosed gastric cancer to determine further treatment plans. However, biopsy results may differ from the original pathologic report. We reviewed patients who had a negative biopsy after referral for gastric cancer. Methods A total of 116 patients with negative biopsy results after referral for biopsy-proven gastric cancer were enrolled. Outside pathology slides were reviewed. Images of the first and ...

  16. Negative selection of murine medullary-type single positive thymocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Negative selection depletes self-reactive T cells, thus ensuring self-tolerance. It is usually considered that negative selection imposed on double-positive (DP) thymocytes that reside at the cortico-medullary junction. Negative selection model was set up by injecting mice with anti-T cell receptor (TCR) monoclonal antibody (mAb) intraperitoneally in this work. As shown in phenotypic analysis of thymocytes, negative selection destroys not only cortical-type DP thymocytes, but also medullary-type CD3+TCRαβ+CD4SP and CD3+TCRαβ+CD8SP thymocytes. Negative selection of medullary-type single positive (SP) are more susceptible to apoptosis, while with development of the cells, their resistance to apoptosis increases. Therefore, negative selection does not operate on functionally mature thymocytes at the late stage. This result is a supplement to the traditional theory of negative selection. Negative selection of medullary-type thymocytes is probably to further deplete self-reactive T cells, thus producing precise TCR repertoire and inducing self-tolerance.

  17. Negative regulation and developmental competence in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Kyung; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Im-Soon; Jung, Seunho; Kim, Sun-Chang; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. The three key negative regulators of conidiation SfgA, VosA, and NsdD act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. Here, we have revealed that NsdD is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in Aspergillus. Moreover, nullifying both nsdD and vosA results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even at 12 h of liquid culture, and near constitutive activation of conidiation, indicating that acquisition of developmental competence involves the removal of negative regulation exerted by both NsdD and VosA. NsdD's role in repressing conidiation is conserved in other aspergilli, as deleting nsdD causes enhanced and precocious activation of conidiation in Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus. In vivo NsdD-DNA interaction analyses identify three NsdD binding regions in the promoter of the essential activator of conidiation brlA, indicating a direct repressive role of NsdD in conidiation. Importantly, loss of flbC or flbD encoding upstream activators of brlA in the absence of nsdD results in delayed activation of brlA, suggesting distinct positive roles of FlbC and FlbD in conidiation. A genetic model depicting regulation of conidiation in A. nidulans is presented. PMID:27364479

  18. Chiral Negative-Index Metamaterials in Terahertz

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Jensen; Lu, Xinchao; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Negative index metamaterials (NIMs) give rise to unusual and intriguing properties and phenomena, which may lead to important applications such as superlens, subwavelength cavity and slow light devices. However, the negative refractive index in metamaterials normally requires a stringent condition of simultaneously negative permittivity and negative permeability. A new class of negative index metamaterials - chiral NIMs, have been recently proposed. In contrast to the conventional NIMs, chiral NIMs do not require the above condition, thus presenting a very robust route toward negative refraction. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of a chiral metamaterial exhibiting negative refractive index down to n=-5 at terahertz frequencies, with only a single chiral resonance. The strong chirality present in the structure lifts the degeneracy for the two circularly polarized waves and relieves the double negativity requirement. Chiral NIM are predicted to possess intriguing electromagnetic properties t...

  19. Negative dimension in general and asymptotic topology

    OpenAIRE

    Maslov, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the notion of negative topological dimension and the notion of weight for the asymptotic topological dimension. Quantizing of spaces of negative dimension is applied to linguistic statistics.

  20. Neutral beam production using negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1978-06-14

    Techniques for producing intense negative ion beams are discussed. These beams are required for intense neutral beam development at energies greater than 150 keV. Handling, acceleration, and stripping of negative ion beams are described.

  1. Negative-on source applications (invited)

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper heavy negative-ion sources which we developed and their applications for materials science are reviewed. Heavy negative ions can be effectively produced by the ejection of a sputtered atom through the optimally cesiated surface of target with a low work function. Then, enough continuous negative-ion currents for materials-science applications can be obtained. We developed several kinds of sputter-type heavy negative-ion sources such as neutral- and ionized-alkaline metal bombard...

  2. DO NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS INFLUENCE OUTCOME OF DEPRESSION?

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Santosh K.; Sarmukkaddam, Sanjeev B.

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty four cases of endogenous major depression (RDC) have been studied in order to examine whether negative symptoms influence the outcome of depression, by comparing depressives with and without predominant negative symptoms, and by examining which negative symptoms have high percentage reduction in scores. Patients were rated on Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) during their inclusion and later during one year followup. Complete recovery was seen in only 41 % of the...

  3. Self-Evaluation of Negative Symptoms: A Novel Tool to Assess Negative Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, Sonia; Mach, Cyril; Morello, Rémy

    2016-05-01

    Many patients with schizophrenia have negative symptoms, but their evaluation is a challenge. Thus, standardized assessments are needed to facilitate identification of these symptoms. Many tools have been developed, but most are based on observer ratings. Self-evaluation can provide an additional outcome measure and allow patients to be more engaged in their treatment. The aim of this study was to present a novel tool, Self-evaluation of Negative Symptoms (SNS), and demonstrate its validity. Forty-nine patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders according to DSM-5 were evaluated. Cronbach's coefficient (α = 0.867) showed good internal consistency. Factor analysis extracted 2 factors (apathy and emotional) that accounted for 75.2% of the variance. The SNS significantly correlated with the Scale of Assessment of Negative Symptoms (r= 0.628) and the Clinician Global Impression on the severity of negative symptoms (r= 0.599), supporting good convergent validity. SNS scores did not correlate with level of insight (r= 0.008), Parkinsonism (r= 0.175) or Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale positive subscores (r= 0.253), which indicates good discriminant validity. The intrasubject reliability of the SNS revealed excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC = 0.942). Taken together, the results show that the SNS has good psychometric properties and satisfactory acceptance by patients. The study also demonstrates the ability of patients with schizophrenia to accurately report their own experiences. Self-assessments of negative symptoms should be more widely employed in clinical practice because they may allow patients with schizophrenia to develop appropriate coping strategies. PMID:26564898

  4. Analysis of CD117-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chin-Yuan Tzen; Bey-Liing Mau

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify the gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GISTs) that are negative for CD117 expression by immunohistochemistry and to characterize their malignant potential.METHODS: A total of 108 primary mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract were screened to select CD117-negative tumors, from which KIT(exons 9, 11, 13, and 17)and PDGFRA (exons 10, 12, 14, and 18) were sequenced to identify GISTs. Tumor recurrence and distant metastasis were used as the criteria of malignancy.RESULTS: The result showed that approximately 25%(29/108) of the gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors were negative for CD117 and approximately 6% (7/108)of the tumors were CD117-negative GISTs. All these CD117-negative tumors had a mutated KITand a wildtype PDGFRA. All CD117-negative GISTs with mutations at codons 557/558 of KIThad mitotic counts >10/50 high power field, and 75% (3/4) of them showed multiple recurrence or distant metastasis.CONCLUSION: CD1 17-negative KITmutated GISTs account for approximately 6% of the gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors. Tumor recurrence or distant metastasis correlates to both theKITmutations at codons 557/558 and the mitotic counts, but not to the tumor size.

  5. The use of negative themes in television food advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Roberts, Michele; Chapman, Kathy; Quester, Pascale; Miller, Caroline

    2012-04-01

    The ability of food advertising to trigger food consumption and influence social norms relating to food consumption has resulted in increasing attention being given to the prevalence and nature of food advertising. The present study investigated the use of negative themes in food advertisements aired on Australian television to determine the prevalence of depictions of violence/aggression, mocking, nagging, boredom, loneliness, food craving, mood enhancement, and the emotional use of food across 61 days of programming time. The results suggest that advertisers are using negative themes to capture attention and invoke an emotional response in the target audience. Sixteen percent (14,611) of the 93,284 food advertisements contained negative themes, with mood enhancement and food craving being the most commonly depicted negative themes. Advertisements with negative themes were more likely to be for non-core foods and to be aired during children's popular viewing times than at other times. The potential for negative themes in food advertising to promote unhealthy food consumption behaviors among children is likely to be of concern to policy makers. Building on this exploratory study, further research is needed to investigate how nutrition-related decision making is affected by exposure to food advertisements employing negative emotional themes. PMID:22222562

  6. Negative pressure therapy: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintler, M V

    2012-02-01

    Negative pressure (wound) therapy, synonymous with topical negative pressure or vacuum therapy mainly cited as branded VAC® (vacuum-assisted closure) therapy, is a mode of therapy used to encourage wound healing. It is used both as primary treatment of chronic and complex wounds and as an adjunct for temporary closure and wound bed preparation preceding surgical procedures such as skin grafts and flap surgery. The device has come into wide and successful use, although the physiological basis of its effect is not yet fully understood, and with a delay, increasingly evidence-based data become available. A meta-analysis was made of peer-reviewed publications (PubMed-Medline) chosen on the basis of inclusion of the terms randomized clinical trial, vacuum-assisted closure, and topical negative pressure. Scientific data were evaluated from experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials, observations of clinical applications, and case reports on all known effects of VAC therapy. Systematic analysis of the data shows efficacy concerning induction of wound healing mechanisms, especially in the early stage. Increased perfusion can be considered proven. Data analysis shows positive efficacy for treatment of infection. Although this therapy appears effective and its superiority to conventional techniques has been demonstrated, there are still some critical votes concerning efficacy. Because its mechanisms of action remain unclear, and because there is still some gap between evidence-based data and the excellent clinical results, further prospective, randomized, blinded studies are needed. Even so, we conclude that vacuum therapy, used when indicated and especially by experienced surgeons, is an excellent tool to support wound healing. PMID:22271727

  7. Energy flow in negative index materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lorenzo Bolla; Michele Midrio; Carlo G. Someda

    2004-01-01

    From Maxwell's equations, we compute the speed and the direction of propagation of active power refractedfrom air into a negative index material. We prove, both analytically and numerically that the power mayrefract positively even if phase fronts refract negatively. Considerations on the usage of ray optics inproblems involving negative index materials are drawn.

  8. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown...

  9. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in §...

  10. 40 CFR 62.06 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 62.06 Section 62....06 Negative declarations. A State may submit to the Administrator a letter certifying that no designated facilities exist in the State if such is the case. The negative declaration will be in lieu of...

  11. 40 CFR 52.122 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declarations. 52.122 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Arizona § 52.122 Negative declarations. (a) The following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  12. Negative price-image effects of appealing store architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielke, Stephan; Toporowski, Waldemar

    2012-01-01

    Retailers often worry about the negative effects of appealing exterior architecture on their store's price image, especially the price-level perception and the ease of price evaluation. Findings from prior laboratory experiments support these concerns, while field studies find no such effects. The...... present study explains this inconsistency by analyzing the moderating effects of price and retail brand information available to customers in real shopping situations. The results show that negative effects of appealing exterior architecture do not exist when retail brand information is available. The...... availability of price information neutralizes the negative effects of appealing architecture on the price-level perception, but not on the ease of price evaluation....

  13. Beamlet interaction in multi-aperture negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hanada, Masaya; Kawai, Kenichi; Kitagawa, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Kenji; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Watanabe, Kazuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Beamlet interaction, which may deteriorate beam convergence, was studied in a high-current negative ion beam composed of multiple beamlets. Experimental results demonstrated that a deflection angle of beamlets at the edge of a beam was larger than that at the center of a beam, because of space charge effect. The deflection angle was independent of the beam energy ranging from 86 keV to 178 keV at the same perveance. Effect of electrons accompanying negative ions was confirmed to be negligible. It was shown that repulsive force due to space charge effect was inversely proportional to the square of distance. The maximum deflection angle of a large negative ion source for the JT-60 Negative ion-NBI system was estimated to be about 6.6 mrad based on the obtained results. Shaping of a grid was proposed to compensate the beamlet interaction. Beam orbit simulations indicated the effectiveness of the shaping. (author)

  14. Beamlet interaction in multi-aperture negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamlet interaction, which may deteriorate beam convergence, was studied in a high-current negative ion beam composed of multiple beamlets. Experimental results demonstrated that a deflection angle of beamlets at the edge of a beam was larger than that at the center of a beam, because of space charge effect. The deflection angle was independent of the beam energy ranging from 86 keV to 178 keV at the same perveance. Effect of electrons accompanying negative ions was confirmed to be negligible. It was shown that repulsive force due to space charge effect was inversely proportional to the square of distance. The maximum deflection angle of a large negative ion source for the JT-60 Negative ion-NBI system was estimated to be about 6.6 mrad based on the obtained results. Shaping of a grid was proposed to compensate the beamlet interaction. Beam orbit simulations indicated the effectiveness of the shaping. (author)

  15. The Immoral Assumption Effect: Moralization Drives Negative Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Peter; Johnson, Kate M; Graham, Jesse

    2016-04-01

    Jumping to negative conclusions about other people's traits is judged as morally bad by many people. Despite this, across six experiments (total N = 2,151), we find that multiple types of moral evaluations-even evaluations related to open-mindedness, tolerance, and compassion-play a causal role in these potentially pernicious trait assumptions. Our results also indicate that moralization affects negative-but not positive-trait assumptions, and that the effect of morality on negative assumptions cannot be explained merely by people's general (nonmoral) preferences or other factors that distinguish moral and nonmoral traits, such as controllability or desirability. Together, these results suggest that one of the more destructive human tendencies-making negative assumptions about others-can be caused by the better angels of our nature. PMID:26984017

  16. Drag and propulsive forces in electric sails with negative polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Torres, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    An electric solar sail (E-sail) is a recent propellantless propulsion concept for a direct exploration of the Solar System. An E-sail consists of a set of bare, conductive tethers at high positive/negative bias, prone to extract solar wind momentum by Coulomb deflection of protons. Additionally, a negatively biased E-sail has been proposed as a concept for de-orbiting space debris with drag forces produced in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The present work focuses on the negative-bias case with a sheath that must be correctly modeled for a flowing plasma ambient. Ion scattering within the sheath and the resulting force are determined for several plasma conditions. Since the plasma flow does reduce the effective range for the ion scattering within the sheath, the resulting force is then reduced. Tethers at very high negative bias should be required for extremely high plasma flow.

