WorldWideScience

Sample records for catt negative result

  1. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-31

    This study introduces a new type of cumulative seismic attribute (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.

  2. Negative Results in European Psychology Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rachev Vasilev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists have long speculated that the research literature is largely dominated by positive findings, but yet there is little data to justify these speculations. The present study investigates the extent to which negative findings exist in the literature by reviewing articles published in five European psychology journals. While no temporal change was observed, the results indicate that almost all (95.4% articles published in 2001, 2006 and 2011 found support for at least one tested hypothesis. Moreover, a sizable number (73% of papers found support for all tested hypotheses. It is argued that the lack of negative findings can have a detrimental effect on the ability to systemize scientific knowledge, the way science is practiced, and the rate of replications in psychology. Publishing positive findings may be very important for making progress in our field, but negative findings are also crucial for maintaining its scientific integrity. When we base our conclusions on results that support our predictions and ignore data to the contrary, we run the risk of creating a biased view of reality that gives us little confidence in the validity and applicability of our findings.

  3. Association between Antiplatelet or Anticoagulant Drugs and Retinal/subretinal Hemorrhage in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Maguire, Maureen G.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Grunwald, Juan E; Ahmed, Osama; Martin, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between use of antiplatelet (AP) or anticoagulant (AC) drugs and retinal/subretinal hemorrhage in participants with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Design Cohort study within CATT. Methods 1185 CATT participants with untreated active neovascular AMD were interviewed for use of AP/AC drugs. Trained readers evaluated photographs for the presence and size of retinal/subretinal hemorrhage associated with the neovascular lesion at baseline and years 1 and 2. Associations between use of AP/AC drugs and hemorrhage were evaluated among all participants and by baseline hypertension status using Fisher exact test and multivariate logistic regression models. Main Outcome Measures Odds ratio for association with AP/AC use. Results Among 1165 participants with gradable photographs, 724 (62.1%) had retinal/subretinal hemorrhage at baseline, 84.4% of hemorrhages were ≤ 1 DA, 8.1% were 1 to 2 DA, and 7.5% were >2 DA. 608 (52.2%) participants used AP/AC drugs at baseline, including 514 (44.1%) AP only, 77 (6.6%) AC only, and 17 (1.5%) both AP and AC. Participants with retinal/subretinal hemorrhage at baseline were comparable to those without retinal/subretinal hemorrhage except that they were older (80 vs. 78 years, phemorrhage was present in 64.5% of AP/AC users and in 59.6% of non-users (p=0.09), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.91–1.51, p=0.21). Neither presence nor size of baseline retinal/subretinal hemorrhage was associated with the type, dose or duration of AP/AC use. Forty-four (4.08%) of 1078 participants had retinal/subretinal hemorrhage detected on 1-year or 2-year photographs; these hemorrhages were not associated with AP/AC use at baseline (p=0.28) or during follow-up (p=0.64). Among participants with hypertension (N=807), AP/AC use was associated with higher rate of retinal/subretinal hemorrhage at baseline (66.8% vs. 56.4%, adjusted OR=1

  4. The Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS – Part 1: Model description and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Freitas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Coupled Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CATT-BRAMS. CATT-BRAMS is an on-line transport model fully consistent with the simulated atmospheric dynamics. Emission sources from biomass burning and urban-industrial-vehicular activities for trace gases and from biomass burning aerosol particles are obtained from several published datasets and remote sensing information. The tracer and aerosol mass concentration prognostics include the effects of sub-grid scale turbulence in the planetary boundary layer, convective transport by shallow and deep moist convection, wet and dry deposition, and plume rise associated with vegetation fires in addition to the grid scale transport. The radiation parameterization takes into account the interaction between the simulated biomass burning aerosol particles and short and long wave radiation. The atmospheric model BRAMS is based on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, with several improvements associated with cumulus convection representation, soil moisture initialization and surface scheme tuned for the tropics, among others. In this paper the CATT-BRAMS model is used to simulate carbon monoxide and particulate material (PM2.5 surface fluxes and atmospheric transport during the 2002 LBA field campaigns, conducted during the transition from the dry to wet season in the southwest Amazon Basin. Model evaluation is addressed with comparisons between model results and near surface, radiosondes and airborne measurements performed during the field campaign, as well as remote sensing derived products. We show the matching of emissions strengths to observed carbon monoxide in the LBA campaign. A relatively good comparison to the MOPITT data, in spite of the fact that MOPITT a priori assumptions imply several difficulties, is also obtained.

  5. Understanding why negative genetic test results sometimes fail to reassure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Smith, Jonathan A; Senior, Victoria; Marteau, Theresa M

    2003-06-15

    A proportion of those receiving negative results following predictive genetic testing desire future bowel screening. This is despite a negative result meaning a general population risk of 1:7500 and despite bowel screening being experienced as aversive and clinically unnecessary. This study aimed to investigate perceptions of risk, illness, and tests amongst those receiving negative results following predictive genetic testing. Interviews with nine people receiving negative genetic test results for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were analyzed using the qualitative method, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Those not reassured by negative genetic test results perceived a continuing risk to themselves and to their children. Two sets of perceptions emerged that might explain this: (1). perceptions of the genetic basis of the condition (FAP). Although the condition was perceived to be genetic, genetic status was seen as transient, so a result today could not predict the future. The condition was also seen as caused by factors other than genes, so information about only one risk factor could not be reassuring. (2). Perceptions of the genetic test. There was a lack of conviction in the ability of the genetic test, based on a blood sample, to predict a disease located in the bowel. These results suggest that some individuals receiving negative test results are not reassured because of their representations of the cause of their condition and the nature of the tests they undergo. It may be that eliciting and, when appropriate, changing people's representations prior to testing may enable those receiving negative results to be more reassured about their residual risk. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Outer retinal tubulation in the comparison of age-related macular degeneration treatments trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Folgar, Francisco A; Maguire, Maureen G; Ying, Gui-shuang; Toth, Cynthia A; Martin, Daniel F; Jaffe, Glenn J

    2014-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of, risk factors for, and visual acuity (VA) correlations with outer retinal tubulation (ORT) seen on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Patients with SD OCT images at weeks 56 and 104 in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT). Participants in the CATT were assigned randomly to ranibizumab (0.5 mg) or bevacizumab (1.25 mg) treatment and to a monthly or pro re nata (PRN) injection-dosing regimen. A subset of eyes was imaged with SD OCT beginning at week 56. Cirrus 512×128 or Spectralis 20°×20° volume cube scan protocols were used to acquire SD OCT images. Two independent readers at the CATT OCT reading center graded scans, and a senior reader arbitrated discrepant grades. The prevalence of ORT, identified as tubular structures seen on at least 3 consecutive Cirrus B scans or 2 consecutive Spectralis B scans, was determined. The associations of patient-specific and ocular features at baseline and follow-up with ORT were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Outer retinal tubulations. Seven of 69 eyes (10.1%) at 56 weeks and 64 of 368 eyes (17.4%) at week 104 had ORTs. Absence of diabetes, poor VA, blocked fluorescence, geographic atrophy, greater lesion size, and presence of subretinal hyperreflective material at baseline were associated independently with greater risk of ORT at 104 weeks (P Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters) was worse than the mean VA of eyes without ORT (68.8 letters; P predict ORTs. It is important to identify ORTs because eyes with ORTs have worse VA outcomes than those without this finding. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors associated with negative T-SPOT.TB results among smear-negative tuberculosis patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wanli; Wu, Meiying; Yang, Kunyun; Ertai, A; Wu, Shucai; Geng, Shujun; Li, Zhihui; Li, Mingwu; Pang, Yu; Tang, Shenjie

    2018-03-09

    We compared the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in the smear-negative PTB, and analyzed the factors affecting the results of negative T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Retrospective evaluation of data from smear-negative PTB patients who underwent T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture were done. The agreement and concordance were analyzed between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the factors associated with positive results of T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB. 858 eligible smear-negative PTB patients were included in the study. The agreement rate was 25.6% (22.7~28.5%) between T-SPOT.TB and bacterial culture in smear- negative PTB patients. The positive rate of T-SPOT.TB was higher than that of bacterial culture in smear-negative PTB patients (p TB and bacterial culture (p > 0.05). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis we found that older age ≥ 60 years (OR = 0.469, 95% CI: 0.287-0.768) and decreased albumin (OR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.380-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of T-SPOT.TB in smear-negative PTB patients. Female (OR = 0.654, 95% CI: 0.431-0.992) were associated with negative diagnostic results of bacteria culture in smear-negative PTB patients. Our results indicated that the older age and decreased albumin were independently associated with negative T-SPOT.TB responses.

  8. Outcomes in Eyes with Retinal Angiomatous Proliferation in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ebenezer; Shaffer, James; Ying, Gui-shuang; Grunwald, Juan E; Martin, Daniel F; Jaffe, Glenn J; Maguire, Maureen G

    2016-03-01

    To compare baseline characteristics, visual acuity (VA), and morphologic outcomes between eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) and all other eyes among patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs. Prospective cohort study within the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Patients with NVAMD. Reading center staff evaluated digital color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA) images, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of eyes with NVAMD treated with either ranibizumab or bevacizumab over a 2-year period. Retinal angiomatous proliferation was identified by the intense intra-retinal leakage of fluorescein in combination with other associated features. Visual acuity; fluorescein leakage; scar; geographic atrophy (GA) on FA; retinal thickness, fluid, and subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) on OCT; and the number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections at 1 and 2 years. Retinal angiomatous proliferation was present in 126 of 1183 (10.7%) study eyes at baseline. Mean VA improvement from baseline was greater (10.6 vs. 6.9 letters; P = 0.01) at 1 year, but similar at 2 years (7.8 vs. 6.2 letters; P = 0.34). At 1 year, eyes with RAP were more likely to have no fluid (46% vs. 26%; P treatment in CATT, eyes with RAP were less likely to have fluid, FA leakage, scar, and SHRM and more likely to have GA than eyes without RAP. Mean improvement in VA was similar at 2 years. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes of eyes with lesions composed of >50% blood in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaweel, Michael M; Daniel, Ebenezer; Martin, Daniel F; Mittra, Robert A; Grunwald, Juan E; Lai, Michael M; Melamud, Alexander; Morse, Lawrence S; Huang, Jiayan; Ferris, Frederick L; Fine, Stuart L; Maguire, Maureen G

    2015-02-01

    To compare baseline characteristics, treatment frequency, visual acuity (VA), and morphologic outcomes of eyes with >50% of the lesion composed of blood (B50 group) versus all other eyes (Other group) enrolled in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT). Prospective cohort study within a multicenter randomized clinical trial. CATT patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Treatment for the study eye was assigned randomly to either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to 3 different dosing regimens over a 2-year period. Reading center graders evaluated baseline and follow-up morphology in color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Masked examiners tested VA. Morphologic features and VA at 1 and 2 years. The B50 group consisted of 84 of 1185 (7.1%) patients enrolled in CATT. Baseline lesion characteristics differed between groups. In the B50 group, choroidal neovascularization size was smaller (0.73 vs 1.83 disc areas [DA]; P 50% blood can be managed similarly to those with less or no blood. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  11. Analysis of false-negative results after US-guided 14-gauge core needle breast biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Eun-Kyung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea); Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    To determine the false-negative rate and to evaluate the clinical, radiologic or histologic features of false-negative results at ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge core needle biopsy (CNB). A total of 3,724 masses from 3,308 women who had undergone US-guided 14-gauge CNB and who had a rebiopsy or at least 2 years' follow-up were included. The histology of CNB was correlated with the rebiopsy or long-term imaging follow-up. In cases of missed cancer, the time interval between CNB and rebiopsy, the reasons for rebiopsy, and the procedural or lesion characteristics were analysed. Of 1,706 benign CNBs, 50 additional malignancies were found at excision (false-negative rate, 2.5% of 1,982 with a final diagnosis of malignancy). Of 50 false negatives, 41 were found immediately of which 28 had rebiopsy because of imaging-histological discordance. Regarding the frequency of malignancy according to the reasons for rebiopsy, suspicious imaging finding (24%) showed significantly higher frequency than suspicious clinical findings or request (1%). Regarding the characteristics except invasiveness, no significant differences in false-negative rates were found. Most false negatives were found immediately and imaging-histological discordance was the most important clue. Careful correlation of clinical, radiological and histological results as well as appropriate follow-up is essential. (orig.)

  12. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  13. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  14. False Negative Cell-Free DNA Screening Result in a Newborn with Trisomy 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS is revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity, specificity. NIPS analyzes cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA circulating in maternal plasma to detect fetal chromosome abnormalities. However, cffDNA originates from apoptotic placental trophoblast; therefore cffDNA is not always representative of the fetus. Although the published data for NIPS testing states that the current technique ensures high sensitivity and specificity for aneuploidy detection, false positives are possible due to isolated placental mosaicism, vanishing twin or cotwin demise, and maternal chromosome abnormalities or malignancy. Results. We report a case of false negative cell-free DNA (cfDNA screening due to fetoplacental mosaicism. An infant male with negative cfDNA screening result was born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal chromosome and FISH studies on a blood specimen revealed trisomy 13 in 20/20 metaphases and 100% interphase nuclei, respectively. FISH analysis on tissues collected after delivery revealed extraembryonic mosaicism. Conclusions. Extraembryonic tissue mosaicism is likely responsible for the false negative cfDNA screening result. This case illustrates that a negative result does not rule out the possibility of a fetus affected with a trisomy, as cffDNA is derived from the placenta and therefore may not accurately represent the fetal genetic information.

  15. A case of placental trisomy 18 mosaicism causing a false negative NIPT result

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jiexia; Qi, Yiming; Guo, Fangfang; Hou, Yaping; Peng, Haishan; Wang, Dongmei; OY, Haoxin; Yin, Aihua

    2017-01-01

    Background The non-invasive prenatal testing that evaluates circulating cell free DNA, and has been established as an additional pregnancy test for detecting the common fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 is rapidly revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity and specificity. However, false positive and false negative results still exist. Case presentation We presented a case in which the non-invasive prenatal testing results were normal at 15 gestational age (GA), b...

  16. False-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay results in an HIV-infected case-patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alan R; Komeya, Alan Y; Tomas, Juval E

    2017-06-01

    We present a case report of a false-negative syphilis treponemal enzyme immunoassay test result in an HIV-infected male. While treponemal tests are widely considered to be more sensitive and specific than non-treponemal tests, our findings point to potential challenges using the reverse sequence syphilis screening algorithm.

  17. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hochstenbach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result.

  18. Do negative screening test results cause false reassurance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Grace C; Harvie, Michelle N; French, David P

    2017-11-01

    It has been suggested that receiving a negative screening test result may cause false reassurance or have a 'certificate of health effect'. False reassurance in those receiving a negative screening test result may result in them wrongly believing themselves to be at lower risk of the disease, and consequently less likely to engage in health-related behaviours that would lower their risk. The present systematic review aimed to identify the evidence regarding false reassurance effects due to negative screening test results in adults (over 18 years) screened for the presence of a disease or its precursors, where disease or precursors are linked to lifestyle behaviours. MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for trials that compared a group who had received negative screening results to an unscreened control group. The following outcomes were considered as markers of false reassurance: perceived risk of disease; anxiety and worry about disease; health-related behaviours or intention to change health-related behaviours (i.e., smoking, diet, physical activity, and alcohol consumption); self-rated health status. Nine unique studies were identified, reporting 55 measures in relation to the outcomes considered. Outcomes were measured at various time points from immediately following screening to up to 11 years after screening. Despite considerable variation in outcome measures used and timing of measurements, effect sizes for comparisons between participants who received negative screening test results and control participants were typically small with few statistically significant differences. There was evidence of high risk of bias, and measures of behaviours employed were often not valid. The limited evidence base provided little evidence of false reassurance following a negative screening test results on any of four outcomes examined. False reassurance should not be considered a significant harm of screening, but further research is warranted. Statement of contribution

  19. Diagnosis of intramammary infection in samples yielding negative results or minor pathogens in conventional bacterial culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexiga, Ricardo; Koskinen, Mikko T; Holopainen, Jani; Carneiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L

    2011-02-01

    Up to half of quarter milk samples submitted for mastitis diagnosis are culture-negative results or lead to identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium bovis in conventional culturing, the so-called minor pathogens. The interpretation and usefulness of these results in terms of udder and animal health management is limited, even though the amount of resources spent is relatively high. This work aimed to test two methods of analysis of milk samples with the goal of increasing detection of intramammary pathogens. In the first study, 783 milk samples were processed in duplicate: before and after freezing at -20°C for 24 h, using standard bacteriological techniques. There was a significant difference between the two methods with samples frozen for 24 h yielding significantly fewer Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and significantly more samples leading to no growth, than samples before freezing. The number of samples yielding Gram-positive catalase-negative cocci was not significantly affected by freezing. In the second study, a real-time PCR-based test was performed on milk samples with an individual quarter somatic cell count above 500,000 cells/ml that were either negative (n=51 samples) or that led to the isolation of minor pathogens in culturing: Corynebacterium bovis (n=79 samples) or non-aureus staphylococci (NAS, n=32). A mastitis pathogen, beyond the result obtained with standard bacteriology, was detected on 47% of the no-growth samples, on 35% of the samples from which C. bovis had been isolated and on 25% of the samples from which NAS had been isolated. The most commonly detected major pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus uberis, Arcanobacterium pyogenes/Peptoniphilus indolicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. These results suggest that simply freezing milk samples for 24 h does not increase the detection of intramammary bacteria in milk samples and therefore

  20. Analysis and Thoughts about the Negative Results of International Clinical Trials on Acupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan-jing; Wang, Xiao-hong; Li, Chen; Liu, Wan-ning

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture have proved the clinical benefits of acupuncture; however, there are some results that have shown negative results or placebo effects. The paper carried out an in-depth analysis on 33 RCTs in the 2011 SCI database, the quality of the reports was judged according to Jadad scores, and the “Necessary Information Included in Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA 2010)” was taken as the standard to analyze the rationality of the therapeutic principle. The difference between the methodology (Jadad) scores of the two types of research reports did not constitute statistical significance (P > 0.05). The studies with negative results or placebo effects showed the following deficiencies with respect to intervention details: (1) incompletely rational acupoint selection; (2) inconsistent ability of acupuncturists; (3) negligible needling response to needling; (4) acupuncture treatment frequency too low in most studies; and (5) irrational setting of placebo control. Thus, the primary basis for the negative results or placebo effects of international clinical trials on acupuncture is not in the quality of the methodology, but in noncompliance with the essential requirements proposed by acupuncture theory in terms of clinical manipulation details. PMID:26161126

  1. First results from negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN in surface mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Kaushal; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Bhuyan, Manas; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Das, B. K.; Bharathi, P.; Vupugalla, Mahesh; Parmar, K. G.; Tyagi, Himanshu; Patel, Kartik; Bhagora, Jignesh; Mistri, Hiren; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Pandey, Ravi; Chakraborty, Arun. K.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN, the first step in the Indian R&D program on negative ion beams has reached an important milestone, with the production of negative ions in the surface conversion mode through Cesium (Cs) vapor injection into the source. In the present set-up, negative hydrogen ion beam extraction is effected through an extraction area of ˜73.38 cm2 (146 apertures of 8mm diameter). The three grid electrostatic accelerator system of ROBIN is fed by high voltage DC power supplies (Extraction Power Supply System: 11kV, 35A and Acceleration Power Supply System: 35kV, 15A). Though, a considerable reduction of co-extracted electron current is usually observed during surface mode operation, in order to increase the negative ion current, various other parameters such as plasma grid temperature, plasma grid bias, extraction to acceleration voltage ratio, impurity control and Cs recycling need to be optimized. In the present experiments, to control and to understand the impurity behavior, a Cryopump (14,000 l/s for Hydrogen) is installed along with a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). To characterize the source plasma, two sets of Langmuir probes are inserted through the diagnostic flange ports available at the extraction plane. To characterize the beam properties, thermal differential calorimeter, Doppler Shift Spectroscopy and electrical current measurements are implemented in ROBIN. In the present set up, all the negative ion beam extraction experiments have been performed by varying different experimental parameters e.g. RF power (30-70 kW), source operational pressure (0.3 - 0.6Pa), plasma grid bias voltage, extraction & acceleration voltage combination etc. The experiments in surface mode operation is resulted a reduction of co-extracted electron current having electron to ion ratio (e/i) ˜2 whereas the extracted negative ion current density was increased. However, further increase in negative ion current density is expected to be improved after a systematic optimization of the

  2. Follow-up of Women With Negative Pap Test Results and Abnormal Clinical Signs or Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocque, Rebecca; Austin, R Marshall

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal signs or symptoms recorded on Papanicolaou (Pap) test requisitions may reflect disease not detected with Pap testing. Since 2009, these cases have been reviewed in our laboratory by a second cytotechnologist and a cytopathologist. The objective of this study was to document follow-up findings on these patients. A search for Pap test results of "Negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, abnormal clinical signs or symptoms" was performed for cases from January 1, 2009, to October 10, 2013. Clinical information and follow-up findings were documented. 1,104 cases were identified. Signs and symptoms were abnormal bleeding 897 (81%), polyps 83 (8%), pelvic mass 54 (5%), visible cervical lesions 48 (4%), vaginal lesions 17 (2%) and endometrial masses 6 (0.5%). Six hundred sixty-seven (60%) had follow-up results, including 517 with histopathologic diagnoses. Two-hundred thirty-three (45%) had nonspecific benign diagnoses, 216 (42%) had benign tumor-like conditions, 28 (4%) had insufficient specimens, 16 (3%) had precancerous diagnoses and 23 (4%) had malignancies. Endometrial malignancy was identified in 14 (61%), ovarian in 6 (26%), and miscellaneous in 3 (13%). No cervical cancers were identified. We report follow-up findings from patients with abnormal clinical signs or symptoms, negative Pap test results, and follow-up recommendations highlighting reported abnormal signs or symptoms. Abnormal clinical signs and symptoms should routinely be considered in assessment and management of patients with negative cervical screening test results. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A case of placental trisomy 18 mosaicism causing a false negative NIPT result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiexia; Qi, Yiming; Guo, Fangfang; Hou, Yaping; Peng, Haishan; Wang, Dongmei; Oy, Haoxin; Yin, Aihua

    2017-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal testing that evaluates circulating cell free DNA, and has been established as an additional pregnancy test for detecting the common fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13 is rapidly revolutionizing prenatal screening as a result of its increased sensitivity and specificity. However, false positive and false negative results still exist. We presented a case in which the non-invasive prenatal testing results were normal at 15 gestational age (GA), but an ultrasound examination at 30GA showed that the fetus had heart abnormalities, and the third trimester ultrasound at 33GA noted multiple anomalies including a 3.0 mm ventricular septal defect. Along with cordocentesis at 33GA, the cord blood sample cytogenetics analysis showed a mos 47,XN,+18[61]/46,XN[39] T18 karyotype. Six placental biopsies confirmed that the chromosome 18 placenta chimerism ratio had changed from 33% to 72%. Ultimately, the pregnancy was interrupted at 34GA. We presented this case to highlight the need to clearly explain false positive or false negative results to patients. We believe that this information will also influence the development of future diagnostic test methodologies.

  4. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41....../100,000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100,000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (P

  5. Milk composition and its relationship with weaning weight in Charolais catte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Inocencio Pacheco Contreras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of a number of non-genetic factors on milk components and estimate their indirect relationships with weaning weight (WW205, the percentages of protein, fat, lactose and solids non-fat in Charolais cows from Mexico were estimated. Lactation period (LP and calving season (CS had significant effects on protein and fat, whereas lactose and solids non-fat were only affected by the LP. Sire line and age of the dam had significant effects on calf birth weight, while CS affected WW205. Residual correlations between milk components and WW205 suggest a low but significant correlation with lactose. These results demonstrate the importance of several non-genetic factors on the composition of milk from Charolais cows managed under extensive cow-calf production systems and the indirect relationships between these factors and the weaning weight of a calf.

  6. Integrated treatment ameliorates negative symptoms in first episode psychosis--results from the Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Anne Amalie Elgaard; Petersen, L; Jeppesen, P

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis.......To investigate the effect of integrated treatment on negative, psychotic and disorganised symptoms in patients with first episode psychosis....

  7. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  8. Influence of false-positive mammography results on subsequent screening: do physician recommendations buffer negative effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrank, Jessica T; Rimer, Barbara K; Bowling, J Michael; Earp, Jo Anne; Breslau, Erica S; Brewer, Noel T

    2012-03-01

    Cancer screening guidelines often include discussion about the unintended negative consequences of routine screening. This prospective study examined effects of false-positive mammography results on women's adherence to subsequent breast cancer screening and psychological well-being. We also assessed whether barriers to screening exacerbated the effects of false-positive results. We conducted secondary analyses of data from telephone interviews and medical claims records for 2406 insured women. The primary outcome was adherence to screening guidelines, defined as adherent (10-14 months), delayed (15-34 months), or no subsequent mammogram on record. About 8% of women reported that their most recent screening mammograms produced false-positive results. In the absence of self-reported advice from their physicians to be screened, women were more likely to have no subsequent mammograms on record if they received false-positive results than if they received normal results (18% vs. 7%, OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.30, 7.70). Receipt of false-positive results was not associated with this outcome for women who said their physicians had advised regular screening in the past year (7% vs. 10%, OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.38, 1.45). False-positive results were associated with greater breast cancer worry (P thinking more about the benefits of screening (P positive mammography results, coupled with reports that women's physicians did not advise regular screening, could lead to non-adherence to future screening. Abnormal mammograms that do not result in cancer diagnoses are opportunities for physicians to stress the importance of regular screening.

  9. Secondary emission of negative ions and electrons resulting from electronic sputtering of cesium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allali, H.; Nsouli, B.; Thomas, J.P.

    1993-04-01

    Secondary ion emission of negative ions and electrons from alkali salts bombarded with high energy (9 MeV) Ar +++ is discussed. Quite different features are observed according to the nature of the salt investigated (halide or oxygenated). In the case of cesium, the electron emission from halides is characterized by intense electron showers (several hundred electrons) with narrow distributions in intensity and orientation. Conversely, for oxygenated salts, these distributions are broader, much less intense (one order of magnitude), and the ion emission exhibits an dissymmetry, which has never been observed for inorganics. This last result is interpreted in terms of radiolysis of the oxygenated salt, a process well documented for gamma-ray irradiation, but not yet reported in secondary ion emission. (author) 17 refs.; 10 figs

  10. Validation of Spectral Unmixing Results from Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) of Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, L.; Coddington, O.; Pilewskie, P.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperspectral instruments are a growing class of Earth observing sensors designed to improve remote sensing capabilities beyond discrete multi-band sensors by providing tens to hundreds of continuous spectral channels. Improved spectral resolution, range and radiometric accuracy allow the collection of large amounts of spectral data, facilitating thorough characterization of both atmospheric and surface properties. We describe the development of an Informed Non-Negative Matrix Factorization (INMF) spectral unmixing method to exploit this spectral information and separate atmospheric and surface signals based on their physical sources. INMF offers marked benefits over other commonly employed techniques including non-negativity, which avoids physically impossible results; and adaptability, which tailors the method to hyperspectral source separation. The INMF algorithm is adapted to separate contributions from physically distinct sources using constraints on spectral and spatial variability, and library spectra to improve the initial guess. Using this INMF algorithm we decompose hyperspectral imagery from the NASA Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), with a focus on separating surface and atmospheric signal contributions. HICO's coastal ocean focus provides a dataset with a wide range of atmospheric and surface conditions. These include atmospheres with varying aerosol optical thicknesses and cloud cover. HICO images also provide a range of surface conditions including deep ocean regions, with only minor contributions from the ocean surfaces; and more complex shallow coastal regions with contributions from the seafloor or suspended sediments. We provide extensive comparison of INMF decomposition results against independent measurements of physical properties. These include comparison against traditional model-based retrievals of water-leaving, aerosol, and molecular scattering radiances and other satellite products, such as aerosol optical thickness from

  11. SPECIFIC COURSE OF PREGNANCY, PERINATAL OUTCOMES AND TREATMENT RESULTS IN HIV NEGATIVE FEMALE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Nesterenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to investigate the specific course of pregnancy, perinatal outcomes and treatment results in HIV negative female patients.Subjects and Methods. Medical files of 109 pregnant tuberculosis patients were analyzed who were followed up in Krasnoyarsk Regional TB Dispensary no. 1 from 2010 to 2014.Results. The part of children prematurely born by mothers ill with tuberculosis was practically compatible with the overall national cohort of live-born children (6.8% in the analyzed group versus 5.7% in the national cohort for 2014. The part of children with congenital abnormalities born by mothers suffering from tuberculosis turned out to be twice lower versus the overall national cohort of live-born children (1.4% versus 3.0% in 2010 and 2.9% in 2014.The efficiency of the main treatment course in pregnant women without multiple drug resistant tuberculosis, of which 3.8 ± 0.3 months of tuberculosis treatment coincided with pregnancy was practically the same as treatment efficiency for the overall cohort of patients in Krasnoyarsky Kray (66.2% in the analyzed cohort versus 60.3-72.7% in the regional cohort for 2010-2014. In the pregnant with multiple drug resistant forms of tuberculosis, treatment efficiency was lower versus the regional cohort (30.4% in the analyzed cohort versus 41.1-60.2% in the regional cohort for 2010-2014. 

  12. A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Yaku

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR on magnetic beads (MBs and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGGn-3' of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  13. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morfin-Otero Rayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%, but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%. Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%. This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen.

  14. JT-60 negative ion beam NBI apparatus. Present state of its construction and initial experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-02-01

    The NBI (Neutral Beam Injection) apparatus used for negative ion at first in the world, has an aim to actually prove heating and electric current drive with high density plasma at the JT-60 and to constitute physical and technical bases for selection and design of heating apparatus of ITER (International Thermal Nuclear Fusion Experimental Reactor). Construction of 500 KeV negative ion NBI apparatus for the JT-60 started to operate on 1993 was completed at March, 1996. On the way, at a preliminary test on forming and acceleration of the negative ion beam using a portion of this apparatus, 400 KeV and 13.5 A/D of the highest deuterium negative ion beam acceleration in the world was obtained successfully, which gave a bright forecasting of the plasma heating and electric current drive experiment using the negative ion NBI apparatus. After March, 1996, some plans to begin beam incident experiment at the JT-60 using the negative ion NBI apparatus and to execute the heating and electric current drive experiment at the JT-60 under intending increase of beam output are progressed. (G.K.)

  15. Negative Affectivity, Aging, and Depression: Results From the Neurobiology of Late-Life Depression (NBOLD) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, David C; Wang, Lihong; Manning, Kevin J; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2017-10-01

    Neuroticism is a common yet understudied condition in older adults. We hypothesized that presence of high negativity affectivity (NA), a key feature of neuroticism, would be associated with different prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and connectivity patterns in depressed and never-depressed older adults. This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study of 52 depressed and 36 never-depressed older adults. Assessments included NA scores from the Type D Scale-14 and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores. All subjects had a 3T brain functional magnetic resonance imaging resting scan, neuronal activity determined by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) were obtained, and resting state functional connectivity (FC) analyses were performed. Analyses of covariance were conducted on ALFFs and FC to examine significant differences between groups. In the ALFF analyses there were clearly different patterns between depressed and comparison groups in the correlation of ALFFs and NA. The correlation differences between the two groups were significant in the dorsomedial PFC, insula, amygdala, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). FC analyses revealed different between-group connectivity patterns. Significantly higher ventromedial PFC-amygdala FC with NA correlation was found in the depressed group than that in the never-depressed group. This study confirms differential activity of the dorsal and ventral regions of the medial PFC in individuals with high neuroticism. Our findings suggest increased rostral medial PFC activity may be a marker of resilience to depression in the elderly and decreased anterior ventromedial PFC, PCC, and amygdala activity may be a result of successful emotion regulation in never-depressed higher NA individuals. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Publication Trend of Clinical Trials with Negative Results Funded by Pharmaceutical Industries for the 2007-2012 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.

  17. Variability in results from negative binomial models for Lyme disease measured at different spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phoebe; Waller, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease has been the subject of many studies due to increasing incidence rates year after year and the severe complications that can arise in later stages of the disease. Negative binomial models have been used to model Lyme disease in the past with some success. However, there has been little focus on the reliability and consistency of these models when they are used to study Lyme disease at multiple spatial scales. This study seeks to explore how sensitive/consistent negative binomial models are when they are used to study Lyme disease at different spatial scales (at the regional and sub-regional levels). The study area includes the thirteen states in the Northeastern United States with the highest Lyme disease incidence during the 2002-2006 period. Lyme disease incidence at county level for the period of 2002-2006 was linked with several previously identified key landscape and climatic variables in a negative binomial regression model for the Northeastern region and two smaller sub-regions (the New England sub-region and the Mid-Atlantic sub-region). This study found that negative binomial models, indeed, were sensitive/inconsistent when used at different spatial scales. We discuss various plausible explanations for such behavior of negative binomial models. Further investigation of the inconsistency and sensitivity of negative binomial models when used at different spatial scales is important for not only future Lyme disease studies and Lyme disease risk assessment/management but any study that requires use of this model type in a spatial context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. False Negative Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Results in Primary Thyroid Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Joong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koh, Myoung Ju; Kwak, Jin Young; Moon, Hee Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNA) is one of the methods used to diagnose thyroid lymphoma, but it has a relatively high false-negative rate. The authors report a case of a primary thyroid lymphoma associated with underlying lymphocytic thyroiditis that was initially misdiagnosed as lymphocytic thyroiditis based on US-FNA findings

  19. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C: Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Matia-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold, while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects.

  20. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Promoter Polymorphisms (−794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C): Relationship with mRNA Expression and Soluble MIF Levels in Young Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matia-García, Inés; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz-Valle, José F.; García-Arellano, Samuel; Hernández-Bello, Jorge; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia B.; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms with mRNA and soluble MIF in young obese subjects. A total of 250 young subjects, 150 normal-weight and 100 obese subjects, were recruited in the study. Genotyping of −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP, respectively. MIF mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR and serum MIF levels were measured using an ELISA kit. For both MIF promoter polymorphisms, no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between groups were observed. MIF mRNA expression was slightly higher in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects (1.38-fold), while soluble MIF levels did not show differences between groups. In addition, we found an increase in MIF mRNA expression in carriers of the 6,6 and C/C genotypes and the 6G haplotype of the −794 CATT5–8 and −173 G>C MIF polymorphisms, although it was not significant. In conclusion, this study found no relationship between obesity and MIF gene promoter polymorphisms with MIF mRNA expression in young obese subjects. PMID:25972622

  1. Factors associated with false-positive and false-negative fecal immunochemical test results for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor C W; Lam, Thomas Y T; Luk, Arthur K C; Ng, Simon S M; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2015-03-01

    Certain subgroups have higher rates of false fecal immunochemical test (FIT) results, yet few studies have addressed this topic. To identify demographic factors associated with false-positive and false-negative FIT results in colorectal cancer screening. Retrospective database review of prospectively collected data. A bowel cancer screening center in Hong Kong invited participants for colorectal cancer screening (2008-2012). Study participants who underwent both FIT and colonoscopy in the first year (n = 4482) and underwent colonoscopy after negative FIT results for 3 consecutive years (n = 857). The diagnostic accuracy and predictive values of FIT according to participant characteristics. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values for advanced neoplasia were 33.1%, 91.9%, 19.0%, and 96.0%, respectively. Participants 66 to 70 years of age had higher sensitivity, whereas older age, smoking, and use of aspirin/nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with lower specificity. The rates of false-positive and false-negative results were 8.1% and 66.9%, respectively. Older age (66-70 years; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-2.81; P negative results and the absence of high-grade dysplasia (AOR for presence 0.41) were associated with false-negative results. Self-referred participants who received one type of qualitative FIT. These findings could be used to target screening more toward those with a higher risk of false-negative results and those with a lower risk of false-positive results for earlier colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RESULTS OF GENOTYPING HEPATITIS VIRUS B IN HBsAg-NEGATIVE BLOOD DONORS IN ASTANA, KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Ostankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HBV infection is estimated by the frequency of occurrence of HBsAg and varies depending on the geographic region. Chronic infection is characterized by a stable presence of HBsAg for 6 months, with the exception of the occult form of the disease, characterized by the absence of HBsAg, an extremely low level of HBV DNA in the blood serum. The problem of identifying occult HBV (ocHBV is especially relevant because of the development of transplantology and transfusiology. However, serological screening of donor blood used in the Russian Federation and Central Asian countries does not reveal HBV seronegative donors. Since HBV infection is possible with the introduction of small doses of the virus, the importance of using complex molecular methods for detecting donor ocHBV is obvious, despite the low viral load, since donor blood is used predominantly in patients with severe course of various diseases characterized by increased susceptibility to HBV because of immunosuppression. The aim of our work was to study the characteristics of the genetic structure of the ocHBV in donors in Astana, Kazakhstan. A total of 500 blood plasma samples from HBsAg-negative donors were obtained in 2012 from residents of Kazakhstan, Astana. Using the method, we proposed to detect HBV DNA with a low viral load, HBV was detected in 9.4% of donors. Serological markers were found in 12.7% of patients with HBV DNA, 8.5% had HBcor IgG antibodies, 4.2% had HBcor IgG and HBe IgG antibodies at the same time. Thus, in 41 (87.3% of the blood donor, ocHBV was seronegative. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 47 isolates showed that the HBV of genotype D (95.75% prevails in the examined group in comparison with HBV of genotype A (4.25%. HBV subgenotypes are represented in the following ratios: D1 — 46.8%, D2 — 17.05%, D3 — 31.9%, A2 — 4.25%. In a comparative analysis, the distribution of HBV subgenotypes in the group with ocHBV and in the case of the

  3. Bias from industry trial funding? A framework, a suggested approach, and a negative result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Jodie; Derry, Sheena; McQuay, Henry J; Moore, R Andrew

    2006-04-01

    Bias from funding sources of trials would threaten their validity. Meta-analyses of high quality acute pain and migraine trials were used to explore the hypothesis that industry funding of clinical trials produced more favourable results than non-profit sponsorship. Analyses were planned to evaluate whether industry-sponsored trials had different results from trials funded by academic or other non-profit sources, but of 176 trials, only two were supported by non-profit sources, while 31 provided no statement of support. An alternative method is proposed within industry-sponsored trials, looking at conflicting industry interests for the same drug, used either as test or comparator treatment. Fifty-three trials used an analgesic as test and 90 as comparator, allowing comparisons to be made for aspirin 600/650 mg, ibuprofen 400 mg, paracetamol (acetaminophen) 1000 mg, rofecoxib 50 mg and sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg. Only for sumatriptan 50 and 100 mg, with the outcome of headache response at 2 h, was there any significant difference between the drug used as a test or as a comparator. The direction was for higher (worse) NNTs with sumatriptan as comparator. Investigating potential industry bias through the funding source of trials is unlikely to be adequate because of a dearth of trials funded by non-profit organisations. We propose a method based on potential conflict of interest within industry-sponsored trials. Using this method, established clinical trial results in acute pain and migraine appear to be unbiased.

