Sample records for catsper channels reveals

  1. The Fungal Sexual Pheromone Sirenin Activates the Human CatSper Channel Complex. (United States)

    Syeda, Shameem Sultana; Carlson, Erick J; Miller, Melissa R; Francis, Rawle; Clapham, David E; Lishko, Polina V; Hawkinson, Jon E; Hook, Derek; Georg, Gunda I


    The basal fungus Allomyces macrogynus (A. macrogynus) produces motile male gametes displaying well-studied chemotaxis toward their female counterparts. This chemotaxis is driven by sirenin, a sexual pheromone released by the female gametes. The pheromone evokes a large calcium influx in the motile gametes, which could proceed through the cation channel of sperm (CatSper) complex. Herein, we report the total synthesis of sirenin in 10 steps and 8% overall yield and show that the synthetic pheromone activates the CatSper channel complex, indicated by a concentration-dependent increase in intracellular calcium in human sperm. Sirenin activation of the CatSper channel was confirmed using whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology with human sperm. Based on this proficient synthetic route and confirmed activation of CatSper, analogues of sirenin can be designed as blockers of the CatSper channel that could provide male contraceptive agents.

  2. The role of Hv1 and CatSper channels in sperm activation. (United States)

    Lishko, Polina V; Kirichok, Yuriy


    Elevations of sperm intracellular pH and Ca(2+) regulate sperm motility, chemotaxis, capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and play a vital role in the ability of the sperm cell to reach and fertilise the egg. In human spermatozoa, the flagellar voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is the main H(+) extrusion pathway that controls sperm intracellular pH, and the pH-dependent flagellar Ca²(+) channel CatSper is the main pathway for Ca²(+) entry as measured by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Hv1 and CatSper channels are co-localized within the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. Hv1 is dedicated to proton extrusion from flagellum and is activated by membrane depolarisation, an alkaline extracellular environment, the endocannabinoid anandamide, and removal of extracellular zinc, a potent Hv1 blocker. The CatSper channel is strongly potentiated by intracellular alkalinisation. Since Hv1 and CatSper channels are located in the same subcellular domain, proton extrusion via Hv1 channels should induce intraflagellar alkalinisation and activate CatSper ion channels. Therefore the combined action of Hv1 and CatSper channels in human spermatozoa can induce elevation of both intracellular pH and Ca²(+) required for sperm activation in the female reproductive tract. Here, we discuss how Hv1 and CatSper channels regulate human sperm physiology and the differences in control of sperm intracellular pH and Ca²(+) between species.

  3. The BSA-induced Ca(2+ influx during sperm capacitation is CATSPER channel-dependent

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    Ren Dejian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum albumin is a key component in mammalian sperm capacitation, a functional maturation process by which sperm become competent to fertilize oocytes. Capacitation is accompanied by several cellular and molecular changes including an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins and a development of hyperactivated sperm motility. Both of these processes require extracellular calcium, but how calcium enters sperm during capacitation is not well understood. Methods BSA-induced changes in intracellular calcium concentration were studied using Fluo-4 and Fura-2 calcium imaging with wild-type and Catsper1 knockout mouse sperm. Results We found that the fast phase of the BSA-induced rises in intracellular calcium concentration was absent in the Catsper1 knockout sperm and could be restored by an EGFP-CATSPER1 fusion protein. The calcium concentration increases were independent of G-proteins and phospholipase C but could be partially inhibited when intracellular pH was clamped. The changes started in the principal piece and propagated toward the sperm head. Conclusion We conclude that the initial phase of the increases in intracellular calcium concentration induced by BSA requires the CATSPER channel, but not the voltage-gated calcium channel. Our findings identify the molecular conduit responsible for the calcium entry required for the sperm motility changes that occur during capacitation.

  4. Molecular cloning and analysis of the Catsper1 gene promoter. (United States)

    Mata-Rocha, Minerva; Alvarado-Cuevas, Edith; Hernández-Sánchez, Javier; Cerecedo, Doris; Felix, Ricardo; Hernández-Reyes, Adriana; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Oviedo, Norma


    CatSper channels are essential for hyperactivity of sperm flagellum, progesterone-mediated chemotaxis and oocyte fertilization. Catsper genes are exclusively expressed in the testis during spermatogenesis, but the function and regulation of the corresponding promoter regions are unknown. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of the promoter regions in the human and murine Catsper1 genes. These promoter regions were identified and isolated from genomic DNA, and transcriptional activities were tested in vitro after transfection into human embryonic kidney 293, mouse Sertoli cells 1 and GC-1spg cell lines as well as by injecting plasmids directly into mouse testes. Although the human and murine Catsper1 promoters lacked a TATA box, a well-conserved CRE site was identified. Both sequences may be considered as TATAless promoters because their transcriptional activity was not affected after deletion of TATA box-like sites. Several transcription initiation sites were revealed by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of the cDNA 5'-ends. We also found that the immediate upstream region and the first exon in the human CATSPER1 gene negatively regulate transcriptional activity. In the murine Catsper1 promoter, binding sites for transcription factors SRY, SOX9 and CREB were protected by the presence of nuclear testis proteins in DNAse degradation assays. Likewise, the mouse Catsper1 promoter exhibited transcriptional activity in both orientations and displayed significant expression levels in mouse testis in vivo, whereas the suppression of transcription signals in the promoter resulted in low expression levels. This study, thus, represents the first identification of the transcriptional control regions in the genes encoding the human and murine CatSper channels.

  5. CatSper1 protein and idiopathic asthenozoospermia%CATSPER1蛋白与特发性弱精子症关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武文斌; 李玉山; 冯晓霞; 王全先; 高学敏; 杨险峰; 潘周辉; 孙琳


    Objective: To investigate the role of the cation channel of sperm 1 ( CatSper1 ) protein in the pathogenesis of idiopathic asthenozoospermia.Methods: Sperm samples from patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia were separated by Percoll discontinuous density gradients, and the distribution and expression of the CatSper1 protein were determined by immunocytochemistry.Western blotting was used to detect the different expressions of CatSper1 in the ejaculated sperm from the normal control, mild asthenozoospermia, moderate asthenozoospermia and severe asthenozoospermia groups, followed by statistical analyses.Results: The expression of CatSper1, located in the principle piece of the sperm tail, was reduced significantly in the samples from the idiopathic asthenozoospermia patients as compared with the normal controls (t = 2.188, P = 0.042).The relative contents of the CatSper1 protein in the sperm of the control, mild asthenozoospermia, moderate asthenozoospermia and severe asthenozoospermia groups were 0.806 ± 0.266,0.669 ± 0.207, 0.505 ± 0.214 and 0.295 ± 0.162, respectively, significantly decreased in the asthenozoospermia patients in comparison with the normal controls ( P < 0.05 ).There was a positive correlation between the percentage of progressively motile sperm and the relative content of the CatSper1 protein ( r = 0.633, P = 0.000).Conclusion: The decreased or abnormal expression of the CatSper1 protein may be a factor involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic asthenozoospermia.%目的:探讨CATSPER1蛋白在特发性弱精子症发病中的作用.方法:采用非连续密度梯度离心分离精子,免疫细胞化学技术检测CATSPER1蛋白在特发性弱精子症患者精子中的定位及表达变化;同时用蛋白印迹技术检测CATSPER1蛋白在正常对照组及轻度弱精子症组、中度弱精子症组和重度弱精子症组中表达的差异,进行统计学分析.结果:CATSPER1蛋白定位于精子鞭毛主段;与正常对照组相比,CATSPER

  6. Panax ginseng induces the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation

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    Eun Hwa Park


    Full Text Available The cation channel of sperm (CatSper protein family plays important roles in male reproduction and infertility. The four members of this family are expressed exclusively in the testis and are localized differently in sperm. To investigate the effects of Panax ginseng treatment on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm hyperactivation in male mice, sperm motility and CatSper gene expression were assessed using a computer-assisted semen analysis system, a Fluoroskan Ascent microplate fluorometer to assess Ca 2+ influx, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The results suggested that the Ca 2+ levels of sperm cells treated with P. ginseng were increased significantly compared with the normal group. The P. ginseng-treated groups showed increased sperm motility parameters, such as the curvilinear velocity and amplitude of lateral head displacement. Taken together, the data suggest that CatSper messenger ribonucleic acid levels were increased significantly in mouse testes in the P. ginseng-treated group, as was the protein level, with the exception of CatSper2. In conclusion, P. ginseng plays an important role in improving sperm hyperactivation via CatSper gene expression.

  7. CATSPER1抗体对精子运动的影响%The Influence of CATSPER1 Antibody to the Sperm Motility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


      目的探讨CATSPER1蛋白在精子运动中的功能。方法将正常精液标本与终浓度分别为0.8μg/mL、4μg/mL、20μg/mL的CATSPER1抗体混合孵育,然后于37℃1h、2h、6h用计算机辅助分析系统(CASA)进行精液参数分析。结果在不同时间,前向运动精子(a+b级)、快速前向运动精子(a级)的百分比均较对照组明显减少并且成剂量依赖性,慢速前向运动精子(b级)受抗体抑制的作用不明显。结论 CATSPER1在精子运动过程中发挥重要功能,CATSPER1抗体主要抑制精子快速前向运动能力。% Objective Objective: To evaluate the function of cation channel of sperm 1 (CATSPER1) protein in human sperm motility; Methods The sperm samples from normozoospermic donors were incucbated with different CATSPER1 antibody at final concentrations of 0,0.8,4,20μg/mL.Sperm motility was measured by means of computer-assisted semen analysis after 1, 2 and 6 hours incubation at 37℃. Results Progressive motility (class a+b) and fast progressive motility (class a) of sperm were both inhibited under the use of CATSPER1 antibody in different concentrations and significant dose-dependent changes were observed (respectively, P<0.01 and P<0.05)and slow motility sperms were not inhibited at different time. Conclusion CATSPER1 protein plays an important role in maintaining the motility of mature sperm of which fast progressive motility can be inhibited by CATSPER1 antibody.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility (United States)

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  9. p,p′-DDE activates CatSper and compromises human sperm function at environmentally relevant concentrations


    Tavares, Renata S.; Mansell, Steven; Barratt, Christopher L. R.; Wilson, Stuart M.; Publicover, Stephen J.; Ramalho-Santos, João


    STUDY QUESTION Is the environmental endocrine disruptor p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) able to induce non-genomic changes in human sperm and consequently affect functional sperm parameters? SUMMARY ANSWER p,p′-DDE promoted Ca2+ flux into human sperm by activating CatSper channels even at doses found in human reproductive fluids, ultimately compromising sperm parameters important for fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY p,p′-DDE may promote non-genomic actions and interact di...