  17. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a “coherent Gibbs state” form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a “generalized area law” [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an “intrinsic” sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)

  18. Recent negative ion source developments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to specifications written for the 25 MV ORNL tandem accelerator, the ion source used during acceptance testing must be capable of producing a negative ion beam of intensity greater than or equal to 7.5 μA within a phase space of less than or equal to 1 π cm-mrad (MeV)/sup 1/2/. The specifications were written prior to the development of an ion source with such capabilities but fortunately Andersen and Tykesson introduced a source in 1975 which could easily meet the specified requirements. The remarkable beam intensity and quality properties of this source has motivated the development of other sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma - some of which will be described in these proceedings. This report describes results of studies associated with the development of a modified Aarhus geometry and an axial geometry source which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma for the production of negative ion beams

  19. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, M. B. [Station Q, Microsoft Research, Santa Barbara, California 93106-6105, USA and Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a “coherent Gibbs state” form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a “generalized area law” [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an “intrinsic” sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  20. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a "coherent Gibbs state" form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a "generalized area law" [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print 51">arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an "intrinsic" sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  1. Negative Energy: From Lamb Shift to Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Shou-Liang

    2016-01-01

    "Negative energy" has been one of the most enduring puzzles in quantum theory, whereas the present work reveals that it actually plays a central role in clarifying various controversies of quantum theory. The basic idea is contained in a hypothesis on negative energy, and it is shown that the idea: (1)is compatible with both relativistic quantum mechanics and known experimental results; (2)helps to clarify the essence of matter waves, and therefore better understand the reality of the wave function, the so-called 'wave-packet reduction' occurring in quantum measurement, and the ghost like correlations between entangled systems; (3)is helpful for distinguishing the vacuum from the ground state of the quantized field, and may supply a possible way for removing the deep-rooted infinities in quantum field theory. The vacuum energy density of the electromagnetic field is calculated here as an example. By employing the same idea, the Lamb-Shift is recalculated in a different way from conventional renormalization me...

  2. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a "coherent Gibbs state" form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a "generalized area law" [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an "intrinsic" sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  3. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    OpenAIRE

    Minbaeva, Dana B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It is built upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic and intrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in a complementary way, their impact on knowledge-related outcomes will result in crowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypotheses derived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidia...

  4. Electroacoustic metamaterials: achieving negative acoustic properties with shunt loudspeakers

    OpenAIRE

    Lissek, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials constitute a new class of structures that exhibit acoustic properties not readily available in nature. These properties can be a negative mass density, expressing the opposition of the acceleration of a particle to the application of pressure, or a negative bulk modulus, signifying the rarefaction of the particle in reaction to a compression (resp. a condensation in reaction to a depression). However, these artificial behaviors result from a periodic arrangement of pass...

  5. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...

  6. Positive and negative parity hyperons in nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, K.; Er, N.; Sundu, H.

    2015-09-01

    The effects of the nuclear medium on the residue, mass, and self-energy of the positive- and negative-parity Σ , Λ , and Ξ hyperons are investigated using the QCD sum-rule method. In the calculations, the general interpolating currents of hyperons with an arbitrary mixing parameter are used. We compare the results obtained in medium with those of the vacuum and calculate the shifts in the corresponding parameters. It is found that the shifts on the residues in nuclear matter are overall positive for both the positive- and negative-parity hyperons, except for the positive-parity Σ hyperon which has a negative shift. The shifts on the masses of these baryons are found to be negative. The shifts on the residues and masses of negative-parity states are large compared to those of positive-parity states. The maximum shift belongs to the residue of the negative-parity Λ hyperon. The vector self-energies gained by the positive-parity baryons are large compared to the vector self-energies of the negative-parity particles. The maximum value of the vector self-energy belongs to the positive-parity Σ hyperon. The numerical values are compared with the existing predictions in the literature.

  7. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  8. Reservoirs of coagulase negative staphylococci in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastick, K; Leeming, J P; Bennett, D; Millar, M R

    1996-03-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the magnitude of, and interrelations between, reservoirs of coagulase negative staphylococci on infants' skin at various sites (including sites used for insertion of intravascular catheters) and in faeces during the first six months of life. Sites with large numbers of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by sampling 16 skin sites and stools from 20 preterm neonates at 8-30 days of life. A more detailed survey of numbers and types of coagulase negative staphylococci in stool and at six skin sites of 10 preterm infants was then performed over the first six months of life. Isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were collected and characterised by speciation, antibiotic susceptibility profiling, and plasmid restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Large, relatively stable reservoirs were identified in the faeces, around the ear, and in the axilla and nares. Skin on the forearm and leg, sites at which peripheral catheters are frequently sited, carried small unstable numbers of coagulase negative staphylococci, which were usually indistinguishable from coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from other body sites on the same baby. Contamination of catheter insertion sites with coagulase negative staphylococci from reservoir sites on the same baby could explain these observations. These data suggest that interventions reducing cross-contamination between sites on the same baby might be as important in preventing coagulase negative staphylococcal bacteraemias as measures taken to prevent cross infection between babies. Procedures which are likely to result in heavy coagulase negative staphylococcal contamination of the hands of healthcare staff, such as changing soiled nappies, should receive particular attention. PMID:8777675

  9. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-08-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  10. Nosewitness identification: effects of negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Rocha, Marta; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2015-01-01

    Every individual has a unique body odor (BO), similar to a fingerprint. In forensic research, identification of culprit BOs has been performed by trained dogs, but not by humans. We introduce the concept of nosewitness identification and present the first experimental results on BO memory in witness situations involving violent crimes. Two experiments indicated that BO associated with male characters in authentic videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. Moreover, culprit BO in emotional crime videos could be identified considerably better than the BO of a male person in neutral videos. This indicates that nosewitness identification benefits from emotional encoding. Altogether, the study testifies to the virtue of body odor as a cue to identify individuals observed under negative emotion. PMID:25612211

  11. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region. It is also shown that the resonant excitation of a surface mode creates a condition for the total transparency of a finite thickness slab to a p-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for resonant values of the incidence angle and wave frequency

  12. Resonant transparency of materials with negative permittivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourkal, E. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States)]. E-mail: eugene.fourkal@fccc.edu; Velchev, I. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Ma, C.-M. [Department of Radiation Physics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111 (United States); Smolyakov, A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

    2007-02-05

    It is shown that the transparency of opaque material with negative permittivity exhibits resonant behavior. The resonance occurs as a result of the excitation of the surface waves at slab boundaries. Dramatic field amplification of the incident evanescent fields at the resonance improves the resolution of the sub-wavelength imaging system (superlens). At the resonance, two evanescent waves have a finite phase shift providing non-zero energy flux through the non-transparent region. It is also shown that the resonant excitation of a surface mode creates a condition for the total transparency of a finite thickness slab to a p-polarized obliquely incident electromagnetic wave for resonant values of the incidence angle and wave frequency.

  13. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  14. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While caregivers of persons with first-episode psychosis often report a range of negative experiences, little is known about what psychological factors are involved. The aim of this study was to examine how caregivers' general wellbeing, emotional overinvolvement and metacognition...... influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...... and overinvolvement were associated with more negative experiences of caregiving while greater metacognitive capacity was associated with more positive experiences of caregiving. Conclusions The experience of positive and negative aspects of caregiving seems to be associated with different variables. Greater...

  15. Double-negative acoustic metamaterial based on meta-molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a double-negative acoustic metamaterial (AM) constructed using unitary meta-molecule structure. Analogy to electromagnetic metamaterials, transmission and reflection parameters are obtained by experiments in free space. The refractive index, effective mass density, and effective bulk modulus are found to be negative in a specific frequency region by retrieving the effective parameter from experimental data. In contrast to the reference acoustic field distribution through sponge substrate, the slab focusing phenomenon of the fabricated metamaterial lens is clearly displayed within the range of double-negative frequency at 5.7 kHz. The negative refraction is demonstrated in a triangular sample with refraction index of −0.78, which agrees well with the derived results. The proposed meta-molecule model is an effective approach to preparing integrative AMs, and the method of studying AMs is extended to completely free space. (paper)

  16. Negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Shanshan; Hu, Gengkai

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency are studied. An equivalent mass-spring structure is firstly proposed for such metamaterials, the effective mass is found to follow the Drude model: being negative below a specific frequency. The peculiar behavior is then verified by transmission experiments operating in the low-frequency regime. Inspired by the mass-spring model, we investigate the two-dimensional elastic waveguide with clamped boundaries and attribute the bandgap occurring below a critical frequency to negative effective mass density. The finding helps us to design a new acoustic Drude metamaterial, which enables shearing and bending deformations, in contrast to the membrane-type ones. Both simulation and experimental results show that the proposed metamaterial exhibits negative effective mass below 1200 Hz, thus opening broadband applications in vibration and noise controls.

  17. Negative staining and Cryo-negative Staining of Macromolecules and Viruses for TEM

    OpenAIRE

    De Carlo, Sacha; Harris, J Robin

    2010-01-01

    In this review we cover the technical background to negative staining of biomolecules and viruses, and then expand upon the different possibilities and limitations. Topics range from conventional air-dry negative staining of samples adsorbed to carbon support films, the variant termed the “negative staining-carbon film” technique and negative staining of samples spread across the holes of holey carbon support films, to a consideration of dynamic/time-dependent negative staining. For each of t...

  18. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoz H

    2015-01-01

    Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction) to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application of NP...

  19. Numerical predictions of the negative phase

    OpenAIRE

    Sielicki, P.W.; Rigby, S. E.; Sumelka, W.

    2015-01-01

    The field of blast protective design emerged in the late 1940s and focussed mainly on large scale (nuclear) explosive loading massive structures. In these situations, positive phase effects were seen to dominate and the negative phase could effectively be ignored. Recently, however, the threat has moved to smaller scale explosives and increasingly lightweight structures. Here, the negative phase becomes important, however despite this the negative phase is often overlooked. This research pres...

  20. Negational Fragment of Intuitionistic Control Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Glenszczyk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We investigate properties of monadic purely negational fragment of Intuitionistic Control Logic (ICL). This logic arises from Intuitionistic Propositional Logic (IPL) by extending language of IPL by additional new constant for falsum. Having two different falsum constants enables to define two forms of negation. We analyse implicational relations between negational monadic formulae and present a poset of non equivalent formulae of this fragment of ICL.

  1. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoz H

    2015-01-01

    Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction) to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application o...

  2. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Javaras, Kristin N.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional re...

  3. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and retrieval of task-relevant information. In 6 experiments, we tested the inhibitory account of the effect of negative priming in free recall against a...

  4. Detection of negative energy: 4-dimensional examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the response of switched particle detectors to static negative energy densities and negative energy fluxes. It is demonstrated how the switching leads to excitation even in the vacuum and how negative energy can lead to a suppression of this excitation. We obtain quantum inequalities on the detection similar to those obtained for the energy density by Ford and co-workers and in an 'operational' context by Helfer. We reexamine the question 'Is there a quantum equivalence principle?' in terms of our model. Finally, we briefly address the issue of negative energy and the second law of thermodynamics

  5. Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator and Negative Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Pavšič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We review the occurrence of negative energies in Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. We point out that in the absence of interactions negative energies are not problematic, neither in the classical nor in the quantized theory. However, in the presence of interactions that couple positive and negative energy degrees of freedom the system is unstable, unless the potential is bounded from bellow and above. We review some approaches in the literature that attempt to avoid the problem of negative energies in the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  6. Double-negative flexural acoustic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an acoustic metamaterial for flexural waves with both negative density and elastic modulus. By means of an analytical lumped-element approach, we introduce a combination of resonant elements on the surface of a plate. Following on from experimental demonstrations and theoretical work, negative density is achieved by introducing elements such as stubs that involve normal-force interactions, whereas negative modulus is achieved by introducing new types of resonant element that involve lateral forces and rotational inertia. Our approach therefore opens the way for the realization of double-negative acoustic meta-plates to control flexural waves. Applications include cloaking and filtering. (paper)

  7. Entanglement negativity after a global quantum quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the time evolution of the logarithmic negativity after a global quantum quench. In a 1 + 1-dimensional conformal invariant field theory, we consider the negativity between two intervals which can be either adjacent or disjoint. We show that the negativity follows the quasi-particle interpretation for the spreading of entanglement. We check and generalise our findings with a systematic analysis of the negativity after a quantum quench in the harmonic chain, highlighting two peculiar lattice effects: the late birth and the sudden death of entanglement. (paper)

  8. Safety and efficacy of combination therapy of interferon-alpha2 + JAK1-2 Inhibitor in the philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Preliminary results from the danish combi-trial-an open label, single arm, non-randomized multicenter phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, S. U.; Kjaer, L.; Skov, V.;

    2015-01-01

    IFNa2 as well. The purpose of this COMBI-trial is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT with IFNa2 and ruxolitinib. Patients and Methods: At the time of data cutoff, a total of 30 pts >18 years with prefibrotic or hyperproliferative PMF (n=7), PV (n=20) or post-PV MF (PPV-MF) (n=3) with or without......Background: The Philadelphia-negative, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (MF) (PMF). Chronic inflammation and a deregulated immune system are considered important for clonal evolution and disease...... progression. Ruxolitinib is a potent anti-inflammatory agent and has shown great benefit in MPN patients (pts), reducing spleen size and inflammation-mediated symptoms, thereby improving quality of life (QoL). Interferon-alpha2 (IFNa2) has been used successfully for decades in the treatment of MPN. However...

  9. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  10. 78 FR 22910 - Johnstown Specialty Castings, Inc., A Subsidiary of WHEMCO, Johnstown, PA; Notice of Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ..., PA; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration The initial investigation, initiated on..., Johnstown, Pennsylvania (subject firm) resulted in a negative determination, issued on January 8, 2013. The Department's notice of negative determination was published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2013...