  4. Oscillation for equations with positive and negative coefficients and with distributed delay I: General results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Berezansky

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a scalar delay differential equation with a bounded distributed delay, $$ dot{x}(t+ int_{h(t}^t x(s,d_s R(t,s - int_{g(t}^t x(s,d_s T(t,s=0, $$ where $R(t,s$, $T(t,s$ are nonnegative nondecreasing in $s$ for any $t$, $$ R(t,h(t=T(t,g(t=0, quad R(t,s geq T(t,s. $$ We establish a connection between non-oscillation of this differential equation and the corresponding differential inequalities, and between positiveness of the fundamental function and the existence of a nonnegative solution for a nonlinear integral inequality that constructed explicitly. We also present comparison theorems, and explicit non-oscillation and oscillation results. In a separate publication (part II, we will consider applications of this theory to differential equations with several concentrated delays, integrodifferential, and mixed equations.

  5. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Luauté

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed.

  6. Quaternary pollen analysis in the Iberian Peninsula: the value of negative results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Carrión

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Most unsuccessful palynological work is never published. As a consequence, pollen analysts waste time re-processing sterile sediments, and the available literature exhibits a uniformly positive record of success in pollen extraction. Here we report failures with Quaternary pollen analyses in the Iberian Peninsula; that is, case studies where it was not possible to extract palynomorphs for pollen counting. Both totally sterile and partially sterile sites are considered. Sites and perspectives for future studies are suggested. The majority of the failed studies are open-air archaeological and palaeontological sites, caves and rockshelters, but there are prominent cases of success. Peat bogs have provided positive results, but only with sequences formed under continuous sedimentation processes in marshy environments. Lakes are often successful sites, but a multi-core strategy, following the facies change along a transect from the shore to the depositional centre, is recommended for saline lacustrine deposits, salt marshes and lagoons, especially when there is evidence of temporary desiccation. Cave and rockshelter infills should be considered case-by-case, and these sites definitely require a palyno-taphonomical approach to post-depositional processes. Indurated deposits are sometimes surprising in their high pollen concentration, but one must be prepared for sterility. Coprolites have been insufficiently exploited, and offer a great potential, especially those of Pleistocene Crocuta. This article shows that venturing into sediments assumed a priori to be 'difficult', like fluvial terraces, slope deposits, speleothems, cave travertines, and palaeosols, may nevertheless be successful. A summary is proposed of the various factors causing sterility, before, during and after sedimentation.

  7. The management of isolated positive syphilis enzyme immunoassay results in HIV-negative patients attending a sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Nicola; Adebayo, Michael; Smit, Erasmus; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-08-01

    An unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination negative and rapid plasma reagin negative) presents a clinical challenge to distinguish early syphilis infection from false-positive results. These cases are referred for syphilis line assay (INNO-LIA) and recalled for repeat syphilis serology. We performed a retrospective audit to establish the proportion of HIV-negative cases with unconfirmed positive enzyme immunoassay results, the proportion of these cases that received an INNO-LIA test and repeat syphilis serology testing and reviewed the clinical outcomes; 0.35% (80/22687) cases had an unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay result. Repeat syphilis serology was performed in 80% (64/80) cases, but no additional cases of syphilis were identified. Eighty-eight per cent (70/80) received an INNO-LIA test; 14% (5/37) unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay-positive cases with no prior history of syphilis were confirmed on INNO-LIA assay, supporting a diagnosis of latent syphilis. As a confirmatory treponemal test, the INNO-LIA assay may be more useful than repeat syphilis serological testing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Evaluation of non-genomic, clinical risk and survival results in endocrine-sensitive, HER-2 negative, node negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena Cañada, José M; Gámez Casado, Salvador; Rodríguez Pérez, Lourdes; Quílez Cutillas, Alicia; Cortés Carmona, Cristina; Rosado Varela, Petra; Estalella Mendoza, Sara; Ramírez Daffós, Patricia; Benítez Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2018-02-28

    In endocrine-sensitive, HER-2 negative, node negative breast cancer, the presence of a low genomic risk allows treatment with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone, obtaining excellent survival rates. The justification for this study is to show that excellent survival rates are also obtained by treating with adjuvant hormone therapy alone, based on clinical risk assessment. A descriptive, observational and retrospective study was performed between 2006 and 2016 with endocrine-sensitive, HER-2 negative, node negative breast cancer, greater than 1cm or between 0.6 and 1cm with unfavourable features. Retrospective review of health records. Mortality data of the National Registry of Deaths. A total of 203 patients were evaluable for survival. One hundred and twenty-three (60.50%) were treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone, 77 (37.90%) with chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, one (0.50%) with chemotherapy alone and 2 (1%) were not treated. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94-100). Distant recurrence-free interval was 94% (95% CI 90-98). In the subgroup of patients treated with endocrine therapy alone, overall survival and distant recurrence-free interval rates at 5 years were 98% (95% CI 95-100) and 97% (95% CI 93-100), respectively. Patients with endocrine-sensitive, HER-2-negative, node negative breast cancer treated with endocrine therapy alone according to their clinical risk have similar survival outcomes as those treated with endocrine therapy according to their genomic risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. The negative and positive effects of trauma resulting from cancer – the role of personality and rumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Personality and cognitive engagement, including event-related rumination, play essential roles in the negative and positive outcomes of experienced trauma. The aim of the study was to establish the role of personality traits and rumination in the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG. Participants and procedure Sixty persons, aged 18-78 years (M = 50.40, SD = 17.74, who had experienced malignant tumours in the craniofacial area, i.e. the lips, palate, parotid gland, eye, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, middle ear and paranasal sinuses, were examined. The majority of respondents (68.30% were women. The subjects were surveyed with the Impact of Event Scale-R (IES-R, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI, the NEO-Five Factor Personality (NEO-FFI, and the Event Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI. Results Both PTSD symptoms and PTG were observed in the examined group. Almost 77.00% of participants demonstrated at least a medium degree of PTSD. Twenty three percent of subjects revealed a high level of PTG. Both intrusive and deliberate ruminations were related to the presence of PTSD symptoms and PTG. No direct relationship was found between personality dimensions and the negative and positive outcomes of trauma. Neuroticism, which is related to intrusive rumination, affects PTSD symptoms. Conscientiousness, which is related to deliberate ruminations, affects posttraumatic growth. Conclusions Personality has an indirect impact on the negative and positive consequences of trauma via rumination over the experienced event.

  10. Cyberbullying as a negative result of cyber-culture of Slovak children and adolescents: selected research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá Katarína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-culture points out the life in cyberspace and goes beyond national cultures. It is particularly attractive for the young people who use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT to express their attitudes, values, beliefs and thinking. Those do not need to be necessarily in accordance with the standards of an individual society. Cyberculture becomes dangerous. Great risk lies in cyberbullying that represents negative impact of cyber-culture on human behavior. The aim of the study is to detect cyberbullying as a negative impact of cyber-culture among of Slovak children and adolescents. The research was carried out on a sample of 1619 11-18-year old respondents (average age was 14.51. Results of cyberbullying research carried out using Latent Class Analysis (LCA have proved the appropriateness of 3-latent-class module. Relative entropy of the module reached 0.915. It was demonstrated that 52.9% of respondents belonged to the group of uninvolved, 42.7% were victims and 4.4% were victims-aggressors. Being a negative consequence of cyber-culture, cyberbullying is a challenge that educators - including other assisting professions - face when educating children and adolescents to orientate in cyberspace, behave responsibly, express themselves in a way that would not interfere others’ integrity and identity (personal and virtual. The study was written under VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR a SAV č. 1/0244/15: “Detekcia a riešenie kyberšikany”.

  11. Comparison of ONIX simulation results with experimental data from the BATMAN testbed for the study of negative ion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Fantz, Ursel; Wünderlich, Dirk; Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-10-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for the ITER neutral beam injector is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code simulates the formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions and co-extracted electrons produced in caesiated sources. In this paper the 3D geometry of the BATMAN extraction system, and the source characteristics such as the extraction and bias potential, and the 3D magnetic field were integrated in the model. Calculations were performed using plasma parameters experimentally obtained on BATMAN. The comparison of the ONIX calculated extracted NI density with the experimental results suggests that predictive calculations of the extraction of NIs are possible. The results show that for an ideal status of the Cs conditioning the extracted hydrogen NI current density could reach ~30 mA cm-2 at 10 kV and ~20 mA cm-2 at 5 kV extraction potential, with an electron/NI current density ratio of about 1, as measured in the experiments under the same plasma and source conditions. The dependency of the extracted NI current on the NI density in the bulk plasma region from both the modeling and the experiment was investigated. The separate distributions composing the NI beam originating from the plasma bulk region and the PG surface are presented for different NI plasma volume densities and NI emission rates from the plasma grid (PG) wall, respectively. The extracted current from the NIs produced at the Cs covered PG surface, initially moving towards the bulk plasma and then being bent towards the extraction surfaces, is lower compared to the extracted NI current from directly extracted surface produced ions.

  12. Does the evidence make a difference in consumer behavior? Sales of supplements before and after publication of negative research results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Miller, Franklin G

    2008-09-01

    To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. In four of five supplements (St. John's wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public.

  13. Utility of p16 Immunohistochemistry in Evaluating Negative Cervical Biopsies Following High-risk Pap Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Alana F; Kwok, Shirley; Folkins, Ann K; Kong, Christina S

    2018-01-01

    The Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Standardization Project for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated lesions specifically recommends the use of p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an adjunct to morphologic assessment of cervical biopsies interpreted as negative or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) from patients with prior high-risk Pap test results (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion [HSIL], atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL, atypical glandular cells [AGC], or HPV16 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US]). The impetus for this recommendation is to increase detection of missed high-grade disease. However, the quality of evidence supporting this recommendation was lower than that for the other LAST recommendations addressing improved consistency in the diagnosis of HSIL with the use of p16. A database search spanning 10 years identified 341 cases (encompassing 736 discrete biopsy specimens) interpreted as negative for dysplasia from 330 patients with a prior high-risk Pap result (atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL, HSIL, atypical glandular cells, not otherwise specified [AGC-NOS], atypical endocervical cells--NOS [AEC-NOS], and AEC-favor neoplastic). p16 IHC was performed and detected missed abnormalities in 11/341 (3.2%) cases. The abnormalities corresponded to missed foci of HSIL (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) (n=1), SIL-indeterminate grade (n=7), atypical squamous metaplasia (n=2), and LSIL [CIN1]) (n=1). Subsequent histologic follow-up identified HSIL or greater in 6/8 (75%) p16 cases versus 20/79 (25.3%) p16 cases (P=0.0079). p16 IHC performed on biopsies interpreted as negative from patients with prior high-risk Pap test results increased the detection rate of missed SIL. A p16 result also significantly increased the likelihood of HSIL on subsequent biopsy. Although further studies are required to determine what percentage of missed HSIL justifies the additional cost

  14. Significance of pregnancy test false negative results due to elevated levels of β-core fragment hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Eapen, Saji; Smith, Peter; Warren, Graham; Zinaman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Very high levels of β-core fragment human chorionic gonadotrophin (βcf-hCG) are reported to potentially cause false negative results in point-of-care (POC)/over-the-counter (OTC) pregnancy tests. To investigate this further, women's daily early morning urine samples, collected prior to conception and during pregnancy, were analysed for intact, free β-, and βcf-hCG. The proportion of βcf-hCG was found to be related to that of hCG produced and in circulation. Therefore, best practice for accuracy testing of POC/OTC pregnancy tests would be to test devices against clinical samples containing high levels of βcf-hCG as well as standards spiked with biologically relevant ratios.

  15. The factor structure of the twelve item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): the result of negative phrasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-04-24

    The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) is used routinely as a unidimensional measure of psychological morbidity. Many factor-analytic studies have reported that the GHQ-12 has two or three dimensions, threatening its validity. It is possible that these 'dimensions' are the result of the wording of the GHQ-12, namely its division into positively phrased (PP) and negatively phrased (NP) statements about mood states. Such 'method effects' introduce response bias which should be taken into account when deriving and interpreting factors. GHQ-12 data were obtained from the 2004 cohort of the Health Survey for England (N = 3705). Following exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the goodness of fit indices of one, two and three factor models were compared with those of a unidimensional model specifying response bias on the NP items, using structural equation modelling (SEM). The hypotheses were (1) the variance of the responses would be significantly higher for NP items than for PP items because of response bias, and (2) that the modelling of response bias would provide the best fit for the data. Consistent with previous reports, EFA suggested a two-factor solution dividing the items into NP and PP items. The variance of responses to the NP items was substantially and significantly higher than for the PP items. The model incorporating response bias was the best fit for the data on all indices (RMSEA = 0.068, 90%CL = 0.064, 0.073). Analysis of the frequency of responses suggests that the response bias derives from the ambiguity of the response options for the absence of negative mood states. The data are consistent with the GHQ-12 being a unidimensional scale with a substantial degree of response bias for the negatively phrased items. Studies that report the GHQ-12 as multidimensional without taking this response bias into account risk interpreting the artefactual factor structure as denoting 'real' constructs, committing the methodological error of reification

  16. Occurrence of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    Full Text Available Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT. Three hundred and one E. coli and K. pneumoniae clinical isolates were investigated. All produced extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs but were susceptible to carbapenems. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion and agar dilution methods. The MHT was performed using the standard inoculum of test organisms recommended by the CLSI. Genes that encoded ESBLs and carbapenemases were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. Among the 301 clinical isolates, none of the isolates conformed to the criteria for carbapenemase screening recommended by the CLSI. The susceptibility rates for imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem all were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 100.0%, respectively. Of the 301 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, none produced carbapenemase. The MHT gave a positive result for 3.3% (10/301 of the isolates. False positive results can occur when the MHT is used to detect carbapenemase in ESBL-producing isolates and clinical laboratories must be aware of this fact.

  17. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed

  18. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  19. Performance of the SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid test in various diagnostic algorithms for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Lumbala

    Full Text Available We carried out a study to compare the performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of the new SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid diagnostic test (RDT with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Participants were enrolled actively by four mobile teams, and passively at four health facilities in three provinces. Consenting participants were tested concurrently with the RDT and CATT on whole blood. Those found positive by either test were tested with CATT on serial dilutions of plasma, and with a parasitological composite reference standard (CRS. Cases were only the individuals found positive by the CRS, while controls were negative by both CATT and RDT, as well as those that were positive by CATT or RDT, but were negative by the CRS, and had no history of HAT. Over five months, 131 cases and 13,527 controls were enrolled. The sensitivity of the RDT was 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI = 86.1-95.5, which was significantly higher than CATT (sensitivity 69.1%; 95% CI = 60.7-76.4. The sensitivity of CATT on plasma at a dilution of 1:8 was 59.0% (95% CI = 50.2-67.2. The specificity of the RDT was 97.1% (95% CIs = 96.8-97.4 while that of CATT was 98.0% (95% CIs = 97.8, 98.2 and specificities of algorithms involving CATT at 1:8 dilution were 99.6% (95% CI = 99.5-99.7. Reproducibility of results was excellent. We concluded that an algorithm in which the SD BIOLINE® HAT RDT is used for screening is optimal for case detection in both passive and active screening settings. However, the lower specificity of the RDT compared to that of CATT would result in a larger number of false positive individuals undergoing confirmatory testing.

  20. Performance of the SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid test in various diagnostic algorithms for gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbala, Crispin; Bessell, Paul R; Lutumba, Pascal; Baloji, Sylvain; Biéler, Sylvain; Ndung'u, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    We carried out a study to compare the performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of the new SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Participants were enrolled actively by four mobile teams, and passively at four health facilities in three provinces. Consenting participants were tested concurrently with the RDT and CATT on whole blood. Those found positive by either test were tested with CATT on serial dilutions of plasma, and with a parasitological composite reference standard (CRS). Cases were only the individuals found positive by the CRS, while controls were negative by both CATT and RDT, as well as those that were positive by CATT or RDT, but were negative by the CRS, and had no history of HAT. Over five months, 131 cases and 13,527 controls were enrolled. The sensitivity of the RDT was 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 86.1-95.5), which was significantly higher than CATT (sensitivity 69.1%; 95% CI = 60.7-76.4). The sensitivity of CATT on plasma at a dilution of 1:8 was 59.0% (95% CI = 50.2-67.2). The specificity of the RDT was 97.1% (95% CIs = 96.8-97.4) while that of CATT was 98.0% (95% CIs = 97.8, 98.2) and specificities of algorithms involving CATT at 1:8 dilution were 99.6% (95% CI = 99.5-99.7). Reproducibility of results was excellent. We concluded that an algorithm in which the SD BIOLINE® HAT RDT is used for screening is optimal for case detection in both passive and active screening settings. However, the lower specificity of the RDT compared to that of CATT would result in a larger number of false positive individuals undergoing confirmatory testing.

  1. Genetic Testing for Wolfram Syndrome Mutations in a Sample of 71 Patients with Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Negative Genetic Test Results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Schatz, Patrik

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the authors present a sample of 71 patients with hereditary optic neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON. All of these patients later underwent genetic testing to rule out WFS. As a result, 53 patients (74.7%) were negative and 18 patients (25.3%) were positive for some type of mutation or variation in the WFS gene. The authors believe that this study is interesting because it shows that a sizeable percentage (25.3%) of patients with hereditary optic 25 neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON had WFS mutations or variants.

  2. Integrative deficits in depression and in negative mood states as a result of fronto-parietal network dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezicka, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a disorder characterized not only by persistent negative mood, lack of motivation and a "ruminative" style of thinking, but also by specific deficits in cognitive functioning. These deficits are especially pronounced when integration of information is required. Previous research on linear syllogisms points to a clear pattern of cognitive disturbances present in people suffering from depressive disorders, as well as in people with elevated negative mood. Such disturbances are characterized by deficits in the integration of piecemeal information into coherent mental representations. In this review, I present evidence which suggests that the dysfunction of specific brain areas plays a crucial role in creating reasoning and information integration problems among people with depression and with heightened negative mood. As the increasingly prevalent systems neuroscience approach is spreading into the study of mental disorders, it is important to understand how and which brain networks are involved in creating certain symptoms of depression. Two large brain networks are of particular interest when considering depression: the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal (executive) network (FNP). The DMN network shows abnormally high activity in the depressed population, whereas FNP circuit activity is diminished. Disturbances within the FNP network seem to be strongly associated with cognitive problems in depression, especially those concerning executive functions. The dysfunctions within the fronto-parietal network are most probably connected to ineffective transmission of information between prefrontal and parietal regions, and also to an imbalance between FNP and DMN circuits. Inefficiency of this crucial circuits functioning may be a more general mechanism leading to problems with flexible cognition and executive functions, and could be the cause of more typical symptoms of depression like persistent rumination.

  3. Efficacy of bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: results of a multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlabac-de Lange, J J; Bais, L; van Es, F D; Visser, B G J; Reinink, E; Bakker, B; van den Heuvel, E R; Aleman, A; Knegtering, H

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, reporting inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate whether 10 Hz stimulation of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during 3 weeks enhances treatment effects. A multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed in 32 patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder, and moderate to severe negative symptoms [Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative subscale ⩾15]. Patients were randomized to a 3-week course of active or sham rTMS. Primary outcome was severity of negative symptoms as measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the PANSS negative symptom score. Secondary outcome measures included cognition, insight, quality of life and mood. Subjects were followed up at 4 weeks and at 3 months. For analysis of the data a mixed-effects linear model was used. A significant improvement of the SANS in the active group compared with sham up to 3 months follow-up (p = 0.03) was found. The PANSS negative symptom scores did not show a significant change (p = 0.19). Of the cognitive tests, only one showed a significant improvement after rTMS as compared with sham. Finally, a significant change of insight was found with better scores in the treatment group. Bilateral 10 Hz prefrontal rTMS reduced negative symptoms, as measured with the SANS. More studies are needed to investigate optimal parameters for rTMS, the cognitive effects and the neural basis.

  4. Using a bayesian latent class model to evaluate the utility of investigating persons with negative polymerase chain reaction results for pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Gillian A M; Eickhoff, Jens C; Koepke, Ruth; Hopfensperger, Daniel J; Davis, Jeffrey P; Conway, James H

    2013-07-15

    Pertussis remains difficult to control. Imperfect sensitivity of diagnostic tests and lack of specific guidance regarding interpretation of negative test results among patients with compatible symptoms may contribute to its spread. In this study, we examined whether additional pertussis cases could be identified if persons with negative pertussis test results were routinely investigated. We conducted interviews among 250 subjects aged ≤18 years with pertussis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results reported from 2 reference laboratories in Wisconsin during July-September 2010 to determine whether their illnesses met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's clinical case definition (CCD) for pertussis. PCR validity measures were calculated using the CCD as the standard for pertussis disease. Two Bayesian latent class models were used to adjust the validity measures for pertussis detectable by 1) culture alone and 2) culture and/or more sensitive measures such as serology. Among 190 PCR-negative subjects, 54 (28%) had illnesses meeting the CCD. In adjusted analyses, PCR sensitivity and the negative predictive value were 1) 94% and 99% and 2) 43% and 87% in the 2 types of models, respectively. The models suggested that public health follow-up of reported pertussis patients with PCR-negative results leads to the detection of more true pertussis cases than follow-up of PCR-positive persons alone. The results also suggest a need for a more specific pertussis CCD.

  5. Diagnostic yield and clinical impact of routine cell culture for respiratory viruses among children with a negative multiplex RT-PCR result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhounaim, M; Xiao, Y; Caya, C; Papenburg, J

    2017-09-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the reference standard for respiratory virus testing. However, cell culture may still have added value in identifying viruses not detected by PCR. We aimed to estimate the yield and clinical impact of routine respiratory virus culture among children with a negative PCR result. A retrospective cohort study was performed from Jan. 2013 to Sept. 2015. Respiratory samples from hospitalized or immunocompromised patients culture monolayers if they tested negative by a PCR assay for 12 respiratory viruses. We studied patients with a respiratory specimen negative by PCR and positive by culture. Duplicates and samples of sold services were excluded. Data on demographics, clinical history, laboratory findings, and patient management were collected from patients' charts. Descriptive and multivariate statistics were performed. Overall, 4638 PCR-negative samples were inoculated in cell culture. Of those, 196 (4.2%) were cell culture positive, and 144 met study inclusion criteria. Most subjects (81.9%) were hospitalized. Mean age was 2.4±3.4years. The viruses most frequently isolated were cytomegalovirus (33.3%) and enteroviruses (19.4%). Cell culture results prompted a change in management in 5 patients (3.5%), all of whom had acyclovir initiated for localized HSV-1 infection. Four of these had skin or mucosal lesions that could be sampled to establish a diagnosis. In children, routine viral culture on respiratory specimens that were negative by PCR has low yield and minimal clinical impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    Full Text Available Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse, but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74. Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02, and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

  7. Cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted prostate biopsy according to PI-RADS classification in patients with prior negative systematic biopsy results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Lai

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted biopsy without concurrent systematic biopsy can detect significant prostate cancer in patients with previous negative systematic biopsy results and persistently elevated PSA levels. Noncancer-yield patients should undergo active surveillance and further follow-ups.

  8. Gamification and the Internet: Experts Expect Game Layers to Expand in the Future, with Positive and Negative Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janna; Rainie, Lee

    2012-08-01

    This analysis of the opinions of 1,021 Internet stakeholders was aimed at gauging current opinions about the potential future of game mechanics online. Nearly 5,000 people who are engaged in some way in Internet-related leadership or interests were invited to read a pair of opposing 2020 gamification scenarios and offer their written views on the likely future of gamification online by 2020. The result is not projectable to any population other than these respondents. A slight majority of 53 percent agreed with a proposed scenario that game mechanics will become a part of everyday life for most Internet users by 2020; a great majority of respondents said game elements will play a vital role in specific realms such as health and education by then. Some respondents said people will be resistant if game layers are built into too many aspects of people's daily lives. Some shared concerns that game-design approaches can be used to manipulate people without their knowledge.

  9. Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Direct Antiglobulin Testing With a False-Negative Result in a 53-Year-Old Man: The DAT Will Set You Free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losos, Michael; Hamad, Diane; Joshi, Sarita; Scrape, Scott; Chen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the most common of the relatively uncommon autoimmune-mediated hemolytic anemias (AIHAs), is mediated by polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies in most cases. Herein, we present a case of WAIHA involving a direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with an initially negative result. Using a modified DAT protocol, repeat testing of the same specimen material from a previously healthy 53-year-old man yielded positive results. This case demonstrates that investigation of an apparently negative DAT result plays a critical role in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly progressing hemolytic anemia and the reversal of that decline. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted prostate biopsy according to PI-RADS classification in patients with prior negative systematic biopsy results

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Wei-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Liu, Hsian-Tzu; Park, Byung Kwan; Shen, Shu-Huei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chang, Yen-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prostate cancer yield rate of targeted transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy with cognitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration without concurrent systematic biopsy in patients with previous negative systematic TRUS-guided biopsy results and persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Methods: In this prospective study conducted from August 2013 to January 2015, patients with at least one previous n...

  12. Usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1 as confirmatory assay for non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Repoles, Laura Cotta; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Xavier, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    A relevant issue in Chagas disease serological diagnosis regards the requirement of using several confirmatory methods to elucidate the status of non-negative results from blood bank screening. The development of a single reliable method may potentially contribute to distinguish true and false positive results. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the multiplexed flow-cytometry anti-T. cruzi/Leishmania IgG1 serology/(FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1) with three conventional confirmatory criteria (ELISA-EIA, Immunofluorescence assay-IIF and EIA/IIF consensus criterion) to define the final status of samples with actual/previous non-negative results during anti-T. cruzi ELISA-screening in blood banks. Apart from inconclusive results, the FC-TRIPLEX presented a weak agreement index with EIA, while a strong agreement was observed when either IIF or EIA/IIF consensus criteria were applied. Discriminant analysis and Spearman's correlation further corroborates the agreement scores. ROC curve analysis showed that FC-TRIPLEX performance indexes were higher when IIF and EIA/IIF consensus were used as a confirmatory criterion. Logistic regression analysis further demonstrated that the probability of FC-TRIPLEX to yield positive results was higher for inconclusive results from IIF and EIA/IIF consensus. Machine learning tools illustrated the high level of categorical agreement between FC-TRIPLEX versus IIF or EIA/IIF consensus. Together, these findings demonstrated the usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX as a tool to elucidate the status of non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Making Sense of a Negative Clinical Trial Result: A Bayesian Analysis of a Clinical Trial of Lorazepam and Diazepam for Pediatric Status Epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Daniel B; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a Bayesian approach to a recent negative clinical trial result. A Bayesian analysis of such a trial can provide a more useful interpretation of results and can incorporate previous evidence. This was a secondary analysis of the efficacy and safety results of the Pediatric Seizure Study, a randomized clinical trial of lorazepam versus diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus. We included the published results from the only prospective pediatric study of status in a Bayesian hierarchic model, and we performed sensitivity analyses on the amount of pooling between studies. We evaluated 3 summary analyses for the results: superiority, noninferiority (margin diazepam. There is a 95% probability that the true efficacy of lorazepam is in the range of 66% to 80%. For both the efficacy and safety outcomes, there was greater than 95% probability that lorazepam is noninferior to diazepam, and there was greater than 90% probability that the 2 medications are practically equivalent. The results were largely driven by the current study because of the sample sizes of our study (n=273) and the previous pediatric study (n=61). Because Bayesian analysis estimates the probability of one or more hypotheses, such an approach can provide more useful information about the meaning of the results of a negative trial outcome. In the case of pediatric status epilepticus, it is highly likely that lorazepam is noninferior and practically equivalent to diazepam. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Results of immunohistochemistry diagnostics of breast cancer in the region of Grodno with consideration of the BRCA1 gene mutation in triple negative cancer

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Krylov; M. G. Zubritsky; I. A. Kurstak; S. A. Lialikau; V. A. Basinski

    2017-01-01

    Background: The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment in breast cancer may determine not only the outcome, but also the main directions of antitumor treatment.Aim: To study the results of IHC diagnosis of breast cancer in the Grodno region in 2010 to 2015, to determine the frequency of the BRCA1 gene mutations in triple-negative breast cancer.Materials and methods: 2008 cases of estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive and 2445 cases of HER2/neu expressing breast canc...

  15. A surge of p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 in recent decades (but negative results are increasing rapidly too)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodou, Dimitra

    2015-01-01

    It is known that statistically significant (positive) results are more likely to be published than non-significant (negative) results. However, it has been unclear whether any increasing prevalence of positive results is stronger in the “softer” disciplines (social sciences) than in the “harder” disciplines (physical sciences), and whether the prevalence of negative results is decreasing over time. Using Scopus, we searched the abstracts of papers published between 1990 and 2013, and measured longitudinal trends of multiple expressions of positive versus negative results, including p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 versus p-values between 0.051 and 0.059, textual reporting of “significant difference” versus “no significant difference,” and the reporting of p 0.05. We found no support for a “hierarchy of sciences” with physical sciences at the top and social sciences at the bottom. However, we found large differences in reporting practices between disciplines, with p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 over 1990–2013 being 65.7 times more prevalent in the biological sciences than in the physical sciences. The p-values near the significance threshold of 0.05 on either side have both increased but with those p-values between 0.041 and 0.049 having increased to a greater extent (2013-to-1990 ratio of the percentage of papers = 10.3) than those between 0.051 and 0.059 (ratio = 3.6). Contradictorily, p 0.05 (ratios = 1.4 and 4.8, respectively), while the use of “significant difference” has shown only a modest increase compared to “no significant difference” (ratios = 1.5 and 1.1, respectively). We also compared reporting of significance in the United States, Asia, and Europe and found that the results are too inconsistent to draw conclusions on cross-cultural differences in significance reporting. We argue that the observed longitudinal trends are caused by negative factors, such as an increase of questionable research practices, but also by

  16. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin: Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia cross-sectional survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    -9), anxiety (GAD-7), diabetes distress (PAID) and diabetes-specific self-efficacy (DES-SF). Results: Insulin was perceived to be very important, and its benefits (e.g. improves health) were endorsed by most (82%). Fifty-one per cent believed that taking insulin means their diabetes has become worse...... negative insulin appraisals were significantly younger (Mean Diff. = 5 years, P diabetes-specific self-efficacy (P diabetes distress...... (all P diabetes using insulin, and are associated with lower general and diabetes-specific emotional well-being, reduced diabetes-specific self-efficacy and satisfaction with blood glucose. What...

  17. Identifying Non-Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy-Positive and False Negative Results in Prior Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Newborn Screening Programs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatheridge, Michele A; Kwon, Jennifer M; Mendell, Jerry M; Scheuerbrandt, Günter; Moat, Stuart J; Eyskens, François; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Drousiotou, Anthi; Griggs, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a candidate for the recommended universal screening panel based on evidence that early corticosteroid treatment improves outcomes and on new genetic therapies that require early diagnosis for effectiveness. Elevated creatine kinase levels in the neonatal period are the initial screening marker in DMD newborn screening programs but is found in inherited muscle disorders other than DMD. Data are needed to inform protocols for future screening and follow-up testing and care in these patients. To review non-DMD muscle disorders identified by prior DMD screening programs and to investigate whether these programs failed to identify patients later diagnosed as having DMD (false-negative findings). Since 1975, 10 DMD newborn screening programs have provided opportunities to study screening protocols, outcomes, and parental responses. These programs used elevated creatine kinase levels in dried blood spots for the initial screening, with the diagnosis of DMD based on findings of clinical follow-up, muscle biopsy, or direct mutational testing of the DMD gene. Literature regarding these prior programs was reviewed in PubMed, and the programs were discussed directly with the directors when possible to identify diagnoses of non-DMD disorders and false negative results from 1975 to July 12, 2015. Data were collected from screening programs, which were active between 1975 and December 2011. Data were analyzed from March 26, 2015, to August 24, 2015. The 10 screening programs screened more than 1.8 million newborns between 1975 and 2011, and 344 were diagnosed with DMD. Of those screened, the majority were boys. Across all programs, 80 patients had positive results for non-DMD disorders, including Becker muscular dystrophy and forms of limb-girdle and congenital muscular dystrophies, and 21 patients had false-negative findings for DMD. Screening for DMD will result in identification of other muscle diseases. Future screening protocols should

  18. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  19. Cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted prostate biopsy according to PI-RADS classification in patients with prior negative systematic biopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wei-Jen; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Liu, Hsian-Tzu; Park, Byung Kwan; Shen, Shu-Huei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chang, Yen-Hwa

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prostate cancer yield rate of targeted transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy with cognitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) registration without concurrent systematic biopsy in patients with previous negative systematic TRUS-guided biopsy results and persistently elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. In this prospective study conducted from August 2013 to January 2015, patients with at least one previous negative systematic TRUS-guided biopsy and persistently high PSA (≥4 ng/mL) levels were referred for multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). Those patients with suspicious findings on mpMRI received a subsequent cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion biopsy. The cancer-detection rate, tumor location, and Gleason score were confirmed, and PSA-related data were compared between cancer-yield and noncancer-yield groups. In total, 48 patients were included in this study. MRI was designated to be four and five in 17 patients. Fifteen patients received a cognitive fusion-targeted biopsy, and prostate cancers were detected in 10 patients. The cancer-detection rate was 20.8% (10/48), and the positive-predictive value of MRI was 66.7%. No significant differences were observed in the PSA level, PSA velocity, or transitional zone volume between the cancer-yield and noncancer-yield groups; however, the corresponding difference in PSA transitional zone density was significant (p=0.025). Cognitive MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted biopsy without concurrent systematic biopsy can detect significant prostate cancer in patients with previous negative systematic biopsy results and persistently elevated PSA levels. Noncancer-yield patients should undergo active surveillance and further follow-ups. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  1. Using a simulation model to assess risk of false negative point-of-care urinary human chorionic gonadotropin device results due to high-dose hook interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhorn, Denise; Korpi-Steiner, Nichole

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear if the point-of-care (POC) Clinitest hCG device is subject to high-dose hook interference from physiological concentrations of intact human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), β-core fragment of hCG (hCGβcf), and hCG free β-subunit (hCGβ) found in urine during pregnancy. We used a simulation model to address this question and related our findings to our institution's pregnant population in order to assess risk for potential false-negative hCG results. The expected distribution of days relative to ovulation during routine POC hCG testing was estimated from 182 patients. Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device susceptibility to high-dose hook interference from hCG variants and potential risk of false-negative results as it relates to this population were evaluated by testing increasing concentrations of hCG, hCGβcf, hCGβ as well as urine simulating physiological hCG, hCGβcf and hCGβ concentrations expected during early pregnancy (≤44 days post-ovulation). The Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device exhibited high-dose hook interference from hCGβcf alone, but not from hCG, hCGβ, or simulated physiological urinary concentrations of combined hCG, hCGβcf and hCGβ expected during early pregnancy. The majority of our patient population had urinary hCG testing conducted during early pregnancy. The Clinitest-Clinitek Status hCG device is unlikely to exhibit false-negative urinary hCG results due to high-dose hook interference for women in early healthy pregnancy, although additional studies are necessary to determine potential risk in other patient populations. Visual interpretation of POC urinary hCG device results is an important failure mode to consider in risk analyses for erroneous urinary hCG device results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Chagasic thymic atrophy does not affect negative selection but results in the export of activated CD4+CD8+ T cells in severe forms of human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morrot

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Extrathymic CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP T cells are increased in some pathophysiological conditions, including infectious diseases. In the murine model of Chagas disease, it has been shown that the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is able to target the thymus and induce alterations of the thymic microenvironment and the lymphoid compartment. In the acute phase, this results in a severe atrophy of the organ and early release of DP cells into the periphery. To date, the effect of the changes promoted by the parasite infection on thymic central tolerance has remained elusive. Herein we show that the intrathymic key elements that are necessary to promote the negative selection of thymocytes undergoing maturation during the thymopoiesis remains functional during the acute chagasic thymic atrophy. Intrathymic expression of the autoimmune regulator factor (Aire and tissue-restricted antigen (TRA genes is normal. In addition, the expression of the proapoptotic Bim protein in thymocytes was not changed, revealing that the parasite infection-induced thymus atrophy has no effect on these marker genes necessary to promote clonal deletion of T cells. In a chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA-specific T-cell receptor (TCR transgenic system, the administration of OVA peptide into infected mice with thymic atrophy promoted OVA-specific thymocyte apoptosis, further indicating normal negative selection process during the infection. Yet, although the intrathymic checkpoints necessary for thymic negative selection are present in the acute phase of Chagas disease, we found that the DP cells released into the periphery acquire an activated phenotype similar to what is described for activated effector or memory single-positive T cells. Most interestingly, we also demonstrate that increased percentages of peripheral blood subset of DP cells exhibiting an activated HLA-DR+ phenotype are associated with severe cardiac forms of human chronic Chagas disease. These cells may

  3. Patterns of Recurrence and Outcome According to Breast Cancer Subtypes in Lymph Node–Negative Disease: Results From International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; Sun, Zhuoxin; Viale, Giuseppe; Price, Karen N.; Crivellari, Diana; Snyder, Raymond D.; Gelber, Richard D.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Cardoso, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate the pattern of recurrence and outcome of node-negative breast cancer (BC) according to major subtypes. Patients and Methods In all, 1,951 patients with node-negative, early-stage BC randomly assigned in International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX with centrally reviewed pathology data were included. BC subtypes were defined as triple negative (TN; n = 310), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive (n = 369), and hormone receptor positive with high (luminal B–like [LB-like]; n = 763) or low (luminal A–like [LA-like]; n = 509) proliferative activity by Ki-67 labeling index. BC-free interval (BCFI) events were invasive BC recurrence in local, contralateral breast, nodal, bone, or visceral sites. Time to first site–specific recurrence was evaluated by using cumulative incidence and competing risks regression analysis. Results Median follow-up was 12.5 years. The 10-year BCFI was higher for patients with LA-like (86%) BC compared with LB-like (76%), HER2 (73%), and TN (71%; P < .001) BC. TN and HER2 cohorts had higher hazard of BCFI event in the first 4 years after diagnosis (pre-trastuzumab). LB-like cohorts had a continuously higher hazard of BCFI event over time compared with LA-like cohorts. Ten-year overall survival was higher for LA-like (89%) compared with LB-like (83%), HER2 (77%), and TN (75%; P < .001) BC. LB-like subtypes had higher rates of bone as first recurrence site than other subtypes (P = .005). Visceral recurrence as first site was lower for the LA-like subgroup, with similar incidence among the other subgroups when treated with chemotherapy (P = .003). Conclusion BC subtypes have different distant recurrence patterns over time. Defining different patterns of BC recurrence can improve BC care through surveillance guidelines and can guide the design of clinical studies. PMID:23897954