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in a Male Infertility-Related Gene CatSper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Hong LI; Song-shan JIANG; Shi-ling CHEN; Fu-qi XING


    Objective To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human CatSper gene, the mouse homologous gene product, which plays a crucial role in mouse male sterility.Methods We demonstrated a systematic screening of SNPs in coding regions and flanking intronic regions of human CatSper gene in a sample subset from a total 210 male individuals by DNA sequencing. Then we used PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to determine the allele frequencies of the possible SNPs among the whole 210 Chinese Han male individuals.Results Three SNPs, including two novels, were identified and their allele frequencies were determined in the 210 Chinese Han male individuals. These SNPs were assembled into large SNP database that promises to enable the dissection of the genetic basis of disease.

  11. Morphodynamics of submarine channel inception revealed by new experimental approach (United States)

    de Leeuw, Jan; Eggenhuisen, Joris T.; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.


    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the seafloor and their inception and evolution is a result of dynamic interaction between turbidity currents and the evolving seafloor. However, the morphodynamic links between channel inception and flow dynamics have not yet been monitored in experiments and only in one instance on the modern seafloor. Previous experimental flows did not show channel inception, because flow conditions were not appropriately scaled to sustain suspended sediment transport. Here we introduce and apply new scaling constraints for similarity between natural and experimental turbidity currents. The scaled currents initiate a leveed channel from an initially featureless slope. Channelization commences with deposition of levees in some slope segments and erosion of a conduit in other segments. Channel relief and flow confinement increase progressively during subsequent flows. This morphodynamic evolution determines the architecture of submarine channel deposits in the stratigraphic record and efficiency of sediment bypass to the basin floor.

  12. Cd(2+) sensitivity and permeability of a low voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel with CatSper-like selectivity filter. (United States)

    Garza-López, Edgar; Chávez, Julio César; Santana-Calvo, Carmen; López-González, Ignacio; Nishigaki, Takuya


    CatSper is a sperm-specific Ca(2+) channel that plays an essential role in the male fertility. However, its biophysical properties have been poorly characterized mainly due to its deficient heterologous expression. As other voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaVs), CatSper possesses a conserved Ca(2+)-selective filter motif ([T/S]x[D/E]xW) in the pore region. Interestingly, CatSper conserves four aspartic acids (DDDD) as the negatively charged residues in this motif while high voltage-activated CaVs have four glutamic acids (EEEE) and low voltage-activated CaVs possess two glutamic acids and two aspartic acids (EEDD). Previous studies based on site-directed mutagenesis of L- and T-type channels showed that the number of D seems to have a negative correlation with their cadmium (Cd(2+)) sensitivity. These results suggest that CatSper (DDDD) would have low sensitivity to Cd(2+). To explore Cd(2+)-sensitivity and -permeability of CatSper, we performed two types of experiments: 1) Electrophysiological analysis of heterologously expressed human CaV3.1 channel and three pore mutants (DEDD, EDDD and DDDD), 2) Cd(2+) imaging of human spermatozoa with FluoZin-1. Electrophysiological studies showed a significant increase in Cd(2+) and manganese (Mn(2+)) currents through the CaV3.1 mutants as well as a reduction in the inhibitory effect of Cd(2+) on the Ca(2+) current. In fluorescence imaging with human sperm, we observed an increase in Cd(2+) influx potentiated by progesterone, a potent activator of CatSper. These results support our hypothesis, namely that Cd(2+)-sensitivity and -permeability are related to the absolute number of D in the Ca(2+)-selective filter independently to the type of the Cav channels.

  13. BK channels reveal novel phosphate sensitivity in SNr neurons.

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    Juan Juan Ji

    Full Text Available Whether large conductance Ca(2+-activated potassium (BK channels are present in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a matter of debate. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined the functional expression of BK channels in neurons of the SNr and showed that the channels were activated or inhibited by internal high-energy phosphates (IHEPs at positive and negative membrane potentials, respectively. SNr neurons showed membrane potential hyperpolarization under glucose-deprivation conditions which was attenuated by paxilline, a specific BK channel blocker. In addition, Fluo-3 fluorescence recording detected an increase in the level of internal free calcium ([Ca(2+](i during ischemic hyperpolarization. These results confirm that BK channels are present in SNr neurons and indicate that their unique IHEP sensitivity is requisite in neuronal ischemic responses. Bearing in mind that the K(ATP channel blocker tolbutamide also attenuated the hyperpolarization, we suggest that BK channels may play a protective role in the basal ganglia by modulating the excitability of SNr neurons along with K(ATP channels under ischemic stresses.

  14. Ultrastructural observations reveal the presence of channels between cork cells. (United States)

    Teixeira, Rita Teresa; Pereira, Helena


    The ultrastructure of phellem cells of Quercus suber L. (cork oak) and Calotropis procera (Ait) R. Br. were analyzed using electron transmission microscopy to determine the presence or absence of plasmodesmata (PD). Different types of Q. suber cork samples were studied: one year shoots; virgin cork (first periderm), reproduction cork (traumatic periderm), and wet cork. The channel structures of PD were found in all the samples crossing adjacent cell walls through the suberin layer of the secondary wall. Calotropis phellem also showed PD crossing the cell walls of adjacent cells but in fewer numbers compared to Q. suber. In one year stems of cork oak, it was possible to follow the physiologically active PD with ribosomic accumulation next to the aperture of the channel seen in the phellogen cells to the completely obstructed channels in the dead cells that characterize the phellem tissue.

  15. Insight toward epithelial Na+ channel mechanism revealed by the acid-sensing ion channel 1 structure. (United States)

    Stockand, James D; Staruschenko, Alexander; Pochynyuk, Oleh; Booth, Rachell E; Silverthorn, Dee U


    The epithelial Na(+) channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) protein family includes a diverse group of ion channels, including nonvoltage-gated Na(+) channels of epithelia and neurons, and the acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1). In mammalian epithelia, ENaC helps regulate Na(+) and associated water transport, making it a critical determinant of systemic blood pressure and pulmonary mucosal fluidity. In the nervous system, ENaC/DEG proteins are related to sensory transduction. While the importance and physiological function of these ion channels are established, less is known about their structure. One hallmark of the ENaC/DEG channel family is that each channel subunit has only two transmembrane domains connected by an exceedingly large extracellular loop. This subunit structure was recently confirmed when Jasti and colleagues determined the crystal structure of chicken ASIC1, a neuronal acid-sensing ENaC/DEG channel. By mapping ENaC to the structural coordinates of cASIC1, as we do here, we hope to provide insight toward ENaC structure. ENaC, like ASIC1, appears to be a trimeric channel containing 1alpha, 1beta, and 1gamma subunit. Heterotrimeric ENaC and monomeric ENaC subunits within the trimer possibly contain many of the major secondary, tertiary, and quaternary features identified in cASIC1 with a few subtle but critical differences. These differences are expected to have profound effects on channel behavior. In particular, they may contribute to ENaC insensitivity to acid and to its constitutive activity in the absence of time- and ligand-dependent inactivation. Experiments resulting from this comparison of cASIC1 and ENaC may help clarify unresolved issues related to ENaC architecture, and may help identify secondary structures and residues critical to ENaC function.

  16. Structural dynamics of potassium-channel gating revealed by single-molecule FRET. (United States)

    Wang, Shizhen; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Borschel, William F; Ha, Taekjip; Nichols, Colin G


    Crystallography has provided invaluable insights regarding ion-channel selectivity and gating, but to advance understanding to a new level, dynamic views of channel structures within membranes are essential. We labeled tetrameric KirBac1.1 potassium channels with single donor and acceptor fluorophores at different sites and then examined structural dynamics within lipid membranes by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We found that the extracellular region is structurally rigid in both closed and open states, whereas the N-terminal slide helix undergoes marked conformational fluctuations. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain fluctuates between two major structural states, both of which become less dynamic and move away from the pore axis and away from the membrane in closed channels. Our results reveal mobile and rigid conformations of functionally relevant KirBac1.1 channel motifs, implying similar dynamics for similar motifs in eukaryotic Kir channels and in cation channels in general.

  17. Structural dynamics of potassium channel gating revealed by single molecule FRET (United States)

    Borschel, William F.; Ha, Taekjip; Nichols, Colin G.


    Crystallography has provided invaluable insights to ion channel selectivity and gating, but to advance understanding to a new level, dynamic views of channel structures within membranes are essential. We labeled tetrameric KirBac1.1 potassium channels with single donor and acceptor fluorophores at different sites, and examined structural dynamics within lipid membranes by single molecule FRET. We found that the extracellular region is structurally rigid in both closed and open states, whereas the N-terminal slide helix undergoes marked conformational fluctuations. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain fluctuates between two major structural states both of which become less dynamic and move away from the pore axis and away from the membrane in closed channels. Our results reveal mobile and rigid conformations of functionally relevant KirBac1.1 channel motifs, implying similar dynamics for similar motifs in eukaryotic Kir channels and for cation channels in general. PMID:26641713

  18. River Channel Expansion Reveals Ice Sheet Runoff Variations (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Hudson, B. D.; Welty, E.; LeWinter, A.; Mikkelsen, A. B.


    The Greenland Ice Sheet has been rapidly melting over the last decades. To quantify its contribution to global sea-level rise, we urgently need to understand flux of meltwater into proglacial rivers. Direct measurements of river runoff at the Greenlandic coast are sparse due to the dynamic braided channels with unstable banks, which makes in-situ discharge monitoring challenging. Here, we explore the use of ';inundation-discharge' relationships through analysis of both time-lapse camera imagery and MODIS remote-sensing reflectance data to provide us with a proxy record of river discharge for proglacial systems. We utilize MODIS band6 (mid IR 1628 - 1652 nm). Light in this band is strongly absorbed by water, and reflectance is not sensitive to sediment suspended in the water, making it an appropriate proxy for river braidplain inundation. Our focus is on two Greenlandic river systems; the Watson River near Kangerlussuaq and the Naujat Kuat River near Nuuk, to track band6 reflectance characteristics over all cloud-free days for the summers of 2000-2012. For validation, a ground-based inundation record is assembled from time-lapse imagery overlooking the Watson River for 2012. Exponential inundation-discharge relationships were established using our in-situ discharge records for the Watson River near Kangerlussuaq (2007-2012, R2=0.55) and the Naujat Kuat River near Nuuk (2011-2012, R2 = 0.42). Using these relationships to predict total annual river discharge proves reasonably accurate for most years of the observational record (varying between 96-86%). Interestingly, the extreme melt year of 2012 was not reliably predicted using the established relationship. We compared these predictions against an inundation record from the in-situ time-lapse camera and found that a ground-based observations track extreme discharge events more reliably (R2 = 0.60). This methodology allows us to extend existing river records back beyond the 5 or 2 years of in-situ observations

  19. Mutations Causing Slow-Channel Myasthenia Reveal That a Valine Ring in the Channel Pore of Muscle AChR is Optimized for Stabilizing Channel Gating. (United States)

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Okuno, Tatsuya; Milone, Margherita; Otsuka, Kenji; Takahashi, Koji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Giles, Elizabeth; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G


    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous βV266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR β subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the ε subunit (CHRNE), εV265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore, which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both βV266A and εV265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by fourfold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the δ and α subunit prolongs the burst duration four- and eightfold, respectively. Replacing valine at ε codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating.