  11. Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bonilha Modoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

  12. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  13. Prefrontal Engagement by Cognitive Reappraisal of Negative Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D.; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Klumpp, Heide; Shankman, Stewart A.; Phan, K. Luan

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive reappraisal has been associated with increased activation in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cingulate regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation. To date, neuroimaging studies of reappraisal have primarily used emotionally evocative scenes, and it remains unclear whether the same cognitive strategy applied to emotional facial expressions would involve similar or different neural underpinnings. The present study used fMRI to examine brain activation during cognitive reappraisal of negatively valenced facial expressions relative to passive viewing of negative and neutral facial expressions. Twenty-two healthy adults completed a cognitive reappraisal task comprised of three different conditions (Look-Neutral, Maintain-Negative, Reappraise-Negative). Results indicated that reappraisal was associated with a decrease in negative affect and engagement of PFC brain regions implicated in cognitive control and affect regulation (DLPFC, mPFC, and VLPFC). Furthermore, individual differences in habitual reappraisal use were associated with greater DLPFC and mPFC activation, while suppression use was associated with greater amygdala activation. The present study provides preliminary evidence that facial expressions are effective alternative ‘targets’ of prefrontal engagement during cognitive reappraisal. These findings are particularly relevant for future research probing the neural bases of emotion regulation in populations for whom aversive scenes may be less appropriate (e.g., children) and illnesses in which aberrant responses to social signals of threat and negative feedback are cardinal phenotypes. PMID:25433095

  14. Kinetic effects in the propagation of ion-acoustic negative solitons in plasmas with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of ion-acoustic negative (rarefactive) solitons in plasmas was experimentally verified and explained by means of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, obtained from a fluid model. The experimental results obtained in a double-plasma machine of the Institute for Space Research, however, have provided values of Mach number larger than predicted by this simple model. In order to improve the analysis of the phenomenon, Kinetic effects resultant from the occurrence of reflected electrons and trapped ions in the soliton potential were considered, using the theory of Sagdeev potential. For the description of the negative ion dynamics the fluid model treatment was preserved. It was verified that the effects of the finite temperature and trapping of the positive ions modify the results predicted by the simple KdV model in such a way that the Mach number is reduced as the ion temperature increases. It was shown that reflection of electrons is consistent with the large experimental values of Mach number. (Author)

  15. The Negative Binomial Distribution in Quantum Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, Jonas; Inoue, Shuichiro

    2009-06-01

    We give examples of situations where the negative binomial distribution has appeared in quantum physics since its debut in the work of Planck. Several of its properties are reviewed, and Mandel's Q-parameter is shown to play an interesting role. The photon-pair distributions of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states are identified as negative binomial.

  16. A Characterization of the Negative Binomial Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Nikolay(Department of Physics, University of Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada); Minkova, Leda

    2000-01-01

    Only a few characterizations have been obtained in literatute for the negative binomial distribution (see Johnson et al., Chap. 5, 1992). In this article a characterization of the negative binomial distribution related to random sums is obtained which is motivated by the geometric distribution characterization given by Khalil et al. (1991). An interpretation in terms of an unreliable system is given.

  17. Estimation for entanglement negativity of free fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Christopher P.; Wang, Yihong

    2016-07-01

    In this letter we study the negativity of one dimensional free fermions. We derive the general form of the {{{Z}}N} symmetric term in moments of the partial transposed (reduced) density matrix, which is an algebraic function of the end points of the system. Such a path integral turns out to be a convenient tool for making estimations for the negativity.

  18. About negative refraction and left handed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Zhen

    2004-01-01

    Here I present an overview of recent studies of the phenomenon of negative refraction and left-handed materials. I will discuss some basic questions pertinent to the problem. It is pointed out that the current claims of negative refraction and left handed materials are not conclusive. To support our consideration, I will start with the fundamental physics.

  19. Negative Knowledge: Understanding Professional Learning and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Bauer, Johannes; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we critically analyze how the concept of negative knowledge contributes to the understanding of professionals' expert practice and learning. Negative knowledge is experientially acquired knowledge about what is wrong and what is to be avoided during performance in a given work situation. In terms of its theoretical foundation, the…

  20. The Schrodinger equation and negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, S

    2008-01-01

    We present a nonrelativistic wave equation for the electron in (3+1)-dimensions which includes negative-energy eigenstates. We solve this equation for three well-known instances, reobtaining the corresponding Pauli equation (but including negative-energy eigenstates) in each case.

  1. Distress attributed to negative symptoms in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, JP; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine (1) to which negative symptoms schizophrenia patients attribute distress and (2) whether clinical variables can predict the levels of reported distress. With the help of a research assistant, 86 hospitalized patients completed a self-rating scale for negative

  2. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  3. 40 CFR 52.2900 - Negative declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Negative declaration. 52.2900 Section... § 52.2900 Negative declaration. (a) Air Pollution Implementation Plan for the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. (1) Letter of December 15, 1982, from the Governor to EPA, which is a...

  4. Negative refraction imaging of acoustic metamaterial lens in the supersonic range

    OpenAIRE

    Jianning Han; Tingdun Wen; Peng Yang; Lu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials with negative refraction index is the most promising method to overcome the diffraction limit of acoustic imaging to achieve ultrahigh resolution. In this paper, we use localized resonant phononic crystal as the unit cell to construct the acoustic negative refraction lens. Based on the vibration model of the phononic crystal, negative quality parameters of the lens are obtained while excited near the system resonance frequency. Simulation results show that negative refr...

  5. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  6. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. L.; Peng, S. X.; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H- beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H- ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  7. Issues in the understanding of negative ion extraction for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, J. P.; Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.

    2016-08-01

    A number of recent papers have been devoted to the modeling of negative ion extraction using particle simulations but the published results are not entirely satisfactory and not fully consistent with experiments. Issues raised by the simulations concern the saturation of the negative ion current emitted from the caesiated plasma grid surface, its distribution along the surface, the shape of the meniscus formed around each grid aperture, the distribution and depth of the potential in the virtual cathode, and the profile of the extracted beamlet. These are important issues since they have direct impact on the properties of the extracted negative ion beam (intensity, brightness, aberration). In this paper we first summarize recently published model results that are unexpected and counter-intuitive since they predict that negative ions are extracted from regions of the grid that are directly exposed to the large extraction voltage (i.e. as in vacuum and without the need for a neutralizing background plasma). We then illustrate, with results from two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collision simulations, some regimes of negative ion extraction that are more consistent with the expected physics.

  8. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H− beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H− ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results

  9. The entanglement negativity in random spin chains

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Paola; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the logarithmic negativity in strongly-disordered spin chains in the random-singlet phase. We focus on the spin-1/2 random Heisenberg chain and the random XX chain. We find that for two arbitrary intervals the disorder-averaged negativity and the mutual information are proportional to the number of singlets shared between the two intervals. Using the strong-disorder renormalization group (SDRG), we prove that the negativity of two adjacent intervals grows logarithmically with the intervals length. In particular, the scaling behavior is the same as in conformal field theory, but with a different prefactor. For two disjoint intervals the negativity is given by a universal simple function of the cross ratio, reflecting scale invariance. As a function of the distance of the two intervals, the negativity decays algebraically in contrast with the exponential behavior in clean models. We confirm our predictions using a numerical implementation of the SDRG method. Finally, we also implement DMRG simula...

  10. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation. PMID:27101931

  11. Universe Models with Negative Bulk Viscosity

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    The concept of negative temperatures has occasionally been used in connection with quantum systems. A recent example of this sort is reported in the paper of S. Braun et al. [Science 339,52 (2013)], where an attractively interacting ensemble of ultracold atoms is investigated experimentally and found to correspond to a negative-temperature system since the entropy decreases with increasing energy at the high end of the energy spectrum. As the authors suggest, it would be of interest to investigate whether a suitable generalization of standard cosmological theory could be helpful, in order to elucidate the observed accelerated expansion of the universe usually explained in terms of a positive tensile stress (negative pressure). In the present note we take up this basic idea and investigate a generalization of the standard viscous cosmological theory, not by admitting negative temperatures but instead by letting the bulk viscosity take negative values. Evidently, such an approach breaks standard thermodynamics,...

  12. Numerical Study of Negative-Refractive Index Ferrite Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed O. Sid-Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Consider a magnetized ferrite-wire waveguide structure situated between two half free spaces. Ferrites to provide negative permeability and wire array to provide negative permittivity. The structure form left-handed material (LHM with negative refractive index. The transmission of electromagnetic waves through the structure is investigated theoretically. Maxwell's equations are used to determine the electric and magnetic fields of the incident waves at each layer. Snell's law is applied and the boundary conditions are imposed at each layer interface to calculate the reflected and transmitted powers of the structure. Numerical results are illustrated to show the effect of frequency, applied magnetic fields, angle of incidence and LHM thickness on the mentioned powers. The analyzed results show that the transmission is very good when the permeability and permittivity of the structure are both simultaneously negative. The frequency band corresponding to this transmission can be tuned by changing the applied magnetic fields. The obtained results are in agreement with the law of conservation of energy. Consider a magnetized ferrite-wire waveguide structure situated between two half free spaces. Ferrites to provide negative permeability and wire array to provide negative permittivity. The structure form left-handed material (LHM with negative refractive index. The transmission of electromagnetic waves through the structure is investigated theoretically. Maxwell's equations are used to determine the electric and magnetic fields of the incident waves at each layer. Snell's law is applied and the boundary conditions are imposed at each layer interface to calculate the reflected and transmitted powers of the structure. Numerical results are illustrated to show the effect of frequency, applied magnetic fields, angle of incidence and LHM thickness on the mentioned powers. The analyzed results show that the transmission is very good when the permeability and

  13. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile

  14. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M., E-mail: yoshida.masafumi@jaea.go.jp; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L.R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5792 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  15. [Protein a production in coagulase-negative or clumping factor (CF)-negative isolates of Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowicz, Lidia; Garbacz, Katarzyna; Wisniewska, Katarzyna; Dajnowska-Stanczewa, Agata; Galiński, Janusz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine a production of proteinA in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus (CNSA) or CF-negative S. aureus (CFNSA) strains. 59 CNSA and 18 CFNSA strains were isolated between 1997 and 2003 from different clinical specimens. The Protein A production was determined by immunoblotting method. The presence of protein A gene (spa) was investigated using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two sets of phages and RFLP (Restriction Fragment Lenth Polymorphism) of coa gene method were used for typing strains. The results proved that the lack of ability of protein A production occurs more frequently in protein A-negative CFNSA strains with compare to the CNSA, which are protein A-positive for the majority of strains. Deficiencies of protein A, doesn't seem to be caused by the loss of spa gene. Protein A-negative CFNSA strains have phagotypes, RFLP and antibiotic resistant patterns which differ them from protein A-negative CNSA strains. Almost all of protein A-negative CFNSA and CNSA strains are resistant to methicillin. PMID:16494201

  16. Time evolution of negative ion profile in a large cesiated negative ion source applicable to fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M.; Hanada, M.; Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K.; R. Grisham, L.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.

    2016-02-01

    To understand the physics of the cesium (Cs) recycling in the large Cs-seeded negative ion sources relevant to ITER and JT-60SA with ion extraction area of 45-60 cm × 110-120 cm, the time evolution of the negative ion profile was precisely measured in JT-60SA where the ion extraction area is longitudinally segmented into 5. The Cs was seeded from the oven at 180 °C to the ion source. After 1 g of Cs input, surface production of the negative ions appeared only in the central segment where a Cs nozzle was located. Up to 2 g of Cs, the negative ion profile was longitudinally expanded over full ion extraction area. The measured time evolution of the negative ion profile has the similar tendency of distribution of the Cs atoms that is calculated. From the results, it is suggested that Cs atom distribution is correlated with the formation of the negative ion profile.

  17. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from bloodculture: Causes or contaminants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Predrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction According to the results of different investigations, the opinion that isolate of coagulase-negative staphylococci by bloodcultures represents the blood infection in 10-12% patient. The aim of the work was to determine the number of patients with blood infection-sepsa induced coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated by bloodcultures. Material and methods: The research was done at the Institute for Public Health in Niš. The basic group consisted of 56 patients and coagulase-negative staphylococci were segregated form their bloodcultures. The growth of microorganisms was monitored by the computerized apparatus 'Bactec 9120'. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified by the standard microbiologic method and Vitec AMS system. Results Eight patients (14.28% were found to have minimum two signs of blood infection. S. epidermis was isolated in four patients. S. saprophyticus was isolated in the patients on hemodialysis with implanted urinary catheter. S. capitis was isolated in the patients with infarctus miocardi. S. auricularis was isolated in child who was administered the immunosuppressive therapy before and during hospitalization due to an acute asthmatic attack. The isolate of S. simulans was cultivated from samples of the patients hospitalized due to the febrile state. Discussion A correct interpretation of coagulase-negative staphylococci findings in bloodcultures is an overriding part of medical treatment. The best laboratory indicators of the presence of coagulase-negative staphylococci in blood would be to segregate those of the same kind from two samples at the same time but from different anatomic sites in the presence of clinical signs of blood infection. Conclusion In the investigation conducted at the Public Health Institute-Nis, we determined that bloodcultures isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci represent the blood infection on 14.28% patient.

  18. Air pollution monitoring by negative-ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the use of negative-ion mass spectrometry for the monitoring of oxygen-containing gases is reported. Electron impact by low-energy electrons of oxyden-containing gases will result in dissociative electron capture forming O-. By introducing into a negative-ion mass spectrometer a mixture of SO2, NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and O2, focussing O- (m/e = 16) onto the collector, and varying the electron energy, a spectrum of peaks is obtained, which are characteristic of the oxygen-containing molecules in the mixture. The results of this research will be the basis of the design of a small negative-ion mass spectrometer system for the monitoring of oxygen-containing gases in air. (author)

  19. Negative discriminant states in N=4 supersymmetric string theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke

    2011-01-01

    Single centered BPS black hole solutions exist only when the charge carried by the black hole has positive discriminant. On the other hand the exact dyon spectrum in heterotic string theory compactified on T^6 is known to contain states with negative discriminant. We show that all of these negative discriminant states can be accounted for as two centered black holes. Thus after the contribution to the index from the two centered black holes is subtracted from the total microscopic index, the index for states with negative discriminant vanishes even for finite values of charges, in agreement with the results from the black hole side. Bound state metamorphosis -- which requires us to identify certain apparently different two centered configurations according to a specific set of rules -- plays a crucial role in this analysis. We also generalize these results to a class of CHL string theories.

  20. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  1. Proceedings of the third workshop on negative ion formation and beam handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop was held on August 18 and 19, 1993, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. By the recent remarkable development of negative ion sources and negative ion control technology, the fields of application of negative ions extended, such as accelerators, nuclear fusion, surface analysis and ion implantation. However, there are many problems which are not yet clarified, for example the formation of negative ions, beam conveyance, the behavior of negative ions in plasma. At the workshop, lectures were given on 350 keV, 0.2 A negative ion source, simulation of hybrid negative ion source, RF negative ion source, ECR-BLAKE negative ion source, energy extension by tandem acceleration of heavy ion beam, development of negative ion source for NBI in National Institute for Fusion Science, direct extraction of Na- and Na2- from sodium plasma, negative ion formation from Li-H system, negative ion measurement in plasma by laser, experimental results of Uramoto type sheet plasma negative ion source in Kyoto University and others. (K.I.)