  4. Results of immunohistochemistry diagnostics of breast cancer in the region of Grodno with consideration of the BRCA1 gene mutation in triple negative cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Krylov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of immunohistochemical (IHC assessment in breast cancer may determine not only the outcome, but also the main directions of antitumor treatment.Aim: To study the results of IHC diagnosis of breast cancer in the Grodno region in 2010 to 2015, to determine the frequency of the BRCA1 gene mutations in triple-negative breast cancer.Materials and methods: 2008 cases of estrogen receptor and/or progesterone receptor positive and 2445 cases of HER2/neu expressing breast cancer were extracted from the database and IHC laboratory journals of the Grodno Regional Clinical Bureau for Pathological Anatomy. Standard DAKO kits (Denmark were used for IHC. Molecular genetic studies of DNA samples for the presence of the BRCA genes mutations were done by polymerase chain reaction in 449 women with breast cancer. BRCA1 mutation was assessed in 39 cases of triple-negative breast cancer.Results: HER2/neu overexpression (3+ was found in 25.5% (622/2445 of all breast cancer cases, whereas of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor positive tumors in 50.05% (1105/2008 of cases. Triple negative breast cancer was diagnosed in 19.8% (398/2008 of cases, and the mean age of the patients at the diagnosis was 56.2 years. The BRCA1 gene mutations were identified in 5 of 39 (12.8% cases of triple negative breast cancer, which is significantly more often than in women with breast cancer without consideration of their hereditary predisposition (17/449, or 3.8%; χ2 = 4.87, p = 0.0274. Histological examination showed that among the tumors with the BRCA1 mutations, there were 3 cases with invasive ductal cancer (one G2 and two G3, one with medullary and one with undifferentiated G3 cancer. One patient had a metachronous bilateral lesion.Conclusion: In the region of Grodno, 50% of breast cancer patients would need hormonal therapy, 25% would need treatment with trastuzumab, and 20% with cytostatic agents. The

  5. [Can we rule out a congenital cytomegalovirus infection when the result of polymerase chain reaction in dried blood spots is negative?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Oñós, Isabel; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Codina-Grau, María Gemma; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; López-Galera, Rosa María; Marín-Soria, José Luís; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2014-11-01

    The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) in dried blood spots collected routinely for metabolic screening has been assessed for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection in many studies, but not in Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of this technique in our hospital. A cross-sectional retrospective observational study was conducted including all patients born between January, 2007 and September, 2012 with confirmed cCMV infection. The assessment of CMV DNA was made by using rt-PCR in dried blood spots of these patients. Fourteen patients were included: 4/14 were symptomatic and 4/14 had sequelae. The detection of CMV DNA by rt-PCR was positive in only 7 patients. A statistically significant relationship between low viral load at birth and negative rt-PCR in dried blood spots was demonstrated. Despite the low number of patients included, our data highlight an important amount of false negative results in the DNA CMV detection by rt-PCR in these samples for the retrospective diagnosis of cCMV infection, especially in cases with low viral load at birth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  7. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  8. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eleven-year follow-up results in the delay of breast irradiation after conservative breast surgery in node-negative breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This retrospective review was conducted to determine if delay in the start of radiotherapy after conservative breast surgery had any detrimental effect on local recurrence or disease-free survival in node-negative breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 568 patients with T1 and T2, N0 breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation, without adjuvant systemic therapy, between January 1, 1985 and December 31, 1992 at the London Regional Cancer Centre. The time intervals from definitive breast surgery to breast irradiation used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), greater than 8 to 12 weeks (235 patients), greater than 12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and greater than 16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local-recurrence and disease-free survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 11.2 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of age and pathologic features. No statistically significant difference was seen between the 4 groups in local recurrence or disease-free survival with surgery radiotherapy interval (p = 0.521 and p = 0.222, respectively). The overall local-recurrence rate at 5 and 10 years was 4.6% and 11.3%, respectively. The overall disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 79.6% and 67.0%, respectively. Conclusion: This retrospective study suggests that delay in the start of breast irradiation of up to 16 weeks from definitive surgery does not increase the risk of recurrence in node-negative breast cancer patients. The certainty of these results is limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis

  10. Negative computer-imaged ThinPrep Pap test and positive hybrid capture2 HPV co-testing results: A quality assurance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rema; Molina, David; Halligan, Allison M; Vakil, Behzad; Alperstein, Susan A; Hoda, Rana S

    2015-09-01

    Women ≥30 years of age with negative (-) Pap tests and positive (+) HPV co-test results have a higher prevalence and cumulative risk of developing high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). Thus, the current management in these women is to repeat co-test in 12 months or immediate reflex genotyping for HPV16 or HPV 16/18. If genotyping is not an option, timely quality assurance (QA) rescreen of such Pap tests may be a valuable alternative. All ThinPrep Pap tests (TPPT) interpreted as negative for intra epithelial lesion (NILM) or NILM with reactive cellular changes (NILM/RCC) and a (+) high-risk HPV [Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), Qiagen, Hilden, Germany] co-test result over a 45-month period (10/2009-06/2013) underwent monthly QA review. The TPPT were screened by the TP Imaging System [TIS, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA]. Twenty five thousand six hundred and seventy five (18%) NILM and NILM/RCC TPPT of a total of 141,548 TPPT underwent HPV co-test. HPV test was (+) in 2,300 (8.9%) TPPT cases. HPV (+) cases by age group were Pap, and one case showed endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on biopsy. Timely QA review of HPV (+) Pap (-) co-tests is a valuable monitor. Ninety percentage of reclassified cases were in ≥30 age group and 70% were originally signed out by using TIS 22 Field of View (FOV) only. Three reclassified cases had significant findings on follow up (F/U). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography in patients with Crohn's disease using a negative oral contrast material: initial results of a noninvasive imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reittner, Pia; Goritschnig, Toria; Doerfler, Otto; Petritsch, Wolfgang; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Preidler, Klaus W.; Szolar, Dieter H.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively define the role of multiplanar spiral CT enterography with a new negative oral contrast material for noninvasive assessment of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease. Thirty patients with established Crohn's disease prospectively underwent spiral CT enterography at 45-60 min after distension of the small bowel with 1400 ml of a negative oral contrast material (Mucofalk water enema). Spiral CT scans were obtained 50 s after administration of intravenous contrast material with the following parameters: 5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table feed; and 3-mm reconstruction interval. The adequacy of bowel opacification, luminal distension, and the contribution of two-dimensional multiplanar reformatted imaging were assessed by two observers. Spiral CT imaging findings were compared with results of enteroclysis as well as endoscopic and histological findings in all patients. Spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk water enema was well tolerated in 29 of 30 patients. Findings on spiral CT enterography were comparable with those of barium studies in 25 of 30 patients, superior to those on barium studies in 4 patients, and inferior in 1 patient (p<0.05). The addition of multiplanar reformatted images to axial spiral CT scans significantly improved observers' confidence in image interpretation (p<0.05) but did not reveal additional abnormalities. Multiplanar spiral CT enterography with Mucofalk excellently provides information in patients with Crohn's disease. This technique accurately depicts the level of small bowel obstruction and the extent of inflammatory small bowel disease and its extraluminal complications. (orig.)

  12. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  13. Negative and positive participant responses to the composite international diagnostic interview - Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, R. de; Have, M.L. ten; Dorsselaer, S.A.F.M. van; Schoemaker, C.G.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the emotional responses of participants in community surveys to standardised psychiatric interviews like the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). This study investigates the proportion of subjects responding negatively or positively to the CIDI, and identifies

  14. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  15. Modulation of the mismatch negativity (MMN) to vowel duration changes in native speakers of Finnish and German as a result of language experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, Ursula; Ylinen, Sari; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti; Schröger, Erich; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    While crucial for phoneme distinctions in the Finnish language, mere vowel duration is of lower relevance as a phonetically distinctive cue in the German language. To investigate the pre-attentive processing of vowel duration between these two languages, the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) that is an index of automatic auditory change detection, was measured in Finnish and German native speakers for vowel duration changes embedded in the pseudoword sasa. Vowel duration changes thereby were presented as a shortening or a lengthening of either the first- or second-syllable vowel. An additional non-speech condition measured the MMN to duration and frequency changes in tones. In both language groups, diminished MMN amplitudes for the shortening of vowel duration in the word-final syllable suggested a generally more difficult discrimination of vowel duration in a word-final position. Further, shorter MMN latencies for the Finns than the Germans for vowel duration as well as tone duration deviants suggested a generally higher sensitivity to duration contrasts in the Finnish language group. No latency difference between the groups was found for tone frequency processing. Moreover, the Finns, but not the Germans, showed a leftward shift of the MMN scalp distribution for changes in vowel duration, whereas the MMN topography was highly similar between both groups in the tone condition. An enhanced phonetic processing of vowel duration changes and possibly an enhanced processing of sound duration in general is thus indicated for the Finns as a result of their extensive linguistic experience with phonetically distinctive vowel duration contrasts in the native language.

  16. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis Jeffery L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1 plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs, we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1 that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections.

  17. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Gaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection and inflammation even with negative microscopy, negative cultures, and negative broad range polymerase chain reaction in cases of Listeria meningitis. Follow-up spinal taps can be necessary to detect the presence of Listeria monocytogenes.

  18. Interrelation and independence of positive and negative psychological constructs in predicting general treatment adherence in coronary artery patients - Results from the THORESCI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Eveline; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kupper, Nina

    2016-09-01

    In cardiac patients, positive psychological factors have been associated with improved medical and psychological outcomes. The current study examined the interrelation between and independence of multiple positive and negative psychological constructs. Furthermore, the potential added predictive value of positive psychological functioning regarding the prediction of patients' treatment adherence and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) was investigated. 409 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients were included (mean age = 65.6 ± 9.5; 78% male). Self-report questionnaires were administered one month post-PCI. Positive psychological constructs included positive affect (GMS) and optimism (LOT-R); negative constructs were depression (PHQ-9, BDI), anxiety (GAD-7) and negative affect (GMS). Six months post-PCI self-reported general adherence (MOS) and CR participation were determined. Factor Analysis (Oblimin rotation) revealed two components (r = − 0.56), reflecting positive and negative psychological constructs. Linear regression analyses showed that in unadjusted analyses both optimism and positive affect were associated with better general treatment adherence at six months (p positive affect was significantly associated with CR participation. After controlling for multiple covariates, this relation was no longer significant. Positive and negative constructs should be considered as two distinct dimensions. Positive psychological constructs (i.e. optimism) may be of incremental value to negative psychological constructs in predicting patients' treatment adherence. A more complete view of a patients' psychological functioning will open new avenues for treatment. Additional research is needed to investigate the relationship between positive psychological factors and other cardiac outcomes, such as cardiac events and mortality.

  19. Negative appraisals of insulin therapy are common among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin : Results from Diabetes MILES - Australia cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-Truscott, E.; Skinner, T.C.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify insulin therapy appraisals among adults with Type 2 diabetes using insulin and how negative appraisals relate to clinical, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Diabetes MILES – Australia 2011 was a national survey of adults with diabetes, focused on behavioural and

  20. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. A misleading false-negative result using Neisseria gonorrhoeae opa MGB multiplex PCR assay in patient's rectal sample due to partial mutations of the opa gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; van Empel, Pieter Jan; Costa, Sandra; Oud, Rob T N; van der Straaten, Tahar; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-07-01

    A 53-year-old homosexual man presented at his general practitioner (GP) practice with a suspicion of sexually transmitted infection. Initial NAAT screening was performed for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient was positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae both for his urine and rectal sample. The subsequent confirmation test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a second laboratory was only confirmed for the urine sample and the rectal sample was negative. We report a case of a potential false-negative diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to mutations of DNA sequence in the probe region of opa-MGB assay of the rectal sample. The patient did not suffer any discomfort as diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in his urine sample had already led to treatment by prescribing the patient with Ceftriaxone 500 mg IV dissolved in 1 ml lidocaine 2% and 4 mL saline. The patient also received a prescription for Azithromycin (2x500 mg).

  2. Culture Negative Listeria monocytogenes Meningitis Resulting in Hydrocephalus and Severe Neurological Sequelae in a Previously Healthy Immunocompetent Man with Penicillin Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaini, Shahin; Karlsen, Gunn Hege; Nandy, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 74-year-old Caucasian man with penicillin allergy was admitted with evolving headache, confusion, fever, and neck stiffness. Treatment for bacterial meningitis with dexamethasone and monotherapy ceftriaxone was started. The cerebrospinal fluid showed negative microscopy...... the catheter. The patient had severe neurological sequelae. This case report emphasises the importance of covering empirically for Listeria monocytogenes in all patients with penicillin allergy with suspected bacterial meningitis. The case also shows that it is possible to have significant infection...... for bacteria, no bacterial growth, and negative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial DNA. The patient developed hydrocephalus on a second CT scan of the brain on the 5th day of admission. An external ventricular catheter was inserted and Listeria monocytogenes grew in the cerebrospinal fluid from...

  3. Evaluation of Xpert HIV-1 Qual assay for resolution of HIV-1 infection in samples with negative or indeterminate Geenius HIV-1/2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, Michal; Wax, Marina; Gozlan, Yael; Rakovsky, Aviya; Mendelson, Ella; Mor, Orna

    2016-03-01

    Diagnosis of HIV infection is a multistage algorithm. Following screening with 4(th) generation combination immunoassay, confirmation of HIV infection is performed with an antibody assay that differentiates HIV-1 from HIV-2 infection. In the newly updated algorithm, samples that are nonreactive or indeterminate in the differentiation assay are to be tested with an HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) test for resolution. Xpert HIV-1 Qual is a new NAAT assay approved for the identification of HIV infection in whole and dried blood. To assess the performance of Xpert HIV-1 Qual supplementary assay in resolving the clinical status of serum samples reactive by 4(th) generation immunoassays and indeterminate or negative by Geenius HIV-1/2 confirmatory assay. In a retrospective study, samples from 97 individuals for whom the true HIV-1 status was already known (by follow-up samples) and which were negative or indeterminate by HIV-1/2 Geenius assay were tested with Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay. Xpert Qual assay correctly classified all 97 samples from HIV-1 positive (n=49) and negative (n=48) individuals. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert Qual when using the true HIV status as a reference were 100% (92.7-100% at 95% confidence interval [CI] and 92.6-100% at 95% CI, respectively). Applying Xpert Qual HIV-1 assay in the new HIV multi-stage diagnostic algorithm correctly classified 100% of HIV-1 infections including 49 from HIV-1 carriers who have not yet seroconverted. With this assay the total time required for acute HIV diagnosis could be significantly reduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated in urinary tract infections in Venezuela: Results of the SMART study 2009-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Napoleón; Guzmán, Manuel; Merentes, Altagracia; Rizzi, Adele; Papaptzikos, Juana; Rivero, Narlesky; Oranges, Carmela; Vlllarroel, Héctor; Limas, Yoxsivell

    2015-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) is a growing problem, which complicates their effective treatment. Surveillance is needed to guide appropriate empiric therapy. to describe the susceptibility patterns of Gram-negative bacteria isolated of patients with UTI to twelve antibiotics as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends in Venezuela. Between 2009-2012 a total of 472 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from hospitalized patients with UTI. The isolates were sent to Central Laboratory (Central Laboratory of International Health Management Associates) to confirm their identification, and to make susceptibility testing as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Enterobacteriacea comprised 96.6% of the total, where Escherichia coli (76.9%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.6%) were the most frequent. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was detected in 21.6% of isolates. Top antimicrobial activity were ertapenem, imipenem, and amikacin (> 90.0%), slightly lower for amikacin (85.1%) in ESBL-producing strains. Resistance rates to fluoroquinolones and ampicillin/sulbactam were high (40 y 64%, respectively). These data suggest a necessary revision of the therapeutic regimens for the empirical treatment of UTI in Venezuela.

  5. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. D.; Jeppesen, D. L.; Kolte, L.

    2001-01-01

    Hematologic and immunologic functions were examined in 19 HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers and 19 control infants of HIV-negative mothers. Control infants were selected to match for gestational age, weight, and mode of delivery. Cord blood was obtained from all infants and used for flow...... and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P HIV-positive mothers were found (frequency of CD4(+) cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P ...). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to generate fewer T...

  6. Stagnations of increasing trends in negative pressure with repeated cavitation in water/metal Berthelot tubes as a result of mechanical sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiro, Kazuki; Ohde, Yoshihito; Tanzawa, Yasutoshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate effects of mechanical sealing on negative pressures in water/metal tube Berthelot systems, trends in negative pressure are observed through runs of temperature cycles below 90 deg. C in two systems made of metals having small amounts of gas inclusions. The first system is a pre-degassed all-stainless-steel tube/plug system. The steel is a special product for vacuum engineering. The second is the same tube sealed with plugs made of silver solidified one-dimensionally in a vacuum furnace. A new type of trend, stagnation for intermediate cycles is found in both systems so long as sealing distortion of each plug is small in amount. The stagnation period for the first system is longer than that for the second one. A metallurgical mechanism of a gas-being-replenished crevice model is proposed: distorted parts of metals undergo heat-treatment during runs of temperature cycles, and the heat-treatment enhances the rates of impurity gas transports to crevices on the metal surface where cavitation occurs, and the transport causes the stagnation for cycles during which the rates are still high

  7. Childhood trauma, depression and negative symptoms are independently associated with impaired quality of life in schizophrenia. Results from the national FACE-SZ cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianarisoa, M; Boyer, L; Godin, O; Brunel, L; Bulzacka, E; Aouizerate, B; Berna, F; Capdevielle, D; Dorey, J M; Dubertret, C; Dubreucq, J; Faget, C; Gabayet, F; Llorca, P M; Mallet, J; Misdrahi, D; Rey, R; Richieri, R; Passerieux, C; Schandrin, A; Tronche, A M; Urbach, M; Vidailhet, P; Schürhoff, F; Fond, G

    2017-07-01

    Depression and negative symptoms have been associated with impaired Quality of life (QoL) in schizophrenia (SZ). However, childhood trauma may influence both QoL and depression in SZ patients, with consequences for the management of impaired QoL in SZ patients. The aim of the present study was to determine if childhood trauma was associated with impaired QoL in schizophrenia. A sample of 544 community-dwelling stabilized SZ patients enrolled in FACE-SZ cohort were utilized in this study (74.1% males, mean aged 32.3years, mean illness duration 10.6years). QoL was self-reported with the S-QoL18 questionnaire. Childhood trauma was self-reported with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Depression was measured by the Calgary Depression Rating Scale for Schizophrenia. Psychotic severity was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS). Other clinical factors, treatments, comorbidities, functioning and sociodemographical variables were also recorded, with validated scales. Overall, 151 participants (27.8%) had a current major depressive episode and 406 (82.5%) reported at least one episode of historical childhood trauma. In multivariate analyses, lower QoL total score was associated with a history of childhood trauma (β=-0.21, pchildhood trauma in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of risk factors for false-negative results with an antigen-specific peripheral blood-based quantitative T cell assay (T-SPOT®. TB) in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis: A large-scale retrospective study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi; Zhang, Shaojun; Yao, Lan; Fan, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of an interferon-γ release assay, T-SPOT ® . TB, for diagnosing active tuberculosis (TB) and to identify risk factors for false-negative results. Methods This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with active TB and with non-TB respiratory diseases to evaluate the risk factors for false-negative results when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay for the diagnosis of active TB. Patients with active TB were categorized as having confirmed pulmonary TB, clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Results This study analysed 4964 consecutive patients; 2425 with active TB and 2539 with non-TB respiratory diseases. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the following five factors that were all associated with an increased false-negative rate with the T-SPOT ® . TB assay: increased age (odds ratio [OR] 1.018; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.013, 1.024); decreased CD8+ count (OR 0.307; 95% CI 0.117, 0.803); negative sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear staining (OR 1.821; 95% CI 1.338, 2.477); negative mycobacterial cultures (OR 1.379; 95% CI 1.043, 1.824); and absence of EPTB (OR 1.291; 95% CI 1.026, 1.623). Conclusions Increased age, decreased CD8+ count, negative sputum AFB smear results, negative sputum mycobacterial cultures and absence of EPTB might lead to an increased false-negative rate when using the T-SPOT ® . TB assay.

  9. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  10. Factors Associated with Having a Medical Home for Children At-Risk of Experiencing Negative Events: Results from a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Bonner, Brandy; Knapp, Caprice; Bright, Melissa; Hinojosa, Melanie

    2015-10-01

    Although the Patient Centered Medical Home is a considered an optimal model for care, some children still do not receive care in this model. Beyond the clinical and practitioner factors known to affect having a medical home, family and environmental risks [referred to as adverse childhood experiences (ACE)] may also be associated with having a medical home. This study's purpose was to examine whether family and environment risks are associated with children having a medical home. Data from the nationally representative, cross-sectional 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health telephone survey were used (N = 95,677). Analyses were conducted to describe the sample characteristics and determine the association between family and environmental risks and whether a child has a medical home. A subset of risks were modeled from the seminal study of ACEs. Nearly one-quarter of parents reported that their children experienced at-least one ACE. Compared to children who experienced no ACEs, children who experienced at least one ACE, or other family and environmental risks, had lower odds of having a medical home than those whom did not. Logistic regressions showed that cumulative ACEs (odds ratio (OR) 0.76; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.90) as well as other family and environmental risks (OR 0.36, 95 % CI 0.26-0.51) were related to lower odds of having a medical home. This study suggests that family and environmental risks, including ACEs, impact parental report of a child having a medical home and that a dosage effect may exist. ACEs and other risk factors must be considered when providers care for children at-risk of experiencing negative events, particularly multiple negative events.

  11. Pelvic inflammatory disease risk following negative results from chlamydia nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs versus non-NAATs in Denmark: A retrospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Davies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia. However, less sensitive diagnostic methods-including direct immunofluorescence (IF and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA-remain in use in lower resourced settings. We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests.We used Denmark's national Chlamydia Study dataset to extract all chlamydia tests performed in women aged 15-34 years (1998-2001. Tests were categorised as non-NAAT (IF/ELISA or NAAT and limited to each woman's first test in the study period. We linked test data to hospital presentations for PID within 12 months from the Danish National Patient Register. The study included 272,105 women with a chlamydia test, just under half (44.78%, n = 121,857 were tested using NAATs. Overall, 6.38% (n = 17,353 tested positive for chlamydia and 0.64% (n = 1,732 were diagnosed with PID within 12 months. The risk of PID following a positive chlamydia test did not differ by test type (NAAT 0.81% [95% CI 0.61-1.00], non-NAAT 0.78% [0.59-0.96]. The risk of PID following a negative test was significantly lower in women tested with NAATs compared to non-NAATs (0.55% [0.51-0.59] compared to 0.69% [0.64-0.73]; adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.83 [0.75-0.93]. We estimate that 18% of chlamydia infections in women tested with a non-NAAT were undiagnosed and that the risk of progression from undiagnosed chlamydia infection to PID within 12 months was 9.52% (9.30-9.68. Using non-NAATs could lead to an excess 120 cases of PID per 100,000 women tested compared to using NAATs. The key limitations of this study are under ascertainment of PID cases, misclassification bias in chlamydia and PID exposure status, bias to the association between clinical presentation and test type and the presence of unmeasured confounders

  12. First-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel in Japanese patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer: subgroup results from the randomized Phase III MERiDiAN trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Norikazu; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagami, Kazuhiko; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakayama, Takahiro; Sato, Nobuaki; Kanatani, Kazumitsu; Tajima, Kosei; Kashiwaba, Masahiro

    2017-05-01

    In the double-blind placebo-controlled randomized Phase III MERiDiAN trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01663727), adding bevacizumab to paclitaxel for HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (mBC) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS; stratified hazard ratio [HR] 0.68, 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.91). We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of first-line bevacizumab-paclitaxel in the subset of Japanese patients in MERiDiAN. Eligible patients had HER2-negative mBC previously untreated with chemotherapy. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was measured before randomization to paclitaxel 90 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8 and 15 with either placebo or bevacizumab 10 mg/kg on Days 1 and 15, repeated every 4 weeks until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Stratification factors were: baseline plasma VEGF-A level, prior adjuvant chemotherapy, hormone receptor status and geographic region. Co-primary endpoints were investigator-assessed PFS in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and in the subgroup with high plasma VEGF-A. This exploratory analysis evaluated efficacy and safety in the subpopulation treated in Japanese centers. Of 481 patients randomized in MERiDiAN, 54 (11%) were Japanese. The stratified PFS HR in the Japanese subgroup was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.29-1.40). Median PFS was 9.2 months with placebo-paclitaxel (n = 30) versus 12.7 months with bevacizumab-paclitaxel (n = 24). Bevacizumab was associated with increased incidences of Grade ≥3 neutropenia, peripheral sensory neuropathy and hypertension, but there was no Grade ≥3 proteinuria, bleeding or gastrointestinal perforation. Bevacizumab-paclitaxel efficacy in Japanese patients was consistent with the MERiDiAN ITT population. No new safety signals were seen and tolerability was consistent with previous experience. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Sexual Risk-Taking in HIV-Negative Gay and Bisexual Men Increases with Depression: Results from a U.S. National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Brett M; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-06-01

    The link between depression and sexual risk-taking has received mixed findings in the literature. The current study analyzed the links between depression and recent condomless anal sex (CAS) with casual partners among 1033 HIV-negative, non-PrEP-using, gay and bisexual men. When CAS was dichotomized as either none or some, depression was not associated with the odds of CAS (with receptive and insertive combined) or insertive CAS only, but was positively associated with the odds of receptive CAS. When CAS was tallied as a count variable of events, depression was positively associated with total CAS, receptive CAS, and insertive CAS. With the addition of a quadratic term for depression, a positive quadratic effect was only found for total CAS and receptive CAS, but not for insertive CAS. These findings highlight the utility of using count data for CAS events and treating CAS separately with regard to receptive and insertive positioning when considering the role of depression among gay and bisexual men.

  14. Prevalence of carbapenem-resistant organisms and other Gram-negative MDRO in German ICUs: first results from the national nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechler, F; Peña Diaz, L A; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Behnke, M; Gastmeier, P

    2015-04-01

    Standardized prevalence and incidence data on carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRO) and, as a relevant subgroup, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are scarce. CRO-surveillance within the German nosocomial infection surveillance system (KISS) aims to provide epidemiological surveillance data on CRO colonizations and infections. CRO-surveillance is part of a KISS-module for the surveillance of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO). MDRO-KISS methods require surveillance of all patients admitted to the ward and standardized documentation of imported and ICU-acquired cases. Data on all MDRO-carriers including colonization and infection with MDRO are collected. All presented data were routine data collected from January 1st 2013 until December 1st 2013 in accordance with the German Protection against Infection Act (IfSG). 341 ICUs submitted data on MDRO during the first year. In total, 5,171 cases of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MRGN) were identified. 848 were CRO (16%). 325 CRO-cases were acquired within the ICU (38%), and 373 CRO-patients had an infection (44%). CRO-prevalence was 0.29 per 100 patients. Acquisition rate of MRGN was 1.32 per 1,000 patient days. This rate is more than doubled the acquisition rates of other MDRO under surveillance within MDRO-KISS (0.57 MRSA, 0.49 VRE). CRO-acquisition rate was 0.3 per 1,000 patient days. Incidence density of MRGN infections bacteria was 0.58 per 1,000 patient days (CRO 0.15/1,000 patient days). To date, CRO are common in German ICUs and the relatively large proportions of ICU-acquired CRO and infections emphasize their potential to cause outbreaks. High MRGN infection rates and high ESBL prevalence data from clinical studies suggest a lack of MRGN identification in asymptomatic carriers.

  15. Patterns of clinical practice for sentinel lymph node biopsy in women with node-negative breast cancer: the results of a national survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takafumi; Sugie, Tomoharu; Shimizu, Akira; Toi, Masakazu

    2017-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is now accepted as the standard of care for axillary staging in women with node-negative breast cancer. Currently, dye, radioisotope (RI), and fluorescence indocyanine green (fICG) are tracers available. Importance of these three tracers has been recognized for SLN biopsy but the trend for SLN mapping has not been reported. Aim of this national wide survey was to evaluate practice patterns of SLN biopsy in Japan. This survey was conducted to examine the clinical practice of SLN biopsy in centers where one or more Japanese Breast Cancer Society (JBCS) board-certified surgeons practice breast cancer care. Their responses were recorded from 1 to 30 Oct 2014 and received by mail or fax in Japan. The questionnaire included three items: the number of breast cancer patients treated per year, the number of SLN biopsy procedures in a single year, and the methods for SLN detection. A total of 412 responses excluding the 63 centers that do not perform the surgery were analyzed. Out of them, 206 (50 %) centers had a gamma probe, 118 (29 %) had an NIR fluorescence imaging system, and both were available at 49 (12 %) of the centers. Neither RI nor fICG was available in 137 (33 %). The dye method was preferentially used in private hospitals. In 412 centers, a total of 36,221 patients underwent SLN biopsy per year and 23,038 (64 %) received radioactive tracer. fICG was co-applied with RI in 83 and 13 % of patients, respectively. Single mapping with RI alone was used in only 4 % of patients. The non-radioactive method was used for routine SLN biopsy in 13,183 (36 %) patients [8533 (24 %) for dye alone and 4650 (12 %) for fICG alone]. A radioactive tracer was used in 64 % of women with early breast cancer for SLN biopsy while approximately 24 % received dye alone, which was especially prevalent in PHs. The fICG was used in only 12 % as a non-radioactive method but incentive package for fICG by national health insurance plan could

  16. Self-Reported HIV-Positive Status But Subsequent HIV-Negative Test Result Using Rapid Diagnostic Testing Algorithms Among Seven Sub-Saharan African Military Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    significant medical, psychological , and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis. PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371...tive before knowing their diagnosis? A systematic review of the psychological and behavioural corre- lates of HIV-risk perception. AIDS Care. 2016; 28...careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological , and fiscal costs

  17. Repeat FNA Significantly Lowers Number of False Negative Results in Patients with Benign Nodular Thyroid Disease and Features of Chronic Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Słowińska-Klencka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to compare the risk of thyroid malignancy and efficacy of repeat FNA in patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed cytologically as benign lesion (BL with features of chronic thyroiditis (BL-CT and BL without CT features (BL-nCT. Methods. The analysis included 917 patients with BL-CT and 7046 with BL-nCT in the first FNA. Repeat biopsy was carried out in 787 patients of BL-CT and 5147 of BL-nCT; 218 patients of BL-CT and 2462 of BL-nCT were operated; in 88 cases of BL-CT and 563 of BL-nCT both ways of follow-up were available. Results. Outcome of repeat cytology implied surgery more frequently in patients with BL-CT than with BL-nCT—3.2% versus 1.9%, P < 0.05. Incidence of cancer (including incidentalomas was higher in patients with BL-CT operated after one benign cytology than in patients with two benign FNA outcomes: 10.8% versus 1.6%, P < 0.05. In patients with BL-nCT that difference was not significant: 3.2% versus 2.6%. Conclusions. Patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as BL with CT features have higher risk of malignancy than patients with BL without CT features. Repeat biopsy significantly lowers percentage of FN results in patients with BL-CT in the first FNA.

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta heterozygote knockout mice as a model of findings in postmortem schizophrenia brain or as a model of behaviors mimicking lithium action: negative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Shaldubina, Alona; Kozlovsky, Nitzan; Woodgett, James R; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H

    2008-05-01

    In mice glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta heterozygote knockout status was reported to cause reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, behaviors that mimic the effects of lithium. GSK-3beta protein and mRNA level and activity have been reported to be reduced in the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients and this could suggest the involvement of GSK-3beta in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, apomorphine-induced stereotyping was reported to be unchanged in GSK-3beta heterozygote (HZ) knockout (KO) mice. As such behaviors are not always robust, study in another laboratory seemed indicated. Motor activity and coordination were assessed in the rotarod test. Behavior was studied in the following tests: pilocarpine-induced seizures model for lithium action, Porsolt forced swim test, tail suspension test, elevated plus-maze, large open field, startle response and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing. We could not confirm the report that GSK-3beta HZ KO mice exhibit reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim or reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a manner mimicking the behavioral effects of lithium. We did not find increased apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing or disruption of prepulse inhibition, suggesting that human postmortem findings regarding GSK-3beta in schizophrenia are not mediated by changes in dopamine receptors and are not the cause of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. These data do not support the role of GSK-3beta in schizophrenia or in the mechanism of therapeutic action of lithium. Although differences in the genetic background of the GSK-3beta HZ KOs used in the present study compared with that of the previous study could be responsible, such results could suggest that the previously reported effects of GSK-3beta knockout on behavior are not robust.

  19. [Anaphylaxis due to peach with negative ImmunoCAP result to peach allergens, including rPru p 1, rPru p 3, AND rPru p 4: a report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Nobuko; Inomata, Naoko; Morita, Akiko; Kirino, Mio; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Ikezawa, Zenro

    2009-02-01

    We report two cases of anaphylactic reactions to peach with negative result of ImmunoCAP to peach. Case 1 is a 35-year-old man, who felt an itch in his oral cavity immediately after ingesting a whole fresh peach. He rapidly developed generalized urticaria, dyspnea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness. He recovered after treatment at a local hospital, thereafter he was referred to our hospital because ImmunoCAP conducted for screening allergens revealed a negative test result to peach and the cause of anaphylaxis remained unclear. He had a history of pollinosis. He reported that he previously felt an itch on his oral cavity after ingesting melon, watermelon, apple, and strawberry. Serum total IgE was 436 IU/ml. CAP-RAST revealed negative results to peach, strawberry and kiwi. Skin prick tests (SPTs) with raw peach pulp, canned peach pulp, strawberry and kiwi were positive. Case 2 is a 30-year-old woman who felt an itch on her oral cavity accompanied by blepharedema, rhinorrhea, generalized urticaria, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after eating peach. She had a history of pollinosis. She reported that she previously developed urticaria after ingesting an apple. Serum total IgE was 85 IU/ml. ImmunoCAP revealed negative results to peach and apple. SPTs with canned yellow peach, strawberry and apple were positive. Consequently, the two patients were diagnosed with anaphylaxis due to peach, and allergic symptoms have never recurred since they avoided ingesting peach. Furthermore, in two patients ImmunoCAP to rPru p 1, rPru p 3, and rPru p 4 were negative. However, in IgE-immunoblotting of peach, serum IgE antibodies of two patients were bound to approximately 10 kDa proteins. Meanwhile, the cross-reactivity between Rosaceae fruits, such as peach, apple, apricot, and plum, has been reported. These results suggest that in patients, who are suspected of having peach anaphylaxis and show a negative ImmunoCAP result to peach, the additional testing, such as SPT with

  20. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  1. Wie häufig und belastend sind negative Erfahrungen im Medizinstudium? – Ergebnisse einer Online-Befragung von Medizinstudierenden [Frequency and perceived severity of negative experiences during medical education in Germany – Results of an online-survery of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gágyor, Ildikó

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aims: Negative experiences during the course of medical education have been reported in many countries, but little is known about the perceived severity of these experiences. We studied for the first time how often students at a medical university in Germany have had negative experiences, and how severe they perceive these to be.Method: We asked medical students in an online survey whether they felt adequately appreciated, had experienced peer rivalry, verbal abuse by their mentors, physical abuse or mistreatment, sexual harassment, racial or ethnic discrimination, or any other kind of mistreatment.Results: Of 391 students, 56% stated that they felt insufficiently appreciated, 51% had experienced rivalry, and 34% had suffered verbal abuse. Fifty-nine percent of the students felt highly aggrieved because of verbal abuse, while 46% were aggrieved by the ongoing rivalry and 32% by the lack of appreciation. Significantly fewer students felt upset because they were passed over or ignored (21%. Generally, female students felt more often aggrieved by these negative experiences than their male colleagues.Conclusion: Of the possible negative experiences, the less prominent ones such as lack of appreciation or verbal abuse are not only frequent, they are also perceived as very upsetting. Medical teachers should reflect this more in their day-to-day dealings with students and aim to improve on their contact with the students accordingly.[german] Zielsetzung: Negative Erfahrungen im Medizinstudium sind bereits in vielen Ländern untersucht worden. Wenig ist jedoch darüber bekannt, welche Erfahrungen als belastend empfunden werden. In dieser Studie sollten – zum ersten Mal in Deutschland – Studierende nach der Häufigkeit negativer Erfahrungen und der daraus resultierenden Belastung befragt werden.Methodik: Medizinstudierende wurden online zu Wertschätzung, Konkurrenz, verbal unangemessener Behandlung, körperlicher Maßregelung, sexueller

  2. Two negations for the price of one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Thornton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Standard English is typically described as a double negation language. In double negation ­languages, each negative marker contributes independent semantic force. Two negations in the same clause usually cancel each other out, resulting in an affirmative sentence. Other dialects of English permit negative concord. In negative concord sentences, the two negative markers yield a single semantic negation. This paper explores how English-speaking children interpret sentences with more than one negative element, in order to assess whether their early grammar allows negative concord. According to Zeijlstra’s (2004 typological generalization, if a language has a negative syntactic head, it will be a negative concord language. Since Standard English is often analysed as having a negative head, it represents an apparent exception to Zeijlstra’s ­generalization. This raises the intriguing possibility that initially, children recognize that English has a negative head (i.e., 'n’t' and, therefore, assign negative concord interpretations to sentences with two negations, despite the absence of evidence for this interpretation in the adult input. The present study investigated this possibility in a comprehension study with 20 3- to 5-year-old ­children and a control group of 15 adults. The test sentences were presented in contexts that made them amenable to either a double negation or a negative concord interpretation. As expected, the adult participants assigned the double negation interpretation of the test sentences the majority of the time. In contrast, the child participants assigned the alternative, negative concord interpretation the majority of the time. Children must jettison the negative concord interpretation of sentences with two negative markers, and acquire a double negation interpretation. We propose that the requisite positive evidence is the appearance of negative expressions like 'nothing 'in object position. Because such

  3. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  4. Ceftriaxone activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens isolated in US clinical microbiology laboratories from 1996 to 2000: results from The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database-USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlowsky, J A; Jones, M E; Mayfield, D C; Thornsberry, C; Sahm, D F

    2002-05-01

    Ceftriaxone was introduced into clinical practice in the USA in 1985 and was the first extended-spectrum (third-generation) cephalosporin approved for once-daily treatment of patients with Gram-positive or Gram-negative infections. Review of ceftriaxone activity is important given its continued use since the mid-1980s and reports of emerging resistance among all antimicrobial agent classes. We reviewed the activity of ceftriaxone and relevant comparative agents against five Gram-positive and 11 Gram-negative species for a 5-year period, 1996-2000, using data from The Surveillance Network (TSN) Database-USA. All MIC results were interpreted using NCCLS breakpoint criteria. Ceftriaxone resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=17219) remained essentially unchanged over the 5 years studied and in fact was lower from 1998 to 2000 (5.0-5.1%) than in 1996 (6.3%) and 1997 (6.6%). Ceftriaxone resistance (range, 5.1-6.9%) among viridans group streptococci (n=6621) varied by <2% from 1997 to 2000. Beta-lactam-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes (n=935) and group B beta-haemolytic streptococci (n=2267) were not identified in any year. Among methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (n=39 284) ceftriaxone resistance was 0.1-0.3% per year from 1996 to 2000. Ceftriaxone resistance among Escherichia coli (n=472407; range, 0.2-0.4%), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=16231; range, 3.5-4.8%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=117754; range, 1.9-2.6%), Proteus mirabilis (n=67692; range, 0.2-0.3%), Morganella morganii (n=11251; range, 0.3-2.1%) and Serratia marcescens (n=26519; range, 1.6-3.8%) was low and consistent from 1996 to 2000. Resistance to ceftriaxone among Enterobacter cloacae (n=48114; range, 21.7-23.9%) was relatively high, compared with other Enterobacteriaceae, but unchanged from 1996 to 2000. Rates of resistance to ceftriaxone among Acinetobacter spp. (n=20813) increased from 24.8% in 1996 to 45.1% in 2000. All Haemophilus influenzae (n=7911) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n

  5. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  6. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  7. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  8. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  9. Mazindol treatment of negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, W T; Breier, A; Buchanan, R W; Kirkpatrick, B; Shepard, P; Weiner, E

    2000-10-01

    Hypodopaminergic and hyponoradrenergic pathophysiology may be a basis for primary and/or secondary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The hypothesis that enhanced neurotransmission in these systems would be therapeutic for negative symptoms was tested by comparing mazindol and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over design trial. Outcome following mazindol supplementation was comparable to placebo supplementation (F(1,30) = 0.9; p = .57). Results for deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia subjects were similar, and were not affected by whether concurrent the antipsychotic drug treatment was clozapine, fluphenazine, or haloperidol. The efficacy hypothesis was not supported for either primary or secondary negative symptoms.