  20. Transverse relaxation dispersion of the p7 membrane channel from hepatitis C virus reveals conformational breathing

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    Dev, Jyoti; Brüschweiler, Sven [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States); Ouyang, Bo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (China); Chou, James J., E-mail: [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)


    The p7 membrane protein encoded by hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembles into a homo-hexamer that selectively conducts cations. An earlier solution NMR structure of the hexameric complex revealed a funnel-like architecture and suggests that a ring of conserved asparagines near the narrow end of the funnel are important for cation interaction. NMR based drug-binding experiments also suggest that rimantadine can allosterically inhibit ion conduction via a molecular wedge mechanism. These results suggest the presence of dilation and contraction of the funnel tip that are important for channel activity and that the action of the drug is attenuating this motion. Here, we determined the conformational dynamics and solvent accessibility of the p7 channel. The proton exchange measurements show that the cavity-lining residues are largely water accessible, consistent with the overall funnel shape of the channel. Our relaxation dispersion data show that residues Val7 and Leu8 near the asparagine ring are subject to large chemical exchange, suggesting significant intrinsic channel breathing at the tip of the funnel. Moreover, the hinge regions connecting the narrow and wide regions of the funnel show strong relaxation dispersion and these regions are the binding sites for rimantadine. Presence of rimantadine decreases the conformational dynamics near the asparagine ring and the hinge area. Our data provide direct observation of μs–ms dynamics of the p7 channel and support the molecular wedge mechanism of rimantadine inhibition of the HCV p7 channel.

  1. Activating Mutations of the TRPML1 Channel Revealed by Proline-scanning Mutagenesis*



    The mucolipin TRP (TRPML) proteins are a family of endolysosomal cation channels with genetically established importance in humans and rodent. Mutations of human TRPML1 cause type IV mucolipidosis, a devastating pediatric neurodegenerative disease. Our recent electrophysiological studies revealed that, although a TRPML1-mediated current can only be recorded in late endosome and lysosome (LEL) using the lysosome patch clamp technique, a proline substitution in TRPML1 (TRPML1V432P) results in a...

  2. Anomalously-dense firn in an ice-shelf channel revealed by wide-angle radar

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    R. Drews


    Full Text Available The thickness of ice shelves, a basic parameter for mass balance estimates, is typically inferred using hydrostatic equilibrium for which knowledge of the depth-averaged density is essential. The densification from snow to ice depends on a number of local factors (e.g. temperature and surface mass balance causing spatial and temporal variations in density–depth profiles. However, direct measurements of firn density are sparse, requiring substantial logistical effort. Here, we infer density from radio-wave propagation speed using ground-based wide-angle radar datasets (10 MHz collected at five sites on Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf (RBIS, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. Using a novel algorithm including traveltime inversion and raytracing with a prescribed shape of the depth–density relationship, we show that the depth to internal reflectors, the local ice thickness and depth-averaged densities can reliably be reconstructed. For the particular case of an ice-shelf channel, where ice thickness and surface slope change substantially over a few kilometers, the radar data suggests that firn inside the channel is about 5 % denser than outside the channel. Although this density difference is at the detection limit of the radar, it is consistent with a similar density anomaly reconstructed from optical televiewing, which reveals 10 % denser firn inside compared to outside the channel. The denser firn in the ice-shelf channel should be accounted for when using the hydrostatic ice thickness for determining basal melt rates. The radar method presented here is robust and can easily be adapted to different radar frequencies and data-acquisition geometries.

  3. Activating mutations of the TRPML1 channel revealed by proline-scanning mutagenesis. (United States)

    Dong, Xian-ping; Wang, Xiang; Shen, Dongbiao; Chen, Su; Liu, Meiling; Wang, Yanbin; Mills, Eric; Cheng, Xiping; Delling, Markus; Xu, Haoxing


    The mucolipin TRP (TRPML) proteins are a family of endolysosomal cation channels with genetically established importance in humans and rodent. Mutations of human TRPML1 cause type IV mucolipidosis, a devastating pediatric neurodegenerative disease. Our recent electrophysiological studies revealed that, although a TRPML1-mediated current can only be recorded in late endosome and lysosome (LEL) using the lysosome patch clamp technique, a proline substitution in TRPML1 (TRPML1(V432P)) results in a large whole cell current. Thus, it remains unknown whether the large TRPML1(V432P)-mediated current results from an increased surface expression (trafficking), elevated channel activity (gating), or both. Here we performed systemic Pro substitutions in a region previously implicated in the gating of various 6 transmembrane cation channels. We found that several Pro substitutions displayed gain-of-function (GOF) constitutive activities at both the plasma membrane (PM) and endolysosomal membranes. Although wild-type TRPML1 and non-GOF Pro substitutions localized exclusively in LEL and were barely detectable in the PM, the GOF mutations with high constitutive activities were not restricted to LEL compartments, and most significantly, exhibited significant surface expression. Because lysosomal exocytosis is Ca(2+)-dependent, constitutive Ca(2+) permeability due to Pro substitutions may have resulted in stimulus-independent intralysosomal Ca(2+) release, hence the surface expression and whole cell current of TRPML1. Indeed, surface staining of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (Lamp-1) was dramatically increased in cells expressing GOF TRPML1 channels. We conclude that TRPML1 is an inwardly rectifying, proton-impermeable, Ca(2+) and Fe(2+)/Mn(2+) dually permeable cation channel that may be gated by unidentified cellular mechanisms through a conformational change in the cytoplasmic face of the transmembrane 5 (TM5). Furthermore, activation of TRPML1 in LEL may lead to the

  4. Single Channel Recordings Reveal Differential β2 Subunit Modulations Between Mammalian and Drosophila BKCa(β2) Channels (United States)

    Zhong, Ling; Guo, Xiying; Weng, Anxi; Xiao, Feng; Zeng, Wenping; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jiuping; Hou, Panpan


    Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels are widely expressed in tissues. As a voltage and calcium sensor, BK channels play significant roles in regulating the action potential frequency, neurotransmitter release, and smooth muscle contraction. After associating with the auxiliary β2 subunit, mammalian BK(β2) channels (mouse or human Slo1/β2) exhibit enhanced activation and complete inactivation. However, how the β2 subunit modulates the Drosophila Slo1 channel remains elusive. In this study, by comparing the different functional effects on heterogeneous BK(β2) channel, we found that Drosophila Slo1/β2 channel exhibits “paralyzed”-like and incomplete inactivation as well as slow activation. Further, we determined three different modulations between mammalian and Drosophila BK(β2) channels: 1) dSlo1/β2 doesn’t have complete inactivation. 2) β2(K33,R34,K35) delays the dSlo1/Δ3-β2 channel activation. 3) dSlo1/β2 channel has enhanced pre-inactivation than mSlo1/β2 channel. The results in our study provide insights into the different modulations of β2 subunit between mammalian and Drosophila Slo1/β2 channels and structural basis underlie the activation and pre-inactivation of other BK(β) complexes. PMID:27755549

  5. Use of nonelectrolytes reveals the channel size and oligomeric constitution of the Borrelia burgdorferi P66 porin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Bárcena-Uribarri

    Full Text Available In the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the outer membrane protein P66 is capable of pore formation with an atypical high single-channel conductance of 11 nS in 1 M KCl, which suggested that it could have a larger diameter than 'normal' Gram-negative bacterial porins. We studied the diameter of the P66 channel by analyzing its single-channel conductance in black lipid bilayers in the presence of different nonelectrolytes with known hydrodynamic radii. We calculated the filling of the channel with these nonelectrolytes and the results suggested that nonelectrolytes (NEs with hydrodynamic radii of 0.34 nm or smaller pass through the pore, whereas neutral molecules with greater radii only partially filled the channel or were not able to enter it at all. The diameter of the entrance of the P66 channel was determined to be ≤1.9 nm and the channel has a central constriction of about 0.8 nm. The size of the channel appeared to be symmetrical as judged from one-sidedness of addition of NEs. Furthermore, the P66-induced membrane conductance could be blocked by 80-90% by the addition of the nonelectrolytes PEG 400, PEG 600 and maltohexaose to the aqueous phase in the low millimolar range. The analysis of the power density spectra of ion current through P66 after blockage with these NEs revealed no chemical reaction responsible for channel block. Interestingly, the blockage of the single-channel conductance of P66 by these NEs occurred in about eight subconductance states, indicating that the P66 channel could be an oligomer of about eight individual channels. The organization of P66 as a possible octamer was confirmed by Blue Native PAGE and immunoblot analysis, which both demonstrated that P66 forms a complex with a mass of approximately 460 kDa. Two dimension SDS PAGE revealed that P66 is the only polypeptide in the complex.

  6. Clustering and Functional Coupling of Diverse Ion Channels and Signaling Proteins Revealed by Super-resolution STORM Microscopy in Neurons. (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Carver, Chase M; Choveau, Frank S; Shapiro, Mark S


    The fidelity of neuronal signaling requires organization of signaling molecules into macromolecular complexes, whose components are in intimate proximity. The intrinsic diffraction limit of light makes visualization of individual signaling complexes using visible light extremely difficult. However, using super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), we observed intimate association of individual molecules within signaling complexes containing ion channels (M-type K(+), L-type Ca(2+), or TRPV1 channels) and G protein-coupled receptors coupled by the scaffolding protein A-kinase-anchoring protein (AKAP)79/150. Some channels assembled as multi-channel supercomplexes. Surprisingly, we identified novel layers of interplay within macromolecular complexes containing diverse channel types at the single-complex level in sensory neurons, dependent on AKAP79/150. Electrophysiological studies revealed that such ion channels are functionally coupled as well. Our findings illustrate the novel role of AKAP79/150 as a molecular coupler of different channels that conveys crosstalk between channel activities within single microdomains in tuning the physiological response of neurons.

  7. Conserved BK channel-protein interactions reveal signals relevant to cell death and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Sokolowski

    Full Text Available The large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel and its β-subunit underlie tuning in non-mammalian sensory or hair cells, whereas in mammals its function is less clear. To gain insights into species differences and to reveal putative BK functions, we undertook a systems analysis of BK and BK-Associated Proteins (BKAPS in the chicken cochlea and compared these results to other species. We identified 110 putative partners from cytoplasmic and membrane/cytoskeletal fractions, using a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 2-D gel, and LC-MS/MS. Partners included 14-3-3γ, valosin-containing protein (VCP, stathmin (STMN, cortactin (CTTN, and prohibitin (PHB, of which 16 partners were verified by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics revealed binary partners, the resultant interactome, subcellular localization, and cellular processes. The interactome contained 193 proteins involved in 190 binary interactions in subcellular compartments such as the ER, mitochondria, and nucleus. Comparisons with mice showed shared hub proteins that included N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and ATP-synthase. Ortholog analyses across six species revealed conserved interactions involving apoptosis, Ca(2+ binding, and trafficking, in chicks, mice, and humans. Functional studies using recombinant BK and RNAi in a heterologous expression system revealed that proteins important to cell death/survival, such as annexinA5, γ-actin, lamin, superoxide dismutase, and VCP, caused a decrease in BK expression. This revelation led to an examination of specific kinases and their effectors relevant to cell viability. Sequence analyses of the BK C-terminus across 10 species showed putative binding sites for 14-3-3, RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1. Knockdown of 14-3-3 and Akt caused an increase in BK expression, whereas silencing of GSK3β and PDK1 had the opposite

  8. Quantised transistor response to ion channels revealed by nonstationary noise analysis (United States)

    Becker-Freyseng, C.; Fromherz, P.