  2. Richard Gale and the Problem of Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bastek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no agreement as to the way of interpreting negative statements and the ontological status of negative facts or events. Following W. V. Quine (On What There Is, some philosophers claim that world becomes overcrowded. It becomes overcrowded because positive events (or states of affairs carry on their backs an infinite number of negative phantoms (quasi- entities. For instance, my being here now requires my not being elsewhere. As we know, in his works Quine developed a minimalistic vision of ontology (Quine’s taste for desert landscapes related to Ockham’s razor. On the other hand, every true proposition (positive or negative corresponds with an event – there must be a negative event. Otherwise we will find it difficult to express what it is that corresponds to a negative statement. This point of view was temporarily presented by B. Russell (Philosophy of Logical Atomism. Gale (On What There Isn’t examines the arguments for and against negative facts and events. The purpose of this paper is to present Gale’s inquiry into negatives and its ontological consequences. The conclusion of Gale’s investigations is as follows: what exists in the world is positive and the world is fully describable in positive statements. He argues along Kantian lines with British accent: it is meaningful to say that some objects are non-existent but it is meaningless to apply negation to the universe as a whole. While he argues along Kantian lines with British accent, I suggest solution with Polish accent (S. Leśniewski: it is contradictory to say that some objects are nonexistent.

  3. On Negative Yes/No Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Maribel; Han, Chung-Hye

    2004-01-01

    Preposed negation yes/no (yn)-questions like 'Doesn't John drink?' necessarily carry the implicature that the speaker thinks John drinks, whereas non-preposed negation yn-questions like 'Does John not drink?' do not necessarily trigger this implicature. Furthermore, preposed negation yn-questions have a reading "double-checking" pand a reading "double-checking"≠p, as in 'Isn't Jane coming too?' and in 'Isn't Jane coming either?' respectively. We present other yn-questions that raise parallel ...

  4. Critique of Optical Negative Refraction Superlensing

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, George

    2010-01-01

    Has the ten-year old quest for the optical superlens, based on Veselago's hypothesis of negative refraction, been a chimera? We argue that Pendry's alternative prescription of the silver superlens is nothing more than an application of the natural phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance that occurs in the noble metal films. This phenomenon does not predict the reality of Veselago's negative refractive index materials. We give a simple explanation of how this resonance achieves a field intensity enhancement at the interface of silver and air without involving the concept of negative refraction.

  5. Entanglement negativity, Holography and Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Sengupta, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a holographic prescription to compute the entanglement negativity for finite temperature conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions that leads to the distilled pure quantum entanglement at all temperatures. Our prescription exactly reproduces the entanglement negativity for 1+1 dimensional conformal field theories at finite temperatures dual to bulk Euclidean BTZ black holes. A similar entanglement distillation is also observed for the entanglement negativity of conformal field theories dual to AdS-Schwarzschild black holes in higher dimensions illustrating the universality of our conjecture.

  6. Some dosimetry problems in negative pion radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Baarli, Johan

    1973-01-01

    Momentum beams of negative pions are considered for radiotherapy. It is shown that the measurement of dose in this respect presents problems which are different from those encountered when using the more usual type of radiation. This difference arises principally from the nuclear interaction processes produced when the negative pion comes to rest. These processes, which are superimposed on the Bragg peak of the beam, produce a complex mixture of charged particles together with a beam contamination of muons and electrons. Some experimental studies of depth dose distributions, dose estimates, and other parameters to be considered for radiotherapy of cancer with beams of negative pions are discussed.

  7. [Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: from electrophysiology to electrotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Quiles, C; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review of the literature is to summarize the state of the knowledge concerning the relationship between negative symptoms in schizophrenia, electrophysiology and electrotherapy. The scientific literature search of international articles was performed during August and September 2015 using the PubMed electronic database. We used the following MeSH terms: "Negative symptoms", "Schizophrenia", "Electrophysiology", "Neurophysiology", "EEG power", "Alpha rhythm", "Transcranial magnetic stimulation", "Transcranial direct current stimulation", "Electroconvulsive therapy", "Neurofeedback", "Vagus Nerve Stimulation", "Deep Brain Stimulation", and "State dependent". Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with altered activity in prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging studies. This is in line with electrophysiological measurements that found a change in EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band over prefrontal brain regions. The notion of functional hypofrontality has led to hypotheses that electrotherapy applied to the prefrontal cortex may be an effective treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were used to increase cortical activity in schizophrenia and achieve a clinical effect on negative symptoms. Three meta-analyses confirmed, with a moderate effect size, that rTMS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The two subsequently published prospective multicenter studies, however, found opposite results from each other. Two randomized controlled studies suggested that tDCS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms. There is no study on the efficacy of neurofeedback, vagal nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of rTMS and tDCS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Influencing factors

  8. Outcome Following a Negative CT Angiogram for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Victoria, E-mail: drvictoriac@gmail.com; Tse, Donald, E-mail: donald.tse@gmail.com; Dixon, Shaheen, E-mail: shaheen7noorani@gmail.com [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom); Shrivastava, Vivek, E-mail: vivshriv@yahoo.com [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bratby, Mark, E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk; Anthony, Suzie, E-mail: suzie.anthony@ouh.nhs.uk; Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk; Tapping, Charles, E-mail: charles.tapping@ouh.nhs.uk; Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the role of a negative computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in patients who present with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.MethodsA review of all patients who had CTAs for GI hemorrhage over an 8-year period from January 2005 to December 2012 was performed. Data for patient demographics, location of hemorrhage, hemodynamic stability, and details of angiograms and/or the embolization procedure were obtained from the CRIS/PACS database, interventional radiology database, secure electronic medical records, and patient’s clinical notes.ResultsA total of 180 patients had 202 CTAs during the 8-year period: 87 CTAs were performed for upper GI hemorrhage (18 positive for active bleeding, 69 negative) and 115 for lower GI hemorrhage (37 positive for active bleeding, 78 negative); 58.7 % (37/63) of patients with upper GI bleed and 77.4 % (48/62) of patients with lower GI bleed who had an initial negative CTA did not rebleed without the need for radiological or surgical intervention. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04). The relative risk of rebleeding, following a negative CTA, in lower GI bleeding versus upper GI bleeding patients is 0.55 (95 % confidence interval 0.32–0.95).ConclusionsPatients with upper GI bleed who had negative CTAs usually require further intervention to stop the bleeding. In contrast, most patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage who had a negative first CTA were less likely to rebleed.

  9. Negative phototropism of rice root and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zhong(王忠); MO; Yiwei(莫亿伟); QIAN; Shanqin(钱善勤); GU; Yunjie(顾蕴洁)

    2002-01-01

    Some characteristics of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) root were found in the experiment of unilaterally irradiating the roots which were planted in water: (ⅰ) All the seminal roots, adventitious roots and their branched roots bent away from light, and their curvatures ranged from 25° to 60°. The curvature of adventitious root of the higher node was often larger than that of the lower node, and even larger than that of the seminal root. (ⅱ) The negative phototropic bending of the rice root was mainly due to the larger growth increment of root-tip cells of the irradiated side compared with that of the shaded side. (ⅲ) Root cap was the site of light perception. If root cap was shaded while the root was irradiated the root showed no negative phototropism, and the root lost the characteristic of negative phototropism when root cap was divested. Rice root could resume the characteristic of negative phototropism when the new root cap grew up, if the original cells of root cap were well protected while root cap was divested. (ⅳ) The growth increment and curvature of rice root were both influenced by light intensity. Within the range of 0-100μmol@m-2@s-1, the increasing of light intensity resulted in the decreasing of the growth increment and the increasing of the curvature of rice root. (ⅴ) The growth increment and the curvature reached the maximum at 30℃ with the temperature treatment of 10-40℃. (ⅵ) Blue-violet light could prominently induce the negative phototropism of rice root, while red light had no such effect. (ⅶ) The auxin (IAA) in the solution, as a very prominent influencing factor, inhibited the growth, the negative phototropism and the gravitropism of rice root when the concentration of IAA increased. The response of negative phototropism of rice root disappeared when the concentration of IAA was above 10 mg@L-1.

  10. A Two-factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Kyeong Jang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale—Self-Report (MAP-SR. CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model’s fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation, and between N4 (passive social withdrawal and G16 (active social avoidance, possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model’s adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  11. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale—Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model’s fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model’s adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  12. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  13. Cascade of negative muons in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the evolution of a negative muon captured in an atom and the formalism of energy loss associated with the muonic atom. The principal goals are to calculate reliability the muon x-ray intensities, given the initial population of the muonic orbits, to invert the problem and deduce the initial distribution from the x-ray intensities, to provide a reasonably simple and convenient tool to correlate observations, and finally, to systematize some questions of theoretical interest. The early part of the history of the muon in matter, including the atomic capture and classical phase of the atomic cascade are reviewed. In the quantal treatment of the transition rates, both radiative and electron Auger transitions are considered. In general, multipolarities up to E3 and K, L, and M electronic shells are fully investigated. Multipole radiation is treated in the conventinal way and pesents no special problems. Magnetic type transitions between states with different principal quantum numbers are shown to be small. Auger electron ejection rates are more complicated and several approximations have been adopted. The basic results have been computed in terms of elemetary functions. In the Auger transitions we have shown that magnetic multipoles can be safety neglected. The relative sizes of the rates corresponding to different multipoles are systematically studied. A comparison of results is made with atomic photoelectric effect data and with the nuclear internal conversion coefficients. A general agreement is found, except around shell thresholds. The existing data of muonic x-ray intensities in iron and thallium are analyzed in a systematic way. It is found that for Fe the initial l-distribution is almost flat, whereas that for T1 is weighted towards the high l values, sharper than statistical. As a result of the investigations and in order to make our findings usable, a computer program has been developed. 36 references

  14. Negative Binomial Process Count and Mixture Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingyuan; Carin, Lawrence

    2015-02-01

    The seemingly disjoint problems of count and mixture modeling are united under the negative binomial (NB) process. A gamma process is employed to model the rate measure of a Poisson process, whose normalization provides a random probability measure for mixture modeling and whose marginalization leads to an NB process for count modeling. A draw from the NB process consists of a Poisson distributed finite number of distinct atoms, each of which is associated with a logarithmic distributed number of data samples. We reveal relationships between various count- and mixture-modeling distributions and construct a Poisson-logarithmic bivariate distribution that connects the NB and Chinese restaurant table distributions. Fundamental properties of the models are developed, and we derive efficient Bayesian inference. It is shown that with augmentation and normalization, the NB process and gamma-NB process can be reduced to the Dirichlet process and hierarchical Dirichlet process, respectively. These relationships highlight theoretical, structural, and computational advantages of the NB process. A variety of NB processes, including the beta-geometric, beta-NB, marked-beta-NB, marked-gamma-NB and zero-inflated-NB processes, with distinct sharing mechanisms, are also constructed. These models are applied to topic modeling, with connections made to existing algorithms under Poisson factor analysis. Example results show the importance of inferring both the NB dispersion and probability parameters. PMID:26353243

  15. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. PMID:26057987

  16. Unrevealing culture-negative severe sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Prost, Nicolas; Razazi, Keyvan; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis involves a wide array of sources and microorganisms, only a fraction of which are microbiologically documented. Culture-negative sepsis poses special diagnostic challenges to both clinicians and microbiologists and further questions the validity of sepsis definitions.

  17. Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2015-01-01

    Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization:negation of the self.

  18. Surfaces of a Constant Negative Curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gharib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I study the geometric notion of a differential system describing surfaces of a constant negative curvature and describe a family of pseudospherical surfaces for the nonlinear partial differential equations with constant Gaussian curvature .

  19. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  20. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs

  1. Simplifying Negative Goals Using Typed Existence Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Lunjin

    2010-01-01

    A method for extracting positive information from negative goals is proposed. It makes use of typed existence properties between arguments of a predicate to rewrite negative goals in a logic program. A typed existence property is a generalization of functional dependencies in that an input value maps to a fixed number of output values. Types are used to specify the domains of the input and output values. An implementation of the simplification method is presented and its complexity is analyzed. A key algorithm of the implementation checks if an atom in a negative goal can be extracted using a given typed existence property. A digraph links an atom to the quantified variables occurring in the atom and is used to quickly retrieve atoms in the negative goal that may become extractable after some other atom is extracted.

  2. Negation of the Self in Wuthering Heights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2015-01-01

    Emily Bronte created one of the greatest novels in 19th British literary history---Wuthering Heights.Through this works,the writers tries to severely criticize the feature in western civilization: negation of the self.

  3. Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbui, T.; Barosi, G.; Birgegard, G.;

    2011-01-01

    We present a review of critical concepts and produce recommendations on the management of Philadelphia-negative classical myeloproliferative neoplasms, including monitoring, response definition, first- and second-line therapy, and therapy for special issues. Key questions were selected according...

  4. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  5. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  6. Distinguishing between Binomial, Hypergeometric and Negative Binomial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Cole, Tarah

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the differences between three discrete distributions (Binomial, Hypergeometric and Negative Binomial) can be challenging for students. We present an activity designed to help students differentiate among these distributions. In addition, we present assessment results in the form of pre- and post-tests that were designed to assess the…

  7. The Regulation of Negative Reactivity in Infancy: Function and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stifter, Cynthia A.; Braungart, Julia M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the function and effectiveness of certain behaviors in regulating negative arousal in infants who participated in an arm restraint procedure at age 5 months and a toy removal task at age 10 months. Results showed that comforting behaviors were preferred at both 5 and 10 months of age. (MDM)

  8. Negative thoughts in children with symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rietveld; P.J.M. Prins; I van Beest

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether negative thoughts are different in anxious, depressed, and chronically ill children. Screening of 1,316 children on anxiety, depression, and asthma resulted in the selection of 118 children (aged 12-15 yrs). Four groups were formed: (1) a high anxiety group, (2) a high anxiety/depre

  9. Radiative decays of negative parity heavy baryons in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Agamaliev, A K; Savcı, M

    2016-01-01

    The transition form factors responsible for the radiative $\\Sigma_Q \\to \\Lambda_Q \\gamma$ and $\\Xi_Q^\\prime \\to \\Xi \\gamma$ decays of the negative parity baryons are examined within light cone QCD sum rules. The decay widths of the radiative transitions are calculated using the obtained results of the form factors.

  10. Critique of Optical Negative Refraction Superlensing

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, George; Mias, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Has the ten-year old quest for the optical superlens, based on Veselago's hypothesis of negative refraction, been a chimera? We argue that Pendry's alternative prescription of the silver superlens is nothing more than an application of the natural phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance that occurs in the noble metal films. This phenomenon does not predict the reality of Veselago's negative refractive index materials. We give a simple explanation of how this resonance achieves a field intensi...