  10. [Negative pressure therapy: NPT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, H

    2015-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy or treatment (NPT) is used very frequently in hospitals in both surgical and medical departments. NPT consists of maintaining the wound surface at a pressure below ambient atmospheric pressure by means of a specially designed dressing attached to a depressurisation device as well as a system to drain exudate. NPT has been shown to be beneficial in increasing blood flow, thanks to feedback resulting from the decreased oxygen pressure, angiogenesis and reduction of the wound surface area. The French Health Authority (HAS) has issued recommendations for good use in a specific and limited series of applications. NPT may be used in post-traumatic or post-surgical wounds, burns, and in chronic wounds, such as bedsores and ulcers. It is also effective as an adjuvant treatment for infected wounds. In recent years, various different NPT devices have become commercially available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Negation in Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    as of May 2010, produced a large number of images of Volkswagen Beetles as shown in Figure 8. After indicating they were ready to proceed... Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car 1 beetle –car - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW - Volkswagen 1 beetle -VW -car - Volkswagen 1 black beetle Not within first 30...that had many Volkswagen Beetles in the results, why did you choose not to use negation?] 9. [Do you think that negation would have been useful in

  12. C1Q Assay Results in Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity Crossmatch Negative Renal Transplant Candidates with Donor-Specific Antibodies: High Specificity but Low Sensitivity When Predicting Flow Crossmatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Arreola-Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to describe the association of positive flow cross match (FXM and C1q-SAB. Methods. In this observational, cross-sectional, and comparative study, patients included had negative AHG-CDC-XM and donor specific antibodies (DSA and were tested with FXM. All pretransplant sera were tested with C1q-SAB assay. Results. A total of 50 donor/recipient evaluations were conducted; half of them had at least one C1q+ Ab (n=26, 52%. Ten patients (20.0% had DSA C1q+ Ab. Twenty-five (50% FXMs were positive. Factors associated with a positive FXM were the presence of C1q+ Ab (DSA C1q+ Ab: OR 27, 2.80–259.56, P=0.004, and no DSA C1q+ Ab: OR 5, 1.27–19.68, P=0.021 and the DSA LABScreen-SAB MFI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49, P=0.007. The cutoff point of immunodominant LABScreen SAB DSA-MFI with the greatest sensitivity and specificity to predict FXM was 2,300 (sensitivity: 72% and specificity: 75%. For FXM prediction, DSA C1q+ Ab was the most specific (95.8%, 85–100 and the combination of DSA-MFI > 2,300 and C1q+ Ab was the most sensitive (92.0%, 79.3–100. Conclusions. C1q+ Ab and LABScreen SAB DSA-MFI were significantly associated with FXM. DSA C1q+ Ab was highly specific but with low sensitivity.

  13. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  14. Developing evidence-based algorithms for negative pressure wound therapy in adults with acute and chronic wounds: literature and expert-based face validation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Janice M; van Rijswijk, Lia

    2012-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used extensively in the management of acute and chronic wounds, but concerns persist about its efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Available guidelines and algorithms are wound type-specific, not evidence-based, and many lack clearly described relative and absolute contraindications and stop criteria. The purpose of this research was to: (1) develop evidence-based algorithms for the safe use of NPWT in adults with acute and chronic wounds by nonwound expert clinicians, and (2) obtain face validity for the algorithms. Using NPWT meta-analyses and systematic reviews (n = 10), NPWT guidelines of care (n = 12), general evidence-based guidelines of wound care (n = 11), and a framework for transitioning between moisture-retentive and NPWT care (n = 1), a set of three algorithms was developed. Literature-based validity for each of the 39 discreet algorithm steps/decision points was obtained by reviewing best available evidence from systematic literature reviews (n = 331 publications) and abstraction of all NPWT-relevant publications (n = 182) using the patient-oriented Strength of Recommendation (SORT) taxonomy. Of the 182 NPWT studies abstracted, 25 met criteria for level 1 and 2 evidence but only one general assessment step had both level 1 evidence and an "A" strength of recommendation. Next, an Institutional Review Board-approved, cross-sectional mixed methods survey design face validation pilot study was conducted to solicit comments on, and rate the validity of, the 51 discreet algorithm-related statements, including the 39 decisions/steps. Twelve (12) of the 15 invited interdisciplinary wound experts agreed to participate. The overall algorithm content validity index (CVI) was high (0.96 out of 1). Helpful design suggestions to ensure safe use were made, and participants suggested an examination of commonly used wound definitions in follow-up studies. Results of the literature-based face validation confirm that the

  15. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  16. Final results of a multicenter phase II clinical trial evaluating the activity of single-agent lapatinib in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and HER2-positive circulating tumor cells. A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestrin, Marta; Bessi, Silvia; Puglisi, Fabio; Minisini, Alessandro M; Masci, Giovanna; Battelli, Nicola; Ravaioli, Alberto; Gianni, Lorenzo; Di Marsico, Roberta; Tondini, Carlo; Gori, Stefania; Coombes, Charles R; Stebbing, Justin; Biganzoli, Laura; Buyse, Marc; Di Leo, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    This multicenter phase II trial was designed to evaluate the activity of lapatinib in metastatic breast cancer patients with HER2-negative primary tumors and HER2-positive circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In this study MBC patients with HER2-negative primary tumors and HER2-positive CTCs previously treated with at least a first-line therapy for metastatic disease received lapatinib 1500 mg/day. The CellSearch System® was used for CTCs isolation and bio-characterization. HER2 status was assessed on CTCs by immunofluorescence. A case was defined as CTCs positive if ≥2 CTC/7.5 ml of blood were isolated and HER2-positive if ≥50% of CTCs were HER2-positive. 139 HER2-negative patients were screened, 96 patients were positive for CTCs (mean number of CTCs: 85; median number of CTCs: 19; range 2-1637). Seven of the 96 patients (7%) had ≥50% HER2-positive CTCs and were eligible for treatment with lapatinib. No objective tumor responses occurred in this population. In one patient, disease stabilization lasting 254 days (8.5 months) was observed. From the findings of this study, we concluded that a subset of patients with a HER2-negative primary tumor presents HER2-positive CTCs during disease progression, although the HER2 shift rate seems to be lower than previously reported. Despite the lack of objective response, the durable disease stabilization observed in one patient cannot rule out the hypothesis that lapatinib may have some activity in this patient population. However, considering that only 1/139 screened patients may potentially have derived benefit from this approach, future trials designed according to the presented strategy cannot be recommended.

  17. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  18. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep will h...

  19. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  20. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  1. Fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) versus FAC followed by weekly paclitaxel as adjuvant therapy for high-risk, node-negative breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2003-02 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Miguel; Ruiz, Amparo; Ruiz Borrego, Manuel; Barnadas, Agustí; González, Sonia; Calvo, Lourdes; Margelí Vila, Mireia; Antón, Antonio; Rodríguez-Lescure, Alvaro; Seguí-Palmer, Miguel Angel; Muñoz-Mateu, Montserrat; Dorca Ribugent, Joan; López-Vega, José Manuel; Jara, Carlos; Espinosa, Enrique; Mendiola Fernández, César; Andrés, Raquel; Ribelles, Nuria; Plazaola, Arrate; Sánchez-Rovira, Pedro; Salvador Bofill, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Carabantes, Francisco J; Servitja, Sonia; Chacón, José Ignacio; Rodríguez, César A; Hernando, Blanca; Álvarez, Isabel; Carrasco, Eva; Lluch, Ana

    2013-07-10

    Adding taxanes to anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy improves survival outcomes of patients with node-positive breast cancer (BC). Currently, however, most patients with BC are node negative at diagnosis. The only pure node-negative study (Spanish Breast Cancer Research Group 9805) reported so far showed a docetaxel benefit but significant toxicity. Here we tested the efficacy and safety of weekly paclitaxel (wP) in node-negative patients, which is yet to be established. Patients with BC having T1-T3/N0 tumors and at least one high-risk factor for recurrence (according to St. Gallen 1998 criteria) were eligible. After primary surgery, 1,925 patients were randomly assigned to receive fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC) × 6 or FAC × 4 followed by wP × 8 (FAC-wP). The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS) after a median follow-up of 5 years. Secondary end points included toxicity and overall survival. After a median follow-up of 63.3 months, 93% and 90.3% of patients receiving FAC-wP or FAC regimens, respectively, remained disease free (hazard ratio [HR], 0.73; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.99; log-rank P = .04). Thirty-one patients receiving FAC-wP versus 40 patients receiving FAC died (one and seven from cardiovascular diseases, respectively; HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.26; log-rank P = .31). The most relevant grade 3 and 4 adverse events in the FAC-wP versus the FAC arm were febrile neutropenia (2.7% v 3.6%), fatigue (7.9% v 3.4%), and sensory neuropathy (5.5% v 0%). For patients with high-risk node-negative BC, the adjuvant FAC-wP regimen was associated with a small but significant improvement in DFS compared with FAC therapy, in addition to manageable toxicity, especially regarding long-term cardiac effects.

  2. Gene panel testing of 5589 BRCA1/2-negative index patients with breast cancer in a routine diagnostic setting: results of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Jan; Horvath, Judit; Groß, Eva; Gehrig, Andrea; Honisch, Ellen; Hackmann, Karl; Schmidt, Gunnar; Arnold, Norbert; Faust, Ulrike; Sutter, Christian; Hentschel, Julia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Smogavec, Mateja; Weber, Bernhard H F; Weber-Lassalle, Nana; Weber-Lassalle, Konstantin; Borde, Julika; Ernst, Corinna; Altmüller, Janine; Volk, Alexander E; Thiele, Holger; Hübbel, Verena; Nürnberg, Peter; Keupp, Katharina; Versmold, Beatrix; Pohl, Esther; Kubisch, Christian; Grill, Sabine; Paul, Victoria; Herold, Natalie; Lichey, Nadine; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Ruckert, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Auber, Bernd; Rump, Andreas; Niederacher, Dieter; Haaf, Thomas; Ramser, Juliane; Dworniczak, Bernd; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Hahnen, Eric

    2018-03-09

    The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine

  3. Diagnosis of recurrent prostate cancer with PET/CT imaging using the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonist {sup 68}Ga-RM2: Preliminary results in patients with negative or inconclusive [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethylcholine-PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, Gesche; Bartholomae, Mark [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Popp, Ilinca; Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center - Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Christian Rischke, H. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); University of Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center - Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Drendel, Vanessa [University of Freiburg, Institute for Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Wolfgang A. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, New York, NY (United States); Mansi, Rosalba [University Hospital Basel, Division of Radiological Chemistry, Basel (Switzerland); Wetterauer, Ulrich; Schultze-Seemann, Wolfgang; Jilg, Cordula Annette [University of Freiburg, Department of Urology, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Meyer, Philipp T. [University of Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center -Faculty of Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Partner Site Freiburg, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    [{sup 18}F]fluoroethylcholine ({sup 18}FECH) has been shown to be a valuable PET-tracer in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa), but still has limited accuracy. RM2 is a gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) antagonist that binds to GRPr on PCa cells. Recent studies suggest that GRPr imaging with PET/CT is a promising technique for staging and restaging of PCa. We explore the value of GRPr-PET using the {sup 68}Ga-labeled GRPr antagonist RM2 in a selected population of patients with biochemically recurrent PCa and a negative/inconclusive {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT. In this retrospective study 16 men with biochemical PCa relapse and negative (n = 14) or inconclusive (n = 2) {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT underwent whole-body {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT. Mean time from {sup 18}FECH-PET/CT to {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT was 6.1 ± 6.8 months. Primary therapies in these patients were radical prostatectomy (n = 13; 81.3%) or radiotherapy (n = 3; 18.7%). 14/16 patients (87.5%) had already undergone salvage therapies because of biochemical relapse prior to {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT imaging. Mean ± SD PSA at {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT was 19.4 ± 53.5 ng/ml (range 1.06-226.4 ng/ml). {sup 68}Ga-RM2-PET/CT showed at least one region with focal pathological uptake in 10/16 patients (62.5%), being suggestive of local relapse (n = 4), lymph node metastases (LNM; n = 4), bone metastases (n = 1) and lung metastasis with hilar LNM (n = 1). Seven of ten positive {sup 68}Ga-RM2 scans were positively confirmed by surgical resection and histology of the lesions (n = 2), by response to site-directed therapies (n = 2) or by further imaging (n = 3). Patients with a positive {sup 68}Ga-RM2-scan showed a significantly higher median PSA (6.8 ng/ml, IQR 10.2 ng/ml) value than those with a negative scan (1.5 ng/ml, IQR 3.1 ng/ml; p = 0.016). Gleason scores or concomitant antihormonal therapy had no apparent impact on the detection of recurrent disease. Even in this highly selected population of patients with known biochemical

  4. Nedtrykt af negative nyheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Søberg, Pernille Frantz

    2016-01-01

    I adskillige år er det blevet debatteret, hvorvidt nyhedernes negative fokus har konsekvenser for borgerne, og om det i sid-ste ende får flere til at vende ryggen til nyhederne. Vores viden om effekterne af positive og negative nyheder er dog begrænset, og derfor undersøges det i denne artikel......, hvordan henholdsvis positive og negative tv-nyheder påvirker seernes humør, hukom-melse af information fra indslaget og lyst til at se yderligere tv-nyheder. Det gør vi i et survey-eksperiment (N=204), hvor tre grupper så enten et originalt indslag eller det samme indslag klippet med henholdsvis et...

  5. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  6. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  7. Depressionens negative spiral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Artiklen formidler resultater fra en longitudinel undersøgelse af det selvforstærkende, negative samspil imellem udvikling og vedligeholdelse af alderdomsdepression via primære miljøbelastninger og via  den deprimerede ældre som belastning for miljøet, som i sin tur "svarer negativt" på lidelsen og...

  8. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  9. The Negative Repetition Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  10. AMBIGUITY, NEGATION, AND C-COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson Cavalcante de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze negative scope ambiguity in sentences with cause, temporal and purpose adjuncts, in which negation can take scope either over the predicate or over the adjunct. I discuss Huang (1982, Takubo (1985 and Johnston’s (1994 analyses, which propose that the ambiguity is derived from different c-command relations between negation and adjunct, due to an optionality of adjunction to VP or IP. Against this view, I show a set of facts which are problematic for any analysis based only in c-command, i.e., several syntactic contexts where negation should c-command the adjunct, but where the ambiguity surprisingly still holds. Based on this, I argue that c-command is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to establish negative scope. And I suggest that the availability of predicate negation and adjunct negation results from an optionality of the operation of Labeling in adjunction, according Hornstein and Nunes (2008.

  11. Carbapenem susceptibilities and non-susceptibility concordance to different carbapenems amongst clinically important Gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in Taiwan: results from the Surveillance of Multicentre Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART) in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Wen-Sen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yao-Shen; Liu, Jien-Wei; Lu, Min-Chi; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Lam, Carlos; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the in vitro susceptibilities to various carbapenems amongst clinical Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients in intensive care units of ten major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2009, a survey was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 594), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 185), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 192) and Burkholderia cepacia (n = 23) using the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities were determined according to 2009, 2011 and 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by the CLSI as well as 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by EUCAST. Based on CLSI 2012 criteria, the ertapenem susceptible rate was 93%, 81%, 68% and 92% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens, respectively. All Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolates were susceptible to ertapenem; however, 64% of P. mirabilis and all M. morganii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem. Meropenem and doripenem had better activities than imipenem against ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae with ertapenem MICs≥4 mg/L were synchronously not susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and doripenem. Imipenem susceptibility was 65% and 29% for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs≥8 mg/L were also not susceptible to meropenem and doripenem. These data provide a better understanding of choosing appropriate carbapenem agents to treat infections caused by ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae as well as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs≥4 mg/L. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Husky, Mathilde; Pitrou, Isabelle; Fermanian, Christophe; Shojaei, Taraneh; Chee, Christine Chan; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Beiser, Morton

    2016-05-04

    In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer

  13. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  14. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  15. Quality assurance of radiotherapy in the ongoing EORTC 1219-DAHANCA-29 trial for HPV/p16 negative squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Results of the benchmark case procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiaens, Melissa; Collette, Sandra; Overgaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The phase III EORTC 1219-DAHANCA 29 intergroup trial evaluates the influence of nimorazole in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer when treated with accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in combination with chemotherapy. This article describes the results of the RT....... The introduction of more objective quantitative analysis methods, such as the HD and DSI, in future trials might strengthen the evaluation by experts....

  16. Negative creep in nickel base superalloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Hald, John

    2004-01-01

    Negative creep describes the time dependent contraction of a material as opposed to the elongation seen for a material experiencing normal creep behavior. Negative creep occurs because of solid state transformations that results in lattice contractions. For most applications negative creep...... will have no practical implications but under certain conditions it may become critical. For bolts and fasteners, which are highly constrained during service, negative creep may lead to dramatically increased stresses and eventually to failure. The article was inspired by a recent failure of Nimonic 80A...

  17. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  18. Zero-truncated negative binomial - Erlang distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhisuwan, Winai; Pudprommarat, Chookait; Bodhisuwan, Rujira; Saothayanun, Luckhana

    2017-11-01

    The zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution is introduced. It is developed from negative binomial-Erlang distribution. In this work, the probability mass function is derived and some properties are included. The parameters of the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution are estimated by using the maximum likelihood estimation. Finally, the proposed distribution is applied to real data, the number of methamphetamine in the Bangkok, Thailand. Based on the results, it shows that the zero-truncated negative binomial-Erlang distribution provided a better fit than the zero-truncated Poisson, zero-truncated negative binomial, zero-truncated generalized negative-binomial and zero-truncated Poisson-Lindley distributions for this data.

  19. Brilliant but Cruel: Perceptions of Negative Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    Two studies examined the hypothesis that negative evaluators will be perceived as more intelligent than positive evalutors. Two types of stimuli were used: excerpts from actual negative and positive book reviews, and versions of those excerpts that were edited so that the balance of the reviews varied but the content did not. The results strongly…

  20. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  1. Variations in the Produce-Associated Microbiota and the Occurrence Frequency of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Gram-Negative Bacteria Result in Different Level of Ingestion Risks

    KAUST Repository

    Bokhari, Osama

    2016-04-01

    A monitoring effort that spanned across one and a half years was conducted to examine three types of produce-associated microbiota. Produce type was determined to be the predominant factor affecting the microbial communities. Other significant factors that resulted in differences in the microbial populations were the origin and sampling date. Specifically, produce-associated microbiota among lettuce and tomatoes clustered based on the sampling period. Through molecular and cultivation-based approaches, sporadic presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii was detected on lettuce and cucumbers during certain periods of sampling. Quantitative microbial risk assessment denoted varying levels of ingestion risks associated with different types of produce. In particular, the risks arising from ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae in the lettuce were higher than the acceptable annual risk of 10-4. Commonly used approaches to clean and wash the produce were insufficient in removing majority of the produce-associated microbiota. More invasive cleaning approaches or thorough cooking of the produce would be required to mitigate the associated risks. Most of the current reports of ESBL-positive bacterial isolates were identified in nosocomial environment. However, the carriage of such drug-resistant bacteria in food that is consumed daily

  2. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  3. Cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET for the management of potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer: priority for a PET-based strategy after nodal-negative CT results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietlein, M.; Weber, K.; Moka, D.; Theissen, P.; Schicha, H.

    2000-01-01

    -effective. However, patients with nodal-positive PET results should not be excluded from biopsy. (orig.)

  4. Cost-effectiveness of FDG-PET for the management of potentially operable non-small cell lung cancer: priority for a PET-based strategy after nodal-negative CT results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietlein, M.; Weber, K.; Moka, D.; Theissen, P.; Schicha, H. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Gandjour, A.; Lauterbach, K.W. [Inst. of Health Economics, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    -effective. However, patients with nodal-positive PET results should not be excluded from biopsy. (orig.)

  5. Optimization of negative ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamela, J.

    1991-01-01

    We have started to study negative ion extraction and acceleration systems in view of designing a 1 MeV D - accelerator. This study is being made with a two-Dimensional code that has been specifically developed in our laboratory and validated by comparison to three sets of experimental data. We believe that the criteria for negative ion accelerator design optimization should be: (i) to provide the best optics; (ii) to reduce the power load on the extraction grid; (iii) to allow operation with low electric fields in order to reduce the problem of breakdowns. We show some results of optics calculations performed for two systems that will be operational in the next months: the CEA-JAERI collaboration at Cadarache and the european DRAGON experiment at Culham. Extrapolations to higher energies of 500 to 1100 keV have also been conducted. All results indicate that the overall accelerator length, whatever be the number of gaps, is constrained by space charge effects (Child-Langmuir). We have combined this constraint with high-voltage hold-off empirical laws. As a result, it appears that accelerating 10 mA/cm 2 of D - at 1 MeV with good optics, as required for NET or ITER, is close to the expected limit of high-voltage hold-off

  6. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  7. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  8. Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dayan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian predictions of future aversive outcomes lead to behavioral inhibition, suppression, and withdrawal. There is considerable evidence for the involvement of serotonin in both the learning of these predictions and the inhibitory consequences that ensue, although less for a causal relationship between the two. In the context of a highly simplified model of chains of affectively charged thoughts, we interpret the combined effects of serotonin in terms of pruning a tree of possible decisions, (i.e., eliminating those choices that have low or negative expected outcomes. We show how a drop in behavioral inhibition, putatively resulting from an experimentally or psychiatrically influenced drop in serotonin, could result in unexpectedly large negative prediction errors and a significant aversive shift in reinforcement statistics. We suggest an interpretation of this finding that helps dissolve the apparent contradiction between the fact that inhibition of serotonin reuptake is the first-line treatment of depression, although serotonin itself is most strongly linked with aversive rather than appetitive outcomes and predictions.

  9. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  10. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  11. Negative index in chiral metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Plum, E.; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.; Zheludev, N.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that planar metamaterial lacking of mirror symmetry shows asymmetric transmission of terahertz waves and bands of positive, negative and zero phase and group velocities indicating a polarization sensitive negative index and slow-light media.

  12. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced......-risk population of obese women giving birth by caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study is ongoing and thus this thesis presents preliminary results based on data from the first two-thirds of the scheduled study participants. Nonetheless, the results in this thesis are convincing. Accordingly, i......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...

  13. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  14. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  15. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  16. Are All Negative Consequences Truly Negative? Assessing Variations Among College Students’ Perceptions of Alcohol Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present study assessed college students’ perceptions of positivity-negativity of alcoh...

  17. The case for negative senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W; Baudisch, Annette; Dölling, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Negative senescence is characterized by a decline in mortality with age after reproductive maturity, generally accompanied by an increase in fecundity. Hamilton (1966) ruled out negative senescence: we adumbrate the deficiencies of his model. We review empirical studies of various plants and some...... kinds of animals that may experience negative senescence and conclude that negative senescence may be widespread, especially in indeterminate-growth species for which size and fertility increase with age. We develop optimization models of life-history strategies that demonstrate that negative senescence...

  18. Congenital nystagmus and negative electroretinography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussi M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirella Roussi, Hélène Dalens, Jean Jacques Marcellier, Franck BacinDepartment of Ophthalmology, Clermont-Ferrand University, Clermont-Ferrand, FranceAbstract: Congenital nystagmus is a pathologic oculomotor state appearing at about three to four months of age. The precise diagnosis requires detailed clinical examination and electrophysiological findings. This case report presents two male patients with congenital nystagmus examined longitudinally from the age of six months until 17-18 years of age. Clinical and electrophysiological protocols were detailed. The first results showed electronegative electroretinography in the two cases and examination combined with electroretinographic findings helped us to make the diagnosis of Congenital Night Stationary Blindness (CSNB. This diagnosis was confirmed by genetic studies. CSNB is interesting to study because through electrophysiological findings, it enables a better understanding of the physiology of neural transmission in the outer part of the retina.Keywords: Congenital nystagmus, negative electroretinography, congenital night stationary blindness

  19. Negative ion formation and neutralization processes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This review has been made preliminary for the purpose of contribute to the plasma heating by ''negative ion based neutral beam injection'' in the magnetic confinement fusion reactor. A compilation includes the survey of the general processes of negative ion formation, the data of the cross section of H - ion formation and the neutralization of H - ion, and some of new processes of H - ion formation. The data of cross section are mainly experimental, but partly include the results of theoretical calculation. (author)

  20. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  2. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  3. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  4. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  5. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  6. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives......We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...

  7. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  8. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  9. Prestarlike functions with negative coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Silverman

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme points for prestarlike functions having negative coefficients are determined. Coefficient, distortion and radii of univalence, starlikeness, and convexity theorems are also obtained.

  10. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  11. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson’s Ratio Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hewage, Trishan A.M.; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Intuitively, materials become both shorter and wider when compressed along their length. Here we show how a composite material or structure can display a simultaneous reversal in the direction of deformation for both the axial and transverse dimensions, corresponding to negative values of effective stiffness and effective Poisson’s ratio, respectively. A negative Poisson’s ratio[1] (NPR or auxetic[2]) host assembly stabilising (otherwise unstable) embedded negative stiffness[3] (NS) elements ...

  12. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  13. Research priorities for negative emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR) - also known as 'negative emissions' - features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that 'negative emission technologies' (NETs) are insufficiently mature to

  14. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees...

  15. Question tags and sentential negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasoveanu, A.; De Clercq, K.; Farkas, D.; Roelofsen, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that is designed to quantify the negativity of sentences with different types of negative operators (n-words like never and downward entailing operators like rarely) in different syntactic positions (adverb, subject, and direct object). In the experiment,

  16. Attentional Bias to Negative Affect Moderates Negative Affect’s Relationship with Smoking Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage attention (ITD) from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Methods Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N=424). A negative affect modified Stroop was administered one week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Results Continuation ratio (CR) logit model analyses found significant interactions of pre-quit negative affect slope with pre-quit ITD [OR = .738(.57, .96), p= .02] and quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD [OR = .62(.41, 950), p= .03] predicting abstinence. The interaction of pre-quit negative affect intercept and pre-quit IO predicting quit day abstinence was significant [OR = 1.42(1.06, 1.90), p= .02], as was the interaction of quit day negative affect slope and quit day IO predicting long-term abstinence [OR = 1.45(1.02, 2.08), p= .04]. Conclusions The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. PMID:27505211

  17. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  18. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically......, the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  19. [APPLICATION OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE THERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laginja, S; Marinović, M

    2016-01-01

    Negative pressure therapy is gradually taking an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic wound healing because of its simple application in hospital or outpatient setting and good comfort with no pain for the patient. Chronic wound healing is accelerated in comparison with other conservative treatments. The level of negative pressure is between 40 and 125 mm Hg below ambient. Direct and indirect effect of the negative pressure therapy helps in wound healing and provides good preparation for definitive surgical management of wounds.

  20. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  1. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  2. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  3. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  5. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2017-08-14

    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  6. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svaldi, Jennifer; Bender, Caroline; Caffier, Detlef; Ivanova, Viliana; Mies, Nina; Fleischhaker, Christian; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN), especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation. Method In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12) and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12) were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded. Results After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants’ attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive) mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG. Discussion The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients’ body image disturbance. PMID:27123587

  7. On affine non-negative matrix factorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Hans; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    We generalize the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) generative model to incorporate an explicit offset. Multiplicative estimation algorithms are provided for the resulting sparse affine NMF model. We show that the affine model has improved uniqueness properties and leads to more accurate...

  8. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    electron microscopy, EXAFS and differential scanning calorimetry have been used to study structural properties as a function of temperature for these compounds. In this paper we report the results obtained from our study [14–20] of negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemical compositions of NX2O8 and.

  9. Exclusion of identification by negative superposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takač Šandor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.

  10. Conspecific negative density dependence and forest diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel J; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Bever, James D; Clay, Keith

    2012-05-18

    Conspecific negative density-dependent establishment, in which local abundance negatively affects establishment of conspecific seedlings through host-specific enemies, can influence species diversity of plant communities, but the generality of this process is not well understood. We tested the strength of density dependence using the United States Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis database containing 151 species from more than 200,000 forest plots spanning 4,000,000 square kilometers. We found that most species experienced conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD), but there was little effect of heterospecific density. Additionally, abundant species exhibited weaker CNDD than rarer species, and species-rich regions exhibited stronger CNDD than species-poor regions. Collectively, our results provide evidence that CNDD is a pervasive mechanism driving diversity across a gradient from boreal to subtropical forests.

  11. Giant negative thermal expansion in magnetic nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X G; Kubozono, H; Yamada, H; Kato, K; Ishiwata, Y; Xu, C N

    2008-12-01

    Most solids expand when they are heated, but a property known as negative thermal expansion has been observed in a number of materials, including the oxide ZrW2O8 (ref. 1) and the framework material ZnxCd1-x(CN)2 (refs 2,3). This unusual behaviour can be understood in terms of low-energy phonons, while the colossal values of both positive and negative thermal expansion recently observed in another framework material, Ag3[Co(CN)6], have been explained in terms of the geometric flexibility of its metal-cyanide-metal linkages. Thermal expansion can also be stopped in some magnetic transition metal alloys below their magnetic ordering temperature, a phenomenon known as the Invar effect, and the possibility of exploiting materials with tuneable positive or negative thermal expansion in industrial applications has led to intense interest in both the Invar effect and negative thermal expansion. Here we report the results of thermal expansion experiments on three magnetic nanocrystals-CuO, MnF2 and NiO-and find evidence for negative thermal expansion in both CuO and MnF2 below their magnetic ordering temperatures, but not in NiO. Larger particles of CuO and MnF2 also show prominent magnetostriction (that is, they change shape in response to an applied magnetic field), which results in significantly reduced thermal expansion below their magnetic ordering temperatures; this behaviour is not observed in NiO. We propose that the negative thermal expansion effect in CuO (which is four times larger than that observed in ZrW2O8) and MnF2 is a general property of nanoparticles in which there is strong coupling between magnetism and the crystal lattice.

  12. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wonshik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triple-negative (TN breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER, the progesterone receptor (PR, and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2, represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Methods Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (p = 0.003, and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p p p = 0.003, and a high level of p53 (p p p = 0.004. Relapse free survival (RFS was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001. On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. Conclusion TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer.

  13. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  14. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Birke-Sorensen, Hanne; Kruse, Marie

    Aim: Postoperative wound complications make many surgical procedures unnecessarily complex, particularly in high-risk patients. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy is well recognized in the management of open wounds. In recent years, it has been introduced as well in the management of closed surgical...... incisions to reduce postoperative wound complications, though the evidence base to support this intervention is limited. The aim of this study was to assess if Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) reduces postoperative complications when applied on closed surgical incisions. Method: A systematic review...

  15. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  16. Are all negative consequences truly negative? Assessing variations among college students' perceptions of alcohol related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Bachrach, Rachel L; Turrisi, Rob

    2008-10-01

    Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present study assessed college students' perceptions of positivity-negativity of alcohol related consequences they experienced during the past year. The findings revealed college students' perceptions of positivity-negativity varied depending on the consequence that was assessed. Most consequences were considered negative by greater than 50% of the sample. There were six consequences that were not considered negative by the majority of the sample and of these, all were considered positive or neutral by greater than at least 50% of the sample. Finally, perceived positivity of the consequences were associated with higher weekly drinking patterns for vomiting, blackouts, regretted sex, late to work/class, skipping an evening meal, and being hungover. Results are discussed in reference to improving brief alcohol interventions for college students.

  17. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  18. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  19. Discriminant projective non-negative matrix factorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiyang Guan

    Full Text Available Projective non-negative matrix factorization (PNMF projects high-dimensional non-negative examples X onto a lower-dimensional subspace spanned by a non-negative basis W and considers W(T X as their coefficients, i.e., X≈WW(T X. Since PNMF learns the natural parts-based representation Wof X, it has been widely used in many fields such as pattern recognition and computer vision. However, PNMF does not perform well in classification tasks because it completely ignores the label information of the dataset. This paper proposes a Discriminant PNMF method (DPNMF to overcome this deficiency. In particular, DPNMF exploits Fisher's criterion to PNMF for utilizing the label information. Similar to PNMF, DPNMF learns a single non-negative basis matrix and needs less computational burden than NMF. In contrast to PNMF, DPNMF maximizes the distance between centers of any two classes of examples meanwhile minimizes the distance between any two examples of the same class in the lower-dimensional subspace and thus has more discriminant power. We develop a multiplicative update rule to solve DPNMF and prove its convergence. Experimental results on four popular face image datasets confirm its effectiveness comparing with the representative NMF and PNMF algorithms.

  20. Quantum Heat Engine and Negative Boltzmann Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jing-Yi; Quan, Hai-Tao

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the ambiguity on negative Boltzmann temperature in literature, we study the Carnot and the Otto cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at the negative Boltzmann temperature based on a canonical ensemble description. The work extraction, entropy production and the efficiency of these cycles are explored. Conditions for constructing and properties of these thermodynamic cycles are elucidated. We find that the apparent “violation” of the second law of thermodynamics in these cycles are due to the fact that the traditional definition of thermodynamic efficiency is inappropriate in this situation. When properly understanding the efficiency and the adiabatic processes, in which the system crosses over “absolute ZERO” in a limit sense, the Carnot cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at a negative Boltzmann temperature can be understood straightforwardly, and it contradicts neither the second nor the third law of thermodynamics. Hence, negative Boltzmann temperature is a consistent concept in thermodynamics. We use a two-level system and an Ising spin system to illustrate our central results. Support from the National Science Foundation of China under Grants Nos. 11375012, 11534002, and The Recruitment Program of Global Youth Experts of China

  1. Comprehension of Action Negation Involves Inhibitory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eForoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that action language is comprehended by activating the motor system. We report a study, investigating a critical question in this research field: Do negative sentences activate the motor system? Participants were exposed to sentences in the affirmation and negation forms while the zygomatic muscle activity on the left side of the face was continuously measured (Electromyography technique: EMG. Sentences were descriptions of emotional expressions that mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., ‘I am smiling’ or did not (e.g., ‘I am frowning’. Reading sentences involving the negation of the activity of a specific muscle (zygomatic major - I am not smiling is shown to lead to the inhibition of this muscle. Reading sentences involving the affirmative form instead (I am smiling leads to the activation of zygomatic mucle. In contrast, sentences describing an activity that is irrelevant to the zygomatic muscle (e.g., ‘I am frowning’ or ‘I am not frowning’ produce no muscle activity. These results extend the range of simulation models to negation and by implication to an abstract domain. We discuss how this research contributes to the grounding of abstract and concrete concepts.

  2. Quantum Heat Engine and Negative Boltzmann Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Jing-Yi; Quan Hai-Tao

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the ambiguity on negative Boltzmann temperature in literature, we study the Carnot and the Otto cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at the negative Boltzmann temperature based on a canonical ensemble description. The work extraction, entropy production and the efficiency of these cycles are explored. Conditions for constructing and properties of these thermodynamic cycles are elucidated. We find that the apparent “violation” of the second law of thermodynamics in these cycles are due to the fact that the traditional definition of thermodynamic efficiency is inappropriate in this situation. When properly understanding the efficiency and the adiabatic processes, in which the system crosses over “absolute ZERO” in a limit sense, the Carnot cycle with one of the heat reservoirs at a negative Boltzmann temperature can be understood straightforwardly, and it contradicts neither the second nor the third law of thermodynamics. Hence, negative Boltzmann temperature is a consistent concept in thermodynamics. We use a two-level system and an Ising spin system to illustrate our central results. (paper)

  3. Proclus’ View about Negative Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rahimiyan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative theology is a modern theological approach that idiomatically implies those theological doctrines which are based on the negative premises and concepts for describing God. Among Greeks, this approach was on its climax in Neo-Platonism. Proclus is one of the Neo-Platonists who lived in fifth century (A.D and was in charge of Athena academy for years. He was the most important Neo-Platonist after Plotinus. In his philosophical system, on the one hand, it is impossible to recognize the first source and, on the other hand, the existence of some principles like the relationship between the creator and the universe, reversion and the way of emanation receiving, requires the knowledge of the first source. It seems that such paradox can be resolved by separating the stages of existence order.

  4. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  5. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  6. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  7. Local behaviour of negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasini, P.; Dalba, G.; Grisenti, R.; Purans, J.; Vaccari, M.; Rocca, F.; Sanson, A.