    We report on the quantised response of a field-effect transistor to molecular ion channels in a biomembrane. HEK293-type cells overexpressing the Shaker B potassium channel were cultured on a silicon chip. An enhanced noise of the transistor is observed when the ion channels are activated. The analysis of the fluctuations in terms of binomial statistics identifies voltage quanta of about 1 μV on the gate. They are attributed to the channel currents that affect the gate voltage according to the Green's function of the cell-chip junction.

  9. Vestibular role of KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 K+ channels revealed by mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Spitzmaul (Guillermo); L. Tolosa (Leonardo); B.H.J. Winkelman (Beerend); M. Heidenreich (Matthias); M.A. Frens (Maarten); C. Chabbert (Christian); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); T.J. Jentsch (Thomas)


    textabstractThe function of sensory hair cells of the cochlea and vestibular organs depends on an influx of K+ through apical mechanosensitive ion channels and its subsequent removal over their basolateral membrane. The KCNQ4 (Kv7.4) K+ channel, which is mutated in DFNA2 human hearing loss, is expre

  10. Proline Scan of the hERG Channel S6 Helix Reveals the Location of the Intracellular Pore Gate (United States)

    Thouta, Samrat; Sokolov, Stanislav; Abe, Yuki; Clark, Sheldon J.; Cheng, Yen M.; Claydon, Tom W.


    In Shaker-like channels, the activation gate is formed at the bundle crossing by the convergence of the inner S6 helices near a conserved proline-valine-proline motif, which introduces a kink that allows for electromechanical coupling with voltage sensor motions via the S4-S5 linker. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels lack the proline-valine-proline motif and the location of the intracellular pore gate and how it is coupled to S4 movement is less clear. Here, we show that proline substitutions within the S6 of hERG perturbed pore gate closure, trapping channels in the open state. Performing a proline scan of the inner S6 helix, from Ile655 to Tyr667 revealed that gate perturbation occurred with proximal (I655P-Q664P), but not distal (R665P-Y667P) substitutions, suggesting that Gln664 marks the position of the intracellular gate in hERG channels. Using voltage-clamp fluorimetry and gating current analysis, we demonstrate that proline substitutions trap the activation gate open by disrupting the coupling between the voltage-sensing unit and the pore of the channel. We characterize voltage sensor movement in one such trapped-open mutant channel and demonstrate the kinetics of what we interpret to be intrinsic hERG voltage sensor movement. PMID:24606930

  11. Krebs cycle metabolon: structural evidence of substrate channeling revealed by cross-linking and mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wu, Fei; Minteer, Shelley


    It has been hypothesized that the high metabolic flux in the mitochondria is due to the self-assembly of enzyme supercomplexes (called metabolons) that channel substrates from one enzyme to another, but there has been no experimental confirmation of this structure or the channeling. A structural investigation of enzyme organization within the Krebs cycle metabolon was accomplished by in vivo cross-linking and mass spectrometry. Eight Krebs cycle enzyme components were isolated upon chemical fixation, and interfacial residues between mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and aconitase were identified. Using constraint protein docking, a low-resolution structure for the three-enzyme complex was achieved, as well as the two-fold symmetric octamer. Surface analysis showed formation of electrostatic channeling upon protein-protein association, which is the first structural evidence of substrate channeling in the Krebs cycle metabolon.

  12. The structure of a conserved piezo channel domain reveals a topologically distinct β sandwich fold. (United States)

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens T; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C


    Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2,000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a topologically distinct β sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be-identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.

  13. Promoter Methylation Analysis Reveals that KCNA5 Ion Channel Silencing Supports Ewing Sarcoma Cell Proliferation (United States)

    Ryland, Katherine E; Hawkins, Allegra G.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Punj, Vasu; Borinstein, Scott C.; Laird, Peter W.; Martens, Jeffrey R.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.


    Polycomb proteins are essential regulators of gene expression in stem cells and development. They function to reversibly repress gene transcription via post-translational modification of histones and chromatin compaction. In many human cancers, genes that are repressed by polycomb in stem cells are subject to more stable silencing via DNA methylation of promoter CpG islands. Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor that is characterized by over-expression of polycomb proteins. This study investigates the DNA methylation status of polycomb target gene promoters in Ewing sarcoma tumors and cell lines and observes that the promoters of differentiation genes are frequent targets of CpG-island DNA methylation. In addition, the promoters of ion channel genes are highly differentially methylated in Ewing sarcoma compared to non-malignant adult tissues. Ion channels regulate a variety of biological processes, including proliferation, and dysfunction of these channels contributes to tumor pathogenesis. In particular, reduced expression of the voltage-gated Kv1.5 channel has been implicated in tumor progression. These data show that DNA methylation of the KCNA5 promoter contributes to stable epigenetic silencing of Kv1.5 channel. This epigenetic repression is reversed by exposure to the DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine, which inhibits Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation through mechanisms that include restoration of Kv1.5 channel function. Implications This study demonstrates that promoters of ion channels are aberrantly methylated in Ewing sarcoma and that epigenetic silencing of KCNA5 contributes to tumor cell proliferation, thus providing further evidence of the importance of ion channel dyregulation to tumorigenesis. PMID:26573141

  14. Concatenated hERG1 tetramers reveal stoichiometry of altered channel gating by RPR-260243. (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Gardner, Alison; Sanguinetti, Michael C


    Activation of human ether-a-go-go-related gene 1 (hERG1) K(+) channels mediates repolarization of action potentials in cardiomyocytes. RPR-260243 [(3R,4R)-4-[3-(6-methoxy-quinolin-4-yl)-3-oxo-propyl]-1-[3-(2,3,5-trifluorophenyl)-prop-2-ynyl]-piperidine-3-carboxylic acid] (RPR) slows deactivation and attenuates inactivation of hERG1 channels. A detailed understanding of the molecular mechanism of hERG1 agonists such as RPR may facilitate the design of more selective and potent compounds for prevention of arrhythmia associated with abnormally prolonged ventricular repolarization. RPR binds to a hydrophobic pocket located between two adjacent hERG1 subunits, and, hence, a homotetrameric channel has four identical RPR binding sites. To investigate the stoichiometry of altered channel gating induced by RPR, we constructed and characterized tetrameric hERG1 concatemers containing a variable number of wild-type subunits and subunits containing a point mutation (L553A) that rendered the channel insensitive to RPR, ostensibly by preventing ligand binding. The slowing of deactivation by RPR was proportional to the number of wild-type subunits incorporated into a concatenated tetrameric channel, and four wild-type subunits were required to achieve maximal slowing of deactivation. In contrast, a single wild-type subunit within a concatenated tetramer was sufficient to achieve half of the maximal RPR-induced shift in the voltage dependence of hERG1 inactivation, and maximal effect was achieved in channels containing three or four wild-type subunits. Together our findings suggest that the allosteric modulation of channel gating involves distinct mechanisms of coupling between drug binding and altered deactivation and inactivation.

  15. Functional mutagenesis screens reveal the 'cap structure' formation in disulfide-bridge free TASK channels. (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthias; Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K; Ramírez, David; Netter, Michael F; Bustos, Daniel; Ortiz-Bonnin, Beatriz; González, Wendy; Decher, Niels


    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels have a large extracellular cap structure formed by two M1-P1 linkers, containing a cysteine for dimerization. However, this cysteine is not present in the TASK-1/3/5 subfamily. The functional role of the cap is poorly understood and it remained unclear whether K2P channels assemble in the domain-swapped orientation or not. Functional alanine-mutagenesis screens of TASK-1 and TRAAK were used to build an in silico model of the TASK-1 cap. According to our data the cap structure of disulfide-bridge free TASK channels is similar to that of other K2P channels and is most likely assembled in the domain-swapped orientation. As the conserved cysteine is not essential for functional expression of all K2P channels tested, we propose that hydrophobic residues at the inner leaflets of the cap domains can interact with each other and that this way of stabilizing the cap is most likely conserved among K2P channels.

  16. Solute restriction reveals an essential role for clag3-associated channels in malaria parasite nutrient acquisition. (United States)

    Pillai, Ajay D; Nguitragool, Wang; Lyko, Brian; Dolinta, Keithlee; Butler, Michelle M; Nguyen, Son T; Peet, Norton P; Bowlin, Terry L; Desai, Sanjay A


    The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC) increases erythrocyte permeability to many solutes in malaria but has uncertain physiological significance. We used a PSAC inhibitor with different efficacies against channels from two Plasmodium falciparum parasite lines and found concordant effects on transport and in vitro parasite growth when external nutrient concentrations were reduced. Linkage analysis using this growth inhibition phenotype in the Dd2 × HB3 genetic cross mapped the clag3 genomic locus, consistent with a role for two clag3 genes in PSAC-mediated transport. Altered inhibitor efficacy, achieved through allelic exchange or expression switching between the clag3 genes, indicated that the inhibitor kills parasites through direct action on PSAC. In a parasite unable to undergo expression switching, the inhibitor selected for ectopic homologous recombination between the clag3 genes to increase the diversity of available channel isoforms. Broad-spectrum inhibitors, which presumably interact with conserved sites on the channel, also exhibited improved efficacy with nutrient restriction. These findings indicate that PSAC functions in nutrient acquisition for intracellular parasites. Although key questions regarding the channel and its biological role remain, antimalarial drug development targeting PSAC should be pursued.

  17. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Asim K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P.


    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  18. Fractionation of a herbal antidiarrheal medicine reveals eugenol as an inhibitor of Ca2+-Activated Cl- channel TMEM16A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Yao

    Full Text Available The Ca(2+-activated Cl(- channel TMEM16A is involved in epithelial fluid secretion, smooth muscle contraction and neurosensory signaling. We identified a Thai herbal antidiarrheal formulation that inhibited TMEM16A Cl(- conductance. C18-reversed-phase HPLC fractionation of the herbal formulation revealed >98% of TMEM16A inhibition activity in one out of approximately 20 distinct peaks. The purified, active compound was identified as eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, the major component of clove oil. Eugenol fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl(- conductance with single-site IC(50~150 µM. Eugenol inhibition of TMEM16A in interstitial cells of Cajal produced strong inhibition of intestinal contraction in mouse ileal segments. TMEM16A Cl(- channel inhibition adds to the list of eugenol molecular targets and may account for some of its biological activities.