  11. Classical gravity does not refract negatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Martin W

    2007-03-01

    We appraise recent claims that classical gravitation can induce negative refraction of electromagnetic radiation in vacuum. By recasting the previous literature in covariant notation, we show that the criterion used hitherto for determining negative refraction in vacuum is inappropriate, and can even be satisfied by parametrized transformations in Minkowski spacetime. Using instead a covariantly acceptable definition, we find that in classical vacuum the power flux of a plane electromagnetic wave points in the direction of phase advance. PMID:17359145

  12. Nonparametric Bayesian Negative Binomial Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingyuan

    2016-01-01

    A common approach to analyze an attribute-instance count matrix, an element of which represents how many times an attribute appears in an instance, is to factorize it under the Poisson likelihood. We show its limitation in capturing the tendency for an attribute present in an instance to both repeat itself and excite related ones. To address this limitation, we construct negative binomial factor analysis (NBFA) to factorize the matrix under the negative binomial likelihood, and relate it to a...

  13. Negative Binomial States of Quantized Radiation Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Hong-Chen; Sasaki, Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the negative binomial states with negative binomial distribution as their photon number distribution. They reduce to the ordinary coherent states and Susskind-Glogower phase states in different limits. The ladder and displacement operator formalisms are found and they are essentially the Perelomov's su(1,1) coherent states via its Holstein-Primakoff realisation. These states exhibit strong squeezing effect and they obey the super-Poissonian statistics. A method to generate these ...

  14. Revisiting the Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    LoVullo, Eric D.; Wright, Lori F.; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F.; Pavelka, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis str...

  15. Avoiding Negative Probabilities in Quantum Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As currently understood since its discovery, the bare Klein-Gordon theory consists of negative quantum probabilities which are considered to be physically meaningless if not outright obsolete. Despite this annoying setback, these negative probabilities are what led the great Paul Dirac in 1928 to the esoteric discovery of the Dirac Equation. The Dirac Equation led to one of the greatest advances in our understanding of the physical world. In this reading, we ask the seemingly senseless questi...

  16. Ruminative Self-Focus and Negative Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Moberly, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Edward R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors conducted an experience sampling study to investigate the relationship between momentary ruminative self-focus and negative affect. Ninety-three adults recorded these variables at quasi-random intervals 8 times daily for 1 week. Scores on questionnaire measures of dispositional rumination were associated with mean levels of momentary ruminative self-focus over the experience sampling week. Concurrently, momentary ruminative self-focus was positively associated with negative affect...

  17. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen; Thomassen, Carsten

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...... by Kelly, we conjecture that all finite subspaces of hyperbolic spaces are hypermetric and regular, and hence of strictly negative type. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc....

  18. Negative Binomial States of Quantized Radiation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, H C; Fu, Hong-Chen; Sasaki, Ryu

    1996-01-01

    We introduce the negative binomial states with negative binomial distribution as their photon number distribution. They reduce to the ordinary coherent states and Susskind-Glogower phase states in different limits. The ladder and displacement operator formalisms are found and they are essentially the Perelomov's su(1,1) coherent states via its Holstein-Primakoff realisation. These states exhibit strong squeezing effect and they obey the super-Poissonian statistics. A method to generate these states is proposed.

  19. The positive impact of negative role models

    OpenAIRE

    Al Khalidi, Marwa; Barton, John,; Gentile, Niko; Gosztonyi, Susanne; Ronchi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The attitude of teachers towards students can vary substantially in relation to different factors, such as educational background, pedagogical training, teaching methods, etc. In this paper, we explore the impact of negative role-models on future teaching. In particular, past experiences of teachers as students as well as the contextual influence of other teachers on their future teaching has been explored. The scope of this paper is to assess the possible impact that negative role-models may...

  20. Methodological Issues in Negative Symptom Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, Stephen R.; Daniel, David G; Alphs, Larry; Awad, A George; Richard S E Keefe

    2011-01-01

    Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format to discuss important methodological issues in the design of trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the need for a coprimary functional measure for registration trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a proof-of-concept or registration...

  1. Active electroacoustic resonators with negative acoustic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials constitute a new class of acoustic structures, composed of periodic arrangements of engineered unit-cells, that exhibit macroscopic acoustic properties not readily available in nature. These properties can either be a negative mass density or a negative bulk modulus. However, these artificial behaviours derive from the engineered arrangement of the unit-cells, which do not present individual ''meta-properties'', rather than from their intrinsic nature. It is although po...

  2. [Depressive symptoms and negative symptoms during schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollfus, S; Langlois, S; Assouly-Besse, F; Petit, M

    1995-06-01

    Taking into account the wellknown frequency of depressive and extrapyramidal symptoms in schizophrenia and the rare studies about their evolution, several questions can be raised: How do these different symptoms move? Are there specific characters of each of them? First, stability of negative symptoms evaluated by the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was studied among 57 schizophrenic patients at admission and at discharge. The course of negative symptoms was compared to that of depressive MADRS (Montgomery et Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and akinetic symptoms (Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale). All the subscores of the SANS decreased significantly but 4 items belonging to the affective flattening subscale and one item belonging to the alogia subscale did not vary significantly, showing the necessity of taking into account the individual items of the SANS rather than the subscale scores to evaluate the course of negative symptoms. Changes in all the SANS subscores except the alogia and anhedonia subscores were associated with variations in scores of other scales. Correlations between the changes of negative symptoms and the changes of depressive symptoms showed the necessity to do more specific scales, for example, scales for depression in schizophrenia. Langlois-Théry et al. (1994) evaluated among 53 schizophrenic patients stabilized with neuroleptic treatment, depressive symptomatology with Echelle de Ralentissement Dépressif (ERD, Widlöcher, 1983) and MADRS, negative symptomatology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) and akinesia (ESRS), to determinate whether ERD composed of 3 subscores (motor, ideic and subjective) could be able to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, independently of the measures of negative and akinetic symptomatology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7628337

  3. Homologous Recombination in Negative Sense RNA Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Worobey; Guan-Zhu Han

    2011-01-01

    Recombination is an important process that influences biological evolution at many different levels. More and more homologous recombination events have been reported among negative sense RNA viruses recently. While sporadic authentic examples indicate that homologous recombination does occur, recombination seems to be generally rare or even absent in most negative sense RNA viruses, and most of the homologous recombination events reported in the literature were likely generated artificially d...

  4. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...

  5. Goffman, Parsons, and the Negational Self

    OpenAIRE

    James J. Chriss

    2015-01-01

    Erving Goffman’s emphasis on impression management in everyday life means that for the most part persons offer only partial or incomplete glimpses of themselves. Indeed, under specifiable conditions self-presentations may take the form of a negational self. If negational selves exist at the person or individual level, then they must also exist at the collective level (that is, if we are to take seriously such notions as the social mind, collective representations, or even culture). Understand...

  6. Negative edge plasma currents in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh Narayanan; A N Sekar Iyengar

    2011-12-01

    A tokamak plasma discharge having an increase in duration accompanied with enhanced runaway electron flux has been experimentally studied in this paper. The discharges have been obtained by controlling the applied vertical magnetic field ($B^{\\text{appl}}_v$) to below a critical value. Such discharges have been observed to have ‘negative edge plasma currents’, detected using an internal Rogowskii coil (IRC). We have tried to correlate the runaway behaviour with the negative edge plasma currents and have explained that these observations are a result of beam plasma instabilities.

  7. Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Boustimi, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Ducloy, M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(P23) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens.

  8. Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(3P2) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens

  9. [Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-negative adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouyer, M; Stoclin, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    In HIV-negative adults, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia can be observed when immunodeficiency is present, especially in case of drug-induced immune suppression (steroids, chemotherapy, transplantation). Clinical, radiological, and biological presentations are different in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals with different immunodeficiency profiles. In HIV-negative patients, dyspnea occurs more quickly (median duration of 5 days to get a diagnosis), diagnosis is more difficult because of less Pneumocystis in bronchoalveolar lavage, and mortality is higher than in HIV-positive individuals. Lung CT-scan typically shows diffuse ground glass opacities, but peri-bronchovascular condensations or ground glass opacities clearly limited by interlobular septa can also be observed. Lymphopenia is common but CD4+ T-cells count is rarely performed. HIV-negative patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia are co-infected with bacteria, viruses or fungi in about 30% cases. Bronchoalveolar lavage is often more neutrophilic than in HIV-positive individuals. PCR and β-D-glucan have good sensitivity but poor specificity to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole remains the first choice of treatment. Duration is 14 days in HIV-negative patients whereas it is typically of 21 days in HIV-positive individuals. Adjunctive corticosteroids are of beneficial effect in HIV-positive adult patients with substantial hypoxaemia but are not recommended in HIV-negative patients, as they could be deleterious in some individuals. PMID:26572261

  10. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk’Yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-01

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric–dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  11. Negative brain scintigrams in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With 53 histologically verified and 2 histologically not identified brain tumors, that showed a negative scintigram, it was tried to find reasons for the wrong and negative dropout of these scintigrams. The electroencephalograms and angiograms, that were made simultaneously were taken into consideration with respect to their propositional capability and were compared with the scintigram findings. For the formation of the negative brain scintigrams there could be found no unique cause or causal constellation. The scintigraphic tumor representation is likely based on a complex process. Therefore the reasons for the negativity of the brain scintigrams can be a manifold of causes. An important role plays the vascularisation of the tumor, but not in a sole way. As well the tumor localisation gains some importance; especially in the temporal lobe or in the deeper structures situated tumors can be negative in the scintigram. To hold down the rate of wrong-negative quote in the case of intracranial tumor search, one is advised to continue with an further exposure after 2 to 4 hours besides the usual exposures, unless a sequential scintigraphy was made from the beginning. (orig./MG)

  12. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078744

  13. Positive and negative parity hyperons in nuclear medium

    CERN Document Server

    Azizi, K; Sundu, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of nuclear medium on the residue, mass and self energy of the positive and negative parity $\\Sigma, \\Lambda$ and $\\Xi$ hyperons are investigated using the QCD sum rule method. In the calculations, the general interpolating currents of hyperons with an arbitrary mixing parameter are used. We compare the results obtained in medium with those of the vacuum and calculate the shifts in the corresponding parameters. It is found that the shifts on the residues in nuclear matter are positive for both parities in all channels, while the shifts are negative for mass of the hyperons under consideration. The shifts on the residues and masses of negative parity states are large compared to those of positive parities. The maximum shifts belong to the residues of the negative parity $\\Sigma$ and $\\Xi$ hyperons. The vector self-energies gained by the positive parity baryons are large compared to the negative parities' vector self-energies. The maximum value of the vector self-energy belongs to the positive parity...

  14. Thymic negative selection is functional in NOD mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingueneau, Michael; Jiang, Wenyu; Feuerer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyses of multiple TCR transgenic (tg) models, the emergence of pathogenic T cells in diabetes-prone NOD mice has been ascribed to a failure to censure autoreactive clones in the thymus. In contrast, using isolated and preselected thymocytes, we show that nonobese diabetic (NOD) genetic variation impairs neither clonal deletion nor downstream transcriptional programs. However, we find that NOD genetic variation influences αβ/γδ-lineage decisions promoted by early expression of tg αβ-TCRs at the double-negative (DN) stage. In B6 and other genetic backgrounds, tg αβ-TCRs behave like γδ-TCRs and commit a large fraction of DNs toward the γδ-lineage, thereby decreasing the size of the double-positive (DP) pool, which is efficiently positively and negatively selected. In NOD DNs, αβ-TCR signalosomes instead behave like pre-TCRs, resulting in high numbers of DPs competing for limited selection niches, and poor positive and negative selection. Once niche effects are neutralized in mixed bone marrow chimeras, positive and negative selection are equally efficient on B6 and NOD backgrounds. Biochemical analysis revealed a selective defect in the activation of Erk1/2 downstream of NOD αβ-TCR signalosomes. Therefore, NOD genetic variation influences αβ/γδ-lineage decisions when the αβ-TCR heterodimer is prematurely expressed, but not the process of negative selection. PMID:22329992

  15. Machine Learning to Differentiate Between Positive and Negative Emotions Using Pupil Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiker, Areej; Faye, Ibrahima; Prehn, Kristin; Malik, Aamir

    2015-01-01

    Pupil diameter (PD) has been suggested as a reliable parameter for identifying an individual’s emotional state. In this paper, we introduce a learning machine technique to detect and differentiate between positive and negative emotions. We presented 30 participants with positive and negative sound stimuli and recorded pupillary responses. The results showed a significant increase in pupil dilation during the processing of negative and positive sound stimuli with greater increase for negative stimuli. We also found a more sustained dilation for negative compared to positive stimuli at the end of the trial, which was utilized to differentiate between positive and negative emotions using a machine learning approach which gave an accuracy of 96.5% with sensitivity of 97.93% and specificity of 98%. The obtained results were validated using another dataset designed for a different study and which was recorded while 30 participants processed word pairs with positive and negative emotions. PMID:26733912

  16. Topological entanglement negativity in Chern-Simons theories

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Xueda; Ryu, Shinsei

    2016-01-01

    We study the topological entanglement negativity between two spatial regions in (2+1)-dimensional Chern-Simons gauge theories by using the replica trick and the surgery method. For a bipartitioned or tripartitioned spatial manifold, we show how the topological entanglement negativity depends on the presence of quasiparticles and the choice of ground states. In particular, for two adjacent non-contractible regions on a tripartitioned torus, the entanglement negativity provides a simple way to distinguish Abelian and non-Abelian theories. Our method applies to a Chern-Simons gauge theory defined on an arbitrary oriented (2+1)-dimensional spacetime manifold. Our results agree with the edge theory approach in a recent work (X. Wen, S. Matsuura and S. Ryu, arXiv:1603.08534).

  17. Negative feedback effects on star formation history and cosmic reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei; Xiang, Shouping; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2008-01-01

    After considering the effects of negative feedback on the process of star formation, we explore the relationship between star formation process and the associated feedback, by investigating how the mechanical feedback from supernovae(SNe) and radiative feedback from luminous objects regulate the star formation rate and therefore affect the cosmic reionization.Based on our present knowledge of the negative feedback theory and some numerical simulations, we construct an analytic model in the framework of the Lambda cold dark matter model. In certain parameter regions, our model can explain some observational results properly. In large halos(T_vir>10000 K), both mechanical and radiative feedback have a similar behavior: the relative strength of negative feedback reduces as the redshift decreases. In contrast, in small halos (T_vir<10000 K$) that are thought to breed the first stars at early time, the radiative feedback gets stronger when the redshift decreases. And the star formation rate in these small halos...