    2006-01-01

    EXAFS can represent a powerful probe of the local behaviour of negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials, thanks to the possibility of measuring the expansion of selected inter-atomic bonds and the perpendicular relative atomic displacements. The effectiveness of EXAFS for NTE studies is illustrated by a comparison of results recently obtained on germanium, CuCl and the cuprites Cu 2 O and Ag 2 O

  8. A Semantic Analysis of Negative Concord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouden van der, Ton; Zwarts, Frans

    1993-01-01

    It is not uncommon in natural languages that negation seems to behave in an illogical manner. The general term for the many cases where multiple occurrences of morphologically negative constituents express a single semantic negation is negative concord (Labov 1979). Negative concord may take either

  9. Research priorities for negative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, S.; Jones, C. D.; Kraxner, F.; Peters, G. P.; Smith, P.; Tavoni, M.; van Vuuren, D. P.; Canadell, J. G.; Jackson, R. B.; Milne, J.; Moreira, J. R.; Nakicenovic, N.; Sharifi, A.; Yamagata, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR)—also known as ‘negative emissions’—features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue that ‘negative emission technologies’ (NETs) are insufficiently mature to rely on them for climate stabilization. Some even argue that 2 °C is no longer feasible or might have unacceptable social and environmental costs. Nonetheless, the Paris Agreement endorsed an aspirational goal of limiting global warming to even lower levels, arguing that climate impacts—especially for vulnerable nations such as small island states—will be unacceptably severe in a 2 °C world. While there are few pathways to 2 °C that do not rely on negative emissions, 1.5 °C scenarios are barely conceivable without them. Building on previous assessments of NETs, we identify some urgent research needs to provide a more complete picture for reaching ambitious climate targets, and the role that NETs can play in reaching them.

  10. Negative Reflecting Meta-Mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Li, Dong; Gao, Dongxing; Zhang, Aofang; Hu, Bowei; Yang, Pei; Lei, Zhenya; Li, Jiacheng

    2017-07-18

    Using the gradient phase discontinuities that meta-mirrors provide, we show that the incident wave can be reflected anomalously with a broad angle range of negative reflections. Such reversed behaviors promote the immediate applications for the planar meta-mirrors to steer the signals more arbitrarily and the convex meta-mirrors to focus and collimate electromagnetic fields. We practically implement these negative reflecting meta-mirrors through an arrangement of subwavelength ring patches and generate the desired phase distribution by also considering the incident angle. Finally, the experiments are carried out to verify the functionality of the convex meta-mirror firstly, and the performances of the planar meta-mirror are also tested by further building up a dual reflector system with the demonstration of obtaining the plane wave from the convex meta-mirror and then having the well collimated beam negative reflected by the planar meta-mirror. The proposed design should be readily applicable to a wide range of electromagnetic problems, especially for devising smart planar illusion devices, and highly directive antennas mounting on convex surfaces of various platforms.

  11. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Alexithymia in negative symptom and non-negative symptom schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkam, I; Langlois-Thery, S; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Coined by Sifneos in 1972, alexithymia refers to a relative narrowing in emotional functioning, an inability to find appropriate words to describe their emotions and, a poverty of fantasy life. Although initially described in the context of psychosomatic illness, alexithymic characteristics may be observed in patients with a wide range of medical and psychiatric disorders: Parkinson disease, depression, anxiety, substance abuse and eating disorders. Flattening of affect and poverty of speech, major negative symptoms, referred to chronic schizophrenia: there is a lack of outward display of emotion. Accordingly, some disturbances of alexithymia's scores would be expected in schizophrenic patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of alexithymia in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia. The term "deficit symptoms" may be used as Carpenter, to refer specifically to those negative symptoms that are not considered secondary. The influence of patients' symptoms has also been studied on alexithymia scores: negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, anhedonia and effects of neuroleptics. Twenty-five patients, meeting DSM III-R criteria for schizophrenia have been studied. All of them treated by neuroleptics, were in a stable clinical status for at least one month. The patients have been categorized into deficit (n = 12) and non-deficit (n = 13) subgroups by one trained psychiatrist (SD), using the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome. The subjects have been assessed by the same rater (IN), blind to deficit status, using six rating scales: Beth Israel Questionnaire (BIQ) and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) for alexithymia, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), and finally, Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS). Using TAS, alexithymic characteristics were more prevalent in the deficit subgroup as compared to

  13. Negative refraction angular characterization in one-dimensional photonic crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Eduardo Lugo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Photonic crystals are artificial structures that have periodic dielectric components with different refractive indices. Under certain conditions, they abnormally refract the light, a phenomenon called negative refraction. Here we experimentally characterize negative refraction in a one dimensional photonic crystal structure; near the low frequency edge of the fourth photonic bandgap. We compare the experimental results with current theory and a theory based on the group velocity developed here. We also analytically derived the negative refraction correctness condition that gives the angular region where negative refraction occurs.By using standard photonic techniques we experimentally determined the relationship between incidence and negative refraction angles and found the negative refraction range by applying the correctness condition. In order to compare both theories with experimental results an output refraction correction was utilized. The correction uses Snell's law and an effective refractive index based on two effective dielectric constants. We found good agreement between experiment and both theories in the negative refraction zone.Since both theories and the experimental observations agreed well in the negative refraction region, we can use both negative refraction theories plus the output correction to predict negative refraction angles. This can be very useful from a practical point of view for space filtering applications such as a photonic demultiplexer or for sensing applications.

  14. Safety and efficacy of combination therapy of interferon-alpha2 + JAK1-2 Inhibitor in the philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Preliminary results from the danish combi-trial-an open label, single arm, non-randomized multicenter phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, S. U.; Kjaer, L.; Skov, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Philadelphia-negative, chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (MF) (PMF). Chronic inflammation and a deregulated immune system are considered important for clonal evolution and disease pro...

  15. Optical Properties of Synthetic Cannabinoids with Negative Indexes

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yao; Chen, Yu-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Some kinds of psychoactive drugs have the structures which are called split-ring resonators (SRRs). SRRs might result in negative permittivity and permeability simultaneously in electromagnetic field. Simultaneous negative indexes can lead to the famous phenomenon of negative refraction. This optical property makes it possible to distinguish synthetic cannabinoids from other abusive psychoactive drugs in the UV-vis region. This optical method is non-damaged and superior in forensic science. I...

  16. Superluminal travel requires negative energies

    OpenAIRE

    Olum, Ken D.

    1998-01-01

    I investigate the relationship between faster-than-light travel and weak-energy-condition violation, i.e., negative energy densities. In a general spacetime it is difficult to define faster-than-light travel, and I give an example of a metric which appears to allow superluminal travel, but in fact is just flat space. To avoid such difficulties, I propose a definition of superluminal travel which requires that the path to be traveled reach a destination surface at an earlier time than any neig...

  17. Imagery mismatch negativity in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2009-07-01

    The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.

  18. The negation phenomenon. Aquiring French negation by Romanian native speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana-Sonia IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sets out some guidelines for a strategy based on the comparison ofRomanian and French and outlines some ways of learning the French negation by the nativespeakers of Romanian; the paper also points out a number of difficulties they face in assimilatingnegation in French. By highlighting some difficulties in assimilating the new language, based on thecontrastive analysis, these must be taken into consideration and ameliorated, to prevent theoccurrence of the default errors.The process of mastering a language is highly conditioned by the practicing of the studiedlanguage, i.e. a system of applications / structural exercises based on similarity and oppositionwithin a language, to allow the formation of spontaneous speech and understanding skills.

  19. Bayesian network model of crowd emotion and negative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurulhuda; Ghani, Noraida Abdul; Hatta, Zulkarnain Ahmad; Hashim, Intan Hashimah Mohd; Sulong, Jasni; Mahudin, Nor Diana Mohd; Rahman, Shukran Abd; Saad, Zarina Mat

    2014-12-01

    The effects of overcrowding have become a major concern for event organizers. One aspect of this concern has been the idea that overcrowding can enhance the occurrence of serious incidents during events. As one of the largest Muslim religious gathering attended by pilgrims from all over the world, Hajj has become extremely overcrowded with many incidents being reported. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of human emotion and negative behavior resulting from overcrowding during Hajj events from data gathered in Malaysian Hajj Experience Survey in 2013. The sample comprised of 147 Malaysian pilgrims (70 males and 77 females). Utilizing a probabilistic model called Bayesian network, this paper models the dependence structure between different emotions and negative behaviors of pilgrims in the crowd. The model included the following variables of emotion: negative, negative comfortable, positive, positive comfortable and positive spiritual and variables of negative behaviors; aggressive and hazardous acts. The study demonstrated that emotions of negative, negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive emotion have a direct influence on aggressive behavior whereas emotion of negative comfortable, positive spiritual and positive have a direct influence on hazardous acts behavior. The sensitivity analysis showed that a low level of negative and negative comfortable emotions leads to a lower level of aggressive and hazardous behavior. Findings of the study can be further improved to identify the exact cause and risk factors of crowd-related incidents in preventing crowd disasters during the mass gathering events.

  20. Fundamental properties of secondary negative ion emission by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Toshiki; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1989-01-01

    The report describes some results obtained from preliminary experiments on secondary negative ion emission from a cesiated surface by Xe-ion beam sputtering, which give the production probability. A measuring system is constructed for secondary negative ion emission. The system consists of a microwave ion source with a lens, a sputtering target holder with a heater, a cesium oven, a limiting aperture with a substrate for deposition, a negative-ion extractor and lens, and a ExB type mass separator. Observations are made on the dependence of negative ion current on cesium supply, dependence of negative ion current on target temperature, and negative ion production probability. The cesium supply and the target temperature are found to strongly influence the negative ion emission. By controlling these factors, the optimum condition for secondary negative ion emission is achieved with a minimum surface work function. The production probability of the negative ion is found to be very high, about 20% for carbon. Therefore, the secondary negative ion emission is considered a useful and highly efficient method to obtain high current ion beams. The constant in the Rasser's theoretical equation is experimentally determined to be 4.1 x 10 -4 eV sec/m. (N.K.)

  1. Negative regulators of cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Cell proliferation is governed by the influence of both mitogens and inhibitors. Although cell contact has long been thought to play a fundamental role in cell cycling regulation, and negative regulators have long been suspected to exist, their isolation and purification has been complicated by a variety of technical difficulties. Nevertheless, over recent years an ever-expanding list of putative negative regulators have emerged. In many cases, their biological inhibitory activities are consistent with density-dependent growth inhibition. Most likely their interactions with mitogenic agents, at an intracellular level, are responsible for either mitotic arrest or continued cell cycling. A review of naturally occurring cell growth inhibitors is presented with an emphasis on those factors shown to be residents of the cell surface membrane. Particular attention is focused on a cell surface sialoglycopeptide, isolated from intact bovine cerebral cortex cells, which has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of an unusually wide range of target cells. The glycopeptide arrest cells obtained from diverse species, both fibroblasts and epithelial cells, and a broad variety of transformed cells. Signal transduction events and a limited spectrum of cells that are refractory to the sialoglycopeptide have provided insight into the molecular events mediated by this cell surface inhibitor.

  2. Coulomb implosion mechanism of negative ion acceleration in laser plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T., E-mail: nakamura.tatsufumi@jaea.go.j [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Fukuda, Y.; Yogo, A.; Tampo, M.; Kando, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Kameshima, T.; Pirozhkov, A.S.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Pikuz, T.A.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S.V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute (JAEA), 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

    2009-07-06

    Coulomb implosion mechanism of the negatively charged ion acceleration in laser plasmas is proposed. When a cluster target is irradiated by an intense laser pulse and the Coulomb explosion of positively charged ions occurs, the negative ions are accelerated inward. The maximum energy of negative ions is several times lower than that of positive ions. We present the theoretical description and Particle-in-Cell simulation results of the Coulomb implosion mechanism, and show the evidence of the negative ion acceleration in the experiments on the high intensity laser pulse interaction with the cluster targets.

  3. Negative ion formation from SF6 on hot surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmore, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Positive surface ionization is a widely used technique for the isotopic analysis of a number of elements. The corresponding negative ion technique has found much less use. One of the main reasons is that hot filaments emit electrons, which are accelerated by the potentials on the negative ion lens, and repulsed by the potentials on the positive ion lens. Negative surface ionization (NSI) must then be limited to conditions under which the resulting electron current does not become large enough to disrupt the operation of the lens due to arcing, charge density defocusing or heating of the focus plates. Hot filaments operated in the negative ion mode have the potential of ionizing not only by NSI, but also by electron attachment. Many molecules attach thermal electrons ( 6 (ea 6 has a high thermal electron attachment rate. Thus SF 6 will form negative ions from an electron attachment process, while the others will form negative ions from an NSI process

  4. On complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Hwa Ko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to establish the complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables satisfying the weak mean domination condition. The result is an improvement of complete convergence in Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund-type SLLN for negatively associated random variables in Kuczmaszewska (Acta Math. Hung. 128:116-130, 2010.

  5. Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Mela, P.; Kramer, Tobias; Berenschot, Johan W.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid

  6. Relativistic shifts of bound negative-muon precession frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, J.H.; Froese, A. M.; Fryer, B.A.; Ghandi, K.

    2005-01-01

    High-field negative-muon spin precession experiments have been performed using a backward-muon beam with substantial transverse spin polarization, facilitating high-precision measurements of the magnetogyric ratio of negative muons bound to nuclei in the ground states of muonic atoms. These results may provide a testing ground for quantum electrodynamics in very strong electromagnetic fields

  7. Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zygmund strong law of large numbers for negatively associated sequences under the case where. {Xn,n ≥ 1} are uniformly dominated by a random variable X. The third result is to obtain a strong law for order statistics for a negatively associated ...

  8. Is windswept tree growth negative thigmotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telewski, Frank W

    2012-03-01

    The scientific investigation of the influence of wind on tree growth has been conducted for over 200 years. One influence of wind on trees is the formation of an asymmetric crown, usually characterized as being windswept under moderate windy conditions. As wind exposure increases, the terms applied to this growth form include flag-tree, banner-tree, and krummholz. The modification in crown morphology has been widely recognized and studied, especial in the area of wind prospecting or as a bioindicator of wind speed in environments lacking monitoring stations. However, the causes and physiology underlying this response is little understood. The windswept morphology is consistent with the morphologies associated with other tropisms (i.e. phototropism and gravitropism). Tropisms are defined as a growth response towards (positive) or away (negative) from an environmental stimulus. The asymmetric growth form of windswept trees appears to be a negative thigmotropic growth response to wind. In this review, evidence will be presented to support or reject two hypotheses; H₁ the windswept growth form is the result of a negative thigmotropic growth response or H₂ the windswept growth form is determined by the biophysical properties of wood. It is argued that the windswept growth form is more likely the product of biomechanical properties (accept H₂) than of a physiological thigmotropic growth response (reject H₁). However, proper testing of both hypotheses is still required before a final confirmation can be established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity & Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology & Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics & Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  10. Entanglement negativity in the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Sugumi [Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Shock, Jonathan P. [Laboratory for Quantum Gravity and Strings and Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Center, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Soda, Jiro, E-mail: sugumi.kanno@ehu.es, E-mail: jonathan.shock@uct.ac.za, E-mail: jiro@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We explore quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected regions in the multiverse. We first consider a free massive scalar field, and compute the entanglement negativity between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space. The qualitative feature of it turns out to be in agreement with that of the entanglement entropy. We then introduce two observers who determine the entanglement between two causally disconnected de Sitter spaces. When one of the observers remains constrained to a region of the open chart in a de Sitter space, we find that the scale dependence enters into the entanglement. We show that a state which is initially maximally entangled becomes more entangled or less entangled on large scales depending on the mass of the scalar field and recovers the initial entanglement in the small scale limit. We argue that quantum entanglement may provide some evidence for the existence of the multiverse.

  11. Negative screenings in Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittger, Jens

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate how negative powers of screenings arise as a nonperturbative effect within the operator approach to Liouville theory. This explains the origin of the corresponding poles in the exact Liouville three point function proposed by Dorn/Otto and (\\hbox{Zamolodchikov })^2 (DOZZ) and leads to a consistent extension of the operator approach to arbitrary integer numbers of screenings of both types. The general Liouville three point function in this setting is computed without any analytic continuation procedure, and found to support the DOZZ conjecture. We point out the importance of the concept of free field expansions with adjustable monodromies - recently advocated by Petersen, Rasmussen and Yu - in the present context, and show that it provides a unifying interpretation for two types of previously constructed local observables.

  12. Mondialization: The negation of territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present some weaknesses and inconsistence of the mondialization/globalization concept, especially regarding obvious negation of territoriality as a principle and a crude reality of uneven spatial distribution of resources, wealth and population on global scale. The domination of the globalism and neo-liberalism in the spheres of economy, society, culture and even language leads toward greater differences, in such intensity that some authors describe it as a "clash of civilizations". Loosing territoriality means loosing "raison d’etre" of spatial planning. Some efforts to introduce participation as a planning solution for the beginning of the new century is actually a Trojan horse and a step in the wrong direction.

  13. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Kim

    Full Text Available The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of

  14. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative....... The technique of the proof is subsequently applied to show that every compact manifold of negative type must have trivial fundamental group, and to obtain a necessary criterion for product manifolds to be of negative type....

  15. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts.

  17. Culture Negative Infective Endocarditits: a Changing Paradigm

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, A

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, the modified Duke\\'s criteria, based primarily on positive blood cultures, is used to diagnose Infective Endocarditis (IE). However, reports demonstrate that 31% of cases are diagnosed as Culture Negative Infective Endocarditis (CNIE)1. Consequently, empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed to cover unidentified organisms and, as a result, antibiotic therapy may be compromised. Molecular diagnostic techniques aid with identifying causative organisms in cases of CNIE and we question if the increasing use of such technologies will change the local epidemiology of CNIE. We present the first case of Tropheryma whipplei Infective Endocarditis (TWIE) reported in Ireland.

  18. Negation in context: Evidence from the visual world paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenes, Isabel; Moxey, Linda; Scheepers, Christoph; Santamaría, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Literature assumes that negation is more difficult to understand than affirmation, but this might depend on the pragmatic context. The goal of this paper is to show that pragmatic knowledge modulates the unfolding processing of negation due to the previous activation of the negated situation. To test this, we used the visual world paradigm. In this task, we presented affirmative (e.g., her dad was rich) and negative sentences (e.g., her dad was not poor) while viewing two images of the affirmed and denied entities. The critical sentence in each item was preceded by one of three types of contexts: an inconsistent context (e.g., She supposed that her dad had little savings) that activates the negated situation (a poor man), a consistent context (e.g., She supposed that her dad had enough savings) that activates the actual situation (a rich man), or a neutral context (e.g., her dad lived on the other side of town) that activates neither of the two models previously suggested. The results corroborated our hypothesis. Pragmatics is implicated in the unfolding processing of negation. We found an increase in fixations on the target compared to the baseline for negative sentences at 800 ms in the neutral context, 600 ms in the inconsistent context, and 1450 ms in the consistent context. Thus, when the negated situation has been previously introduced via an inconsistent context, negation is facilitated.

  19. Negative symptoms and social cognition: identifying targets for psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Rief, Winfried

    2011-09-01

    How to improve treatment for negative symptoms is a continuing topic of debate. Suggestions have been made to advance psychological understanding of negative symptoms by focusing on the social cognitive processes involved in symptom formation and maintenance. Following the recommendations by the National Institute of Mental Health workshop on social cognition in schizophrenia, this study investigated associations between negative symptoms and various aspects of social cognition including Theory of Mind (ToM), attribution, empathy, self-esteem, and interpersonal self-concepts in 75 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 75 healthy controls. Negative symptoms were significantly associated with difficulties in ToM, less readiness to be empathic, lower self-esteem, less self-serving bias, negative self-concepts related to interpersonal abilities, and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Different aspects of social cognition were mildly to moderately correlated and interacted in their impact on negative symptoms: Difficulties in ToM were associated with negative symptoms in persons with low but not in persons with medium or high levels of self-esteem. Taken together, the social cognition variables and their hypothesized interaction explained 39% of the variance in negative symptoms after controlling for neurocognition and depression. The results highlight the relevance of self-concepts related to social abilities, dysfunctional beliefs, and global self-worth alone and in interaction with ToM deficits for negative symptoms and thereby provide a helpful basis for advancing psychosocial interventions.

  20. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  1. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.

  2. Negative health care experiences of immigrant patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stronks Karien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negative events are abusive, potentially dangerous or life-threatening health care events, as perceived by the patient. Patients' perceptions of negative events are regarded as a potentially important source of information about the quality of health care. We explored negative events in hospital care as perceived by immigrant patients. Methods Semi-structured individual and group interviews were conducted with respondents about negative experiences of health care. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a framework method. A total of 22 respondents representing 7 non-Dutch ethnic origins were interviewed; each respondent reported a negative event in hospital care or treatment. Results Respondents reported negative events in relation to: 1 inadequate information exchange with care providers; 2 different expectations between respondents and care providers about medical procedures; 3 experienced prejudicial behavior on the part of care providers. Conclusions We identified three key situations in which negative events were experienced by immigrant patients. Exploring negative events from the immigrant patient perspective offers important information to help improve health care. Our results indicate that care providers need to be trained in adequately exchanging information with the immigrant patient and finding out specific patient needs and perspectives on illness and treatment.

  3. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  4. The doubly negative matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    An $n\\times n$ matrix over the field of real numbers is a doubly negative matrix if it is symmetric, negative definite and entry-wise negative. In this paper, we are interested in the doubly negative matrix completion problem, that is when does a partial matrix have a doubly negative matrix completion. In general, we cannot guarantee the existence of such a completion. In this paper, we prove that every partial doubly negative matrix whose associated graph is a $p$-chorda...

  5. Negative ion sources for tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1980-08-01

    Four kinds of negative ion sources (direct extraction Duoplasmatron ion source, radial extraction Penniing ion source, lithium charge exchange ion source and Middleton-type sputter ion source) have been installed in the JAERI tandem accelerator. The ion sources can generate many negative ions ranging from Hydrogen to Uranium with the exception of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Discussions presented in this report include mechanisms of negative ion formation, electron affinity and stability of negative ions, performance of the ion sources and materials used for negative ion production. Finally, the author will discuss difficult problems to be overcome in order to get any negative ion sufficiently. (author)

  6. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray [The Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  7. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  8. Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Astrid; Mills, Daniel S; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W

    2014-11-01

    False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. How much can a negative FDG-PET be trusted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: False-negative FDG-PET constituted 22.7% of all clinically identified negative PET in a ten year retrospective review about FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumour. Uncovering possible influencing factors of false-negative FDG-PET may have significant value. Material and methods: 10 patients with a first negative and then a second positive PET during very short time separation and 6 patients with surgically confirmed false-negative PET were traced. Histological type, irradiation parameter, steroids effect were discussed. To define temporary irradiation effect on FDG uptake, interval between radiation treatment to PET examination of these two groups were compared with 24 surgically confirmed true-positive PET, 5 surgically confirmed true-negative PET Results: 80% negative-positive PET transformation happened within 31 weeks. No statistically significant difference with regard to time from irradiation could be found between groups. Steroids medication closely before PET examination was about the same before the first negative and second positive PET scan. 5/6 surgically confirmed false-negative PET patients did not take steroids before PET examination. Conclusion: Tumour histology type, temporary irradiation effect and steroids medication did not constitute the reasons for false negative PET in our patient series. PET could not identify tumour relapse in the very early stage. Therefore, if clinically indicated, second FDG-PET might be a better selection to pick up tumour relapse instead of exploratory surgery or biopsy. In that case, the suitable time point for the second PET could be within 31 weeks after the first PET examination. Keywords: false-negative, FDG-PET, influencing factor, irradiation effect, steroids. (author)

  10. A facilitative effect of negative affective valence on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Fumiko; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Olofsson, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that negatively valenced information impaired working memory performance due to an attention-capturing effect. The present study examined whether negative valence could also facilitate working memory. Affective words (negative, neutral, positive) were used as retro-cues in a working memory task that required participants to remember colors at different spatial locations on a computer screen. Following the cue, a target detection task was used to either shift attention to a different location or keep attention at the same location as the retro-cue. Finally, participants were required to discriminate the cued color from a set of distractors. It was found that negative cues yielded shorter response times (RTs) in the attention-shift condition and longer RTs in the attention-stay condition, compared with neutral and positive cues. The results suggest that negative affective valence may enhance working memory performance (RTs), provided that attention can be disengaged.

  11. Autobiographical memories for negative and positive events in war contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.

  12. Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, Laura G.; Shook, Natalie J.

    2014-01-01

    The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts. The conditions did not differ in their proportions of positive thoughts. These results suggest that mindfulness may attenuate thoughts that emphasize negativity but not those that emphasize positivity. PMID:25284906

  13. PT -symmetric spectral singularity and negative-frequency resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharker, Sarang; Guo, Yu; Khosravi, Farhad; Jacob, Zubin

    2017-03-01

    Vacuum consists of a bath of balanced and symmetric positive- and negative-frequency fluctuations. Media in relative motion or accelerated observers can break this symmetry and preferentially amplify negative-frequency modes as in quantum Cherenkov radiation and Unruh radiation. Here, we show the existence of a universal negative-frequency-momentum mirror symmetry in the relativistic Lorentzian transformation for electromagnetic waves. We show the connection of our discovered symmetry to parity-time (PT ) symmetry in moving media and the resulting spectral singularity in vacuum fluctuation-related effects. We prove that this spectral singularity can occur in the case of two metallic plates in relative motion interacting through positive- and negative-frequency plasmonic fluctuations (negative-frequency resonance). Our work paves the way for understanding the role of PT -symmetric spectral singularities in amplifying fluctuations and motivates the search for PT symmetry in novel photonic systems.

  14. Long-pulse operation of an intense negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the National Institute for Fusion Science, as the heating system for the Large Helical Device (LHD), the negative ion NBI system of 20 MW incident power has been planned, and the development of a large current, large size negative ion source has been advanced. Based on the results obtained so far, the design of the LHD-NBI system was reconsidered, and the specification of the actual negative ion source was decided as 180 KeV-40A. This time, the grounding electrode with heightened heat removal capacity was made, and the long pulse operation was attempted, therefore, its results are reported. The structure of the external magnetic filter type large negative ion source used for the long pulse experiment is explained. In order to form the negative ion beam of long pulses, it is necessary to form stable are discharge plasma for long time, and variable resistors were attached to the output side of arc power sources of respective filament systems. By adjusting the resistors, uniform are discharge was able to be caused for longer than 10 s stably. The results of the long pulse experiment are reported. The dependence of the characteristics of negative ion beam on plasma electrode temperature was small, and the change of the characteristics of negative ion beam due to beam pulse width was not observed. (K.I.)

  15. Absolute negative mobility in the anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruyin; Chen, Chongyang; Nie, Linru

    2017-12-01

    Transport of an inertial Brownian particle driven by the multiplicative Lévy noise was investigated here. Numerical results indicate that: (i) The Lévy noise is able to induce absolute negative mobility (ANM) in the system, while disappearing in the deterministic case; (ii) the ANM can occur in the region of superdiffusion while disappearing in the region of normal diffusion, and the appropriate stable index of the Lévy noise makes the particle move along the opposite direction of the bias force to the maximum degree; (iii) symmetry breaking of the Lévy noise also causes the ANM effect. In addition, the intrinsic physical mechanism and conditions for the ANM to occur are discussed in detail. Our results have the implication that the Lévy noise plays an important role in the occurrence of the ANM phenomenon.

  16. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23... Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of an engine, an auxiliary power unit approved for use in... the airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 23...

  18. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No... the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes prescribed in § 25.333. This must be shown for...

  19. On multiphase negative flash for ideal solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2012-01-01

    There is a recent interest to solve multiphase negative flash problems where the phase amounts can be negative for normal positive feed composition. Solving such a negative flash problem using successive substitution needs an inner loop for phase distribution calculation at constant fugacity...

  20. Hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Kokkendorff, Simon L.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2002-01-01

    We study finite metric spaces with elements picked from, and distances consistent with, ambient Riemannian manifolds. The concepts of negative type and strictly negative type are reviewed, and the conjecture that hyperbolic spaces are of strictly negative type is settled, in the affirmative...

  1. Emphatic multiple negative expressions in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijlstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    Double Negation languages like Dutch and German still exhibit constructions, such as Dutch 'niemand niet' ‘nobody not’ or 'nooit geen' ‘nothing no’, that seem to have a Negative Concord reading. Since these constructions normally have an emphatic reading, they are called Emphatic Multiple Negative

  2. Executive Summary: Parts on Demand Project (CATT Phase II) - Volume 1 of 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Robert

    1996-01-01

    .... The GAO has profiled DoD challenges in: maintaining an aging aircraft fleet, reducing response time and cost of providing the spare parts, implementing commercial inventory management practices, reinventing buying and contracting practices...

  3. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Claire A; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Weeks, Justin W; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-09-25

    For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  5. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a "coherent Gibbs state" form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a "generalized area law" [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an "intrinsic" sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  6. Negative probability of random multiplier in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuan; Su, Weidong

    2017-11-01

    The random multiplicative process (RMP), which has been proposed for over 50 years, is a convenient phenomenological ansatz of turbulence cascade. In the RMP, the fluctuation in a large scale is statistically mapped to the one in a small scale by the linear action of an independent random multiplier (RM). Simple as it is, the RMP is powerful enough since all of the known scaling laws can be included in this model. So far as we know, however, a direct extraction for the probability density function (PDF) of RM has been absent yet. The reason is the deconvolution during the process is ill-posed. Nevertheless, with the progress in the studies of inverse problems, the situation can be changed. By using some new regularization techniques, for the first time we recover the PDFs of the RMs in some turbulent flows. All the consistent results from various methods point to an amazing observation-the PDFs can attain negative values in some intervals; and this can also be justified by some properties of infinitely divisible distributions. Despite the conceptual unconventionality, the present study illustrates the implications of negative probability in turbulence in several aspects, with emphasis on its role in describing the interaction between fluctuations at different scales. This work is supported by the NSFC (No. 11221062 and No. 11521091).

  7. Propranolol reduces implicit negative racial bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Kahane, Guy; McTavish, Sarah; Savulescu, Julian; Cowen, Philip J; Hewstone, Miles

    2012-08-01

    Implicit negative attitudes towards other races are important in certain kinds of prejudicial social behaviour. Emotional mechanisms are thought to be involved in mediating implicit "outgroup" bias but there is little evidence concerning the underlying neurobiology. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of noradrenergic mechanisms in the generation of implicit racial attitudes. Healthy volunteers (n = 36) of white ethnic origin, received a single oral dose of the β-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (40 mg), in a randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled, design. Participants completed an explicit measure of prejudice and the racial implicit association test (IAT), 1-2 h after propranolol administration. Relative to placebo, propranolol significantly lowered heart rate and abolished implicit racial bias, without affecting the measure of explicit racial prejudice. Propranolol did not affect subjective mood. Our results indicate that β-adrenoceptors play a role in the expression of implicit racial attitudes suggesting that noradrenaline-related emotional mechanisms may mediate negative racial bias. Our findings may also have practical importance given that propranolol is a widely used drug. However, further studies will be needed to examine whether a similar effect can be demonstrated in the course of clinical treatment.

  8. Recent negative ion source developments at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    According to specifications written for the 25 MV ORNL tandem accelerator, the ion source used during acceptance testing must be capable of producing a negative ion beam of intensity greater than or equal to 7.5 μA within a phase space of less than or equal to 1 π cm-mrad (MeV)/sup 1/2/. The specifications were written prior to the development of an ion source with such capabilities but fortunately Andersen and Tykesson introduced a source in 1975 which could easily meet the specified requirements. The remarkable beam intensity and quality properties of this source has motivated the development of other sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma - some of which will be described in these proceedings. This report describes results of studies associated with the development of a modified Aarhus geometry and an axial geometry source which utilize sputtering in the presence of a diffuse cesium plasma for the production of negative ion beams

  9. How quantum are non-negative wavefunctions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, M. B. [Station Q, Microsoft Research, Santa Barbara, California 93106-6105, USA and Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We consider wavefunctions which are non-negative in some tensor product basis. We study what possible teleportation can occur in such wavefunctions, giving a complete answer in some cases (when one system is a qubit) and partial answers elsewhere. We use this to show that a one-dimensional wavefunction which is non-negative and has zero correlation length can be written in a “coherent Gibbs state” form, as explained later. We conjecture that such holds in higher dimensions. Additionally, some results are provided on possible teleportation in general wavefunctions, explaining how Schmidt coefficients before measurement limit the possible Schmidt coefficients after measurement, and on the absence of a “generalized area law” [D. Aharonov et al., in Proceedings of Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) (IEEE, 2014), p. 246; e-print arXiv.org:1410.0951] even for Hamiltonians with no sign problem. One of the motivations for this work is an attempt to prove a conjecture about ground state wavefunctions which have an “intrinsic” sign problem that cannot be removed by any quantum circuit. We show a weaker version of this, showing that the sign problem is intrinsic for commuting Hamiltonians in the same phase as the double semion model under the technical assumption that TQO-2 holds [S. Bravyi et al., J. Math. Phys. 51, 093512 (2010)].

  10. Facial expression primes and implicit regulation of negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Shin Ah; Kim, Sang Hee

    2015-06-17

    An individual's responses to emotional information are influenced not only by the emotional quality of the information, but also by the context in which the information is presented. We hypothesized that facial expressions of happiness and anger would serve as primes to modulate subjective and neural responses to subsequently presented negative information. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a functional MRI study in which the brains of healthy adults were scanned while they performed an emotion-rating task. During the task, participants viewed a series of negative and neutral photos, one at a time; each photo was presented after a picture showing a face expressing a happy, angry, or neutral emotion. Brain imaging results showed that compared with neutral primes, happy facial primes increased activation during negative emotion in the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex and the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which are typically implicated in conflict detection and implicit emotion control, respectively. Conversely, relative to neutral primes, angry primes activated the right middle temporal gyrus and the left supramarginal gyrus during the experience of negative emotion. Activity in the amygdala in response to negative emotion was marginally reduced after exposure to happy primes compared with angry primes. Relative to neutral primes, angry facial primes increased the subjectively experienced intensity of negative emotion. The current study results suggest that prior exposure to facial expressions of emotions modulates the subsequent experience of negative emotion by implicitly activating the emotion-regulation system.

  11. Parental negative affect and adolescent efficacy for diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jorie M; Berg, Cynthia A; King, Pamela; Gelfand, Donna; Fortenberry, Katherine; Foster, Carol; Wiebe, Deborah

    2009-08-01

    The authors investigated whether parental perceptions of adolescent efficacy are colored by parental negative affect and are associated with adolescents' self-perceptions of efficacy for diabetes management. Adolescents (n = 183, M age = 12.53) with Type 1 diabetes and their mothers and fathers separately reported perceptions of adolescents' efficacy for diabetes management and parents reported their own negative affect (depressed mood and trait anxiety). glycosolated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were obtained from medical records. The results indicated that parental negative affect was associated with parental perceptions of poorer adolescent efficacy beyond the association of HbA1c scores. The relationship between fathers' negative affect and adolescents' self-efficacy was mediated by fathers' perceptions of adolescent efficacy. The results suggest that parental negative affect may negatively color their views of adolescents' efficacy and, in the case of fathers' beliefs, may relate to adolescent self-efficacy. Parental negative affect should be considered when evaluating perceptions of adolescents' efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. There was not, they did not: May negation cause the negated ideas to be remembered as existing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Maciuszek

    Full Text Available In this article we demonstrate that negation of ideas can have paradoxical effects, possibly leading the listener to believe that the negated ideas actually existed. In Experiment 1, participants listened to a description of a house, in which some objects were mentioned, some were negated, and some were not mentioned at all. When questioned about the existence of these objects a week later, the participants gave more false positives for items that were negated in the original material than for items that were not mentioned at all, an effect we call negation related false memories (NRFM. The NRFM effect was replicated again in Experiment 2 with a sample of five and six year-old children. Experiment 3 confirmed NRFM in the case of negated actions. The results are discussed in terms of retention hypothesis, as well as the theory that negation can activate a representation of an entity and behaviour. It is also indicated that future research is needed to ensure that it is indeed negation which caused false alarms, not merely mentioning an object.

  13. Circulating steroids negatively correlate with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrbolka, Pavel; Palúch, Zoltán; Hill, Martin; Alušík, Štefan

    2017-07-01

    While not a disease entity in itself; symptoms of tinnitus (from Latin tinnio - clink) accompany a number of diseases. Tinnitus prevalence increases with age, deteriorates one's quality of life, and may even result in suicidal behavior. Tinnitus develops in response to a variety of risk factors, otoxic substances, noise exposure, hearing disorders, and psychological alterations. Tinnitus is closely related to mood, depression, and psychological state. In the present study, we focused on alterations of the steroid metabolome and particularly neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids in patients with tinnitus. The study group consisted of 28 patients without evidence of an organic cause of tinnitus as well as without associated diseases or the effect of ototoxic medications. All patients underwent a complete audiological assessment and laboratory tests including routine biochemical markers and quantification of circulating steroids using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and immunoassays. To rule out a pathology in the cerebellopontine angle area, CT scan or MRI were performed. To diagnose stem lesions, evoked potentials were also measured. Pearson's correlations and multivariate regression were used to assess any links between tinnitus intensity and frequency on the one hand, and steroid levels on the other. Results indicated a significant and consistent negative correlation between tinnitus indices and intensity of adrenal steroidogenesis. The circulating steroid metabolome including hormones and neuroactive, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory steroids negatively correlates with the degree of tinnitus due to hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis malfunction. Our results may help explain the pathophysiology of tinnitus and improve its diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to verify our postulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A reconsideration of negative ratings for network-based recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Ren, Liang; Lin, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    Recommendation algorithms based on bipartite networks have become increasingly popular, thanks to their accuracy and flexibility. Currently, many of these methods ignore users' negative ratings. In this work, we propose a method to exploit negative ratings for the network-based inference algorithm. We find that negative ratings play a positive role regardless of sparsity of data sets. Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of our method and compare it with the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that the present method outperforms the existing algorithms.

  15. Negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths through plasmon-photon hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalusniak, Sascha; Sadofev, Sergey; Henneberger, Fritz

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths through plasmon-photon hybridization on a simple microcavity with metallic mirrors. Instead of using conventional metals, the plasmonic excitations are provided by a heavily doped semiconductor which enables us to tune them into resonance with the infrared photon modes of the cavity. In this way, the dispersion of the resultant hybrid cavity modes can be widely adjusted. In particular, negative dispersion and negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths on an all-ZnO monolithical cavity are demonstrated.