  19. Effect of La3+ on myocardiac potassium channels revealed by patch-clamp technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Shaowu; YANG Pin


    The effect of La3+ on potassium channels in rat ventricular myocytes was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording mode. The Ca2+-independent voltage- activated outward K+ current was activated by the depolarizing pulse in enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. After addition of different concentrations La3+ to the bath solution, the outward K+ current was depressed gradually. The inhibition effect was in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of the outward K+ current, being the main repolarizing current suppressed by La3+, suggest that the effect of lanthanides on myocardial function should be exploited further.

  20. The mystery is solved-CatSper is the principal calcium channel activated by progesterone in human spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LR Barratt


    @@ Aremarkable advance in sperm physiology has recently been published in Nature.Two groups using patch clamping techniques on human sperm have solved a mystery about the sperm cell that has puzzled both andrologists and those involved in non-genomic cellular signalling for over 20 years.In these papers, Lishko1 and Strunker2 independently demonstrate that the universal characteristic effect of progesterone on sperm-a rapid influx of calcium-is via a sperm-specific channel CatSper.

  1. Differences between main-channel and off-channel food webs in the upper Mississippi River revealed by fatty acid profiles of consumers (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Bartsch, Michelle; Gutreuter, Steve; Knights, Brent C.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Vallazza, Jonathan M.; Arts, Michael T.


    Large river systems are often thought to contain a mosaic of patches with different habitat characteristics driven by differences in flow and mixing environments. Off-channel habitats (e.g., backwater areas, secondary channels) can become semi-isolated from main-channel water inputs, leading to the development of distinct biogeochemical environments. Observations of adult bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) in the main channel of the Mississippi River led to speculation that the main channel offered superior food resources relative to off-channel areas. One important aspect of food quality is the quantity and composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We sampled consumers from main-channel and backwater habitats to determine whether they differed in PUFA content. Main-channel individuals for relatively immobile species (young-of-year bluegill, zebra mussels [Dreissena polymorpha], and plain pocketbook mussels [Lampsilis cardium]) had significantly greater PUFA content than off-channel individuals. No difference in PUFA was observed for the more mobile gizzard shad (Dorsoma cepedianum), which may move between main-channel and off-channel habitats even at early life-history stages. As off-channel habitats become isolated from main-channel waters, flow and water column nitrogen decrease, potentially improving conditions for nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria and vascular plants that, in turn, have low PUFA content. We conclude that main-channel food webs of the upper Mississippi River provide higher quality food resources for some riverine consumers as compared to food webs in off-channel habitats.

  2. Crystal structure of Caulobacter crescentus polynucleotide phosphorylase reveals a mechanism of RNA substrate channelling and RNA degradosome assembly. (United States)

    Hardwick, Steven W; Gubbey, Tobias; Hug, Isabelle; Jenal, Urs; Luisi, Ben F


    Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is an exoribonuclease that cleaves single-stranded RNA substrates with 3'-5' directionality and processive behaviour. Its ring-like, trimeric architecture creates a central channel where phosphorolytic active sites reside. One face of the ring is decorated with RNA-binding K-homology (KH) and S1 domains, but exactly how these domains help to direct the 3' end of single-stranded RNA substrates towards the active sites is an unsolved puzzle. Insight into this process is provided by our crystal structures of RNA-bound and apo Caulobacter crescentus PNPase. In the RNA-free form, the S1 domains adopt a 'splayed' conformation that may facilitate capture of RNA substrates. In the RNA-bound structure, the three KH domains collectively close upon the RNA and direct the 3' end towards a constricted aperture at the entrance of the central channel. The KH domains make non-equivalent interactions with the RNA, and there is a marked asymmetry within the catalytic core of the enzyme. On the basis of these data, we propose that structural non-equivalence, induced upon RNA binding, helps to channel substrate to the active sites through mechanical ratcheting. Structural and biochemical analyses also reveal the basis for PNPase association with RNase E in the multi-enzyme RNA degradosome assembly of the α-proteobacteria.

  3. A C. elegans stretch receptor neuron revealed by a mechanosensitive TRP channel homologue. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Feng, Zhaoyang; Sternberg, Paul W; Xu, X Z Shawn


    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is commonly used as a genetic model organism for dissecting integration of the sensory and motor systems. Despite extensive genetic and behavioural analyses that have led to the identification of many genes and neural circuits involved in regulating C. elegans locomotion behaviour, it remains unclear whether and how somatosensory feedback modulates motor output during locomotion. In particular, no stretch receptors have been identified in C. elegans, raising the issue of whether stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception is used by C. elegans to regulate its locomotion behaviour. Here we have characterized TRP-4, the C. elegans homologue of the mechanosensitive TRPN channel. We show that trp-4 mutant worms bend their body abnormally, exhibiting a body posture distinct from that of wild-type worms during locomotion, suggesting that TRP-4 is involved in stretch-receptor-mediated proprioception. We show that TRP-4 acts in a single neuron, DVA, to mediate its function in proprioception, and that the activity of DVA can be stimulated by body stretch. DVA both positively and negatively modulates locomotion, providing a unique mechanism whereby a single neuron can fine-tune motor activity. Thus, DVA represents a stretch receptor neuron that regulates sensory-motor integration during C. elegans locomotion.

  4. Atomic force microscopy imaging reveals the formation of ASIC/ENaC cross-clade ion channels

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    Jeggle, Pia; Smith, Ewan St. J.; Stewart, Andrew P. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Haerteis, Silke; Korbmacher, Christoph [Institut für Zelluläre und Molekulare Physiologie, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Waldstrasse 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Edwardson, J. Michael, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)


    ASIC and ENaC are co-expressed in various cell types, and there is evidence for a close association between them. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine whether ASIC1a and ENaC subunits are able to form cross-clade hybrid ion channels. ASIC1a and ENaC could be co-isolated from detergent extracts of tsA 201 cells co-expressing the two subunits. Isolated proteins were incubated with antibodies against ENaC and Fab fragments against ASIC1a. AFM imaging revealed proteins that were decorated by both an antibody and a Fab fragment with an angle of ∼120° between them, indicating the formation of ASIC1a/ENaC heterotrimers. - Highlights: • There is evidence for a close association between ASIC and ENaC. • We used AFM to test whether ASIC1a and ENaC subunits form cross-clade ion channels. • Isolated proteins were incubated with subunit-specific antibodies and Fab fragments. • Some proteins were doubly decorated at ∼120° by an antibody and a Fab fragment. • Our results indicate the formation of ASIC1a/ENaC heterotrimers.

  5. Structure of the SthK carboxy-terminal region reveals a gating mechanism for cyclic nucleotide-modulated ion channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kesters

    Full Text Available Cyclic nucleotide-sensitive ion channels are molecular pores that open in response to cAMP or cGMP, which are universal second messengers. Binding of a cyclic nucleotide to the carboxyterminal cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD of these channels is thought to cause a conformational change that promotes channel opening. The C-linker domain, which connects the channel pore to this CNBD, plays an important role in coupling ligand binding to channel opening. Current structural insight into this mechanism mainly derives from X-ray crystal structures of the C-linker/CNBD from hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN channels. However, these structures reveal little to no conformational changes upon comparison of the ligand-bound and unbound form. In this study, we take advantage of a recently identified prokaryote ion channel, SthK, which has functional properties that strongly resemble cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels and is activated by cAMP, but not by cGMP. We determined X-ray crystal structures of the C-linker/CNBD of SthK in the presence of cAMP or cGMP. We observe that the structure in complex with cGMP, which is an antagonist, is similar to previously determined HCN channel structures. In contrast, the structure in complex with cAMP, which is an agonist, is in a more open conformation. We observe that the CNBD makes an outward swinging movement, which is accompanied by an opening of the C-linker. This conformation mirrors the open gate structures of the Kv1.2 channel or MthK channel, which suggests that the cAMP-bound C-linker/CNBD from SthK represents an activated conformation. These results provide a structural framework for better understanding cyclic nucleotide modulation of ion channels, including HCN and CNG channels.

  6. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity. (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter


    morphometric analysis of these volcanoes has been conducted: they are up to about 115-160 m high and 500-1500 m wide. Most of them show very strongly inclined flanks with 30° of average slope. The SCV2 and SCV3 form the Graham Bank, 3.5X2.8 km wide, elongated in the NW-SE direction. At the top of SCV2 focused seepage plumes were observed in the entire water column, through the CHIRP data, where we calculated that they release, a volume of about 10950 m3 and 43960 m3of gases, respectively. In this work, we present the first results of a data collection that have got as main result the identification and mapping of the fluid escape structures revealing the relationship between the active tectonic with migration of fluids, to be used to assess the Submarine Geo-Hazard in the Sicily Channel. We identified two fluid escape fields whose genesis and evolution appear linked to the neotectonic and volcanic activities respectively, that represent the main controlling factors for the migration of fluid; considering the good correlation between pockmarks and the main identified fault systems. In conclusion, our results suggest that the degassing of fluids in this region is rooted at depth, and is mainly aligned with the NW-SE dip/strike slip fault systems, repeatedly reactivated, and linked to the volcanic activity.

  7. 2D IR spectroscopy reveals the role of water in the binding of channel-blocking drugs to the influenza M2 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Ayanjeet, E-mail:, E-mail:; Gai, Feng, E-mail:, E-mail:; Hochstrasser, Robin M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Wang, Jun; DeGrado, William F. [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Moroz, Yurii S.; Korendovych, Ivan V. [Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Zanni, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)


    Water is an integral part of the homotetrameric M2 proton channel of the influenza A virus, which not only assists proton conduction but could also play an important role in stabilizing channel-blocking drugs. Herein, we employ two dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy and site-specific IR probes, i.e., the amide I bands arising from isotopically labeled Ala30 and Gly34 residues, to probe how binding of either rimantadine or 7,7-spiran amine affects the water dynamics inside the M2 channel. Our results show, at neutral pH where the channel is non-conducting, that drug binding leads to a significant increase in the mobility of the channel water. A similar trend is also observed at pH 5.0 although the difference becomes smaller. Taken together, these results indicate that the channel water facilitates drug binding by increasing its entropy. Furthermore, the 2D IR spectral signatures obtained for both probes under different conditions collectively support a binding mechanism whereby amantadine-like drugs dock in the channel with their ammonium moiety pointing toward the histidine residues and interacting with a nearby water cluster, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. We believe these findings have important implications for designing new anti-influenza drugs.