  18. Breast cancer patients' narratives about positive and negative communication experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe K; Pedersen, Anette F; Johansen, Mikael B;

    2007-01-01

    emotional needs. The analysis suggests that appropriate information giving may have several functions, such as re-establishing the patient's future and reducing worst-case fantasies. Meeting emotional needs was seldom reported as directly talking about negative emotions, but rather through a variety...... of health staff behaviours. Also, the analysis points to problems in expecting or even pressurizing patients to feel and display negative emotions. The results highlight that meeting medical and emotional needs of patients may be closely intertwined in concrete treatment situations. Udgivelsesdato: 2007...... research while at the same time being sensitive to new elaborations and categories. The participants reported both positive and negative communication-related experiences from a wide range of treatment situations. Two major themes emerged: Information giving as professional care-giving and meeting...

  19. Acoustic metamaterial with negative mass density in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huaijun; Zhai, Shilong; Ding, Changlin; Luo, Chunrong; Zhao, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpzhao@nwpu.edu.cn [Smart Materials Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710129 (China)

    2015-09-07

    A two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial (AM) with negative effective mass density in water is designed by periodically arranging hollow tube “meta-atoms.” Experimental and simulated results demonstrate that transmission dips accompanied with inverse phases are presented in the transmission spectra of the 2D AM at the ultrasonic frequency band. Effective parameters extracted from the experimental measured transmission and reflection coefficients of the 2D AM show that the effective mass density and refractive index are negative near the dip frequency range of 35.31–35.94 kHz. The simulation also shows the negative response in the 2D AM. Due to the excellent properties, the 2D AM is appealing for the potential applications in areas such as subwavelength imaging, ultrasonic cloaking in water, and so on.

  20. The thermodynamic meaning of negative entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rio, Lídia; Aberg, Johan; Renner, Renato; Dahlsten, Oscar; Vedral, Vlatko

    2011-06-01

    The heat generated by computations is not only an obstacle to circuit miniaturization but also a fundamental aspect of the relationship between information theory and thermodynamics. In principle, reversible operations may be performed at no energy cost; given that irreversible computations can always be decomposed into reversible operations followed by the erasure of data, the problem of calculating their energy cost is reduced to the study of erasure. Landauer's principle states that the erasure of data stored in a system has an inherent work cost and therefore dissipates heat. However, this consideration assumes that the information about the system to be erased is classical, and does not extend to the general case where an observer may have quantum information about the system to be erased, for instance by means of a quantum memory entangled with the system. Here we show that the standard formulation and implications of Landauer's principle are no longer valid in the presence of quantum information. Our main result is that the work cost of erasure is determined by the entropy of the system, conditioned on the quantum information an observer has about it. In other words, the more an observer knows about the system, the less it costs to erase it. This result gives a direct thermodynamic significance to conditional entropies, originally introduced in information theory. Furthermore, it provides new bounds on the heat generation of computations: because conditional entropies can become negative in the quantum case, an observer who is strongly correlated with a system may gain work while erasing it, thereby cooling the environment. PMID:21637254

  1. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  2. Enceladus Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here are some results from the Spectra Decomposition Algorithm on infrared spectral images of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Figure 1 is the spatial contribution of the...

  3. Beyond natural numbers: Representation of negative numbers in the parietal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Rosenberg-Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related fMRI design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference < 4 or far apart (difference > 6. Reaction times for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster reaction times. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  4. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language

  5. The negative priming effect in cognitive conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fada; Shi, Liang; Lu, Qingyun; Wu, Xiaogang; Xue, Song; Li, Qiwei

    2016-08-15

    The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms underlying the negative nature of cognitive conflict and its influence on affective word evaluations. The present study used an affective priming paradigm where Stroop stimuli were presented for 200ms after which affective target words had to be evaluated as being positive or negative. Behavioral results showed that reaction times (RTs) were shorter for positive targets following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes, and for negative targets following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes. The ERP results showed that the N2 amplitude (200-300ms) for incongruent stimuli was significantly larger than for congruent stimuli in the Stroop task, which indicated a significant conflict effect. Moreover, the N400 amplitude (300-500ms) was smaller for negative words following incongruent primes relative to congruent primes, and for positive words following congruent primes relative to incongruent primes. The results demonstrated that cognitive conflict modulated both behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of subsequent emotional processing, consistent with its hypothesized registration as an aversive signal. PMID:27268038

  6. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking. PMID:27144385

  8. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers’ attention is increasingly more often divided between television and “second screens”, for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking. PMID:27144385

  9. Realism’s understanding of negative numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our topic is the understanding of the nature of negative numbers - the entities to which expressions such as ‘-1’ refer. Following Frege, we view positive whole numbers as providing the answer to the question „how many?“ In this light, how are we to view negative numbers? Both positive and negative numbers can be ordered through the relation of larger or smaller. It is then true of all negative numbers that they are entities which are (somehow smaller than zero. For many, this has been understood as an ontological paradox: how can something be „less than nothing?“ Some propose to avoid the paradox by treating negative numbers as mere façons de parler. In this paper, we propose a more realist account, taking as our starting point the thesis that there is at least one familiar type of object, the magnitude of which can be expressed with negative numbers, namely, debt. How can the sense of an expression be ontologically paradoxical, yet the expression itself still plausibly refer to a social object such as a debt? Or, put differently, how is it possible to be, at the same time, a realist in financial theory and a nominalist in mathematical theory? The paper first shows that the paradox arises when the two distinct ways in which negative numbers are connected to real objects are run together. The first of the two refers to debt only, whereas the second could refer to debt, as well as to physical objects. Finally, we claim that a debt is at once a specifically social object and part of reality as described by physics.

  10. Isotopic effect in nuclear capture of negative muons in xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life time of negative muons in 1s-state of 129Xe was measured. Muon nuclear capture rate in 129Xe obtained from the measurements is compared with similar results for 132,136Xe isotopes. Essential dependence of muon nuclear capture rate on mass number of isotopes mentioned above is observed. Experimental results are compared with calculations by the Goulard-Primakov semiempirical formula

  11. Negative exploration for pyloric stenosis – Is it preventable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Simon E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS, although traditionally clinical, is now increasingly dependent on radiological corroboration. The rate of negative exploration in IHPS has been reported as 4%. The purpose of our study was to look at elements of supportive clinical evidence leading to positive diagnosis, and to review these with respect to misdiagnosed cases undergoing negative exploration. Methods All infants undergoing surgical exploration for IHPS between January 2000 and December 2004 were retrospectively analysed with regard to clinical symptoms, examination findings, investigations and operative findings. Results During the study period, 343 explorations were performed with a presumptive diagnosis of IHPS. Of these, 205 infants (60% had a positive test feed, 269 (78% had a positive ultrasound scan and 175 (55% were alkalotic (pH ≥7.45 and/or base excess ≥2.5. The positive predictive value for an ultrasound (US diagnosis was 99.1% for canal length ≥14 mm, and 98.7% for muscle thickness ≥4 mm. Four infants (1.1% underwent a negative surgical exploration; Ultrasound was positive in 3, and negative in 1(who underwent surgery on the basis of a positive upper GI contrast. One US reported as positive had a muscle thickness Conclusion A 1% rate of negative exploration in IHPS compares favourably with other studies. However potential causes of error were identified in all 4 cases. Confident diagnosis comprises a combination of positive test feed and an 'in house US' in an alkalotic infant. UGI contrast study should not be used in isolation to diagnose IHPS. If the test feed is negative, strict diagnostic measurements should be observed on US and the pyloric 'tumour' palpated on table under anaesthetic before exploration.

  12. Enhanced brain susceptibility to negative stimuli in adolescents: ERP evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajin Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: previous studies investigated neural substrates of emotional face processing in adolescents and its comparison with adults. As emotional faces elicit more of emotional expression recognition rather than direct emotional responding, it remains undetermined how adolescents are different from adults in brain susceptibility to emotionally stressful stimuli. Methods: Event-Related Potentials were recorded for highly negative (HN, moderately negative (MN and Neutral pictures in 20 adolescents and 20 adults while subjects performed a standard/deviant distinction task by pressing different keys, irrespective of the emotionality of deviant stimuli. Results: Adolescents exhibited more negative amplitudes for HN versus neutral pictures in N1 (100-150ms, P2 (130-190ms, N2 (210-290ms and P3 (360-440ms components. In addition, adolescents showed more negative amplitudes for MN compared to neutral pictures in N1, P2 and N2 components. By contrast, adults exhibited significant emotion effects for HN stimuli in N2 and P3 amplitudes but not in N1 and P2 amplitudes, and they did not exhibit a significant emotion effect for MN stimuli at all these components. In the 210-290ms time interval, the emotion effect for HN stimuli was significant across frontal and central regions in adolescents, while this emotion effect was noticeable only in the central region for adults. Conclusions: Adolescents are more emotionally sensitive to negative stimuli compared to adults, regardless of the emotional intensity of the stimuli, possibly due to the immature prefrontal control system over the limbic emotional inputs during adolescence. Keywords: Event-Related Potentials (ERPs; Adolescence; Emotion intensity; Negative pictures; Emotional Susceptibility

  13. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  14. Positive and negative religious coping in German breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwingmann, Christian; Wirtz, Markus; Müller, Claudia; Körber, Jürgen; Murken, Sebastian

    2006-12-01

    A growing interest has been focusing on the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients. However, previous research mostly has not differentiated between positive and negative components of religious coping. The current cross-sectional study investigated the role of both positive religious coping, i.e., a confident and constructive turning to religion, and negative religious coping, i.e., religious struggle and doubt, in a sample of 156 German breast cancer patients. Participants were assessed upon admission to an inpatient rehabilitation program. In addition to religious coping, two basic nonreligious coping styles (depressive coping and active problem-focused coping) and psychosocial adjustment (anxiety and depression) were measured. Major research questions concerning the mediating role of nonreligious coping and the relative predictive power of positive and negative religious coping were primarily addressed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial outcomes was completely mediated by nonreligious coping, whereby only depressive coping and not active problem-focused coping proved to be a mediating variable. Positive and negative religious coping were somewhat positively related to each other; their (indirect) predictive power on psychosocial adjustment was identical though in an opposite direction. All in all, the results correspond to previous Anglo-American research. There are, however, some discrepancies which may be due to the specific religious-cultural background in Germany. PMID:16951991

  15. Inefficient effort allocation and negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Bennett, Melanie E; Blanchard, Jack J

    2016-02-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n=48) and healthy controls (n=27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  16. Evaluating the impression of positive and negative affectivity on the implementation of impression management tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Alinaghi Langari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between positive and negative affectivity by the application of impression management tactics. A review on literature reveals positive affectivity has attracted less attention compared with negative affectivity. Investigated tactics in this study include supplication, ingratiation, and intimidation and threat. Results indicate that there was a positive and significant relationship between negative affectivity and application of threat, intimidation, and supplication tactics, while the relationship between negative affectivity and ingratiation tactic was negative and significant. The relationship between positive affectivity and application of threat and intimidation tactics was negative and significant. In addition, there was a positive and significant relationship between two variables of positive affectivity and application of ingratiation tactic. Furthermore, the relationship between two variables of positive affectivity and supplication tactic was negative.

  17. Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genotype Predicts Greater Aggression Through Impulsive Reactivity to Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Derefinko, Karen J.; Estus, Steven; Peters, Jessica R.; Lynam, Donald R.; Jiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Low functioning MAOA genotypes have been reliably linked to increased reactive aggression, yet the psychological mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. The low functioning MAOA genotype’s established link to diminished inhibition and greater reactivity to conditions of negative affect suggest that negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in the context of negative affect, may fill this mediating role. Such MAOA carriers may have higher negative urgency, which may in turn predict greater aggressive responses to provocation. To test these hypotheses, 277 female and male participants were genotyped for an MAOA SNP yet to be linked to aggression (rs1465108), and then reported their negative urgency and past aggressive behavior. We replicated the effect of the low functioning MAOA genotype on heightened aggression, which was mediated by greater negative urgency. These results suggest that disrupted serotonergic systems predispose individuals towards aggressive behavior by increasing impulsive reactivity to negative affect. PMID:25637908

  18. SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

  19. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    files in a digital repository and outputting the copies on film, which is preserved in a traditional storage facility. The issues are put into perspective by a case study completed at the Royal Library, where endangered nitrate negatives of unique national value have been digitized. The paper starts by...... cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs.......This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...

  20. WHEN ONE MIGHT EXPECT NEGATIVE DISCOUNT RATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Palenik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in economics and psychology, positive discount rate is usually assumed as an axiom. However, there are circumstances which may lead to negative discount rate. This article presents such a phenomenon. Moreover, author presents particular cases of theories and models which imply preference of receiving lower income in later period of time, rather than higher income in earlier period of time (“less later than more earlier”. The described models are as follows: Life Cycle Hypothesis together with Self Control Theory, Construal Level Theory, Model of Patience Formation and Loewenstein’s Anticipation Model. Authors conclude that there is a need of empirical research verifying implications of these models concerning negative discount rate. Authors believe that the problem of negative discount rate deserves more attention, taking into account that in developed countries interest rates are close to zero and it still does not discourage customers from putting money aside.

  1. On Unique Games with Negative Weights

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Peng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author defines Generalized Unique Game Problem (GUGP), where weights of the edges are allowed to be negative. Focuses are made on two special types of GUGP, GUGP-NWA, where the weights of all edges are negative, and GUGP-PWT($\\rho$), where the total weight of all edges are positive and the negative/positive ratio is at most $\\rho$. The author investigates the counterparts of the Unique Game Conjecture for the two types of generalized unique game problems. The author proves Unique Game Conjecture holds false on GUGP-NWA by giving a factor 2 approximation algorithm for Max GUGP-NWA, and Unique Game Conjecture holds true on GUGP-PWT(1) by reducing the parallel repetition of Max 3-Cut Problem to GUGP-PWT(1). The author poses an open problem whether Unique Game Conjecture holds true on GUGP-PWT($\\rho$) with $0<\\rho<1$.

  2. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...... that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects....

  3. Negative coupled inductors for polyphase choppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A technique for negatively coupling the outputs of polyphase choppers is disclosed, wherein the output inductance of each phase is divided into two windings, and each winding is negatively coupled to a corresponding winding of a neighboring phase. In a preferred embodiment for a three-phase chopper circuit, the output inductance of phase A is divided into windings 100 and 102, the output inductance of phase B is divided into windings 110 and 112, and the output inductance of phase C is divided into windings 120 and 122. Pairs of windings 100 and 110, 112 and 120, and 102 and 122 are respectively disposed in transformers arranged for negatively coupling the windings of each pair.