  16. Modeling Tetanus Neonatorum case using the regression of negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaliana, Luthfatul; Sa'adah, Umu; Wayan Surya Wardhani, Ni

    2017-12-01

    Tetanus Neonatorum is an infectious disease that can be prevented by immunization. The number of Tetanus Neonatorum cases in East Java Province is the highest in Indonesia until 2015. Tetanus Neonatorum data contain over dispersion and big enough proportion of zero-inflation. Negative Binomial (NB) regression is an alternative method when over dispersion happens in Poisson regression. However, the data containing over dispersion and zero-inflation are more appropriately analyzed by using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (ZINB) regression. The purpose of this study are: (1) to model Tetanus Neonatorum cases in East Java Province with 71.05 percent proportion of zero-inflation by using NB and ZINB regression, (2) to obtain the best model. The result of this study indicates that ZINB is better than NB regression with smaller AIC.

  17. Bug Hunting with False Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calamé, Jens; Ioustinova, Natalia; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Sidorova, Natalia; Davies, J.; Gibbons, J.

    Safe data abstractions are widely used for verification purposes. Positive verification results can be transferred from the abstract to the concrete system. When a property is violated in the abstract system, one still has to check whether a concrete violation scenario exists. However, even when the

  18. Negatively correlated local and global stock externalities: tax or subsidy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zili Yang

    2006-01-01

    Fossil fuel combustion generates both CO 2 and SO 2 . CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas; SO 2 can cause serious local pollution. But it can alleviate the potential global warming because of negative radiative forcing. Such a phenomenon can be characterized as negatively correlated local and global stock externalities. In this paper, we set up an optimal control problem of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provision. The efficiency conditions for this problem are derived. These conditions modify the Samuelson rules for optimal provision of externalities. In addition, we examine several policy related scenarios of negatively correlated local and global stock externality provisions. Finally, we discuss policy implications and limitation of the theoretical results derived in this paper. We also indicate applications of the theoretical results here to empirical research, particularly to economic analysis of multiple-gas issues in climate change. (Author)

  19. A neurocomputational model of the mismatch negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Lieder

    Full Text Available The mismatch negativity (MMN is an event related potential evoked by violations of regularity. Here, we present a model of the underlying neuronal dynamics based upon the idea that auditory cortex continuously updates a generative model to predict its sensory inputs. The MMN is then modelled as the superposition of the electric fields evoked by neuronal activity reporting prediction errors. The process by which auditory cortex generates predictions and resolves prediction errors was simulated using generalised (Bayesian filtering--a biologically plausible scheme for probabilistic inference on the hidden states of hierarchical dynamical models. The resulting scheme generates realistic MMN waveforms, explains the qualitative effects of deviant probability and magnitude on the MMN - in terms of latency and amplitude--and makes quantitative predictions about the interactions between deviant probability and magnitude. This work advances a formal understanding of the MMN and--more generally--illustrates the potential for developing computationally informed dynamic causal models of empirical electromagnetic responses.

  20. Nosewitness identification: effects of negative emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alho

    Full Text Available Every individual has a unique body odor (BO, similar to a fingerprint. In forensic research, identification of culprit BOs has been performed by trained dogs, but not by humans. We introduce the concept of nosewitness identification and present the first experimental results on BO memory in witness situations involving violent crimes. Two experiments indicated that BO associated with male characters in authentic videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. Moreover, culprit BO in emotional crime videos could be identified considerably better than the BO of a male person in neutral videos. This indicates that nosewitness identification benefits from emotional encoding. Altogether, the study testifies to the virtue of body odor as a cue to identify individuals observed under negative emotion.

  1. Oxygen enhancement ratio for negative pi mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.J.; Astor, M.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) to determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) for the clinically used beam of negative pi mesons. V79 Chinese hamster cells, cultured in vitro, were used as the biological test system; hypoxia was produced by metabolic depletion as a result of sealing 2 million cells in 1 ml glass ampules. The Bragg peak of the pion depth dose curve was spread out to cover 10 cm by using a dynamic range shifter. Cells were irradiated at the center of the spead out Bragg peak, where the dose/rate was 0.1 Gy/min over a 6 x 6 cm field. The OER obtained was 2.2, compared with 3.8 obtained for γ rays under the same conditions

  2. Nosewitness identification: effects of negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Laura; Soares, Sandra C; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Rocha, Marta; Silva, Carlos F; Olsson, Mats J

    2015-01-01

    Every individual has a unique body odor (BO), similar to a fingerprint. In forensic research, identification of culprit BOs has been performed by trained dogs, but not by humans. We introduce the concept of nosewitness identification and present the first experimental results on BO memory in witness situations involving violent crimes. Two experiments indicated that BO associated with male characters in authentic videos could later be identified in BO lineup tests well above chance. Moreover, culprit BO in emotional crime videos could be identified considerably better than the BO of a male person in neutral videos. This indicates that nosewitness identification benefits from emotional encoding. Altogether, the study testifies to the virtue of body odor as a cue to identify individuals observed under negative emotion.

  3. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...

  4. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    -related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer......This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge...

  5. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social) may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the...

  6. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  7. A CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease with no definitive prognostic markers. As a major component of tight junctions, claudins (CLDNs presumably play an important role in carcinogenesis and progression of breast cancer. This study was aimed at determining the relationship between the expression of CLDNs and the clinical outcomes of TNBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical specimens of primary breast tumors from a consecutive cohort of 173 TNBC patients were retrospectively collected. The membranous expression of CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Then, the associations between CLDN expression, clinicopathological features, and clinical outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Positive CLDN1, CLDN2, CLDN4, and CLDN7 membrane expression was detected in 44.5%, 54.9%, 76.9%, and 73.4% of the cohort specimens, respectively. A lack of CLDN1 expression was related to only lymph node metastasis (P = 0.014. The rate of CLDN4-positive tumors was significantly increased in tumors of a higher grade (P = 0.003. Importantly, negative CLDN1 expression was associated with worse relapse-free survival (RFS in both lymph node positive (LN+ and negative (LN- cases (both P<0.001. Similarly it was also associated with shorter overall survival (OS(P = 0.003 in LN+ cases; P = 0.018 in LN- cases. In the LN+ subgroup, CLDN2-negative cases had a significantly higher risk of recurrence (P = 0.008. Multivariate analysis revealed that negative CLDN1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for high risk of both recurrence and death (HR 5.529, 95% CI 2.664-11.475, P<0.001; HR 3.459, 95% CI 1.555-7.696, P = 0.002. However, neither CLDN4 nor CLDN7 expression was associated with survival. CONCLUSION: In TNBC, the CLDN1-negative phenotype predicts a high risk of recurrence and death. The absence of CLDN1 expression is strongly suggested to be an independent adverse prognostic factor

  8. A negative bioventing feasibility test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePaoli, D.W.; Greene, D.W.; Herbes, S.E.; Walzel, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    A bioventing feasibility test was conducted at a hydrocarbon fuel spill site at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The soils at this site are generally of low air permeability and are representative of the clayey soils encountered at several Department of Energy sites and throughout the southeastern United States. The tests included an in situ air permeability test and in situ respiration tests at three well where highest soil contamination was measured. The in situ respiration tests showed that there was the potential for significant biodegradation in the soil with adequate oxygenation. The in situ permeability tests indicated that the majority of flow was trough fractures, rather than through the bulk soils. A helium tracer test verified that injected gas flowed directly to the surface through a small number of fractures, with no flow reaching the monitoring wells. These results indicate that oxygen transport to the bulk soils would be severely limited by diffusion, such that bioventing was deemed not feasible for this site. In light of these results, the importance of testing for fracture flow in soils of lower permeability is stressed -- whether the technology is bioventing or conventional soil venting

  9. Remembering episodic memories is not necessary for forgetting of negative words: Semantic retrieval can cause forgetting of negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2015-06-01

    Retrieval of a memory can induce forgetting of other related memories, which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting. Although most studies have investigated retrieval-induced forgetting by remembering episodic memories, this also can occur by remembering semantic memories. The present study shows that retrieval of semantic memories can lead to forgetting of negative words. In two experiments, participants learned words and then engaged in retrieval practice where they were asked to recall words related to the learned words from semantic memory. Finally, participants completed a stem-cued recall test for the learned words. The results showed forgetting of neutral and negative words, which was characteristic of semantic retrieval-induced forgetting. A certain degree of overlapping features, except same learning episode, is sufficient to cause retrieval-induced forgetting of negative words. Given the present results, we conclude that retrieval-induced forgetting of negative words does not require recollection of episodic memories.

  10. Time-course of attention to negative stimuli: negative affectivity, anxiety, or dysphoria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlberg, Katherine A; Revelle, William; Mineka, Susan

    2012-10-01

    Although biased attention to emotional stimuli is considered a vulnerability factor for anxiety and dysphoria, research has infrequently related such attentional biases to dimensional models of vulnerability for anxiety and mood disorders. In two studies (Study 1, n = 64; Study 2, n = 168), we evaluate the differential associations of general negative affectivity, anxiety, and dysphoria with biases in selective attention among nonclinical participants selected to vary in both anxiety and dysphoria. Across both studies, preferential processing of angry faces at a 300-ms exposure duration was associated with a general tendency to experience a range of negative affect, rather than being specific to symptoms of either anxiety or dysphoria. In the second study, we found evidence of a suppressor relationship between anxiety and dysphoria in the prediction of delayed attentional biases (1,000 ms) for sad faces. In particular, dysphoria was specifically associated with biased attention toward sad cues, but only after statistically accounting for anxiety; by contrast, anxiety was specifically associated with attentional avoidance of sad cues, but only after statistically accounting for dysphoria. These results suggest that the specificity of relationships between components of negative affectivity and attention to emotional stimuli varies as a function of the time course at which attentional biases are assessed, highlighting the importance of evaluating both anxiety and dysphoria in research on attentional processing of emotional stimuli.

  11. [Nuclear morphology in false negative and negative rectal biopsies (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, F; Clemente, C; Pilotti, S

    1975-01-01

    An typical nuclear structure consisting of a cribriform and condensed chromatin pattern with hyperchromasia, a small nucleolus and a moderately increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was observed in the epithelial cells of the crypts and in the stromal and muscular cells of 51 out of 70 oncologically negative biopsies of the rectal mucosa. The subsequent retrieval of all clinical and histologia data revealed that the 51 cases included 39 of adenocarcinoma of the large intestine either present (15 cases) at a variable distance from the false negative biopsy or removed previously (24 cases), 7 of extra-intestinal malignant tumor (parotid gland, urinary bladder, endometrium, breast, stomach, metastatic, anus) and 5 with benign conditions of the large intestine. Of the remaining 19 cases whose biopsies did not reveal the atypical nuclear structure 16 had benign lesions of the large intestine and nowhere evidence of malignancy, two had an adenocarcinoma of the large bowel (one present and one removed previously) and one a carcinoma of the anus. In the rectal biopsies examined the atypical nuclear structure was detected in 93.9% of the cases with a malignant tumor either present or removed previously and in 19% of the cases with benign conditions. The morphologic evidence indicated that the atypical nuclear structure was compatible with a possible distrubance of the mitotic cycle since the findings were restricted to the generative compartment of rectal epithelium. The results are discussed in connection with their possible practical use as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation and interpretation of false negative and negative rectal biopsies as well as with their possible significance in the biology of tumor-bearing hosts.

  12. Art, Terrorism and the Negative Sublime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Berleant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The range of the aesthetic has expanded to cover not only a wider range of objects and situations of daily life but also to encompass the negative. This includes terrorism, whose aesthetic impact is central to its use as a political tactic. The complex of positive and negative aesthetic values in terrorism are explored, introducing the concept of the sublime as a negative category to illuminate the analysis and the distinctive aesthetic of terrorism.

  13. Negative information for building phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairungsee, Supaporn; Crochemore, Maxime

    2013-08-01

    An absent word (also called a forbidden word or an unword in other contexts) in a sequence is a segment that does not appear in the given sequence. It is a minimal absent word if all its proper factors occur in the given sequence. In this article, we review the concept of minimal absent words, which includes the notion of shortest absent words but is much stronger. We present an efficient method for computing the minimal absent words of bounded length for DNA sequence using a Trie of bounded depth, representing bounded length factors. This method outputs the whole set of minimal absent words and furthermore our technique provides a linear-time algorithm with less memory usage than previous solutions. We also present an approach to distinguish sequences of different organisms using their minimal absent words. Our solution applies a length-weighted index to discriminate sequences and the results show that we can build phylogenetic tree based on the patent collected information.

  14. Textile inspired flexible metamaterial with negative refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgnies, L.; Lheurette, É.; Lippens, D.

    2015-04-01

    This work introduces metallo-dielectric woven fabric as a metamaterial for phase-front manipulation. Dispersion diagram as well as effective medium parameters retrieved from reflection and transmission coefficients point out negative values of refractive index. By numerical simulations, it is evidenced that a pair of meandered metallic wires, arranged in a top to bottom configuration, can yield to a textile metamaterial with simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability. While the effective negative permittivity stems from the metallic grid arrangement, resonating current loop resulting from the top to bottom configuration of two meandered metallic wires in near proximity produces magnetic activity with negative permeability. By adjusting the distance between pairs of metallic wires, the electric plasma frequency can be shifted to overlap the magnetic resonance. Finally, it is shown that the woven metamaterial is insensitive to the incident angle up to around 60°.

  15. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

  16. Multifractal structure of multiplicity distributions and negative binomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Delhi, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents experimental results of the multifractal structure analysis in proton-emulsion interactions at 800 GeV. The multiplicity moments have a power law dependence on the mean multiplicity in varying bin sizes of pseudorapidity. The values of generalised dimensions are calculated from the slope value. The multifractal characteristics are also examined in the light of negative binomials. The observed multiplicity moments and those derived from the negative-binomial fits agree well with each other. Also the values of D q , both observed and derived from the negative-binomial fits not only decrease with q typifying multifractality but also agree well each other showing consistency with the negative-binomial form

  17. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While caregivers of persons with first-episode psychosis often report a range of negative experiences, little is known about what psychological factors are involved. The aim of this study was to examine how caregivers' general wellbeing, emotional overinvolvement and metacognition...... influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...... and overinvolvement were associated with more negative experiences of caregiving while greater metacognitive capacity was associated with more positive experiences of caregiving. Conclusions The experience of positive and negative aspects of caregiving seems to be associated with different variables. Greater...

  18. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Serial Reaction Time (SRT task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

  19. Negative Freedom as Politics of Spirit in Hegel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Magno Veras Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present negative freedom as a moment of vitality in the formation of absolute freedom, represented by moral conscience, as a necessary process of realization in political representation based on Hegel’s Phenomenology of the Spirit. In the first moment, we will present the understanding of absolute freedom and the unfolding of its concept as universal will. In the second moment, we will discuss the conception of negative freedom as an experience of the French Revolution and its result as terror. The experience of negative freedom is understood as the possible means for the solution of contradiction, destruction, and death. These means originate from the political representation of the French Revolution. The hermeneutics presented leads to the positive exaltation of negative freedom as the way towards a possible solution of the problems inherent to a representation of absolute freedom as rational.

  20. Conspecific negative density dependence in American beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin S. Ramage

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the most important drivers of forest biodiversity is conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD, a reduction in performance when conspecific densities are high. While the majority of CNDD research has focused on tropical forests, evidence is mounting that CNDD may also play an important role in temperate forests. To further explore the potential reach of this phenomenon, we investigated CNDD in American beech (Fagus grandifolia in a mature mid-Atlantic forest. Methods We used bivariate point pattern analyses to examine spatial relationships between large beech trees and conspecific saplings, and we also contrasted these patterns with comparable patterns for heterospecifics. In addition, to address the possibility of dispersal limitation and the associated effects on spatial patterns, we analyzed seedling density as a function of adult conspecific abundance. Results We found that beech saplings were more repelled from large conspecifics than large heterospecifics, despite the fact that beech seedling density was positively correlated with beech basal area. However, saplings of other canopy tree species were also repelled from adult beech trees, suggesting a general suppressive effect. Nonetheless, the discrepancy between beech seedling and sapling densities beneath adult conspecifics suggests that beech seedling survival rates were reduced in vicinity of conspecific adults. Conclusions Regardless of the extent to which beech inhibits heterospecific trees, a negative effect on conspecific recruits may be critical for biodiversity maintenance. Without this conspecific suppression, a dense layer of shade-tolerant beech saplings could form beneath adult beech trees. If this were to occur, beech would have a substantial head-start following canopy disturbance, and this late-successional species could potentially dominate a stand in perpetuity, through repeated disturbance cycles.

  1. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  2. Update on Aire and thymic negative selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Geraldo A; Speck-Hernandez, Cesar A; Assis, Amanda F; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella A

    2018-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene was associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy, and was cloned and sequenced. Its importance goes beyond its abstract link with human autoimmune disease. Aire identification opened new perspectives to better understand the molecular basis of central tolerance and self-non-self distinction, the main properties of the immune system. Since 1997, a growing number of immunologists and molecular geneticists have made important discoveries about the function of Aire, which is essentially a pleiotropic gene. Aire is one of the functional markers in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), controlling their differentiation and expression of peripheral tissue antigens (PTAs), mTEC-thymocyte adhesion and the expression of microRNAs, among other functions. With Aire, the immunological tolerance became even more apparent from the molecular genetics point of view. Currently, mTECs represent the most unusual cells because they express almost the entire functional genome but still maintain their identity. Due to the enormous diversity of PTAs, this uncommon gene expression pattern was termed promiscuous gene expression, the interpretation of which is essentially immunological - i.e. it is related to self-representation in the thymus. Therefore, this knowledge is strongly linked to the negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes. In this update, we focus on the most relevant results of Aire as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional controller of PTAs in mTECs, its mechanism of action, and its influence on the negative selection of autoreactive thymocytes as the bases of the induction of central tolerance and prevention of autoimmune diseases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. RhD negativity among pregnant women in multiethnic Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Schmitz, Peter; Eppink, Jedda; Mac Donald, M Sigrid; Nahar-van Venrooij, Lenny M W; Kanhai, Humphrey H H; Zijlmans, Wilco C W R

    2016-02-01

    RhD negativity is distributed unevenly among different ethnicities. In this study we explored the frequencies of RhD negativity in pregnant women in multiethnic Suriname, along with screening results for red blood cell (RBC) antibodies in these women and their offspring. Results may help identify women at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. A retrospective study was performed in pregnant women who delivered at three major hospitals in Suriname between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014. The overall prevalences of RhD negativity among 8686 women was 4.3%. The percentages of RhD negativity in Maroons, Creoles, and Hindustani women were 7.2, 5.4, and 3.7%, respectively. Chinese and Javanese women had very low prevalences of 0.8 and 0.5%, respectively, and Amerindians showed no RhD negativity. Antibody screening was positive in six D- (five Maroons and one Creole) women and weakly positive in three women (two Creoles and one Maroon), making overall antibody prevalence 4.4%. In 15 (5.5%; 10 Maroons, four Creoles, one Chinese) newborns from D- mothers antibody screening was positive. In the multiethnic Surinamese population RhD negativity among pregnant women varied between 0.0 and 7.2% between ethnic groups. RBC antibodies were detected during pregnancy and in newborns in 4.4 and 5.5%, respectively. © 2015 AABB.

  4. Kinetic effects in the propagation of ion-acoustic negative solitons in plasmas with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.

    1986-12-01

    The existence of ion-acoustic negative (rarefactive) solitons in plasmas was experimentally verified and explained by means of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, obtained from a fluid model. The experimental results obtained in a double-plasma machine of the Institute for Space Research, however, have provided values of Mach number larger than predicted by this simple model. In order to improve the analysis of the phenomenon, Kinetic effects resultant from the occurrence of reflected electrons and trapped ions in the soliton potential were considered, using the theory of Sagdeev potential. For the description of the negative ion dynamics the fluid model treatment was preserved. It was verified that the effects of the finite temperature and trapping of the positive ions modify the results predicted by the simple KdV model in such a way that the Mach number is reduced as the ion temperature increases. It was shown that reflection of electrons is consistent with the large experimental values of Mach number. (Author) [pt

  5. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  6. A Negative Permeability Material at Red Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hsiao-Kuan; Chettiar, Uday K.; Cai, Wenshan

    2007-01-01

    A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square ...

  7. Negative Automaintenance Omission Training Is Effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Federico; Sitomer, Matthew T.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    Twelve pigeons were exposed to negative automaintenance contingencies for 17-27 sessions immediately after brief (14-16 sessions) or extended (168-237 sessions) exposure to positive automaintenance contingencies, or after 4-10 sessions of instrumental training. In all conditions, negative automaintenance contingencies virtually eliminated…

  8. Aspects of Negation in Classical Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J.

    1972-01-01

    Traditional grammars are criticized as having obscured or omitted many significant features of negation patterns in classical Greek. The author demonstrates that negation in Greek extensively involves semantic and syntactic factors. Certain of the factors are thoroughly embedded in the traditional approach to grammar, while others are derived from…

  9. Negative social effects of global business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović-Golubović Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to prove that negative social effects of global business are reasons for growing social welfare. Negative social effects of global business are reflected through the rise of unemployment, fall of life standard and decrease of life quality and culture, particularly in less developed societies.

  10. Criticism and the Ethics of Negative Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to work through my own angst at a negative review of my "Education, Philosophy and Politics," reviewed recently by Ian Stronach for the "British Educational Research Journal," and to provide a therapeutic reading of the ethics of negative reviews. What of "shots in the dark" and should there…

  11. Negative appendicectomy: evaluation of ultrasonography and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High negative appendicectomy rates are no longer acceptable with improvements in imaging techniques and clinical prediction rules. The use of ultrasound and CT scan in addition to clinical assessment and blood investigations has greatly reduced the negative appendicectomy rate to less than 10%.

  12. Chat-Line Interaction and Negative Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junko; Oliver, Rhonda

    2003-01-01

    Examines communicative interactions between native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) of Japanese on Internet relay chat, with a special focus on implicit negative feedback in the interactions. Reports that NSs of Japanese gave implicit negative feedback to their NNS partners and NNSs used the feedback in their subsequent production, but…

  13. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  14. Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Watkins, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    The current paper provides an updated review of repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. It is shown that elevated levels of repetitive negative thinking are present across a large range of Axis I disorders and appear to be causally involved in the maintenance of emotional

  15. Appendicitis: A Study of Negative Appendicectomies | Kpolugbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative complications were noted in 3% of the negative appendicectomy group but in the positive appendicectomy group complications were much more common particularly when the appendix was ruptured. (Key Words: Negative appendicectomy, perforated appendix and postoperative complications.) Sahel Med.

  16. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine

    2013-01-01

    related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history...

  17. Ionization phenomena and sources of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion source technology has rapidly advanced during the past several years as a direct consequence of the discovery of Krohn that negative ion yields can be greatly enhanced by sputtering in the presence of Group IA elements. Today, most negative ion sources use this discovery directly or the principles implied to effect negative ion formation through surface ionization. As a consequence, the more traditional direct extraction plasma and charge exchange sources are being used less frequently. However, the charge exchange generation mechanism appears to be as universal, is very competitive in terms of efficiency and has the advantage in terms of metastable ion formation. In this review, an attempt has been made to briefly describe the principal processes involved in negative ion formation and sources which are representative of a particular principle. The reader is referred to the literature for specific details concerning the operational characteristics, emittances, brightnesses, species and intensity capabilities of particular sources. 100 references

  18. How the Brain Converts Negative Evaluation into Performance Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Lau, Hakwan; Mobbs, Dean

    2018-02-01

    Surpassing negative evaluation is a recurrent theme of success stories. Yet, there is little evidence supporting the counterintuitive idea that negative evaluation might not only motivate people, but also enhance performance. To address this question, we designed a task that required participants to decide whether taking up a risky challenge after receiving positive or negative evaluations from independent judges. Participants believed that these evaluations were based on their prior performance on a related task. Results showed that negative evaluation caused a facilitation in performance. Concurrent functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the motivating effect of negative evaluation was represented in the insula and striatum, while the performance boost was associated with functional positive connectivity between the insula and a set of brain regions involved in goal-directed behavior and the orienting of attention. These findings provide new insight into the neural representation of negative evaluation-induced facilitation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Reducing negative affect and increasing rapport improve interracial mentorship outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Ayduk, Özlem; Boykin, C Malik; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that interracial mentoring relationships are strained by negative affect and low rapport. As such, it stands to reason that strategies that decrease negative affect and increase rapport should improve these relationships. However, previous research has not tested this possibility. In video-chats (Studies 1 and 2) and face-to-face meetings (Study 3), we manipulated the degree of mutual self-disclosure between mentees and mentors, a strategy that has been shown to reduce negative affect and increase rapport. We then measured negative affect and rapport as mediators, and mentee performance (quality of speech delivered; Studies 1 and 3) and mentor performance (warmth and helpfulness; Studies 2 and 3) as key outcomes. Results revealed that increased self-disclosure decreased negative affect and increased rapport for both mentees and mentors. Among mentees, decreased negative affect predicted better performance (Studies 1 and 3). Among mentors, increased rapport predicted warmer feedback (Studies 2 and 3). These effects remained significant when we meta-analyzed data across studies (Study 4), and also revealed the relationship of rapport to more helpful feedback. Findings suggest that affect and rapport are key features in facilitating positive outcomes in interracial mentoring relationships.

  20. The Relationship between Negative Affect and Reported Cognitive Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha W. Payne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding of the range of negative affect associated with reported problems with everyday functions and activities, measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ. Evidence from previous research indicates that individuals meeting criteria for mood disorders, such as major depression or seasonal affective disorder, experience cognitive deficits in memory and attention that can lead to problems with everyday activities reported in the CFQ. The Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS was used to assess potential correlations with a wider range of negative emotions. Findings for a sample of 129 college students revealed that negative affective experiences were significantly correlated with failures of memory and attention on the CFQ (fear = .41, hostility = .38, sadness = .28, and guilt = .43. Conversely, positive affect was negatively correlated with distractibility (r=−.21. Additional affective scales on the PANAS (e.g., shyness and fatigue were also associated with higher reports of cognitive failures. The results provide converging evidence of a relationship between negative affective experiences and reported frequency of problems on the cognitive failures questionnaire.

  1. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: A historical, contemporary, and futuristic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shae-Leigh Cynthia Vella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the evolution of the conceptualization of schizophrenia. Specifically, the paper focuses upon negative symptomology and the emphasis that such symptoms have garnered over time. Negative symptoms are associated with higher levels of impairment and poorer outcomes in schizophrenia. Historically, negative symptoms were the core feature of schizophrenia in the early conceptualizations of Kraepelin and Bleuler, holding precedence until the emergence of Schneiderian theory in the 1970′s. The focus on negative symptoms then changed to positive symptoms; which is still the key focus today. This shift in emphasis has resulted in a dearth of knowledge and treatment for such symptoms and as such an area requiring further research. The paper also addresses the conceptual changes in the nosology of Schizophrenia and other psychosis with respect to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5. Further the potential for the clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms to facilitate understanding and treatments for negative symptomology in schizophrenia is also discussed.

  2. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bonilha Modoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

  4. Helicobacter pylori-Negative Gastritis: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenstedt, Helena; Graham, David Y.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Rugge, Massimo; Verstovsek, Gordana; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Alsarraj, Abeer; Shaib, Yasser; Velez, Maria E.; Abraham, Neena; Anand, Bhupinderjit; Cole, Rhonda; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Recent studies using histology alone in select patients have suggested that Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis may be common. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori among individuals with histologic gastritis. METHODS Subjects between 40 and 80 years underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy at a VA Medical Center. Gastric biopsies were mapped from seven prespecified sites (two antrum, four corpus, and one cardia) and graded by two gastrointestinal pathologists, using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori-negative required four criteria: negative triple staining at all seven gastric sites, negative H. pylori culture, negative IgG H. pylori serology, and no previous treatment for H. pylori. Data regarding tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use were obtained by questionnaire. RESULTS Of the 491 individuals enrolled, 40.7% (200) had gastritis of at least grade 2 in at least one biopsy site or grade 1 in at least two sites. Forty-one (20.5%) had H. pylori-negative gastritis; most (30 or 73.2%) had chronic gastritis, five (12.2%) had active gastritis, and six (14.6%) had both. H. pylori-negative gastritis was approximately equally distributed in the antrum, corpus, and both antrum and corpus. Past and current PPI use was more frequent in H. pylori-negative vs. H. pylori-positive gastritis (68.2% and 53.8%; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS We used multiple methods to define non-H. pylori gastritis and found it in 21% of patients with histologic gastritis. While PPI use is a potential risk factor, the cause or implications of this entity are not known. PMID:23147524

  5. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  6. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  7. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    If a finite metric space is of strictly negative type then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by an infinite extent (“load vector''). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all trees, and all finite subspaces of Euclidean and Hyperbolic spaces. We prove that if the distance...... matrix of a finite metric space is both hypermetric and regular, then it is of strictly negative type. We show that the strictly negative type finite subspaces of spheres are precisely those which do not contain two pairs of antipodal points....

  8. Does Negative Type Characterize the Round Sphere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the measure theoretic metric invariants extent, mean distance and symmetry ratio and their relation to the concept of negative type of a metric space. A conjecture stating that a compact Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be a round sphere, was put forward in a previous paper....... We resolve this conjecture in the class of Riemannian symmetric spaces by showing, that a Riemannian manifold with symmetry ratio 1 must be of negative type and that the only compact Riemannian symmetric spaces of negative type are the round spheres....

  9. Cascade of negative muons in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akylas, V.R.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of the evolution of a negative muon captured in an atom and the formalism of energy loss associated with the muonic atom. The principal goals are to calculate reliability the muon x-ray intensities, given the initial population of the muonic orbits, to invert the problem and deduce the initial distribution from the x-ray intensities, to provide a reasonably simple and convenient tool to correlate observations, and finally, to systematize some questions of theoretical interest. The early part of the history of the muon in matter, including the atomic capture and classical phase of the atomic cascade are reviewed. In the quantal treatment of the transition rates, both radiative and electron Auger transitions are considered. In general, multipolarities up to E3 and K, L, and M electronic shells are fully investigated. Multipole radiation is treated in the conventinal way and pesents no special problems. Magnetic type transitions between states with different principal quantum numbers are shown to be small. Auger electron ejection rates are more complicated and several approximations have been adopted. The basic results have been computed in terms of elemetary functions. In the Auger transitions we have shown that magnetic multipoles can be safety neglected. The relative sizes of the rates corresponding to different multipoles are systematically studied. A comparison of results is made with atomic photoelectric effect data and with the nuclear internal conversion coefficients. A general agreement is found, except around shell thresholds. The existing data of muonic x-ray intensities in iron and thallium are analyzed in a systematic way. It is found that for Fe the initial l-distribution is almost flat, whereas that for T1 is weighted towards the high l values, sharper than statistical. As a result of the investigations and in order to make our findings usable, a computer program has been developed. 36 references

  10. Investigation of negative permeability metamaterials for wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenhui; Mi, Chunting Chris; He, Fei; Jiang, Meng; Hua, Dengxin

    2017-11-01

    In order to enhance the transmission efficiency of wireless power transfer (WPT), a negative permeability metamaterials (NPM) with a structure of honeycomb composed by units of hexagon-shaped spirals copper is proposed in this paper. The unit parameters of the NPM are optimized, to make sure the negative permeability at the special frequency. The S-parameters of the designed NPM are measured by a network analyzer and the permeability is extracted, it shows the honeycomb NPM has a negative permeability at 6.43 MHz. A two-coil WPT is setup and the transmission efficiency of WPT embedded with NPM at the different position and with different structure are investigated. The measured results show that the 2-slab honeycomb NPM have a good perform compared with the 1-slab NPM, and the efficiency can be increased up to 51%. The results show that honeycomb NPM embedded in the WPT help to improve the transmission efficiency remarkable.

  11. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Agnieszka; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, G.

    2003-01-01

    A method to predict lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative Eubacteria, LipoP, has been developed. The hidden Markov model (HMM) was able to distinguish between lipoproteins (SPaseII-cleaved proteins), SPaseI-cleaved proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and transmembrane proteins. This predictor...... was able to predict 96.8% of the lipoproteins correctly with only 0.3% false positives in a set of SPaseI-cleaved, cytoplasmic, and transmembrane proteins. The results obtained were significantly better than those of previously developed methods. Even though Gram-positive lipoprotein signal peptides differ...... from Gram-negatives, the HMM was able to identify 92.9% of the lipoproteins included in a Gram-positive test set. A genome search was carried out for 12 Gram-negative genomes and one Gram-positive genome. The results for Escherichia coli K12 were compared with new experimental data, and the predictions...

  12. Complete Convergence for Weighted Sums of Sequences of Negatively Dependent Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunying Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying to the moment inequality of negatively dependent random variables the complete convergence for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables is discussed. As a result, complete convergence theorems for negatively dependent sequences of random variables are extended.

  13. Oxygen negative glow: reactive species and emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahli, Khaled

    1991-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of a specific type of oxygen plasma created by electron beams (1 keV, 20 mA/cm 2 ), negative glow of a luminescent discharge in abnormal regime. The objective is to test the qualities of this plasma as source of two 'active' species of oxygen (singlet molecular oxygen and atomic oxygen) which are useful in applications. The experiment mainly bears on the use of VUV (120 to 150 nm) absorption spectroscopy measurements of concentrations of these both species, and on the recording of plasma emissivity space profiles in the visible region (450 to 850 nm). It appears that low concentrations of singlet oxygen definitely exclude this type of discharge for iodine laser applications. On the contrary, concentrations measured for atomic oxygen show it is a good candidate for the oxidation of large surfaces by sheets of beams. The satisfying comparison of emissivity results with a published model confirm the prevailing role of fast electrons, and gives evidence of an important effect of temperature: temperature can reach 1000 K, and this is in agreement with the presented measurement [fr

  14. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enceladus Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here are some results from the Spectra Decomposition Algorithm on infrared spectral images of Saturn's moon Enceladus. Figure 1 is the spatial contribution of the...

  16. 1998 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadonneix, P.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the financial and commercial results of Gaz de France (GdF) company for 1998. The following points are presented successively: financial results (budget results, turnover, self-financing capacity, investments, debt situation), commercial results (some remarkable numbers and records, the tertiary and residential market, the industrial market, cogeneration and natural gas for vehicles), the strategy, 1998 realizations and perspectives (the natural gas energy in the 21. century, the development of GdF, the gas distribution and services (development of the French distribution system, export of the know-how, development of services), the transportation and storage systems threw Europe (densification of the pipeline network, the key-position of France, the north-south equilibrium of the distribution network), the natural gas production by GdF, the diversification of supplies, and the main daughter companies abroad). (J.S.)

  17. Age differences in autobiographical memories of negative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boals, Adriel; Hayslip, Bert; Banks, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether older adults recollect autobiographical memories of negative events so as to minimize unpleasant emotions to a greater extent than do younger adults. A sample of healthy older adults (N = 126) and younger adults (N = 119) completed the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire and a measure of PTSD symptoms in response to their most negative recalled event. Results supported the hypothesis that older adults rated their negative memories as having: 1) less of a sense of traveling back to the time the event occurred, 2) less associated visceral emotional reactions, 3) fewer associated negative emotions, and 4) fewer PTSD symptoms, all relative to younger adults. In addition, older adults exhibited higher ratings of belief in accuracy, higher ratings that the memory comes as a coherent story, and more associated positive emotions, again all relative to younger adults. After controlling for differences between the types of events younger and older adults reported and how long ago the event occurred, the above age differences remained statistically significant, though the effect sizes were attenuated in some cases. These results are consistent in their support for the positivity effect, and suggest that older adults modify their recollections of negative events in a manner that is emotionally adaptive for them.

  18. Negative Phototropism of Chlorophytum comosum Roots and Their Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Juan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Chlorophytum comosum were grown hydroponically, allowing us to study the performance and mechanism of negative phototropism. The results of this study were as follows. All the adventitious roots and their branch roots bent away from light with a maximum curvature of approximately 88.5°. Blue-violet light prominently induced negative phototropism while red light had no effect. The root cap was the site of photo perception. Roots with shaded or divested root caps exposed to unilateral light showed no negative phototropism, but resumed their original characteristics when the shade was removed or when new root caps grew. The curvature increased when the light intensity ranged 0–110 μmol · m−2 · s−1. The negative phototropism curvature could be promoted by exogenous CaCl2 but was inhibited by exogenous LaCl3; exogenous CaCl2 could reduce the inhibitory effect of LaCl3. Unilateral light induced the horizontal transport of IAA from the irradiated side to the shaded side, resulting in an unequal distribution of IAA in both the sides, leading to negative phototropism. The horizontal transport of IAA was promoted by exogenous Ca2+ but inhibited by exogenous La3+.

  19. The chameleonic nature of French ni : negative coordination in a negative concord language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doetjes, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to defend the claim that ni, the French counterpart of neither and nor is always a negative conjunction which takes part in the negative concord system of French. The interpretation one seems to get for this negative concord ni varies depending on the environment where

  20. Perceived Social Competence, Negative Social Interactions, and Negative Cognitive Style Predict Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined whether negative interactions with parents and peers would mediate the longitudinal association between perceived social competence and depressive symptoms and whether a negative cognitive style would moderate the longitudinal association between negative interactions with parents and increases in depressive symptoms.…

  1. Production of negatively charged radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.; Stora, T.

    2017-08-01

    Beams of short-lived radioactive nuclei are needed for frontier experimental research in nuclear structure, reactions, and astrophysics. Negatively charged radioactive ion beams have unique advantages and allow for the use of a tandem accelerator for post-acceleration, which can provide the highest beam quality and continuously variable energies. Negative ion beams can be obtained with high intensity and some unique beam purification techniques based on differences in electronegativity and chemical reactivity can be used to provide beams with high purity. This article describes the production of negative radioactive ion beams at the former holifield radioactive ion beam facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and at the CERN ISOLDE facility with emphasis on the development of the negative ion sources employed at these two facilities. ).

  2. 40 CFR 52.222 - Negative declarations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Air Pollution Control District. (i) Industrial Wastewater, Plastic Parts Coating: Business... Pollution Control District. (i) Aerospace Coatings; Industrial Waste Water Treatment; Plastic Parts Coating... following air pollution control districts submitted negative declarations for volatile organic compound...

  3. Negative power spectra in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Ford, L.H.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the spatial power spectra associated with fluctuations of quadratic operators in field theory, such as quantum stress tensor components. We show that the power spectrum can be negative, in contrast to most fluctuation phenomena where the Wiener-Khinchin theorem requires a positive power spectrum. We show why the usual argument for positivity fails in this case, and discuss the physical interpretation of negative power spectra. Possible applications to cosmology are discussed. -- Highlights: → Wiener-Khinchin theorem usually implies a positive power spectrum of fluctuations. → We show this is not always the case in quantum field theory. → Quantum stress tensor fluctuations can have a negative power spectrum. → Negative power interchanges correlations and anticorrelations.