  8. Crystal Structure of Inhibitor-Bound P450BM-3 Reveals Open Conformation of Substrate Access Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, Donovan C.; Chen, Baozhi; Tomchick, Diana R.; Bondlela, Muralidhar; Hegde, Amita; Machius, Mischa; Peterson, Julian A. (Texas); (UTSMC)


    P450BM-3 is an extensively studied P450 cytochrome that is naturally fused to a cytochrome P450 reductase domain. Crystal structures of the heme domain of this enzyme have previously generated many insights into features of P450 structure, substrate binding specificity, and conformational changes that occur on substrate binding. Although many P450s are inhibited by imidazole, this compound does not effectively inhibit P450BM-3. {omega}-Imidazolyl fatty acids have previously been found to be weak inhibitors of the enzyme and show some unusual cooperativity with the substrate lauric acid. We set out to improve the properties of these inhibitors by attaching the {omega}-imidazolyl fatty acid to the nitrogen of an amino acid group, a tactic that we used previously to increase the potency of substrates. The resulting inhibitors were significantly more potent than their parent compounds lacking the amino acid group. A crystal structure of one of the new inhibitors bound to the heme domain of P450BM-3 reveals that the mode of interaction of the amino acid group with the enzyme is different from that previously observed for acyl amino acid substrates. Further, required movements of residues in the active site to accommodate the imidazole group provide an explanation for the low affinity of imidazole itself. Finally, the previously observed cooperativity with lauric acid is explained by a surprisingly open substrate-access channel lined with hydrophobic residues that could potentially accommodate lauric acid in addition to the inhibitor itself.

  9. Voltage-sensing phosphatase reveals temporal regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels by membrane phosphoinositides. (United States)

    Itsuki, Kyohei; Imai, Yuko; Okamura, Yasushi; Abe, Kihachiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Masayuki X


    TRPC3/C6/C7 channels, a subgroup of classical/canonical TRP channels, are activated by diacylglycerol produced via activation of phospholipase C (PLC)-coupled receptors. Recognition of the physiological importance of these channels has been steadily growing, but the mechanism by which they are regulated remains largely unknown. We recently used a membrane-resident danio rerio voltage-sensing phosphatase (DrVSP) to study TRPC3/C6/C7 regulation and found that the channel activity was controlled by PtdIns(4,5)P(2)-DAG signaling in a self-limiting manner (Imai Y et al., the Journal of Physiology, 2012). In this addendum, we present the advantages of using DrVSP as a molecular tool to study PtdIns(4,5)P(2) regulation. DrVSP should be readily applicable for studying phosphoinositide metabolism-linked channel regulation as well as lipid dynamics. Furthermore, in comparison to other modes of self-limiting ion channel regulation, the regulation of TRPC3/C6/C7 channels seems highly susceptible to activation signal strength, which could potentially affect both open duration and the time to peak activation and inactivation. Dysfunction of such self-limiting regulation may contribute to the pathology of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal tract and brain, as these channels are broadly distributed and affected by numerous neurohormonal agonists.

  10. Characterization of Kbot21 Reveals Novel Side Chain Interactions of Scorpion Toxins Inhibiting Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym ElFessi-Magouri

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins are important pharmacological tools for probing the physiological roles of ion channels which are involved in many physiological processes and as such have significant therapeutic potential. The discovery of new scorpion toxins with different specificities and affinities is needed to further characterize the physiology of ion channels. In this regard, a new short polypeptide called Kbot21 has been purified to homogeneity from the venom of Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion. Kbot21 is structurally related to BmBKTx1 from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. These two toxins differ by only two residues at position 13 (R /V and 24 (D/N.Despite their very similar sequences, Kbot21 and BmBKTx1 differ in their electrophysiological activities. Kbot21 targets KV channel subtypes whereas BmBKTx1 is active on both big conductance (BK and small conductance (SK Ca2+-activated K+ channel subtypes, but has no effects on Kv channel subtypes. The docking model of Kbot21 with the Kv1.2 channel shows that the D24 and R13 side-chain of Kbot21 are critical for its interaction with KV channels.

  11. Characterization of Kbot21 Reveals Novel Side Chain Interactions of Scorpion Toxins Inhibiting Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels. (United States)

    ElFessi-Magouri, Rym; Peigneur, Steve; Othman, Houcemeddine; Srairi-Abid, Najet; ElAyeb, Mohamed; Tytgat, Jan; Kharrat, Riadh


    Scorpion toxins are important pharmacological tools for probing the physiological roles of ion channels which are involved in many physiological processes and as such have significant therapeutic potential. The discovery of new scorpion toxins with different specificities and affinities is needed to further characterize the physiology of ion channels. In this regard, a new short polypeptide called Kbot21 has been purified to homogeneity from the venom of Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion. Kbot21 is structurally related to BmBKTx1 from the venom of the Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. These two toxins differ by only two residues at position 13 (R /V) and 24 (D/N).Despite their very similar sequences, Kbot21 and BmBKTx1 differ in their electrophysiological activities. Kbot21 targets KV channel subtypes whereas BmBKTx1 is active on both big conductance (BK) and small conductance (SK) Ca2+-activated K+ channel subtypes, but has no effects on Kv channel subtypes. The docking model of Kbot21 with the Kv1.2 channel shows that the D24 and R13 side-chain of Kbot21 are critical for its interaction with KV channels.

  12. Functional mutagenesis screens reveal the ‘cap structure’ formation in disulfide-bridge free TASK channels (United States)

    Goldstein, Matthias; Rinné, Susanne; Kiper, Aytug K.; Ramírez, David; Netter, Michael F.; Bustos, Daniel; Ortiz-Bonnin, Beatriz; González, Wendy; Decher, Niels


    Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels have a large extracellular cap structure formed by two M1-P1 linkers, containing a cysteine for dimerization. However, this cysteine is not present in the TASK-1/3/5 subfamily. The functional role of the cap is poorly understood and it remained unclear whether K2P channels assemble in the domain-swapped orientation or not. Functional alanine-mutagenesis screens of TASK-1 and TRAAK were used to build an in silico model of the TASK-1 cap. According to our data the cap structure of disulfide-bridge free TASK channels is similar to that of other K2P channels and is most likely assembled in the domain-swapped orientation. As the conserved cysteine is not essential for functional expression of all K2P channels tested, we propose that hydrophobic residues at the inner leaflets of the cap domains can interact with each other and that this way of stabilizing the cap is most likely conserved among K2P channels. PMID:26794006

  13. Chimeras Reveal a Single Lipid-Interface Residue that Controls MscL Channel Kinetics as well as Mechanosensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Yang


    Full Text Available MscL, the highly conserved bacterial mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, serves as an osmotic “emergency release valve,” is among the best-studied mechanosensors, and is a paradigm of how a channel senses and responds to membrane tension. Although all homologs tested thus far encode channel activity, many show functional differences. We tested Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus chimeras and found that the periplasmic region of the protein, particularly E. coli I49 and the equivalent S. aureus F47 at the periplasmic lipid-aqueous interface of the first transmembrane domain, drastically influences both the open dwell time and the threshold of channel opening. One mutant shows a severe hysteresis, confirming the importance of this residue in determining the energy barriers for channel gating. We propose that this site acts similarly to a spring for a clasp knife, adjusting the resistance for obtaining and stabilizing an open or closed channel structure.

  14. Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit of KATP channels revealed by a mutation causing congenital hyperinsulinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taneja, Tarvinder K; Mankouri, Jamel; Karnik, Rucha;


    caused by one such mutation in Kir6.2, E282K. The study led to the discovery that Kir6.2 contains a di-acidic ER exit signal, (280)DLE(282), which promotes concentration of the channel into COPII-enriched ER exit sites prior to ER export via a process that requires Sar1-GTPase. The E282K mutation...... together, we conclude that surface expression of K(ATP) channels is critically dependent on the Sar1-GTPase-dependent ER exit mechanism and abrogation of the di-acidic ER exit signal leads to CHI....

  15. Critical role of a K+ channel in Plasmodium berghei transmission revealed by targeted gene disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekvist, Peter; Maciel, Jorge; Mlambo, Godfree;


    through the mosquito vector remains unknown. We hypothesize that these two K(+) channels mediate the transport of K(+) in the parasites, and thus are important for parasite survival. To test this hypothesis, we identified the orthologue of one of the P. falciparum K(+) channels, PfKch1, in the rodent...... inhibition of the development of PbKch1-null parasites in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that PbKch1 contributes to the transport of K(+) in P. berghei parasites and supports the growth of the parasites, in particular the development of oocysts in the mosquito midgut...

  16. Walker mutations reveal loose relationship between catalytic and channel-gating activities of purified CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). (United States)

    Ramjeesingh, M; Li, C; Garami, E; Huan, L J; Galley, K; Wang, Y; Bear, C E


    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as an ATPase and as a chloride channel. It has been hypothesized, on the basis of electrophysiological findings, that the catalytic activity of CFTR is tightly coupled to the opening and closing of the channel gate. In the present study, to determine the structural basis for the ATPase activity of CFTR, we assessed the effect of mutations within the "Walker A" consensus motifs on ATP hydrolysis by the purified, intact protein. Mutation of the lysine residue in the "Walker A" motif of either the first nucleotide binding fold (CFTRK464A) or the second nucleotide binding fold (CFTRK1250A) inhibited the ATPase activity of the purified intact CFTR protein significantly, by greater than 50%. This finding suggests that the two nucleotide binding folds of CFTR are functioning cooperatively in catalysis. However, the rate of channel gating was only significantly inhibited in one of these purified mutants, CFTRK1250A, suggesting that ATPase activity may not be tightly coupled to channel gating as previously hypothesized.

  17. Fluorescence-tracking of activation gating in human ERG channels reveals rapid S4 movement and slow pore opening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeineb Es-Salah-Lamoureux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: hERG channels are physiologically important ion channels which mediate cardiac repolarization as a result of their unusual gating properties. These are very slow activation compared with other mammalian voltage-gated potassium channels, and extremely rapid inactivation. The mechanism of slow activation is not well understood and is investigated here using fluorescence as a direct measure of S4 movement and pore opening. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM fluorescence at E519 has been used to track S4 voltage sensor movement, and channel opening and closing in hERG channels. Endogenous cysteines (C445 and C449 in the S1-S2 linker bound TMRM, which caused a 10 mV hyperpolarization of the V((1/2 of activation to -27.5+/-2.0 mV, and showed voltage-dependent fluorescence signals. Substitution of S1-S2 linker cysteines with valines allowed unobstructed recording of S3-S4 linker E519C and L520C emission signals. Depolarization of E519C channels caused rapid initial fluorescence quenching, fit with a double Boltzmann relationship, F-V(ON, with V((1/2 (,1 = -37.8+/-1.7 mV, and V((1/2 (,2 = 43.5+/-7.9 mV. The first phase, V((1/2 (,1, was approximately 20 mV negative to the conductance-voltage relationship measured from ionic tail currents (G-V((1/2 = -18.3+/-1.2 mV, and relatively unchanged in a non-inactivating E519C:S620T mutant (V((1/2 = -34.4+/-1.5 mV, suggesting the fast initial fluorescence quenching tracked S4 voltage sensor movement. The second phase of rapid quenching was absent in the S620T mutant. The E519C fluorescence upon repolarization (V((1/2 = -20.6+/-1.2, k = 11.4 mV and L520C quenching during depolarization (V((1/2 = -26.8+/-1.0, k = 13.3 mV matched the respective voltage dependencies of hERG ionic tails, and deactivation time constants from -40 to -110 mV, suggesting they detected pore-S4 rearrangements related to ionic current flow during pore opening and closing. CONCLUSION: THE DATA INDICATE: 1

  18. Multiplex multivariate recurrence network from multi-channel signals for revealing oil-water spatial flow behavior (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Dang, Wei-Dong; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Cai, Qing


    The exploration of the spatial dynamical flow behaviors of oil-water flows has attracted increasing interests on account of its challenging complexity and great significance. We first technically design a double-layer distributed-sector conductance sensor and systematically carry out oil-water flow experiments to capture the spatial flow information. Based on the well-established recurrence network theory, we develop a novel multiplex multivariate recurrence network (MMRN) to fully and comprehensively fuse our double-layer multi-channel signals. Then we derive the projection networks from the inferred MMRNs and exploit the average clustering coefficient and the spectral radius to quantitatively characterize the nonlinear recurrent behaviors related to the distinct flow patterns. We find that these two network measures are very sensitive to the change of flow states and the distributions of network measures enable to uncover the spatial dynamical flow behaviors underlying different oil-water flow patterns. Our method paves the way for efficiently analyzing multi-channel signals from multi-layer sensor measurement system.