  4. Carpal ligamentous disruptions and negative ulnar variance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ulnar variance is a condition in which the ulna is relatively shorter than the radius at the carpus. It was found in 21% of 203 normal wrists. We have observed an increased incidence (49%) of this anomaly in patients with carpal ligamentous instabilities (dorsiflexion instability, palmar flexion instability, scapholunate dissociation with rotary luxation of the scaphoid, and lunate and perilunate dislocations). While the reasons for this association have yet to be adequately delineated, the presence of a negative ulnar variant may serve as an impartial clue to the presence of ligamentous instability. Many carpal instabilities present with subtle radiographic findings requiring careful evaluation of radiographs. Patients with negative ulnar variance and histories suggestive of ligamentous instability should undergo careful radiologic evaluation to assure early diagnosis of carpal disruption. (orig.)

  5. Goffman, Parsons, and the Negational Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Chriss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erving Goffman’s emphasis on impression management in everyday life means that for the most part persons offer only partial or incomplete glimpses of themselves. Indeed, under specifiable conditions self-presentations may take the form of a negational self. If negational selves exist at the person or individual level, then they must also exist at the collective level (that is, if we are to take seriously such notions as the social mind, collective representations, or even culture. Understandings of how this negational self appears and is produced at various analytical levels (micro, meso, and macro can be anchored via a conceptual schema which merges Goffman’s own identity typology with the three-world model of Jürgen Habermas by way of Talcott Parsons.

  6. Animal Reasoning: Negation and Representations of Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ladrón de Guevara, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reject the possibility that animal reasoning, negation in particular, necessarily involves the representation of Absence, as suggested by José Luis Bermúdez, since this would still work as a logical negation (unavailable for non-linguistic creatures. False belief, pretense, and communication experiments show that non-human animals (at least some primates have difficulties representing absent entities or properties. I offer an alternative account resorting to the sub-symbolic similarity judgments proposed by Vigo & Allen and I introduce the notion of expectation: animal proto-negation takes place through the incompatibility between an expected and the actual representation. Finally, I propose that the paradigm of expectations can be extrapolated to other experiments in cognitive psychology (both with pre-linguistic children and animals in order to design “fair” experiments which test other minds considering their true abilities.

  7. Osmosis at constant volume. Negative pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Zupanovic, Pasko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Ales; Juretic, Davor

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic state of solvent and solution separated with an elastic semipermeable membrane, in the box with a fixed volume, is considered. It is shown that the minimum of the free energy is accompanied by the compression of the solution and tension of the solvent caused by the transfer of solvent molecules into compartment with solution. The tensile state of the solvent is described in terms of negative pressure. It is found that the negative pressure as well as compression pressure is of the order of osmotic pressure given by van't Hoff equation. It is proposed that this mechanism could be responsible for the water uptake in tall trees.

  8. GPM Solar Array Gravity Negated Deployment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Jonathan; Johnson, Chris; Lewis, Jesse; Dear, Trevin; Stewart, Alphonso

    2014-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) successfully developed a g-negation support system for use on the solar arrays of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Satellite. This system provides full deployment capability at the subsystem and observatory levels. In addition, the system provides capability for deployed configuration first mode frequency verification testing. The system consists of air pads, a support structure, an air supply, and support tables. The g-negation support system was used to support all deployment activities for flight solar array deployment testing.

  9. Negative-Index Media for Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.

    2010-02-01

    One reviews the recently introduced field of matter-wave "meta-optics", i.e. the extension of optical negative-index media (NIM) to atom optics. After emphasizing the differences with light meta-optics and particularly the necessary transient character of NIM's in atom optics, we present the way of generating matter-wave NIM's and their general properties: negative refraction, atom meta-lenses. Finally their specific features are reviewed: longitudinal wave packet narrowing associated to a time-reversal effect, transient revivals of evanescent matter waves and atom reflection echoes at a potential barrier.

  10. A Negative Permeability Material at Red Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Cai, Wenshan;

    2007-01-01

    A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square...... roughness of 7 nm, while Sample B is made of thicker strips with 3-nm roughness. The real part of permeability, μ ′ , is −1 at a wavelength of 770 nm in Sample A and −1.7 at 725 nm in Sample B. Relative to prototypes simulated with ideal strips, larger strip roughness acts to decrease μ ′ by a factor of 7...

  11. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  12. Real and imaginary negative binomial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wu, Ling-An; Pan, Shao-Hua

    2001-10-01

    The real and imaginary negative binomial states formed by a superposition of the negative binomial states are introduced. The sub-Poissonian statistics, Wigner function and squeezing properties of the real and imaginary states are studied in detail. The oscillatory character of the photon distribution due to the quantum interference between the two components is shown. Moreover, we find that these states are real and imaginary nonlinear Schrödinger cat states and give the corresponding ladder operator formalisms. We also discuss how to generate these general real quantum superposition states based on the intensity-dependent Jaynes-Cummings model.

  13. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  14. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-yan Sun; Qiang Li; Xi-ping Chen; Lu-yang Tao

    2015-01-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocogni-tion with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, re-spectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most signiifcant positive correlations were found be-tween mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most signiifcant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positive-ly associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental ifndings suggest that mismatch negativity might efifciently relfect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  15. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  16. Negative correlation between brain glutathione level and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a 3T 1H-MRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Matsuzawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione (GSH, a major intracellular antioxidant, plays a role in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission, which is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether GSH levels are altered in the posterior medial frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, we examined correlations between GSH levels and clinical variables in patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Twenty schizophrenia patients and 16 age- and gender-matched normal controls were enrolled to examine the levels of GSH in the posterior medial frontal cortex by using 3T SIGNA EXCITE (1H-MRS with the spectral editing technique, MEGA-PRESS. Clinical variables of patients were assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Drug-Induced Extra-Pyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS, and five cognitive performance tests (Word Fluency Test, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Digit Span Distractibility Test. Levels of GSH in the posterior medial frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients were not different from those of normal controls. However, we found a significant negative correlation between GSH levels and the severity of negative symptoms (SANS total score and negative symptom subscore on BPRS in patients. There were no correlations between brain GSH levels and scores on any cognitive performance test except Trail Making Test part A. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GSH levels in the posterior medial frontal cortex may be related to negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Therefore, agents that increase GSH levels in the brain could be potential therapeutic drugs for negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

  17. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30–60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10−14–10−13 m2 V−1 s−1 for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets

  18. Negative differential mobility for negative carriers as revealed by space charge measurements on crosslinked polyethylene insulated model cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teyssedre, G.; Vu, T. T. N.; Laurent, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among features observed in polyethylene materials under relatively high field, space charge packets, consisting in a pulse of net charge that remains in the form of a pulse as it crosses the insulation, are repeatedly observed but without complete theory explaining their formation and propagation. Positive charge packets are more often reported, and the models based on negative differential mobility(NDM) for the transport of holes could account for some charge packets phenomenology. Conversely, NDM for electrons transport has never been reported so far. The present contribution reports space charge measurements by pulsed electroacoustic method on miniature cables that are model of HVDC cables. The measurements were realized at room temperature or with a temperature gradient of 10 °C through the insulation under DC fields on the order 30-60 kV/mm. Space charge results reveal systematic occurrence of a negative front of charges generated at the inner electrode that moves toward the outer electrode at the beginning of the polarization step. It is observed that the transit time of the front of negative charge increases, and therefore the mobility decreases, with the applied voltage. Further, the estimated mobility, in the range 10-14-10-13 m2 V-1 s-1 for the present results, increases when the temperature increases for the same condition of applied voltage. The features substantiate the hypothesis of negative differential mobility used for modelling space charge packets.

  19. Examining the latent structure of negative symptoms: is there a distinct subtype of negative symptom schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Jack J; Horan, William P; Collins, Lindsay M

    2005-09-15

    Negative symptoms have emerged as a replicable factor of symptomatology within schizophrenia. Although rating scales provide assessments along dimensions of severity, categorization into a negative symptom subtype is typically conducted. A categorical view of negative symptoms is best reflected in the proposal that enduring, primary negative symptoms, or deficit symptoms, reflect a distinct subtype of schizophrenia . Despite an accumulation of findings that support a categorical conceptualization, the data are also consistent with a dimensional-only model where negative symptom subtypologies simply reflect an extreme on a continuum of severity. Using taxometric statistical methods , the present study examined whether a taxonic, or latent class, model best describes negative symptoms in a sample of 238 schizophrenia patients. In order to obtain more stable estimates of symptoms, ratings on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms [Andreasen, N.C., 1982. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Definition and reliability. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39, 784-788.] were averaged across two assessments over a 6-month period. Two taxometric methods, maximum covariance analysis (MAXCOV) and mean above minus below a cut (MAMBAC) identified a latent class or taxon with a base rate of approximately 28-36%. Members of the negative symptom taxon differed from the nontaxon class in that taxon members were more likely to be male and demonstrated poorer social functioning. Taxon and nontaxon schizophrenia patients did not differ in psychotic or affective symptoms. The findings converge to provide support for a categorical view of negative symptoms. Further research is required to replicate the present taxonic findings and to examine characteristics (including possible etiological factors) associated with this negative symptom taxon. PMID:15916881

  20. A controlled trial of automated classification of negation from clinical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruth William

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of negation in electronic health records is essential if we are to understand the computable meaning of the records: Our objective is to compare the accuracy of an automated mechanism for assignment of Negation to clinical concepts within a compositional expression with Human Assigned Negation. Also to perform a failure analysis to identify the causes of poorly identified negation (i.e. Missed Conceptual Representation, Inaccurate Conceptual Representation, Missed Negation, Inaccurate identification of Negation. Methods 41 Clinical Documents (Medical Evaluations; sometimes outside of Mayo these are referred to as History and Physical Examinations were parsed using the Mayo Vocabulary Server Parsing Engine. SNOMED-CT™ was used to provide concept coverage for the clinical concepts in the record. These records resulted in identification of Concepts and textual clues to Negation. These records were reviewed by an independent medical terminologist, and the results were tallied in a spreadsheet. Where questions on the review arose Internal Medicine Faculty were employed to make a final determination. Results SNOMED-CT was used to provide concept coverage of the 14,792 Concepts in 41 Health Records from John's Hopkins University. Of these, 1,823 Concepts were identified as negative by Human review. The sensitivity (Recall of the assignment of negation was 97.2% (p Conclusion Automated assignment of negation to concepts identified in health records based on review of the text is feasible and practical. Lexical assignment of negation is a good test of true Negativity as judged by the high sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the test. SNOMED-CT had overall coverage of 88.7% of the concepts being negated.

  1. Negative running can prevent eternal inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current data from the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 telescope favor, at around the 2 σ level, negative running of the spectral index of curvature perturbations from inflation. We show that for negative running α < 0, the curvature perturbation amplitude has a maximum on scales larger than our current horizon size. A condition for the absence of eternal inflation is that the curvature perturbation amplitude always remain below unity on superhorizon scales. For current bounds on nS from Planck, this corresponds to an upper bound of the running α < −9 × 10−5, so that even tiny running of the scalar spectral index is sufficient to prevent eternal inflation from occurring, as long as the running remains negative on scales outside the horizon. In single-field inflation models, negative running is associated with a finite duration of inflation: we show that eternal inflation may not occur even in cases where inflation lasts as long as 104 e-folds

  2. Further Conceptualization of Explanation in Negative Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Mohan R.

    1997-01-01

    Makes two suggestions for presentation in the classroom and in textbooks of business communication regarding explanation in negative messages: (1) providing a reasonable explanation is the sender's moral obligation, and receiving such explanation is a natural right of the target; and (2) explanation should be presented on two levels: general and…

  3. On hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Ghitany, M. E.; Al-Awadhi, S. A.; S. L. Kalla

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution has moments of all positive orders, is overdispersed, skewed to the right, and leptokurtic. Also, a three-term recurrence relation for computing probabilities from the considered distribution is given. Application of the distribution to entomological field data is given and its goodness-of-fit is demonstrated.

  4. On hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Ghitany

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the hypergeometric generalized negative binomial distribution has moments of all positive orders, is overdispersed, skewed to the right, and leptokurtic. Also, a three-term recurrence relation for computing probabilities from the considered distribution is given. Application of the distribution to entomological field data is given and its goodness-of-fit is demonstrated.

  5. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine;

    2013-01-01

    the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less...

  6. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  7. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application of NPWT have provided clinicians with wider choices of utilization. There are now devices available that can deliver irrigation to the wound bed, be used for closed surgical incisions, or are disposable and highly portable. Systematic reviews considering NPWT have been published previously. These usually focus on one wound group or device and fail to offer practical clinical guidance due to the scrutiny offered to the evidence via a systematic review process. Here, an overview of the history of NPWT, the varieties of device available, their wide clinical application, and the evidence to support its use are explored in a pragmatic way. Keywords: negative pressure, wound, incision, healing, pain 

  8. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.)

  9. Magnetic levitation induced by negative permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Rangelov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the interaction between a point magnetic dipole and a semi-infinite metamaterial using the method of images. We obtain analytical expressions for the levitation force for an arbitrarily oriented dipole. Surprisingly the maximal levitation force for negative permeability is found to be stronger compared to the case when the dipole is above a superconductor.

  10. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  11. The value of negative oral contrast material in MR cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of the use of a negative oral contrast material in MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Material and methods: We performed MRCP in single-shot technique (TSE, RT=2800 ms, TE=1100 ms, ETL=64) in 38 patients before and 20-30 min after oral administration of 300-600 ml of a negative oral contrast material. The visualization ducts and details important for the diagnosis was evaluated in a blinded manner. Ductal diameters were measured. Both sets of images were evaluated qualitatively. Results: The ductal diameters did not change after administration of oral contrast material. In 1/3 of all cases the ductal structures were superimposed by a high signal intensity of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the tail of the pancreas. After administration of oral contrast material only in 3 patients could a complete visualisation of the ducts not be achieved. In 5 cases, details relevant for the diagnostic decision could be seen only on post-contrast images. The anatomic orientation was not compromised by the absence of signal in the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion: Negative oral contrast material should be given before performing a MRCP to provide non-superimposed visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts. There is no negative influence of the oral contrast material on the diameter of the ducts. (orig.)