  4. Doped Chiral Polymer Negative Index Materials (DCPNIM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Doped Chiral Polymer-Negative Index Materials (DCP-NIM) with tunable resonance frequencies are developed by adding various plasmonic nanoinclusions into chiral...

  5. Negative ion formation processes: A general review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal negative ion formation processes will be briefly reviewed. Primary emphasis will be placed on the more efficient and universal processes of charge transfer and secondary ion formation through non-thermodynamic surface ionization. 86 refs., 20 figs.

  6. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  7. Negative thermal expansion in framework compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We have studied negative thermal expansion (NTE) compounds with chemi- cal compositions of NX2O8 and NX2O7 (N=Zr, Hf and X=W, Mo, V) and M2O (M=Cu, Ag) using the techniques of inelastic neutron scattering and lattice dynamics. There is a large variation in the negative thermal expansion ...

  8. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative Interest Rates: Central Banks Initiated an Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey N. Burenin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative interest rates appeared as a consequence of economic problems that countries with market economy came across after the crises of2007-2008. The attempts of monetary authorities to stimulate economies with the help of quantitative easing didn't bring the desired result. That's why the central banks once again resorted to a traditional tool of their monetary policy of changing interest rates. But this time they launched an experiment, they used negative interest rates. The European Central Bank, the Swedish Riksbank, the Bank of Japan, and the National Bank of Hungary introduced negative rates in order to stimulate economic growth and fight the threat of deflation, the Danish National Bank and the Swiss National Bank tried to deter appreciation of their currencies. Negative rates of the central banks brought about negative yields of government and nongovernment securities in several countries. The problem acquires an aggravated form due to the fact that negative rates appeared in several European countries simultaneously at the moment when global financial markets were not in crises. Some questions arise concerning the negative rates, for example, how low can central banks bring down the rates in the future, what is their influence on the stock markets, what is the reaction of depositors to the introduction of negative deposit rates by commercial banks, must one consider a negative rate as a rate of interest or payment to store money of the depositor, in which circumstances negative rates can be justified to fight deflation. The last question plays an important role, because recent studies find that positive economic growth is possible during deflation. If central banks don't take this nuance into consideration, they can create economic imbalances by increasing liquidity. Negative rates are not as inoffensive as it may seem at first glance. Not far ago an investor, who tried to averse risk, was buying government securities. Their yields

  10. Negative capacitance in multidomain ferroelectric superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Pavlo; Wojdeł, Jacek C; Hadjimichael, Marios; Fernandez-Pena, Stéphanie; Sené, Anaïs; Luk'yanchuk, Igor; Triscone, Jean-Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge

    2016-06-23

    The stability of spontaneous electrical polarization in ferroelectrics is fundamental to many of their current applications, which range from the simple electric cigarette lighter to non-volatile random access memories. Research on nanoscale ferroelectrics reveals that their behaviour is profoundly different from that in bulk ferroelectrics, which could lead to new phenomena with potential for future devices. As ferroelectrics become thinner, maintaining a stable polarization becomes increasingly challenging. On the other hand, intentionally destabilizing this polarization can cause the effective electric permittivity of a ferroelectric to become negative, enabling it to behave as a negative capacitance when integrated in a heterostructure. Negative capacitance has been proposed as a way of overcoming fundamental limitations on the power consumption of field-effect transistors. However, experimental demonstrations of this phenomenon remain contentious. The prevalent interpretations based on homogeneous polarization models are difficult to reconcile with the expected strong tendency for domain formation, but the effect of domains on negative capacitance has received little attention. Here we report negative capacitance in a model system of multidomain ferroelectric-dielectric superlattices across a wide range of temperatures, in both the ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. Using a phenomenological model, we show that domain-wall motion not only gives rise to negative permittivity, but can also enhance, rather than limit, its temperature range. Our first-principles-based atomistic simulations provide detailed microscopic insight into the origin of this phenomenon, identifying the dominant contribution of near-interface layers and paving the way for its future exploitation.

  11. The Peculiar Negative Greenhouse Effect Over Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejas, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Cai, M.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gases warm the climate system by reducing the energy loss to space through the greenhouse effect. Thus, a common way to measure the strength of the greenhouse effect is by taking the difference between the surface longwave (LW) emission and the outgoing LW radiation. Based on this definition, a paradoxical negative greenhouse effect is found over the Antarctic Plateau, which suprisingly indicates that greenhouse gases enhance energy loss to space. Using 13 years of NASA satellite observations, we verify the existence of the negative greenhouse effect and find that the magnitude and sign of the greenhouse effect varies seasonally and spectrally. A previous explanation attributes the negative greenhouse effect solely to stratospheric CO2 and warmer than surface stratospheric temperatures. However, we surprisingly find that the negative greenhouse effect is predominantly caused by tropospheric water vapor. A novel principle-based explanation provides the first complete account of the Antarctic Plateau's negative greenhouse effect indicating that it is controlled by the vertical variation of temperature and greenhouse gas absorption strength. Our findings indicate that the strong surface-based temperature inversion and scarcity of free tropospheric water vapor over the Antarctic Plateau cause the negative greenhouse effect. These are climatological features uniquely found in the Antarctic Plateau region, explaining why the greenhouse effect is positive everywhere else.

  12. Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  13. [Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: from electrophysiology to electrotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Quiles, C; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this review of the literature is to summarize the state of the knowledge concerning the relationship between negative symptoms in schizophrenia, electrophysiology and electrotherapy. The scientific literature search of international articles was performed during August and September 2015 using the PubMed electronic database. We used the following MeSH terms: "Negative symptoms", "Schizophrenia", "Electrophysiology", "Neurophysiology", "EEG power", "Alpha rhythm", "Transcranial magnetic stimulation", "Transcranial direct current stimulation", "Electroconvulsive therapy", "Neurofeedback", "Vagus Nerve Stimulation", "Deep Brain Stimulation", and "State dependent". Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with altered activity in prefrontal cortex in functional neuroimaging studies. This is in line with electrophysiological measurements that found a change in EEG spectral power in the alpha frequency band over prefrontal brain regions. The notion of functional hypofrontality has led to hypotheses that electrotherapy applied to the prefrontal cortex may be an effective treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were used to increase cortical activity in schizophrenia and achieve a clinical effect on negative symptoms. Three meta-analyses confirmed, with a moderate effect size, that rTMS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The two subsequently published prospective multicenter studies, however, found opposite results from each other. Two randomized controlled studies suggested that tDCS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms. There is no study on the efficacy of neurofeedback, vagal nerve stimulation or deep brain stimulation on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of rTMS and tDCS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Influencing factors

  14. Negative life events, coping and mental health in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Grzegorzewska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In the period of middle childhood, social experiences (both educational and social may constitute a critical moment in time for the ultimate results of development in the case of an individual. Negative life events and coping skills may guarantee a positive or negative direction of development, exerting an influence on the mental health of children. In the study, a four-factor model of mental health was adopted, taking into consideration psychopathological symptoms within the scope of externalizing and internalizing disorders, the level of the performance of developmental tasks, and the sense of life satisfaction. The present study investigated the correlation between stress, coping and mental health in children in middle childhood. Participants and procedure The study included 182 individuals aged between 9 and 12 years. The following aspects were subjected to assessment: the level of mental health, the number and severity of negative life events, and the strategies of coping with stress. In order to determine the strongest predictors of the four dimensions of mental health of children, hierarchical regression analysis was applied. Results It was found that the strongest predictor of mental health of children in the period of middle childhood was individual and accumulated negative stress events. Lower significance was found for the subjective assessment of the severity of events being experienced. It was found that a factor protecting against disorders was active methods of coping. Conclusions The study suggests that it is not only psychopathological symptoms that constitute the negative consequence of the effect of stress. Negative stress events influence the positive dimensions of mental health, including the level of performance of developmental tasks and the sense of life satisfaction in children in the period of middle childhood. The obtained results show the specific character of the discussed period of development. However

  15. Brain and behavioral inhibitory control of kindergartners facing negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbiash, Tali; Berger, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Inhibitory control (IC) - one of the most critical functions underlying a child's ability to self-regulate - develops significantly throughout the kindergarten years. Experiencing negative emotions imposes challenges on executive functioning and may specifically affect IC. In this study, we examined kindergartners' IC and its related brain activity during a negative emotional situation: 58 children (aged 5.5-6.5 years) performed an emotion-induction Go/NoGo task. During this task, we recorded children's performance and brain activity, focusing on the fronto-central N2 component in the event-related potential (ERP) and the power of its underlying theta frequency. Compared to Go trials, inhibition of NoGo trials was associated with larger N2 amplitudes and theta power. The negative emotional experience resulted in better IC performance and, at the brain level, in larger theta power. Source localization of this effect showed that the brain activity related to IC during the negative emotional experience was principally generated in the posterior frontal regions. Furthermore, the band power measure was found to be a more sensitive index for children's inhibitory processes than N2 amplitudes. This is the first study to focus on kindergartners' IC while manipulating their emotional experience to induce negative emotions. Our findings suggest that a kindergartner's experience of negative emotion can result in improved IC and increases in associated aspects of brain activity. Our results also suggest the utility of time-frequency analyses in the study of brain processes associated with response inhibition in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  17. Outcome Following a Negative CT Angiogram for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Victoria, E-mail: drvictoriac@gmail.com; Tse, Donald, E-mail: donald.tse@gmail.com; Dixon, Shaheen, E-mail: shaheen7noorani@gmail.com [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom); Shrivastava, Vivek, E-mail: vivshriv@yahoo.com [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Bratby, Mark, E-mail: mark.bratby@ouh.nhs.uk; Anthony, Suzie, E-mail: suzie.anthony@ouh.nhs.uk; Patel, Rafiuddin, E-mail: rafiuddin.patel@ouh.nhs.uk; Tapping, Charles, E-mail: charles.tapping@ouh.nhs.uk; Uberoi, Raman, E-mail: raman.uberoi@orh.nhs.uk [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Radiology, Level 2 (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the role of a negative computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in patients who present with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.MethodsA review of all patients who had CTAs for GI hemorrhage over an 8-year period from January 2005 to December 2012 was performed. Data for patient demographics, location of hemorrhage, hemodynamic stability, and details of angiograms and/or the embolization procedure were obtained from the CRIS/PACS database, interventional radiology database, secure electronic medical records, and patient’s clinical notes.ResultsA total of 180 patients had 202 CTAs during the 8-year period: 87 CTAs were performed for upper GI hemorrhage (18 positive for active bleeding, 69 negative) and 115 for lower GI hemorrhage (37 positive for active bleeding, 78 negative); 58.7 % (37/63) of patients with upper GI bleed and 77.4 % (48/62) of patients with lower GI bleed who had an initial negative CTA did not rebleed without the need for radiological or surgical intervention. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04). The relative risk of rebleeding, following a negative CTA, in lower GI bleeding versus upper GI bleeding patients is 0.55 (95 % confidence interval 0.32–0.95).ConclusionsPatients with upper GI bleed who had negative CTAs usually require further intervention to stop the bleeding. In contrast, most patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage who had a negative first CTA were less likely to rebleed.

  18. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  19. Outcome Following a Negative CT Angiogram for Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Victoria; Tse, Donald; Dixon, Shaheen; Shrivastava, Vivek; Bratby, Mark; Anthony, Suzie; Patel, Rafiuddin; Tapping, Charles; Uberoi, Raman

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to evaluate the role of a negative computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in patients who present with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage.MethodsA review of all patients who had CTAs for GI hemorrhage over an 8-year period from January 2005 to December 2012 was performed. Data for patient demographics, location of hemorrhage, hemodynamic stability, and details of angiograms and/or the embolization procedure were obtained from the CRIS/PACS database, interventional radiology database, secure electronic medical records, and patient’s clinical notes.ResultsA total of 180 patients had 202 CTAs during the 8-year period: 87 CTAs were performed for upper GI hemorrhage (18 positive for active bleeding, 69 negative) and 115 for lower GI hemorrhage (37 positive for active bleeding, 78 negative); 58.7 % (37/63) of patients with upper GI bleed and 77.4 % (48/62) of patients with lower GI bleed who had an initial negative CTA did not rebleed without the need for radiological or surgical intervention. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.04). The relative risk of rebleeding, following a negative CTA, in lower GI bleeding versus upper GI bleeding patients is 0.55 (95 % confidence interval 0.32–0.95).ConclusionsPatients with upper GI bleed who had negative CTAs usually require further intervention to stop the bleeding. In contrast, most patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage who had a negative first CTA were less likely to rebleed

  20. Quantification and Negation in Event Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Champollion

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been claimed that event semantics does not go well together with quantification, especially if one rejects syntactic, LF-based approaches to quantifier scope. This paper shows that such fears are unfounded, by presenting a simple, variable-free framework which combines a Neo-Davidsonian event semantics with a type-shifting based account of quantifier scope. The main innovation is that the event variable is bound inside the verbal denotation, rather than at sentence level by existential closure. Quantifiers can then be interpreted in situ. The resulting framework combines the strengths of event semantics and type-shifting accounts of quantifiers and thus does not force the semanticist to posit either a default underlying word order or a syntactic LF-style level. It is therefore well suited for applications to languages where word order is free and quantifier scope is determined by surface order. As an additional benefit, the system leads to a straightforward account of negation, which has also been claimed to be problematic for event-based frameworks.ReferencesBarker, Chris. 2002. ‘Continuations and the nature of quantification’. Natural Language Semantics 10: 211–242.http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022183511876Barker, Chris & Shan, Chung-chieh. 2008. ‘Donkey anaphora is in-scope binding’. Semantics and Pragmatics 1: 1–46.Beaver, David & Condoravdi, Cleo. 2007. ‘On the logic of verbal modification’. In Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker & Floris Roelofsen (eds. ‘Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium’, 3–9. Amsterdam, Netherlands: University of Amsterdam.Beghelli, Filippo & Stowell, Tim. 1997. ‘Distributivity and negation: The syntax of each and every’. In Anna Szabolcsi (ed. ‘Ways of scope taking’, 71–107. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.Brasoveanu, Adrian. 2010. ‘Modified Numerals as Post-Suppositions’. In Maria Aloni, Harald Bastiaanse, Tikitu de Jager & Katrin Schulz (eds. ‘Logic, Language

  1. Negative Emotions and Behaviors are Markers of Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Method: University students who experienced a recent romantic breakup were given several self-report measures and were then divided into high versus low breakup distress groups. Results: The high breakup distress versus the low breakup distress groups had higher scores on negative emotions scales including depression, anxiety and anger and…

  2. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  3. Distinguishing between Binomial, Hypergeometric and Negative Binomial Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Cole, Tarah

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the differences between three discrete distributions (Binomial, Hypergeometric and Negative Binomial) can be challenging for students. We present an activity designed to help students differentiate among these distributions. In addition, we present assessment results in the form of pre- and post-tests that were designed to assess the…

  4. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Lin, Hongfei

    2014-01-01

    A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  5. Release from Proactive Interference with Positive and Negative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richaro; King, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Using the release from proactive interference (RPI) task, college students (n = 40) received 4 trials comprised of 3-word triads of either positive (P) or negative (N) words. Word-triad recall served as the dependent measure, and results revealed typical buildup of PI (i.e., no significant group X trial interaction across Trials 1-3). Significant…

  6. Capacity recovery after storage negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, John E.

    1993-02-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate the recovery of capacity lost during open circuit storage of negatively precharged nickel hydrogen batteries. Four Eagle Picher RNH-90-3 cells were used in the tests. Recovery procedures and test results are presented in outline and graphic form.

  7. Negative confounding by essential fatty acids in methylmercury neurotoxicity associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Bjerve, Kristian S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury, a worldwide contaminant of fish and seafood, can cause adverse effects on the developing nervous system. However, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in seafood provide beneficial effects on brain development. Negative confounding will likely result in underestim...

  8. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on Positive and Negative Signs in Chronic Schizophrenic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia has different clinical manifestations, although, it is one disorder patients divided to two groups type 1 and type 2. type 1 who have positive and type 2 who have negative signs. Materials & Methods: They have chronic schizophrenia and treated at least with one antipsychotic drug. With checklist the signs were controlled. Results: In these chronic patients, hallucinations (positive sign are seen with almost all of negative signs. In the other hand, (1 Flat affect (2 A logia & volition (3 Social inattentiveness (4 Inability to feel intimacy are seen more than another signs. Conclusion: For these above  patients new antipsychotic must be examined.

  10. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Dobrovolskiy, A M; Dunets, S M; Litovko, I V; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  11. Coagulase negative staphylococci - a fast emerging threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Mahwish; Usman, Javaid; Gilani, Mehreen; Munir, Tehmina; Mushtaq, Maria; Anjum, Rabia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and their resistance to methicillin over a period of time. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from June 2009 to May 2012, and comprised clinical samples mostly from patients admitted to the intensive care unit. They were inoculated onto appropriate culture media depending upon the specimen. After 24-hour incubation at 35°C, coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified on the basis of colony morphology, gram staining, a positive catalase and a negative tube coagulase test.Methicillin resistance among the isolated staphylococci was determined using a 30µg Cefoxitin disc as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocol. Number of coagulase-negative staphylococci for each year and their methicillin resistance rates were calculated. A comparison was made with methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) isolated during the same period. Of the total 1331 specimens studies over three years, 581(43.65%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci. The rate of coagulase-negative staphylococci and methicillin resistance was higher each year; 110(26.6%) in May 2009-Jun 2010, 134(36.5%) in 2011, and 337(61%) in 2012. Methicillin resistance rates also increased from 25(22.7%) to 46(34.3%) and then to 201(59.6%) in 2012.Maximum isolated specimens came from blood 311(53.5%), followed by pus/swabs 204(35.1%). The frequency of isolation of coagulase-negative staphylococci and its methicillin resistance among hospitalised patients is on the rise.

  12. [Negative hallucination, self-onsciousness and ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazif-Thomas, C; Stephan, F; Walter, M; Thomas, P

    2015-04-01

    Negative hallucinations are characterized by a defect in perception of an object or a person, or a denial of the existence of their perception. Negative hallucinations create blank spaces, due to both an impossible representation and an incapability of investment in reality. They have a close relationship with Cotard's syndrome, delusional theme of organ denial observed in melancholic syndromes in the elderly. Phenomenological approach. The phenomenology of negative hallucinations provides quite an amount of information on the origin of the psychotic symptoms when one is rather old. The connections between hallucinations, mood disorders and negative symptoms are often difficult to live with for the nearest and dearest. Negative hallucinations require a strict approach to identify their expression that is crucial because a wide heterogeneity exists within the pathological pictures, as in Cotard's syndrome. Although the negative hallucination has an anti traumatic function in elderly people fighting against mental pain, it still represents a deficiency in symbolization. The prevalence of this symptom is without doubt underestimated, although its presence often underlines thymic suffering that is more striking. These hallucinatory symptoms have an important impact on the patients' daily life, and they appear to be prisoners of a suffering, which cannot be revealed. We propose in this article to review the clinical symptoms of negative hallucinations in the elderly and the way to manage them. The medicinal approaches are not always effective. A greater place must be given to what is in connection with the body, aiming at a strong impact and thus to offer non-pharmacological approaches, such as somatic ones, which can be either invasive (electroconvulsive therapy) or not (transcranial magnetic stimulation). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Proceedings of the third workshop on negative ion formation and beam handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akira; Mori, Yoshiharu

    1994-02-01

    The workshop was held on August 18 and 19, 1993, at the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. By the recent remarkable development of negative ion sources and negative ion control technology, the fields of application of negative ions extended, such as accelerators, nuclear fusion, surface analysis and ion implantation. However, there are many problems which are not yet clarified, for example the formation of negative ions, beam conveyance, the behavior of negative ions in plasma. At the workshop, lectures were given on 350 keV, 0.2 A negative ion source, simulation of hybrid negative ion source, RF negative ion source, ECR-BLAKE negative ion source, energy extension by tandem acceleration of heavy ion beam, development of negative ion source for NBI in National Institute for Fusion Science, direct extraction of Na - and Na 2 - from sodium plasma, negative ion formation from Li-H system, negative ion measurement in plasma by laser, experimental results of Uramoto type sheet plasma negative ion source in Kyoto University and others. (K.I.)

  14. Effects of CEOs’ Negative Traits on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Kyu Myung

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The dark triad, composed of Machiavellianism, psychopathy and narcissism, refers to negative personality traits, which may influence business processes. While negative traits could be an important factor explaining the relationship between a CEO’s immoral and unethical behavior and corporate social responsibility (CSR, there has been minimal research focusing on this relationship. This paper thus attempts to investigate how a CEO exhibiting these negative traits affects CSR, and if an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility would mediate the relationship. In addition, this paper considers the moderating effects of an individual performance-based compensation system (IPBCS between employee’s CSR perception and CSR activities. The data are collected through a survey conducted on 165 employees (companies in twelve industries. The regression result indicates an inverse relationship between the negative traits of a CEO and an employee’s perception of ethics and social responsibility and CSR activities, and the mediating effect of the perception in the relationship between the negative traits and CSR activities. It also indicates that an IPBCS moderates the relationship between CSR perception and activities. Implications for the study, future research directions, and management approach are discussed.

  15. Negative emotion boosts quality of visual working memory representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-08-01

    Negative emotion impacts a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory (WM). The present study investigated whether negative emotion modulated WM capacity (quantity) or resolution (quality), 2 independent limits on WM storage. In Experiment 1, observers tried to remember several colors over 1-s delay and then recalled the color of a randomly picked memory item by clicking a best-matching color on a continuous color wheel. On each trial, before the visual WM task, 1 of 3 emotion conditions (negative, neutral, or positive) was induced by having observers to rate the valence of an International Affective Picture System image. Visual WM under negative emotion showed enhanced resolution compared with neutral and positive conditions, whereas the number of retained representations was comparable across the 3 emotion conditions. These effects were generalized to closed-contour shapes in Experiment 2. To isolate the locus of these effects, Experiment 3 adopted an iconic memory version of the color recall task by eliminating the 1-s retention interval. No significant change in the quantity or quality of iconic memory was observed, suggesting that the resolution effects in the first 2 experiments were critically dependent on the need to retain memory representations over a short period of time. Taken together, these results suggest that negative emotion selectively boosts visual WM quality, supporting the dissociable nature quantitative and qualitative aspects of visual WM representation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Depression and Identity: Are Self-Constructions Negative or Conflictual?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Montesano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Negative self-views have proved to be a consistent marker of vulnerability for depression. However, recent research has shown that a particular kind of cognitive conflict, implicative dilemma, is highly prevalent in depression. In this study, the relevance of these conflicts is assessed as compared to the cognitive model of depression of a negative view of the self. In so doing, 161 patients with major depression and 110 controls were assessed to explore negative self-construing (self-ideal discrepancy and conflicts (implicative dilemmas, as well as severity of symptoms. Results showed specificity for the clinical group indicating a pattern of mixed positive and negative self-descriptions with a high rate of conflict. Regression analysis lent support to the conflict hypothesis in relation to clinically relevant indicators such as symptom severity, global functioning. However, self-ideal discrepancy was a stronger predictor of group membership. The findings showed the relevance of cognitive conflicts to compliment the well-consolidated theory of negative self-views. Clinical implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  17. Depression and Identity: Are Self-Constructions Negative or Conflictual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Caspar, Franz; Winter, David

    2017-01-01

    Negative self-views have proved to be a consistent marker of vulnerability for depression. However, recent research has shown that a particular kind of cognitive conflict, implicative dilemma, is highly prevalent in depression. In this study, the relevance of these conflicts is assessed as compared to the cognitive model of depression of a negative view of the self. In so doing, 161 patients with major depression and 110 controls were assessed to explore negative self-construing (self-ideal discrepancy) and conflicts (implicative dilemmas), as well as severity of symptoms. Results showed specificity for the clinical group indicating a pattern of mixed positive and negative self-descriptions with a high rate of conflict. Regression analysis lent support to the conflict hypothesis in relation to clinically relevant indicators such as symptom severity, global functioning. However, self-ideal discrepancy was a stronger predictor of group membership. The findings showed the relevance of cognitive conflicts to compliment the well-consolidated theory of negative self-views. Clinical implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  18. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  19. Factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T. Khoza

    2017-07-01

    Objective: This study seeks to identify factors that negatively influence knowledge sharing in software development in the developing country context. Method: Expert sampling as a subcategory of purposive sampling was employed to extract information, views and opinions from experts in the field of information and communication technology, more specifically from those who are involved in software development projects. Four Johannesburg-based software developing organisations listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, South Africa, participated in this research study. Quantitative data were collected using an online questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Results: Findings of this research reveal that job security, motivation, time constraints, physiological factors, communication, resistance to change and rewards are core factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing in software developing organisations. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors negatively influencing knowledge sharing is expected to assist software developing organisations in closing the gap for software development projects failing to meet the triple constraint of time, cost and scope.

  20. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Double negative acoustic metastructure for attenuation of acoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhushan, Pulak; Prakash, Om; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials hold great potential for attenuation of low frequency acoustic emissions. However, a fundamental challenge is achieving high transmission loss over a broad frequency range. In this work, we report a double negative acoustic metastructure for absorption of low frequency acoustic emissions in an aircraft. This is achieved by utilizing a periodic array of hexagonal cells interconnected with a neck and mounted with an elastic membrane on both ends. An average transmission loss of 56 dB under 500 Hz and an overall absorption of over 48% have been realized experimentally. The negative mass density is derived from the dipolar resonances created as a result of the in-phase movement of the membranes. Further, the negative bulk modulus is ascribed to the combined effect of out-of-phase acceleration of the membranes and the Helmholtz resonator. The proposed metastructure enables absorption of low frequency acoustic emissions with improved functionality that is highly desirable for varied applications.

  2. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (ULIRGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cazzoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (ULIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback. In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (ULIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  3. Developmental constraint through negative pleiotropy in the zygomatic arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Percival

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous analysis suggested that the relative contribution of individual bones to regional skull lengths differ between inbred mouse strains. If the negative correlation of adjacent bone lengths is associated with genetic variation in a heterogeneous population, it would be an example of negative pleiotropy, which occurs when a genetic factor leads to opposite effects in two phenotypes. Confirming negative pleiotropy and determining its basis may reveal important information about the maintenance of overall skull integration and developmental constraint on skull morphology. Results We identified negative correlations between the lengths of the frontal and parietal bones in the midline cranial vault as well as the zygomatic bone and zygomatic process of the maxilla, which contribute to the zygomatic arch. Through gene association mapping of a large heterogeneous population of Diversity Outbred (DO mice, we identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17 driving the antagonistic contribution of these two zygomatic arch bones to total zygomatic arch length. Candidate genes in this region were identified and real-time PCR of the maxillary processes of DO founder strain embryos indicated differences in the RNA expression levels for two of the candidate genes, Camkmt and Six2. Conclusions A genomic region underlying negative pleiotropy of two zygomatic arch bones was identified, which provides a mechanism for antagonism in component bone lengths while constraining overall zygomatic arch length. This type of mechanism may have led to variation in the contribution of individual bones to the zygomatic arch noted across mammals. Given that similar genetic and developmental mechanisms may underlie negative correlations in other parts of the skull, these results provide an important step toward understanding the developmental basis of evolutionary variation and constraint in skull morphology.

  4. Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.

    2018-03-01

    Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.

  5. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  6. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  7. Abnormality degree detection method using negative potential field group detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongli; Liu, Shulin; Li, Dong; Shi, Kunju; Wang, Bo; Cui, Jiqiang

    2015-09-01

    Online monitoring methods have been widely used in many major devices, however the normal and abnormal states of equipment are estimated mainly based on the monitoring results whether monitored parameters exceed the setting thresholds. Using these monitoring methods may cause serious false positive or false negative results. In order to precisely monitor the state of equipment, the problem of abnormality degree detection without fault sample is studied with a new detection method called negative potential field group detectors(NPFG-detectors). This method achieves the quantitative expression of abnormality degree and provides the better detection results compared with other methods. In the process of Iris data set simulation, the new algorithm obtains the successful results in abnormal detection. The detection rates for 3 types of Iris data set respectively reach 100%, 91.6%, and 95.24% with 50% training samples. The problem of Bearing abnormality degree detection via an abnormality degree curve is successfully solved.

  8. Negative capacitance in a ferroelectric capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Chatterjee, Korok; Wang, Brian; Drapcho, Steven; You, Long; Serrao, Claudy; Bakaul, Saidur Rahman; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-02-01

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons poses a fundamental barrier to lowering energy dissipation in conventional electronics, often termed as Boltzmann Tyranny. Negative capacitance in ferroelectric materials, which stems from the stored energy of a phase transition, could provide a solution, but a direct measurement of negative capacitance has so far been elusive. Here, we report the observation of negative capacitance in a thin, epitaxial ferroelectric film. When a voltage pulse is applied, the voltage across the ferroelectric capacitor is found to be decreasing with time--in exactly the opposite direction to which voltage for a regular capacitor should change. Analysis of this 'inductance'-like behaviour from a capacitor presents an unprecedented insight into the intrinsic energy profile of the ferroelectric material and could pave the way for completely new applications.

  9. Animal Reasoning: Negation and Representations of Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Ladrón de Guevara, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I reject the possibility that animal reasoning, negation in particular, necessarily involves the representation of Absence, as suggested by José Luis Bermúdez, since this would still work as a logical negation (unavailable for non-linguistic creatures. False belief, pretense, and communication experiments show that non-human animals (at least some primates have difficulties representing absent entities or properties. I offer an alternative account resorting to the sub-symbolic similarity judgments proposed by Vigo & Allen and I introduce the notion of expectation: animal proto-negation takes place through the incompatibility between an expected and the actual representation. Finally, I propose that the paradigm of expectations can be extrapolated to other experiments in cognitive psychology (both with pre-linguistic children and animals in order to design “fair” experiments which test other minds considering their true abilities.

  10. Goffman, Parsons, and the Negational Self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Chriss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erving Goffman’s emphasis on impression management in everyday life means that for the most part persons offer only partial or incomplete glimpses of themselves. Indeed, under specifiable conditions self-presentations may take the form of a negational self. If negational selves exist at the person or individual level, then they must also exist at the collective level (that is, if we are to take seriously such notions as the social mind, collective representations, or even culture. Understandings of how this negational self appears and is produced at various analytical levels (micro, meso, and macro can be anchored via a conceptual schema which merges Goffman’s own identity typology with the three-world model of Jürgen Habermas by way of Talcott Parsons.

  11. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. [Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies; Woodard, R.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent_to} T({partial_derivative}S/{partial_derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial_derivative}U/{partial_derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  12. Classical fluids of negative heat capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsberg, P.T. (Southampton Univ., (United Kingdom). Faculty of Mathematical Studies); Woodard, R.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1992-06-01

    It is shown that new parameters X can be defined such that the heat capacity C{sub X} {equivalent to} T({partial derivative}S/{partial derivative}T)X is negative, even when the canonical ensemble (i.e. at fixed T = ({partial derivative}U/{partial derivative}S) and Y {ne} X) is stable. As examples we treat black body radiation and general gas systems with nonsingular {kappa}{sub T}. For the case of a simple ideal gas we even exhibit an apparatus which enforces a constraint X(p,V) = const. that makes C{sub X} < 0. Since it is possible to invent constraints for which canonically stable systems have negative heat capacity we speculate that it may also be possible to infer the statistical mechanics of canonically unstable systems - for which even the traditional heat capacities are negative - by imposing constraints that stabilize the associated, inoncanonical ensembles.

  13. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  15. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  16. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...... that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects....

  17. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kätsyri, Jari; Kinnunen, Teemu; Kusumoto, Kenta; Oittinen, Pirkko; Ravaja, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  18. Negativity Bias in Media Multitasking: The Effects of Negative Social Media Messages on Attention to Television News Broadcasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Kätsyri

    Full Text Available Television viewers' attention is increasingly more often divided between television and "second screens", for example when viewing television broadcasts and following their related social media discussion on a tablet computer. The attentional costs of such multitasking may vary depending on the ebb and flow of the social media channel, such as its emotional contents. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that negative social media messages would draw more attention than similar positive messages. Specifically, news broadcasts were presented in isolation and with simultaneous positive or negative Twitter messages on a tablet to 38 participants in a controlled experiment. Recognition memory, gaze tracking, cardiac responses, and self-reports were used as attentional indices. The presence of any tweets on the tablet decreased attention to the news broadcasts. As expected, negative tweets drew longer viewing times and elicited more attention to themselves than positive tweets. Negative tweets did not, however, decrease attention to the news broadcasts. Taken together, the present results demonstrate a negativity bias exists for social media messages in media multitasking; however, this effect does not amplify the overall detrimental effects of media multitasking.

  19. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  20. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  1. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-02-01

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  2. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  3. The free energy principle, negative energy modes, and stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Kotschenreuther, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with instability of equilibria of Hamiltonian, fluid and plasma dynamical systems. Usually the dynamical equilibrium of interest is not the state of thermodynamic equilibrium, and does not correspond to a free energy minimum. The relaxation of this type of equilibrium is conventionally considered to be initiated by linear instability. However, there are many cases where linear instability is not present, but the equilibrium is nonlinearly unstable to arbitrarily small perturbations. This paper is about general free energy expressions for determining the presence of linear or nonlinear instabilities. These expressions are simple and practical, and can be obtained for all equilibria of all ideal fluid and plasma models. By free energy, we mean the energy change upon perturbations of the equilibrium that respect dynamical phase space constraints. This quantity is measured by a self-adjoint quadratic form, called δ 2 F. The free energy can result in instability when δ 2 F is indefinite; i.e. there exist accessible perturbations that lower the free energy of the system. A primary purpose of this paper is to tie together three manifestations of what we will refer to as negative energy modes. The first is the conventional plasma physics notion of negative energy mode that is based on the definition of the energy in a homogeneous dielectric medium. A negative energy mode is a normal mode of the medium (plasma) that possesses negative dielectric energy. The second manifestation occurs in finite degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian normal form theory. The quadratic part of a Hamiltonian in the vicinity of an equilibrium point, which possesses only distinct oscillatory eigenvalues, has an invariant signature. Thus in cases where the quadratic form is indefinite, it is natural to refer to the modes corresponding to the negative signature as negative energy modes

  4. Negative exploration for pyloric stenosis – Is it preventable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny Simon E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS, although traditionally clinical, is now increasingly dependent on radiological corroboration. The rate of negative exploration in IHPS has been reported as 4%. The purpose of our study was to look at elements of supportive clinical evidence leading to positive diagnosis, and to review these with respect to misdiagnosed cases undergoing negative exploration. Methods All infants undergoing surgical exploration for IHPS between January 2000 and December 2004 were retrospectively analysed with regard to clinical symptoms, examination findings, investigations and operative findings. Results During the study period, 343 explorations were performed with a presumptive diagnosis of IHPS. Of these, 205 infants (60% had a positive test feed, 269 (78% had a positive ultrasound scan and 175 (55% were alkalotic (pH ≥7.45 and/or base excess ≥2.5. The positive predictive value for an ultrasound (US diagnosis was 99.1% for canal length ≥14 mm, and 98.7% for muscle thickness ≥4 mm. Four infants (1.1% underwent a negative surgical exploration; Ultrasound was positive in 3, and negative in 1(who underwent surgery on the basis of a positive upper GI contrast. One US reported as positive had a muscle thickness Conclusion A 1% rate of negative exploration in IHPS compares favourably with other studies. However potential causes of error were identified in all 4 cases. Confident diagnosis comprises a combination of positive test feed and an 'in house US' in an alkalotic infant. UGI contrast study should not be used in isolation to diagnose IHPS. If the test feed is negative, strict diagnostic measurements should be observed on US and the pyloric 'tumour' palpated on table under anaesthetic before exploration.

  5. Monitoring urbanization of Iskenderun, Turkey, and its negative implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doygun, Hakan; Alphan, Hakan

    2006-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze long-term urban land use (LU) change and its negative implications on the coastal environment of Iskenderun, Turkey. Information on urban LU change for the 144-year period between 1858 and 2002 was extracted from a historic city plan, black-white monoscopic aerial photographs, and Landsat ETM+ imagery. According to the results, areal extent of urban areas has increased approximately 40 times during the past 144 years. The population growth as a result of industrial developments and permanent migration was main driving force to the urbanization. Environmental problems that resulted from rapid development in the region such as air, water and soil pollution were highlighted and some recommendations were made in the light of qualitative and quantitative information on the urbanization and its negative consequences.

  6. Negative Refractive Index in Artificial Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorenko, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss optical constants in artificial metamaterials showing negative magnetic permeability and electric permittivity. Using effective field theory, we calculate effective permeability of nanofabricated media composed of pairs of identical gold nano-pillars with magnetic response in the visible spectrum.

  7. Entanglement versus negative domains of Wigner functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Mack, H.; Wolf, A.

    2006-01-01

    We show that s waves, that is wave functions that only depend on a hyperradius, are entangled if and only if the corresponding Wigner functions exhibit negative domains. We illustrate this feature using a special class of s waves which allows us to perform the calculations analytically. This clas...

  8. Finite Metric Spaces of Strictly Negative Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul; Lisonek, P.; Markvorsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    We prove that, if a finite metric space is of strictly negative type, then its transfinite diameter is uniquely realized by the infinite extender (load vector). Finite metric spaces that have this property include all spaces on two, three, or four points, all trees, and all finite subspaces of Eu...

  9. Negative autobiographical memories in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    OToole, Mia Skytte; Watson, Lynn Ann; Rosenberg, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Empirical interest in mental imagery in social anxiety disorder (SAD) has grown over the past years but still little is known about the specificity to SAD. The present study therefore examines negative autobiographical memories in participants with social anxiety disorder...

  10. Estimating the Probability of Negative Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adam J. L.; Corner, Adam; Hahn, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    How well we are attuned to the statistics of our environment is a fundamental question in understanding human behaviour. It seems particularly important to be able to provide accurate assessments of the probability with which negative events occur so as to guide rational choice of preventative actions. One question that arises here is whether or…

  11. Active Intracystic Negative Pressure Could Induce Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Núñez, Jaime

    2018-02-23

    Based on previous findings, the author introduces the term "sugosteogenesis," a biological phenomenon that occurs by using the Evocyst, a device that exerts active intracystic negative pressure. The term "sugosteogenesis" comes from the Latin word "sugo-," meaning "suck," and Greek words "osteo-," meaning "bone," and genesis, "origin."

  12. Exploring the Psychological Influence of Perceived Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically examined the psychological influence of perceived negative foreign factors which were those obstacles brought to Nigeria and Nigerians since our first contact with the European colonialists. The obstacles have constituted formidable barriers to indigenous organisational performance and national ...