  19. Functional interaction between S1 and S4 segments in voltage-gated sodium channels revealed by human channelopathies. (United States)

    Amarouch, Mohamed-Yassine; Kasimova, Marina A; Tarek, Mounir; Abriel, Hugues


    The p.I141V mutation of the voltage-gated sodium channel is associated with several clinical hyper-excitability phenotypes. To understand the structural bases of the p.I141V biophysical alterations, molecular dynamics simulations were performed. These simulations predicted that the p.I141V substitution induces the formation of a hydrogen bond between the Y168 residue of the S2 segment and the R225 residue of the S4 segment. We generated a p.I141V-Y168F double mutant for both the Nav1.4 and Nav1.5 channels. The double mutants demonstrated the abolition of the functional effects of the p.I141V mutation, consistent with the formation of a specific interaction between Y168-S2 and R225-S4. The single p.Y168F mutation, however, positively shifted the activation curve, suggesting a compensatory role of these residues on the stability of the voltage-sensing domain.

  20. Cardamonin, a Novel Antagonist of hTRPA1 Cation Channel, Reveals Therapeutic Mechanism of Pathological Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Wang


    Full Text Available The increasing demand for safe and effective treatments of chronic pain has promoted the investigation of novel analgesic drugs. Some herbals have been known to be able to relieve pain, while the chemical basis and target involved in this process remained to be clarified. The current study aimed to find anti-nociceptive candidates targeting transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor that implicates in hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation. In the current study, 156 chemicals were tested for blocking HEK293/TRPA1 ion channel by calcium-influx assay. Docking study was conducted to predict the binding modes of hit compound with TRPA1 using Discovery Studio. Cytotoxicity in HEK293 was conducted by Cell Titer-Glo assay. Additionally, cardiotoxicity was assessed via xCELLigence RTCA system. We uncovered that cardamonin selectively blocked TRPA1 activation while did not interact with TRPV1 nor TRPV4 channel. A concentration-dependent inhibitory effect was observed with IC50 of 454 nM. Docking analysis of cardamonin demonstrated a compatible interaction with A-967079-binding site of TRPA1. Meanwhile, cardamonin did not significantly reduce HEK293 cell viability, nor did it impair cardiomyocyte constriction. Our data suggest that cardamonin is a selective TRPA1 antagonist, providing novel insight into the target of its anti-nociceptive activity.

  1. Metagenome sequence analysis of filamentous microbial communities obtained from geochemically distinct geothermal channels reveals specialization of three aquificales lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina; Inskeep, William P; Jay, Zackary J;


    containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse-TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform......The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal "filamentous streamer" communities (∼40 Mbp per site), which targeted three...... types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I) involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2) have...

  2. Metagenome Sequence Analysis of Filamentous Microbial Communities Obtained from Geochemically Distinct Geothermal Channels Reveals Specialization of Three Aquificales Lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eTakacs-vesbach


    Full Text Available The Aquificales are thermophilic microorganisms that inhabit hydrothermal systems worldwide and are considered one of the earliest lineages of the domain Bacteria. We analyzed metagenome sequence obtained from six thermal ‘filamentous streamer’ communities (~40 Mbp per site, which targeted three different groups of Aquificales found in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Unassembled metagenome sequence and PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed that acidic, sulfidic sites were dominated by Hydrogenobaculum (Aquificaceae populations, whereas the circumneutral pH (6.5 - 7.8 sites containing dissolved sulfide were dominated by Sulfurihydrogenibium spp. (Hydrogenothermaceae. Thermocrinis (Aquificaceae populations were found primarily in the circumneutral sites with undetectable sulfide, and to a lesser extent in one sulfidic system at pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of assembled sequence containing 16S rRNA genes as well as conserved protein-encoding genes revealed that the composition and function of these communities varied across geochemical conditions. Each Aquificales lineage contained genes for CO2 fixation by the reverse TCA cycle, but only the Sulfurihydrogenibium populations perform citrate cleavage using ATP citrate lyase (Acl. The Aquificaceae populations use an alternative pathway catalyzed by two separate enzymes, citryl CoA synthetase (Ccs and citryl CoA lyase (Ccl. All three Aquificales lineages contained evidence of aerobic respiration, albeit due to completely different types of heme Cu oxidases (subunit I involved in oxygen reduction. The distribution of Aquificales populations and differences among functional genes involved in energy generation and electron transport is consistent with the hypothesis that geochemical parameters (e.g., pH, sulfide, H2, O2 have resulted in niche specialization among members of the Aquificales.

  3. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness. (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin


    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness.

  4. Mapping of long-range INS promoter interactions reveals a role for calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 in insulin secretion. (United States)

    Xu, Zhixiong; Lefevre, Gaelle M; Gavrilova, Oksana; Foster St Claire, Mark B; Riddick, Gregory; Felsenfeld, Gary


    We used circular chromatin conformation capture (4C) to identify a physical contact in human pancreatic islets between the region near the insulin (INS) promoter and the ANO1 gene, lying 68 Mb away on human chromosome 11, which encodes a Ca(2+)-dependent chloride ion channel. In response to glucose, this contact was strengthened and ANO1 expression increased, whereas inhibition of INS gene transcription by INS promoter targeting siRNA decreased ANO1 expression, revealing a regulatory effect of INS promoter on ANO1 expression. Knockdown of ANO1 expression caused decreased insulin secretion in human islets, establishing a physical proximity-dependent feedback loop involving INS transcription, ANO1 expression, and insulin secretion. To explore a possible role of ANO1 in insulin metabolism, we carried out experiments in Ano1(+/-) mice. We observed reduced serum insulin levels and insulin-to-glucose ratios in high-fat diet-fed Ano1(+/-) mice relative to Ano1(+/+) mice fed the same diet. Our results show that determination of long-range contacts within the nucleus can be used to detect novel and physiologically relevant mechanisms. They also show that networks of long-range physical contacts are important to the regulation of insulin metabolism.

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Hesselkilde, Eva Zander; Pehrson, Steen Michael


    BACKGROUND: Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been found to play an important role in atrial repolarization and atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence and functional role of SK channels in the equine heart...

  6. MaxiK channel interactome reveals its interaction with GABA transporter 3 and heat shock protein 60 in the mammalian brain. (United States)

    Singh, H; Li, M; Hall, L; Chen, S; Sukur, S; Lu, R; Caputo, A; Meredith, A L; Stefani, E; Toro, L


    Large conductance voltage and calcium-activated potassium (MaxiK) channels are activated by membrane depolarization and elevated cytosolic Ca(2+). In the brain, they localize to neurons and astrocytes, where they play roles such as resetting the membrane potential during an action potential, neurotransmitter release, and neurovascular coupling. MaxiK channels are known to associate with several modulatory proteins and accessory subunits, and each of these interactions can have distinct physiological consequences. To uncover new players in MaxiK channel brain physiology, we applied a directed proteomic approach and obtained MaxiK channel pore-forming α subunit brain interactome using specific antibodies. Controls included immunoprecipitations with rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) and with anti-MaxiK antibodies in wild type and MaxiK channel knockout mice (Kcnma1(-/-)), respectively. We have found known and unreported interactive partners that localize to the plasma membrane, extracellular space, cytosol and intracellular organelles including mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Localization of MaxiK channel to mitochondria was further confirmed using purified brain mitochondria colabeled with MitoTracker. Independent proof of MaxiK channel interaction with previously unidentified partners is given for GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60). In human embryonic kidney 293 cells containing SV40 T-antigen (HEK293T) cells, both GAT3 and HSP60 coimmunoprecipitated and colocalized with MaxiK channel; colabeling was observed mainly at the cell periphery with GAT3 and intracellularly with HSP60 with protein proximity indices of ∼ 0.6 and ∼ 0.4, respectively. In rat primary hippocampal neurons, colocalization index was identical for GAT3 (∼ 0.6) and slightly higher for HSP60 (∼ 0.5) association with MaxiK channel. The results of this study provide a complete interactome of MaxiK channel the mouse brain, further establish

  7. Mouse sperm patch-clamp recordings reveal single Cl- channels sensitive to niflumic acid, a blocker of the sperm acrosome reaction. (United States)

    Espinosa, F; de la Vega-Beltrán, J L; López-González, I; Delgado, R; Labarca, P; Darszon, A


    Ion channels lie at the heart of gamete signaling. Understanding their regulation will improve our knowledge of sperm physiology, and may lead to novel contraceptive strategies. Sperm are tiny (approximately 3 microm diameter) and, until now, direct evidence of ion channel activity in these cells was lacking. Using patch-clamp recording we document here, for the first time, the presence of cationic and anionic channels in mouse sperm. Anion selective channels were blocked by niflumic acid (NA) (IC50 = 11 microM). The blocker was effective also in inhibiting the acrosome reaction induced by the zona pellucida, GABA or progesterone. These observations suggest that Cl- channels participate in the sperm acrosome reaction in mammals.