  12. Atypical false negative results of {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET-CT in a patient with sarcoidosis and bilateral breast cancer; Resultats atypiques et faux-negatifs de la scintigraphie au {sup 67}Ga et de la TEP-TDM au {sup 18}F-FDG chez une patiente avec sarcoidose et cancer du sein bilateral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keomany, J.; Imperiale, A.; Constantinesco, A. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Thiriat, S. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Braun, J.J. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service d' ORL, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2009-12-15

    We describe the case of a patient with biopsy proven sino-nasal sarcoidosis and a bilateral breast cancer that was unknown at the time of {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET-CT. {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy showed low sensibility in the assessment of sarcoidosis localizations. Conversely, multiple foci of intense {sup 18}F-F.D.G. uptake were assessed suggesting the presence of active granulomatous disease in sino-nasal region, rhino pharynx, skin and several peripheral lymphadenopathy, which were not previously detected by conventional evaluation. On the other hand, an atypical focal accumulation of {sup 67}Ga uptake was showed in right breast parenchyma, proving to be a grade III infiltrating canalar carcinoma coexistent with pleomorphic type, without axillary metastatic lymphadenopathy. Surprisingly, no {sup 18}F-F.D.G. uptake abnormalities were detected in the right breast in correspondence of {sup 67}Ga pathological uptake. The whole of these results is discussed according to histological nature of the lesions and the data of the literature. (authors)

  13. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body, a

  14. Positive Effects of Talking about the Negative: Family Narratives of Negative Experiences and Preadolescents' Perceived Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Kelly A.; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Family narratives about the past are an important context for the socialization of emotion, but relations between expression of negative emotion and children's emerging competence are conflicting. In this study, 24 middle-class two-parent families narrated a shared negative experience together and we examined the process (initiations and…

  15. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  16. The sputter generation of negative ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is given of recent progress toward a quantitative understanding of negative ion formation by sputtering from surfaces covered with fractional layers of highly electropositive adsorbates. Practical models developed for estimating changes in work functions Δφ by electropositive adsorbates are described. The secondary negative ion generation process is examined through the use of composite energy/velocity dependent analytical models. These models are used to illustrate the effect of work function on the energy distributions of negative ions sputter ejected from a polycrystalline molybdenum surface covered with fractional layers of cesium. Predictions are also made of the functional dependence of the probability for negative ion formation on cesium coverage. The models predict energy distributions which are in basic disagreement with experimental observations, implying their inappropriateness for describing the sputter negative ion generation process. We have also developed a model for calculating sputter ratios based on the use of simple scaling procedures to bring Sigmund theory into close agreement with experimental observation accounting for the threshold effect. Scaling factors for projectile energies E > 1000 eV are found to be independent of energy while those for projectile energies Eth < E < 1000 eV were found to be energy dependent. In this study, the model and scaling techniques utilized to bring Sigmund theory into agreement with experiment are discussed in detail and several examples provided which illustrate the versatility, accuracy and utility of the model. In the present report, we describe the model and apply it to the case of sputtering a selected number of metals with energetic cesium ions. In particular, we present sputter ratio information for a number of Cs-projectile/metal-target combinations; the targets are bombarded at normal incidence to the surface

  17. A revisão rápida de 100% é eficiente na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e varia com a adequabilidade da amostra: uma experiência no Brasil The 100% rapid rescreening is efficient in the detection of false-negative results and varies according to the quality of the sample: a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Joana Cláudio Manrique

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida de 100% para detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e verificar se esses resultados variam com a adequabilidade da amostra e com a idade da mulher. MÉTODOS: para avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida, os 5.530 esfregaços classificados como negativos pelo escrutínio de rotina, após serem submetidos à revisão rápida de 100%, foram comparados com as revisões dos esfregaços com base em critérios clínicos e aleatória de 10%. Para análise estatística, as variáveis foram estudadas de maneira descritiva e, quando houve comparação, foram aplicados o teste do chi2 e o teste Cochran-Armitage. RESULTADOS: dos 141 esfregaços suspeitos pela revisão rápida, 84 (59,6% foram confirmados pelo diagnóstico final; desses, 36 (25,5% foram classificados como células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado, cinco (3,5% como células escamosas atípicas, não podendo excluir lesão de alto grau, 34 (24,1% como lesão intra-epitelial escamosa de baixo grau, seis (4,3% como lesão intra-epitelial de alto grau e três (2,1% como células glandulares atípicas. Dos 84 esfregaços suspeitos e confirmados pelo diagnóstico final, 62 (73,8 foram classificados como satisfatórios e 22 (26,2% satisfatórios, porém com alguma limitação, mas não se observou diferença significativa com a idade da mulher. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a revisão rápida é uma alternativa eficiente como método de controle interno da qualidade na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais. Observou-se, também, que a revisão rápida apresentou melhor desempenho quando a amostra foi classificada como satisfatória para análise, porém não variou com a idade da mulher.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficiency of the 100% rapid rescreening in the detection of false-negative results and to verify whether the results

  18. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college. PMID:18272807

  19. Socially triggered negative affect impairs performance in simple cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Svenja; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of a social-evaluative context on simple cognitive tasks. While another person present in the room evaluated photographs of beautiful women or landscapes by beauty/attractiveness, female participants had to perform a combination of digit-categorization and spatial-compatibility task. There, before every trial, one of the women or landscape pictures was presented. Results showed selective performance impairments: the numerical distance effects increased on trials that followed women pictures but only, if another person concurrently evaluated these women pictures. In a second experiment, using the affective priming paradigm, the authors show that female pictures have a more negative connotation when they are concurrently evaluated by another person (social-evaluative context) than when they are not evaluated (neutral context). Together, these results suggest that the social-evaluative context triggers mild negative affective reactions to women pictures which then impair performance in an unrelated task. PMID:23423348

  20. Classical Electron Model with Negative Energy Density in Einstein-Cartan Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Saibal; Bhadra, Sumana

    2002-01-01

    Experimental result regarding the maximum limit of the radius of the electron \\sim 10^{-16} cm and a few of the theoretical works suggest that the gravitational mass which is a priori a positive quantity in Newtonian mechanics may become negative in general theory of relativity. It is argued that such a negative gravitational mass and hence negative energy density also can be obtained with a better physical interpretation in the framework of Einstein-Cartan theory.

  1. Use of Negative Dielectrophoresis for Selective Elution of Protein-bound Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Javanmard, Mehdi; Emaminejad, Sam; Robert W. Dutton; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper with the aid of negative dielectrophoresis force in conjuction with shear force and at an optimal sodium hydroxide concentration we demonstrated a switch-like functionality to elute specifically-bound beads from the surface. At an optimal flow rate and sodium hydroxide concentration, negative dielectrophoresis turned on results in bead detachment, whereas when negative dielectrophoresis is off, the beads remain attached. This platform offers the potential for performing a bead-b...

  2. CONVERGENCE RATES IN THE STRONG LAWS OF ASYMPTOTICALLY NEGATIVELY ASSOCIATED RANDOM FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangLixin; WangXiuyun

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a notion of negative side p-mixing (p -mixing) which can be regardedas asymptotic negative association is defined, and some Rosenthal type inequalities for p -mix-ing random fields are established. The complete convergence and almost sure summability onthe convergence rates with respect to the strong law of large numbers are also discussed for p--mixing random fields. The results obtained extend those for negatively associated sequences andp" -mixing random fields.

  3. Job characteristics, ill health and negative work-home interference in the mining industry

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Oldfield; Karina Mostert

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this research was to test a structural model including job demands, job resources, ill health and negative work-home interference (WHI). Random samples (N = 320) were taken from employees working in the mining industry. The results indicated that job demands and job resources had an impact on ill health, and that ill health was associated with negative WHI. It was also found that job demands had a direct relationship with negative WHI, in addition to the indirect relationship...

  4. Probability Inequalities for Extended Negatively Dep endent Random Variables and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Some probability inequalities are established for extended negatively dependent (END) random variables. The inequalities extend some corresponding ones for negatively associated random variables and negatively orthant dependent random variables. By using these probability inequalities, we further study the complete convergence for END random variables. We also obtain the convergence rate O(n−1/2 ln1/2 n) for the strong law of large numbers, which generalizes and improves the corresponding ones for some known results.

  5. Identification of Prognostic Genes for Recurrent Risk Prediction in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Lee H.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hsiao, Chuhsing K.; Chuang, Eric Y.; Chang, Li-Yun; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Chang, King-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Discrepancies in the prognosis of triple negative breast cancer exist between Caucasian and Asian populations. Yet, the gene signature of triple negative breast cancer specifically for Asians has not become available. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a prediction model for recurrence of triple negative breast cancer in Taiwanese patients. Whole genome expression profiling of breast cancers from 185 patients in Taiwan from 1995 to 2008 was performed, and the results were co...

  6. Simple Method for Detection of Metallo – β–Lactamase Among Gram Negative Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal R; Sumana MN; Kishore A; Kulkarni M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β -lactamase (MBL) in Gram-negative organism is an increasing public health problem. Aim: The purpose of this study is to detectMBL in Gram Negative bacterial isolates among Ventilator Associated Pneumonia patients. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic detection of MBL was done by three methods: 1.Modified Hodge Test (MHT) 2.Combined disc test (CDT) 3.Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Results: Out of 126 gram negative bacterial is...

  7. Suicidality, depression, major and minor negative life events: a mediator model

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, J.; Johnson, JG

    2010-01-01

    Background: Major negative life events are associated with higher suicidality. In this association, two mediating paths were hypothesized: (a) via minor negative life events and (b) via depression.Methods: Ninety-six adolescent primary care patients were recruited in clinics, a physician's office, and school nurses' offices. Results: (1) Minor negative life events were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. (2) Depressive symptoms were associated with suicidality. (3) Depress...

  8. Suicidality, depression, major and minor negative life events: a mediator model

    OpenAIRE

    Hardt, Jochen; Johnson, Jeffrey G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Major negative life events are associated with higher suicidality. In this association, two mediating paths were hypothesized: (a) via minor negative life events and (b) via depression. Methods: Ninety-six adolescent primary care patients were recruited in clinics, a physician’s office, and school nurses’ offices. Results: (1) Minor negative life events were associated with depressive symptoms and suicidality. (2) Depressive symptoms were associated with suicidality. (3) Depressiv...

  9. Analysis of the Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehong Yang; Hong Liu; Jing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical and pathological features,as well as prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients.METHODS A total of 509 cases of operable breast cancer from January,2002 to June,2002 treated in the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were analyzed.The Her-2,ER and PR status was determined using immunohistochemistry.Of the total cases,one group was identified as triple negative breast cancer,ie defined as ER,PR and Her-2 negative.The other group was nontriple-negative breast cancer.Clinicopathologic features of the groups were compared and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS)analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS Of the total cases,21.4% (109/509) of cases were found to be triple- negative while 78.6% (400/509) were non-triplenegative.The triple negative group had higher incidence rates than the non-triple-negative group of the medullary type and Grade Ⅲ tumors (P < 0.05).There was no other difference in the clinicopathologic features between the 2 groups.From follow-up to June,2007,21.1% (23/109) of the triple-negative group and 12.7%(51/400) of the non-triple negative group had a local recurrence or distant metastasis,resulting in a significant difference (P < 0.05).In the triple-negative group and non-triple-negative group,5-year DFS were 78.9% and 87.3% respectively.There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.031).CONCLUSION Compared with non-triple-negative breast cancer,triple-negative breast cancer patients have an increased likehood of a local recurrence or distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  10. Biophysical and economic limits to negative CO2 emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P; Davis, S J; Creutzig, F.; Minx, J.

    2016-01-01

    To have a >50% chance of limiting warming below 2 °C, most recent scenarios from integrated assessment models (IAMs) require large-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs). These are technologies that result in the net removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. We quantify potential global impacts of the different NETs on various factors (such as land, greenhouse gas emissions, water, albedo, nutrients and energy) to determine the biophysical limits to, and economic co...

  11. An Extension of Godunov SPH: Application to Negative Pressure Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Keisuke; Inutsuka, Shu-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    The modification of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with Riemann Solver is called Godunov SPH. We further extend the Godunov SPH to the description of a medium with negative pressure. Under certain circumstances, the SPH method shows an unphysical instability that results in particle clustering. This instability is called the tensile instability. The tensile instability occurs in positive pressure regions in a regular fluid if a very large number of neighbor particles are used wi...

  12. Negative Binomial-Lindley Distribution and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Zamani; Noriszura Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The modeling of claims count is one of the most important topics in actuarial theory and practice. Many attempts were implemented in expanding the classes of mixed and compound distributions, especially in the distribution of exponential family, resulting in a better fit on count data. In some cases, it is proven that mixed distributions, in particular mixed Poisson and mixed negative binomial, provided better fit compared to other distributions. Approach: In this study, we...

  13. Statistical Inference for a Class of Multivariate Negative Binomial Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Ege H.; Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter

    This paper considers statistical inference procedures for a class of models for positively correlated count variables called -permanental random fields, and which can be viewed as a family of multivariate negative binomial distributions. Their appealing probabilistic properties have earlier been...... studied in the literature, while this is the first statistical paper on -permanental random fields. The focus is on maximum likelihood estimation, maximum quasi-likelihood estimation and on maximum composite likelihood estimation based on uni- and bivariate distributions. Furthermore, new results for...

  14. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, V. I.; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  15. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnyakov, V. I., E-mail: pipeaes@te.net.ua; Dragan, G. S.; Florko, A. V. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)

    2008-01-15

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data.

  16. The formation of negatively charged particles in thermoemission plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of measuring the charges of the magnesium oxide particles formed near a block of metallic magnesium burning in air are presented. It has been found that, apart from positively charged magnesium oxide particles, there are negatively charged particles in the thermoemission plasma of the burning products. It has been shown that within the framework of the model of neutralizing charges, the oxide particles can acquire unlike charges in the thermoemission plasma. The calculations agree with the experimental data

  17. Optimal upper bounds for non-negative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Tkachov, Fyodor V.

    2009-01-01

    Using the techniques of [arXiv:0911.4271], upper bounds for a given confidence level are modified in an optimal fashion to incorporate the a priori information that the parameter being estimated is non-negative. A paradox with different confidence intervals for the same confidence level is clarified. The "lossy compression" nature of the device of confidence intervals is discussed and a "lossless" option to present results is pointed out.

  18. Systematic Design of EMI-Resilient Negative-Feedback Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    van der Horst, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The information transfer capacity of negative-feedback amplifiers, and electronic circuits in general, is limited by three fundamental limitations being noise, bandwidth, and signal power. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is not a fundamental limitation, but it also hampers the information transfer. EMI may have such detrimental effects that malfunctioning of the electronic circuit occurs. This may result in loss of information, or worse, possibly dangerous situations. That is a reason why ...

  19. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine Mitch; Looby Alison

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannab...

  20. Large Enforced Sparse Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Brendan; Gadepally, Vijay; Kepner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a common method for generating topic models from text data. NMF is widely accepted for producing good results despite its relative simplicity of implementation and ease of computation. One challenge with applying NMF to large datasets is that intermediate matrix products often become dense, stressing the memory and compute elements of a system. In this article, we investigate a simple but powerful modification of a common NMF algorithm that enforces ...