  13. The Contrast Theory of negative input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, M

    1997-02-01

    Beliefs about whether or not children receive corrective input for grammatical errors depend crucially on how one defines the concept of correction. Arguably, previous conceptualizations do not provide a viable basis for empirical research (Gold, 1967; Brown & Hanlon, 1970; Hirsh-Pasek, Treiman & Schneiderman, 1984). Within the Contrast Theory of negative input, an alternative definition of negative evidence is offered, based on the idea that the unique discourse structure created in the juxtaposition of child error and adult correct form can reveal to the child the contrast, or conflict, between the two forms, and hence provide a basis for rejecting the erroneous form. A within-subjects experimental design was implemented for 36 children (mean age 5;0), in order to compare the immediate effects of negative evidence with those of positive input, on the acquisition of six novel irregular past tense forms. Children reproduced the correct irregular model more often, and persisted with fewer errors, following negative evidence rather than positive input.

  14. Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Cromett, Cristina E.; Post, Maria C.; Landis, Anna Marie; Alliegro, Marissa C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale is presented for the derivation of a new measure of stressful life events for use with students [Negative Life Events Scale for Students (NLESS)]. Ten stressful life events questionnaires were reviewed, and the more than 600 items mentioned in these scales were culled based on the following criteria: (a) only long-term and unpleasant…

  15. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  16. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  17. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  18. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The chaotic dynamics of directly modulated semiconductor lasers with de- layed optoelectronic feedback is studied numerically. The effects of positive and negative delayed optoelectronic feedback in producing chaotic outputs from such lasers with nonlin- ear gain reduction in its optimum value range is ...

  19. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chaotic dynamics of directly modulated semiconductor lasers with delayed optoelectronic feedback is studied numerically. The effects of positive and negative delayed optoelectronic feedback in producing chaotic outputs from such lasers with nonlinear gain reduction in its optimum value range is investigated using ...

  20. Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance characteristics of positive and negative delayed feedback on chaotic dynamics of directly modulated InGaAsP semiconductor lasers. BINDU M KRISHNA1,∗, MANU P JOHN2 and V M NANDAKUMARAN2. 1Sophisticated Test and Instrumentation Centre; 2International School of Photonics,. Cochin University of ...

  1. Clinicopathological comparison of triple negative breast cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Triple negative breast cancer represented 34.4% which is higher than the range normally reported in the literature. TNBC are associated with younger age, large tumor size, high‑grade tumors, and a higher rate of axillary lymph node metastasis. Key words: Basal subtype, estrogen receptor, hormone receptors, ...

  2. Negative pressure wound therapy: clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoz H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heidi Sandoz Accelerate CIC, Mile End Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT, also known as topical negative pressure therapy, has been increasingly used in health care for the management of a wide variety of wounds over the last 2–3 decades. It is an advanced therapy that can be helpful to accelerate wound healing in both acute and chronic wounds by delivering negative pressure (suction to the wound bed. More recent advancements in the application of NPWT have provided clinicians with wider choices of utilization. There are now devices available that can deliver irrigation to the wound bed, be used for closed surgical incisions, or are disposable and highly portable. Systematic reviews considering NPWT have been published previously. These usually focus on one wound group or device and fail to offer practical clinical guidance due to the scrutiny offered to the evidence via a systematic review process. Here, an overview of the history of NPWT, the varieties of device available, their wide clinical application, and the evidence to support its use are explored in a pragmatic way. Keywords: negative pressure, wound, incision, healing, pain 

  3. Distance Sensitive Bloom Filters Without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Mayank; Pagh, Rasmus; Silvestri, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    answers. Absence of false negatives is of critical importance in many applications of Bloom filters, so it is natural to ask if this can be also achieved in the distance sensitive setting. Our main contributions are upper and lower bounds (that are tight in several cases) for space usage in the distance...

  4. Negative Impacts of High-Stakes Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarechová, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    High-stakes testing is not a new phenomenon in education. It has become part of the education system in many countries. These tests affect the school systems, teachers, students, politicians and parents, whether that is in a positive or negative sense. High-stakes testing is associated with concepts such as a school's accountability, funding and…

  5. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than

  6. Negative hyperconjugation of some fluorine containing groups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Otto; Böhm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2008), s. 1449-1453 ISSN 1144-0546 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : negative hyperconjugation * fluor ine containing groups * DFT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2008

  7. A revisão rápida de 100% é eficiente na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e varia com a adequabilidade da amostra: uma experiência no Brasil The 100% rapid rescreening is efficient in the detection of false-negative results and varies according to the quality of the sample: a Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Joana Cláudio Manrique

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida de 100% para detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais e verificar se esses resultados variam com a adequabilidade da amostra e com a idade da mulher. MÉTODOS: para avaliar a eficiência da revisão rápida, os 5.530 esfregaços classificados como negativos pelo escrutínio de rotina, após serem submetidos à revisão rápida de 100%, foram comparados com as revisões dos esfregaços com base em critérios clínicos e aleatória de 10%. Para análise estatística, as variáveis foram estudadas de maneira descritiva e, quando houve comparação, foram aplicados o teste do chi2 e o teste Cochran-Armitage. RESULTADOS: dos 141 esfregaços suspeitos pela revisão rápida, 84 (59,6% foram confirmados pelo diagnóstico final; desses, 36 (25,5% foram classificados como células escamosas atípicas de significado indeterminado, cinco (3,5% como células escamosas atípicas, não podendo excluir lesão de alto grau, 34 (24,1% como lesão intra-epitelial escamosa de baixo grau, seis (4,3% como lesão intra-epitelial de alto grau e três (2,1% como células glandulares atípicas. Dos 84 esfregaços suspeitos e confirmados pelo diagnóstico final, 62 (73,8 foram classificados como satisfatórios e 22 (26,2% satisfatórios, porém com alguma limitação, mas não se observou diferença significativa com a idade da mulher. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados deste estudo mostraram que a revisão rápida é uma alternativa eficiente como método de controle interno da qualidade na detecção de resultados falsos-negativos dos exames citopatológicos cervicais. Observou-se, também, que a revisão rápida apresentou melhor desempenho quando a amostra foi classificada como satisfatória para análise, porém não variou com a idade da mulher.PURPOSE: to evaluate the efficiency of the 100% rapid rescreening in the detection of false-negative results and to verify whether the results

  8. Attentional bias to negative affect moderates negative affect's relationship with smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Paul E; Waters, Andrew J; Lam, Cho; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2016-08-01

    To examine whether initial orienting (IO) and inability to disengage (ITD) attention from negative affective stimuli moderate the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence during a quit attempt. Data were from a longitudinal cohort study of smoking cessation (N = 424). A negative affect modified Stroop task was administered 1 week before and on quit day to measure IO and ITD. Ecological Momentary Assessments were used to create negative affect intercepts and linear slopes for the week before quitting and on quit day. Quit day and long-term abstinence measures were collected. Continuation ratio logit model analyses found significant interactions for prequit negative affect slope with prequit ITD, odds ratio (OR) = 0.738 (0.57, 0.96), p = .02, and for quit day negative affect intercept with quit day ITD, OR = 0.62 (0.41, 950), p = .03, predicting abstinence. The Prequit Negative Affect Intercept × Prequit IO interaction predicting quit day abstinence was significant, OR = 1.42 (1.06, 1.90), p = .02, as was the Quit Day Negative Affect Slope × Quit Day IO interaction predicting long-term abstinence, OR = 1.45 (1.02, 2.08), p = .04. The hypothesis that the association of negative affect with smoking abstinence would be moderated by ITD was generally supported. Among individuals with high ITD, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with lower levels of ITD. Unexpectedly, among individuals with low IO, negative affect was inversely related to abstinence, but unrelated to abstinence among individuals with higher levels of ITD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  10. Revisiting the Gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVullo, Eric D; Wright, Lori F; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F; Pavelka, Martin S

    2015-05-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis strain Schu or to the live vaccine strain LVS. An LVS Δlnt mutant has a small-colony phenotype on sucrose medium and increased susceptibility to globomycin and rifampin. We provide data indicating that the OM lipoprotein Tul4A (LpnA) is diacylated but that it, and its paralog Tul4B (LpnB), still sort to the OM in the Δlnt mutant. We present a model in which the Lol sorting pathway of Francisella has a modified ABC transporter system that is capable of recognizing and sorting both triacylated and diacylated lipoproteins, and we show that this modified system is present in many other Gram-negative bacteria. We examined this model using Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which has the same Lol architecture as that of Francisella, and found that the lnt gene is not essential in this organism. This work suggests that Gram-negative bacteria fall into two groups, one in which full lipoprotein processing is essential and one in which the final acylation step is not essential, potentially due to the ability of the Lol sorting pathway in these bacteria to sort immature apolipoproteins to the OM. This paper describes the novel finding that the final stage in lipoprotein processing (normally considered an essential process) is not required by Francisella tularensis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The paper provides a potential reason for this and shows that it may be widespread in other Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  12. Locating Sites of Negations and Denegating "Negative Essentializing": Rereading Virginia Woolf's "A Room of One's Own"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Manahari

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines how Virginia Woolf uses writing as a tool to locate sites of negations, such as women's exclusion from places of power and knowledge, and to expose negative essentializing that permeates patriarchal structure in "A Room of One's Own." Whereas scholarship on the book has explored a wide range of issues including sex,…

  13. On the lack of stranded negated quantifiers and inverse scope of negation in Romance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirillo, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Germanic languages allow floating negated quantifiers (The children have not all not eaten) while the Romance languages do not. The Germanic languages also allow negation to take inverse scope over a universal quantifier (All the children have not eaten) whereas the Romance languages are very

  14. Seeing ghosts: Negative body evaluation predicts overestimation of negative social feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleva, J.M.; Lange, W.G.; Jansen, A.T.M.; Martijn, C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether negative body evaluation predicts women's overestimation of negative social feedback related to their own body (i.e., covariation bias). Sixty-five female university students completed a computer task where photos of their own body, of a control woman's body,

  15. Secondary origin of negative carbon isotopic series in natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbon isotopic series of alkane gases were divided into three types: (1 positive carbon isotopic series: δ13C values increased with increasing carbon numbers among the C1–C4 alkanes, which is a typical characteristic for primary alkane gases; (2 negative carbon isotopic series: δ13C values decreased with increasing carbon numbers among the C1–C4 alkanes; and (3 partial carbon isotopic reversal, which had no increasing or decreasing relationship between the δ13C values and carbon numbers. Negative carbon isotopic series were further divided into primary and secondary origins. The primary is a typical characteristic of abiogenic gases, while the secondary is a result of the secondary alteration imposed on biogenic gases usually observed in over-mature shale gas and coal-derived gas. Previous research has proposed several possible explanations for negative carbon isotopic series of secondary origin, such as secondary cracking, diffusion, and the Rayleigh fractionation of ethane and propane through redox reaction with the participation of transition metal and water at 250–300 °C. After a comparative study, the authors found that the negative carbon isotopic series of secondary origin for both shale gas and coal-derived gas appeared in areas where source rocks (shales were at an over-mature stage, but not in areas where source rocks (shales were only at a high-maturity stage. As a result, high maturity (>200 °C was the main controlling factor for the occurrence of negative carbon isotopic series of secondary origin in thermogenic gases. Within this maturity interval, secondary cracking, diffusion, and Rayleigh fractionation of ethane and propane could happen separately or together.

  16. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  17. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I. [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Demidov, V. I., E-mail: Vladimir.Demidov@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge.

  18. MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is a cause of regressive autism. As MMR was used in Japan only between 1989 and 1993, this time period affords a natural experiment to examine this hypothesis. Data on 904 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were analyzed. During the period of MMR usage no…

  19. [Pediatric osteo-articular infections with negative culture results: what about Kingella kingae?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkaoui, A; Ceroni, D; Ferey, S; Emonet, S; Schrenzel, J

    2009-11-04

    Kingella kingae is an emerging pathogen that is recognized as a causative agent of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, primarily in infants and children. The bacterium is best detected by rapid inoculation in blood culture systems or by real-time PCR assays. Pathogenesis of the agent was linked recently to the production of a potent cytotoxin, known as RTX, which is toxic to a variety of human cell types. The locus encoding the RTX toxin is thought to be a putative virulence factor, and is, apparently, essential for inducing cytotoxic effects on respiratory epithelial, synovial and macrophage-like cells. Herein, we describe a novel real-time PCR assay that targets the RTX toxin gene. The assay exhibited a sensitivity of 30 c.f.u., which is 10-fold more sensitive than a previously published semi-nested broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR, and showed no crossreactivity with several related species and common osteoarticular pathogens. Its clinical impact is illustrated by three pediatric cases.

  20. T100. NICOTINE USE IMPACTS NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS SEVERITY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hianna; Coutinho, Luccas; Higuchi, Cinthia; Noto, Cristiano; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Nicotine use is higher among patients with schizophrenia (50–98%) than in general population (25–30%). This association can reflect a non-specific liability to substance use or specific effects of tobacco on symptoms severity or side effects. Studies about nicotine use and schizophrenia symptoms dimensions are controversial. Some of them showed a relation between severe nicotine use and higher positive symptoms and others presented a correlation between lower negative symptoms and nicotine use. That is why we aimed to verify whether nicotine use is associated with symptoms dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Two hundred and seven outpatients were enrolled from the Programa de Esquizofrenia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (PROESQ/UNIFESP). Schizophrenia diagnosis was confirmed by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Dimensional psychopathology was assessed with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. The PANSS items were grouped in five dimensions: positive, negative, disorganized/cognitive, mood/depression and excitement/hostility. The total score of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence was the index used for severity in nicotine dependence. We used Wilcoxon-mann- whitney test to compare the means of PANSS dimensions between nicotine users versus non nicotine use. Results The patients mean age was 36.75 (SD 10.648), 69.1% were male, 48.3% reported lifetime tobacco use and 34.3% reported current tobacco use. Lower scores on negative dimension were associated with nicotine use (W = 5642.5, p-value = 0.046, effect size = 0.446). All p-values were corrected by Bonferroni test. Tests that evaluated the relationship between nicotine use and the total PANSS score or other dimensions were not statistically significant. Discussion This study shows that nicotine use impacts negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Increase in hepatic metabolism leading

  1. Negative perceptions of aging predict longitudinal decline in cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Deirdre A; King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2016-02-01

    Perceptions of aging have been shown to impact the psychological and physical health of older adults. Experimental studies have found that priming older adults with negative attitudes toward aging results in immediate declines in psychological, physical and cognitive functions. Longitudinal studies have supported this work illustrating the longer term impact of negative and positive perceptions of aging on psychological and physical health. However, it is surprising that there are a limited number of studies that have investigated the longitudinal association between perceptions of aging and cognitive function. The aim of this article is therefore to explore the association between perceptions of aging and cognitive function across a number of domains in a population representative sample of adults aged 50 and older. The sample was assessed twice over 2 years. Negative perceptions of aging at baseline were independently associated with longitudinal decline in verbal fluency and self-rated memory over a 2-year period after adjustment for physical and mental health. These findings suggest that negative perceptions of aging may play a role in cognitive decline in the older population. Furthermore, aging perceptions may be a modifiable factor to target for future interventions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adaptive disengagement buffers self-esteem from negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M

    2014-11-01

    The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Does negative auto-regulation increase gene duplicability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lercher Martin J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for a duplication to spread through and persist in a given population is retaining expression of both gene copies. Yet changing a gene's dosage is frequently detrimental to fitness. Consequently, dosage-sensitive genes are less likely to duplicate. However, in cases where the level of gene product is controlled, via negative feedback, by its own abundance, an increase in gene copy number can in principle be decoupled from an increase in protein while both copies remain expressed. Using data from the transcriptional networks of E. coli and S. cerevisiae, we test the hypothesis that genes under negative auto-regulation show enhanced duplicability. Results Controlling for several known correlates of duplicability, we find no statistically significant support in either E. coli or S. cerevisiae that transcription factors under negative auto-regulation hold a duplicability advantage over transcription factors with no auto-regulation. Conclusion Based on the analysis of transcriptional networks in E. coli and S. cerevisiae, there is no evidence that negative auto-regulation has contributed, on a genome-wide scale, to the variability in gene family sizes in these species.

  4. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  5. Negative affect varying in motivational intensity influences scope of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threadgill, A Hunter; Gable, Philip A

    2018-04-06

    Emotions influence cognitive processes involved in memory. While some research has suggested that cognitive scope is determined by affective valence, recent models of emotion-cognition interactions suggest that motivational intensity, rather than valence, influences these processes. The present research was designed to clarify how negative affects differing in motivational intensity impact memory for centrally or peripherally presented information. Experiments 1 & 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high intensity negative affect (anger) enhances memory for centrally presented information. Experiment 3 replicated this effect using another high intensity negative affect (threat). Experiment 4 extended this by finding that, relative to a neutral condition, low intensity negative affect (sadness) enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Finally, in Experiment 5, the effects of sadness and threat on scope of memory were directly compared, finding that threat narrowed scope of memory, while sadness broadened scope of memory. Together, these results provide additional support for the motivational dimensional model of cognitive scope, in that high intensity emotions narrow cognitive scope, while low intensity emotions broaden cognitive scope.

  6. Estimating negative binomial parameters from occurrence data with detection times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Han; Huggins, Richard; Stoklosa, Jakub

    2016-11-01

    The negative binomial distribution is a common model for the analysis of count data in biology and ecology. In many applications, we may not observe the complete frequency count in a quadrat but only that a species occurred in the quadrat. If only occurrence data are available then the two parameters of the negative binomial distribution, the aggregation index and the mean, are not identifiable. This can be overcome by data augmentation or through modeling the dependence between quadrat occupancies. Here, we propose to record the (first) detection time while collecting occurrence data in a quadrat. We show that under what we call proportionate sampling, where the time to survey a region is proportional to the area of the region, that both negative binomial parameters are estimable. When the mean parameter is larger than two, our proposed approach is more efficient than the data augmentation method developed by Solow and Smith (, Am. Nat. 176, 96-98), and in general is cheaper to conduct. We also investigate the effect of misidentification when collecting negative binomially distributed data, and conclude that, in general, the effect can be simply adjusted for provided that the mean and variance of misidentification probabilities are known. The results are demonstrated in a simulation study and illustrated in several real examples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Negative emotional photographs are identified more slowly than positive photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W

    2012-08-01

    In three experiments, we investigated whether the emotional valence of a photograph influenced the amount of time required to initially identify the contents of the image. In Experiment 1, participants saw a slideshow consisting of positive, neutral, and negative photographs that were balanced for arousal. During the slideshow, presentation time was substantially limited (60 ms), and the images were followed by masks. Immediately following the slideshows, participants were given a recognition memory test. Memory performance was best for positive images and worst for negative images (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, two simultaneous photographs were briefly presented and masked. On a trial-by-trial basis, participants indicated whether the two images were identical or not, thus removing the need for memory storage and retrieval. Again, performance was worst for negative images. The results of Experiment 3 suggested that these valence-based differences were not related attentional effects (Experiment 3). We argue that the valence of an image is detected rapidly and, in the case of negative images, interferes with processing the identity of the scene.

  8. Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Klocke, Sabrina; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Driessen, Martin

    2012-12-10

    Patients with major depression (MDD) show increased suppression of negative emotions. Emotion suppression is related to depressive symptoms such as depressive mood and anhedonia. It is not clear whether MDD patients also suppress positive emotions. In the present study we aim to investigate suppression of both negative and positive emotions in MDD patients as well as the relation between emotion suppression and depressive symptoms. In addition, we suggest that emotion suppression might be associated with fear of emotions. 39 MDD patients and 41 matched healthy control subjects were investigated for emotion suppression and fear of emotions with the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we applied additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings and to assess depressive symptoms. MDD patients reported increased suppression of both negative and positive emotions. Suppression of negative and positive emotions was related to depressive symptoms. Patients also reported more fear of emotions than healthy subjects and this fear was related to emotion suppression in both study samples. Due to the cross-sectional and correlational study design, causal directions between the variables tested cannot be stated. Fear of emotion might be one reason why MDD patients suppress emotions. With regard to positive emotions, our results strongly suggest that therapeutic approaches should not only encourage patients to participate in potentially enjoyable situations but that patients may also benefit from practicing the allowance of pleasant emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early attentional bias for negative words when competition is induced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Chou; Li, Shuo-Heng; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Previous research (Zeelenberg, Wagenmakers, & Rotteveel, 2006) revealed that emotionally meaningful words were identified significantly better than neutral words, with no difference between positive and negative words. Since in that study only a single target word was displayed at a time, we hypothesized that the equivalent performances for positive and negative words were due to a lack of competition. To test this, in our Experiment 1, we replicated Zeelenberg and colleagues' finding, using emotion-laden Chinese words and the identical data-limited method, which measured the accuracy of a briefly shown target. We then introduced competition in Experiment 2 by simultaneously presenting two words during the target frame, and found evidence for an early attentional bias to negative words. In Experiment 3, we confirmed that the bias in Experiment 2 was not due to the inevitable repetition of stimuli. Taken together, these results support our hypothesis that, in the presence of competition, negative words receive attentional priority and consequently have enhanced perceptual representations.

  10. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xianping; Kang, Zongxuan; Shu, Dong; Liao, Yuqing; Gong, Yibin; He, Chun; Hao, Junnan; Zhong, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO 4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  11. Anomalous feedback and negative domain wall resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ran; Xiao, Di; Zhu, Jian-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic induction can be regarded as a negative feedback effect, where the motive-force opposes the change of magnetic flux that generates the motive-force. In artificial electromagnetics emerging from spintronics, however, this is not necessarily the case. By studying the current-induced domain wall dynamics in a cylindrical nanowire, we show that the spin motive-force exerting on electrons can either oppose or support the applied current that drives the domain wall. The switching into the anomalous feedback regime occurs when the strength of the dissipative torque β is about twice the value of the Gilbert damping constant α . The anomalous feedback manifests as a negative domain wall resistance, which has an analogy with the water turbine. (paper)

  12. Multi-sample negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbart, W.Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Paul, M.; Shahar, Y.; Schubank, R.B.; Cifarelli, F.

    1996-01-01

    A cesium sputter, negative ion source was developed and built at Triumf. While designed for accelerator mass spectrometry, it can be applied in any field requiring intensive negative ion beams covering the whole range from hydrogen to uranium. The source features an internal cesium oven and simplified target insulation. A pneumatically actuated target changer contains a 28-sample wheel but allows manual placing of single samples as well. In initial runs the source produced over 1 μA of 40 CaH - 3 and .25 μA of 27 Al - beams. The construction of the source and the operation of the sample changer are discussed in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. The production and destruction of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    During the present grant period we are continuing our measurements of cross sections and asymmetry parameters for single photon-single electron detachment from atomic negative ions. In this period we have studied the stable ions B - and Li - . As a by product of these measurements we have investigated a new technique for measuring electron affinities. As in our previous work, we have made energy- and angle-resolved spectroscopic measurements of the yields and angular distributions of photoelectrons ejected at the intersection of perpendicularly crossed laser and negative ion beams. A combination of measurements of photoelectron yields, which are proportional to differential cross sections, and angular distributions allow us to determine angle-integrated cross sections for the photodetachment process. Cross sections for the inverse process of radiative attachment can be obtained from the photodetachment data by applying the principle of detailed balance

  14. Surface generation of negative hydrogen ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommel, P.J.M. van.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes investigations on negative hydrogen ion sources at the ampere level. Formation of H - ions occurs when positive hydrogen ions capture two electrons at metal surfaces. The negative ionization probability of hydrogen at metal surfaces increases strongly with decreasing work function of the surface. The converters used in this study are covered with cesium. Usually there are 'surface plasma sources' in which the hydrogen source plasma interacts with a converter. In this thesis the author concentrates upon investigating a new concept that has converters outside the plasma. In this approach a positive hydrogen ion beam is extracted from the plasma and is subsequently reflected from a low work function converter surface. (Auth.)

  15. Negative affect, negative urgency, thought suppression, and bulimic symptoms: a moderated mediation analysis in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Green, Daniel; Anestis, Michael D; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-05-01

    Research suggests that negative affect, negative urgency, and thought suppression are related to bulimic symptoms, either directly or indirectly. This study examined associations between these constructs in a sample at-risk for bulimic symptoms. Participants (N = 80) recruited from a residential substance abuse treatment facility completed self-report questionnaires. A regression-based bootstrapping approach was used to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency and the moderating role of thought suppression in the association between negative affect and negative urgency. Results revealed a significant indirect effect, significant moderation, and a significant moderated mediation effect, with an indirect effect of negative affect on bulimic symptoms through negative urgency, conditional upon low to moderate (but not high) levels of thought suppression. These findings suggest that negative affect may promote rash actions, particularly in the context of low to moderate thought suppression, leading to increased risk of bulimic symptoms. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Biphase sinusoidal oscillator based on negative resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, Jean

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes a biphase sinusoidal generator which provides two signals: v(ref)=V(M) sin(omegat) and v(out)=V(M) sin(omegat+DeltaPhi), where DeltaPhi is in the range 0, pi/2 or -pi/2, 0 and is not dependent on the frequency value. It is based on a negative resistor and it requires very few components. SPICE simulations and measurements on an experimental setup confirm the theoretical analysis.

  17. Negative Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kim; Zaghib, Karim

    2001-10-01

    Graphitized carbons have played a key role in the successful commercialization of Li-ion batteries. The physicochemical properties of carbon cover a wide range; therefore identifying the optimum active electrode material can be time consuming. The significant physical properties of negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries are summarized, and the relationship of these properties to their electrochemical performance in nonaqueous electrolytes, are discussed in this paper.

  18. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  19. The House Money Effect and Negative Reciprocity

    OpenAIRE

    Katarína Danková; Maroš Servátka

    2014-01-01

    In the vast majority of laboratory experiments documenting the existence of reciprocity subjects are endowed with windfall funds. In many environments with salient fairness considerations such endowments are known to inflate subjects’ other-regarding behavior, thereby creating a so-called “house money effect.” This suggests that laboratory experiments might also overestimate reciprocal behavior. In this study we identify two reasons why the source of endowment might matter for negative recipr...

  20. Enforced Sparse Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-23

    mixture of topics constitutes a document . Other common methods for topic modeling include the following: latent semantic analysis (LSA) [1...probabilistic latent semantic analysis (PLSA) [2], and term frequency- inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) [3] analysis. More recently, non-negative matrix...factorization (NMF) [4]–[7] is used as a technique for document classification and topic modeling. The NMF has also been used for graph cluster

  1. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  2. Photodetachment of negative C60- ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Baltenkov, A.S.; Krakov, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    A model that describes the electron structure of negative fullerene C 60 - ions is proposed. The model contains only two experimentally observed parameters, namely the fullerene radius and the affinity energy of the electron to neutral C 60 . In the frame of this model, cross sections are calculated of elastic scattering of slow electrons on neutral fullerene, of C 60 - photodetachment near the threshold of this process and of radiative recombination of slow electrons with neutral fullerenes. (orig.)

  3. Negative Quantum Capacitance of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.; Lugli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Atomistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the capacitance between a metallic cylindric gate and a carbon nanotube (CNT) are reported. Results stressing the predominant effect of quantum capacitance in limiting or even enhancing screening properties of the CNT are shown. Other contributions to the quantum capacitance beyond the electronic density of state (DOS) are pointed out. Negative values of the quantum capacitance are obtained for low-density systems, which correspondingl...

  4. Large Enforced Sparse Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Gavin, Brendan; Gadepally, Vijay; Kepner, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a common method for generating topic models from text data. NMF is widely accepted for producing good results despite its relative simplicity of implementation and ease of computation. One challenge with applying NMF to large datasets is that intermediate matrix products often become dense, stressing the memory and compute elements of a system. In this article, we investigate a simple but powerful modification of a common NMF algorithm that enforces ...

  5. A role for negative reinforcement of response omission in punishment?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Jeffery L.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1987-01-01

    This experiment attempted to disentangle response-rate reductions controlled by the direct suppressive effects of a punisher from those due to negative reinforcement of response omission. Key-peck responding of pigeons was maintained by a conjoint variable-interval 3-min schedule of food presentation variable-interval 30-s schedule of response-dependent electric shock presentation. Omission of responses for 5, 10, or 30 s resulted in the possibility of canceling a scheduled shock. Response ra...

  6. Ultra low and negative expansion glass–ceramic materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... nucleated at 545°C for 4 h and crystallized at 720°C for 2 h which resulted in negative coefficient of thermal expansion [(–) 9 to (–) 2 × 10 − 7 / ∘ C] over the temperature range (30–600°C) due to the formation of -eucryptite while other heating schedule showed the formation of spodumene and lithium aluminium silicates.

  7. Negative signaling in B cells: SHIP Grbs Shc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridandapani, S; Kelley, T; Cooney, D; Pradhan, M; Coggeshall, K M

    1997-09-01

    Negative signaling in B cells is initiated by co-crosslinking of the antigen receptor and the Fcy receptor, resulting in cessation of B-cell signaling events and, in turn, inhibiting B-cell proliferation and antibody secretion. Here, a competitive role is proposed for SHIP in blocking the interaction of Shc with the Grb2-Sos complex of proteins that lead to Ras activation in B cells.

  8. Long-wavelength negative mass instabilities in high current betatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, B.B.; Hughes, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Growth rates of negative mass instabilities in conventional and modified betatrons are calculated by analytic methods and by performing three-dimensional particle simulations. In contrast to earlier work, toroidal corrections to the field equations are included in the analytic model. As a result, good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained. The simulations show that the nonlinear development of the instabilities can seriously disrupt the beam

  9. A Bidirectional Optimality Theoretic Analysis of Multiple Negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics ... Abstract. In the literature on negation, Afrikaans is generally categorised as a negative concord language. Unlike most other negative concord languages though, utterances containing multiple indefinites in the scope of negation are typically produced with a combination of one negative ...

  10. Negative Knudsen force on heated microbeams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Taishan

    2011-11-18

    Knudsen force acting on a heated microbeam adjacent to a cold substrate in a rarefied gas is a mechanical force created by unbalanced thermal gradients. The measured force has its direction pointing towards the side with a lower thermal gradient and its magnitude vanishes in both continuum and free-molecule limits. In our previous study, negative Knudsen forces were discovered at the high Knudsen regime before diminishing in the free-molecule limit. Such a phenomenon was, however, neither observed in experiment [A. Passian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 124503 (2003)], nor captured in the latest numerical study [J. Nabeth et al., Phys. Rev. E 83, 066306 (2011)]. In this paper, the existence of such a negative Knudsen force is further confirmed using both numerical simulation and theoretical analysis. The asymptotic order of the Knudsen force near the collisionless limit is analyzed and the analytical expression of its leading term is provided, from which approaches for the enhancement of negative Knudsen forces are proposed. The discovered phenomenon could find its applications in novel mechanisms for pressure sensing and actuation.

  11. Excited negative parity bands in 160Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, A.; de Angelis, G.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Das Gupta, S.; Dey, B.; Goswami, A.; Mondal, D.; Pandit, D.; Palit, R.; Roy, T.; Singh, R. P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2018-03-01

    Negative parity rotational bands in {} 70160Yb{}90 nucleus have been studied. They were populated in the 148Sm(16O, 4n)160Yb reaction at 90 MeV. The gamma-coincidence data have been collected using Indian National Gamma Array composed of twenty Compton suppressed clover germanium (Ge) detectors. Double gating on triple gamma coincidence data were selectively used to develop the decay scheme for these negative parity bands by identifying and taking care of the multiplet transitions. The even- and odd-spin negative parity bands in 160Yb have been studied by comparing the reduced transition probability ratios with the similar bands in neighbouring even-even rare earth nuclei. It is concluded that the concerned odd-spin and even-spin bands are not signature partners and that their structures are compatible with those of the ‘pear-shape’ and ‘pyramid-shape’ oscillations, respectively, the octupole shapes superposed with the quadrupole shape of the ground-state.

  12. On the negative resistance of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.; Silevitch, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    It is known that large amplitudes oscillations can occur in the current flowing through a plasma diode, typically when a constant potential is applied across the device. Burger (1965) suggested via a computer simulation that the oscillation characteristics was a function of the quantities T sub (e) and T sub (i), namely the respective time for an electron and an ion to cross the electric field region inside the diode. On the rapid time scale T sub (e) the self consistent equilibrium configuration, was unstable. Norris (1964) had previously arrived at the same conclusion using analytical arguments. In that work, it was concluded that the instability occurred since the diode acted as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. A positive feedback effect forced the system away from equilibrium. Silevitch (1981) used the Burger mechanism to suggest an explanation for the flickering aurora phenomenon. He extended the Norris argument and showed by a variational method that a plausible analytic model for a double layer (DL) behaved as a negative resistance on the T sub (e) scale. In this present work we re-examine the negative resistance calculation by taking a more detailed account of the constraints which are imposed on the electron distributions that exist in the DL region. Specifically, we shall focus at the high potential side of the DL. (Authors)

  13. ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jamil Abdal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare and a disease of unknown etiology, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a granulomatous necrotizing small vessel vasculitis characterized by the presence of asthma, sinusitis, and hypereosinophilia, which is initially described by Churg and Strauss in 1951. Because of its clinical and pathological features that overlap with those of the other anti-neutrophil antibody (ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides (AASVs and now the disease is classified as AASVs. The ANCA status may dictate the clinical phenotype. ANCA-positive patients are significantly more likely to have disease manifesta­tions associated with small-vessel vasculitis, including oecrotising glomemlonephritis, mononeuritis and purpura, whereas ANCA-negative cases predominantly likely to have cardiac and lung involvement. The objective of this case report is to point out the possibility of vasculitic rash in ANCA-negative CSS in a 35-year-old man and the disease rarely occurs in Bangladeshi population. We analyze the history, clinical examinations and relevant investigations related to the patient to establish the diagnosis in our department. The clinical scenario and biopsy help us to attain the diagnosis. But due to unavailability of patients' cohort we have limitations of comparison of ANCA status in Bangladeshi populations. Though ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative CSS differ phenotypically, primary therapy for both the conditions is systemic glucocorticoids. Additional immunosuppressive agents like cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, rituxin1ab are occasionally added in patients with more advanced or refractory disease.

  14. Prototype negative ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Murray, S.N.; Welton, R.F.; Williams, C.; Cui, B.

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) of 17 F and 18 F are of interest for investigation of astrophysical phenomena such as the hot CNO cycle and the rp stellar nuclear synthesis processes. In order to generate useful beam intensities of atomic F - , the species must be efficiently and expediently released from the target material, thermally dissociated from fluoride release products during transport to the ionization chamber of the ion source, and efficiently ionized in the source upon arrival. The authors have conceived and evaluated two prototype negative ion sources for potential use for RIB generation: (1) a direct extraction source and (2) a kinetic ejection source. Both sources utilize Cs vapor to enhance F - formation. The mechanical design features, operational parameters, ionization efficiencies for forming atomic F - and delay times for transport of F and fluoride compounds for the respective sources are presented. The efficiency η for formation and extraction of F - for the direct extraction negative ion source is found to be η ∼ 1.0% while the characteristic delay time τ for transport of F and fluorides through the source is typically, η ∼ 120s; the analogous efficiencies and delay times for the kinetic ejection negative ion source are, respectively: η = ∼3.2% and τ = ∼70s

  15. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  16. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui-Yan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Xi-Ping; Tao, Lu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Mismatch negativity is generated automatically, and is an early monitoring indicator of neuronal integrity impairment and functional abnormality in patients with brain injury, leading to decline of cognitive function. Antipsychotic medication cannot affect mismatch negativity. The present study aimed to explore the relationships of mismatch negativity with neurocognition, daily life and social functional outcomes in patients after brain injury. Twelve patients with traumatic brain injury and 12 healthy controls were recruited in this study. We examined neurocognition with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised China, and daily and social functional outcomes with the Activity of Daily Living Scale and Social Disability Screening Schedule, respectively. Mismatch negativity was analyzed from electroencephalogram recording. The results showed that mismatch negativity amplitudes decreased in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with healthy controls. Mismatch negativity amplitude was negatively correlated with measurements of neurocognition and positively correlated with functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury. Further, the most significant positive correlations were found between mismatch negativity in the fronto-central region and measures of functional outcomes. The most significant positive correlations were also found between mismatch negativity at the FCz electrode and daily living function. Mismatch negativity amplitudes were extremely positively associated with Social Disability Screening Schedule scores at the Fz electrode in brain injury patients. These experimental findings suggest that mismatch negativity might efficiently reflect functional outcomes in patients after traumatic brain injury.

  17. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  18. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  19. A controlled trial of automated classification of negation from clinical notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruth William

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of negation in electronic health records is essential if we are to understand the computable meaning of the records: Our objective is to compare the accuracy of an automated mechanism for assignment of Negation to clinical concepts within a compositional expression with Human Assigned Negation. Also to perform a failure analysis to identify the causes of poorly identified negation (i.e. Missed Conceptual Representation, Inaccurate Conceptual Representation, Missed Negation, Inaccurate identification of Negation. Methods 41 Clinical Documents (Medical Evaluations; sometimes outside of Mayo these are referred to as History and Physical Examinations were parsed using the Mayo Vocabulary Server Parsing Engine. SNOMED-CT™ was used to provide concept coverage for the clinical concepts in the record. These records resulted in identification of Concepts and textual clues to Negation. These records were reviewed by an independent medical terminologist, and the results were tallied in a spreadsheet. Where questions on the review arose Internal Medicine Faculty were employed to make a final determination. Results SNOMED-CT was used to provide concept coverage of the 14,792 Concepts in 41 Health Records from John's Hopkins University. Of these, 1,823 Concepts were identified as negative by Human review. The sensitivity (Recall of the assignment of negation was 97.2% (p Conclusion Automated assignment of negation to concepts identified in health records based on review of the text is feasible and practical. Lexical assignment of negation is a good test of true Negativity as judged by the high sensitivity, specificity and positive likelihood ratio of the test. SNOMED-CT had overall coverage of 88.7% of the concepts being negated.

  20. mTOR in breast cancer: differential expression in triple-negative and non-triple-negative tumors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and overexpression of HER2. Targeted therapy is currently unavailable for this subgroup of breast cancer patients. mTOR controls cancer cell growth, survival and invasion and is thus a potential target for the treatment of patients with TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry, mTOR and p-mTOR were measured in 89 TNBCs and 99 non-TNBCs. While mTOR expression was confined to tumor cell cytoplasm, p-mTOR staining was located in the nucleus, perinuclear area and in the cytoplasm. Potentially important, was our finding that nuclear p-mTOR was found more frequently in triple-negative than non triple-negative cancers (p < 0.001). These results suggest that mTOR may play a more important role in the progression of TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Based on these findings, we conclude that mTOR may be a new target for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.