  8. cAMP control of HCN2 channel Mg2+ block reveals loose coupling between the cyclic nucleotide-gating ring and the pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Lyashchenko

    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated HCN channels underlie the Na+-K+ permeable IH pacemaker current. As with other voltage-gated members of the 6-transmembrane KV channel superfamily, opening of HCN channels involves dilation of a helical bundle formed by the intracellular ends of S6 albeit this is promoted by inward, not outward, displacement of S4. Direct agonist binding to a ring of cyclic nucleotide-binding sites, one of which lies immediately distal to each S6 helix, imparts cAMP sensitivity to HCN channel opening. At depolarized potentials, HCN channels are further modulated by intracellular Mg2+ which blocks the open channel pore and blunts the inhibitory effect of outward K+ flux. Here, we show that cAMP binding to the gating ring enhances not only channel opening but also the kinetics of Mg2+ block. A combination of experimental and simulation studies demonstrates that agonist acceleration of block is mediated via acceleration of the blocking reaction itself rather than as a secondary consequence of the cAMP enhancement of channel opening. These results suggest that the activation status of the gating ring and the open state of the pore are not coupled in an obligate manner (as required by the often invoked Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric model but couple more loosely (as envisioned in a modular model of protein activation. Importantly, the emergence of second messenger sensitivity of open channel rectification suggests that loose coupling may have an unexpected consequence: it may endow these erstwhile "slow" channels with an ability to exert voltage and ligand-modulated control over cellular excitability on the fastest of physiologically relevant time scales.

  9. A genetic screen for dihydropyridine (DHP-resistant worms reveals new residues required for DHP-blockage of mammalian calcium channels.

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    Trevor C Y Kwok


    Full Text Available Dihydropyridines (DHPs are L-type calcium channel (Ca(v1 blockers prescribed to treat several diseases including hypertension. Ca(v1 channels normally exist in three states: a resting closed state, an open state that is triggered by membrane depolarization, followed by a non-conducting inactivated state that is triggered by the influx of calcium ions, and a rapid change in voltage. DHP binding is thought to alter the conformation of the channel, possibly by engaging a mechanism similar to voltage dependent inactivation, and locking a calcium ion in the pore, thereby blocking channel conductance. As a Ca(v1 channel crystal structure is lacking, the current model of DHP action has largely been achieved by investigating the role of candidate Ca(v1 residues in mediating DHP-sensitivity. To better understand DHP-block and identify additional Ca(v1 residues important for DHP-sensitivity, we screened 440,000 randomly mutated Caenorhabditis elegans genomes for worms resistant to DHP-induced growth defects. We identified 30 missense mutations in the worm Ca(v1 pore-forming (alpha(1 subunit, including eleven in conserved residues known to be necessary for DHP-binding. The remaining polymorphisms are in eight conserved residues not previously associated with DHP-sensitivity. Intriguingly, all of the worm mutants that we analyzed phenotypically exhibited increased channel activity. We also created orthologous mutations in the rat alpha(1C subunit and examined the DHP-block of current through the mutant channels in culture. Six of the seven mutant channels examined either decreased the DHP-sensitivity of the channel and/or exhibited significant residual current at DHP concentrations sufficient to block wild-type channels. Our results further support the idea that DHP-block is intimately associated with voltage dependent inactivation and underscores the utility of C. elegans as a screening tool to identify residues important for DHP interaction with mammalian

  10. The cytochrome P450 genes of channel catfish: their involvement in disease defense responses as revealed by meta-analysis of RNA-Seq datasets (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaren; Yao, Jun; Wang, Ruijia; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Shikai; Sun, Luyang; Jiang, Yanliang; Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Nannan; Nelson, David; Waldbieser, Geoff; Liu, Zhanjiang


    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) encode one of the most diverse enzyme superfamily in nature. They catalyze oxidative reactions of endogenous molecules and exogenous chemicals. Methods We identified CYPs genes through in silico analysis using EST, RNA-Seq and genome databases of channel catfish. Phylogenetic analyses and conserved syntenic analyses were conducted to determine their identities and orthologies. Meta-analysis of RNA-Seq databases was conducted to analyze expression profile of CYP genes following bacterial infection. Results A full set of 61 CYP genes were identified and characterized in channel catfish. Phylogenetic tree and conserved synteny provided strong evidence of their identities and orthorlogy. Lineage-specific gene duplication was evident in a number of clans in channel catfish. CYP46A1 is missing in the catfish genome as observed with syntenic analysis and RT-PCR analysis. Thirty CYPs were found up- or down-regulated in liver, while seven and eight CYPs were observed regulated in intestine and gill following bacterial infection. Conclusion We systematically identified and characterized a full set of 61 CYP genes in channel catfish and studied their expression profiles after bacterial infection. Strikingly large numbers of CYP genes appear to be involved in the bacterial defense processes. General significance This work provides an example to systematically study CYP genes in non-model species. Moreover, it provides a basis for further toxicological and physiological studies in channel catfish. PMID:24780645

  11. Comparative transcriptional analysis reveals distinct expression patterns of channel catfish genes after the first infection and re-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila (United States)

    To determine whether transcriptional levels of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) genes are differentially regulated between a first infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and a re-infection, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed in this study using anterior kidney cDNA after the...

  12. The Novel KV7.2/KV7.3 Channel Opener ICA-069673 Reveals Subtype-Specific Functional Roles in Guinea Pig Detrusor Smooth Muscle Excitability and Contractility. (United States)

    Provence, Aaron; Malysz, John; Petkov, Georgi V


    The physiologic roles of voltage-gated KV7 channel subtypes (KV7.1-KV7.5) in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are poorly understood. Here, we sought to elucidate the functional roles of KV7.2/KV7.3 channels in guinea pig DSM excitability and contractility using the novel KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activator ICA-069673 [N-(2-chloro-5-pyrimidinyl)-3,4-difluorobenzamide]. We employed a multilevel experimental approach using Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, isometric DSM tension recordings, fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging, and perforated whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. Western blot experiments revealed the protein expression of KV7.2 and KV7.3 channel subunits in DSM tissue. In isolated DSM cells, immunocytochemistry with confocal microscopy further confirmed protein expression for KV7.2 and KV7.3 channel subunits, where they localize within the vicinity of the cell membrane. ICA-069673 inhibited spontaneous phasic, pharmacologically induced, and nerve-evoked contractions in DSM isolated strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects of ICA-069673 on DSM spontaneous phasic and tonic contractions were abolished in the presence of the KV7 channel inhibitor XE991 [10,10-bis(4-pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone dihydrochloride]. Under conditions of elevated extracellular K(+) (60 mM), the effects of ICA-069673 on DSM tonic contractions were significantly attenuated. ICA-069673 decreased the global intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in DSM cells, an effect blocked by the L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor nifedipine. ICA-069673 hyperpolarized the membrane potential and inhibited spontaneous action potentials of isolated DSM cells, effects that were blocked in the presence of XE991. In conclusion, using the novel KV7.2/KV7.3 channel activator ICA-069673, this study provides strong evidence for a critical role for the KV7.2- and KV7.3-containing channels in DSM function at both cellular and tissue levels.

  13. Conformational state of the MscS mechanosensitive channel in solution revealed by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pliotas, Christos; Ward, Richard; Branigan, Emma; Rasmussen, Akiko; Hagelueken, Gregor; Huang, Hexian; Black, Susan S; Booth, Ian R; Schiemann, Olav; Naismith, James H


    The heptameric mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) provides a critical function in Escherichia coli where it opens in response to increased bilayer tension. Three approaches have defined different closed and open structures of the channel, resulting in mutually incompatible models of gating. We have attached spin labels to cysteine mutants on key secondary structural elements specifically chosen to discriminate between the competing models. The resulting pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectra matched predicted distance distributions for the open crystal structure of MscS. The fit for the predictions by structural models of MscS derived by other techniques was not convincing. The assignment of MscS as open in detergent by PELDOR was unexpected but is supported by two crystal structures of spin-labeled MscS. PELDOR is therefore shown to be a powerful experimental tool to interrogate the conformation of transmembrane regions of integral membrane proteins.

  14. Long-term fluid expulsion revealed by carbonate crusts and pockmarks connected to subsurface gas anomalies and palaeo-channels in the central North Sea (United States)

    Chand, Shyam; Crémière, Antoine; Lepland, Aivo; Thorsnes, Terje; Brunstad, Harald; Stoddart, Daniel


    Gas seepage through the seafloor into the water column is inferred based on acoustic mapping, video observations and geochemical analyses at multiple locations in the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas of the central North Sea. Flares in the Viking Graben occur both inside and along the periphery of a submarine melt water channel where pockmarks (up to 500 m in diameter) and methane-derived carbonate crusts are found on the seafloor, indicating focussing of fluid flow in the vicinity of the channel. The flares can be related to gas accumulations close to the seafloor as well as in Quaternary and deeper strata, observed as high-amplitude reflections on seismic data. Many palaeo-channels, which act as accumulation zones, are observed in the subsurface of both the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas. The deeper origin of gas is partially supported by results of isotope analyses of headspace gas collected from sediment samples of the Viking Graben, which show a mixed microbial/thermogenic origin whereas isotope data on free seeping gas in the Viking Graben indicate a predominantly microbial origin. Based on these lines of evidence, a structure-controlled fluid flow model is proposed whereby hydrocarbons migrate in limited amount from deep thermogenic reservoirs along faults, and these deep fluids are strongly diluted by microbial methane. Moreover, the existence of subsurface pockmarks at several stratigraphic levels indicates long-term fluid flow, interpreted to be caused by gas hydrate destabilisation and stress-related high overpressures.

  15. Cell-attached single-channel recordings in intact prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons reveal compartmentalized D1/D5 receptor modulation of the persistent sodium current.

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    Natalia eGorelova


    Full Text Available The persistent Na current (INap is believed to be an important target of dopamine modulation in prefrontal cortex (PFC neurons. While past studies have tested the effects of dopamine on INap, the results have been contradictory largely because of difficulties in measuring INap using somatic whole-cell recordings. To circumvent these confounds we used the cell-attached patch-clamp technique to record single Na channels from the soma, proximal dendrite or proximal axon of intact prefrontal layer V pyramidal neurons. Under baseline conditions, numerous well resolved Na channel openings were recorded that exhibited an extrapolated reversal potential of 73 mV, a slope conductance of 14-19pS and were blocked by TTX. While similar in most respects, the propensity to exhibit prolonged bursts lasting >40ms was many fold greater in the axon than the soma or dendrite. Bath application of the D1 agonist SKF81297 shifted the ensemble current activation curve leftward and increased the number of late events recorded from the proximal dendrite but not the soma or axon. However, the greatest effect was on prolonged bursting where the D1 agonist increased their occurrence 3 fold in the proximal dendrite and nearly 7 fold in the soma, but not at all in the axon. As a result, D1 activation equalized the probability of prolonged burst occurrence across the proximal axosomatodendritic region. Therefore, D1 modulation appears to be targeted mainly to Na channels in the proximal dendrite/soma and not the proximal axon. By circumventing the pitfalls of previous attempts to study the D1R modulation of INap, we demonstrate conclusively that D1R can increase the INap generated proximally, however questions still remain as to how D1R modulates Na currents in the more distal initial segment where most of the INap is normally generated.

  16. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  17. Identification and molecular characterization of three new K+-channel specific toxins from the Chinese scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch revealing intronic number polymorphism and alternative splicing in duplicated genes. (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Chun; Zhang, Lei; Nie, Yao; Luo, Xuesong


    K(+)-channel specific toxins from scorpions are powerful probes used in the structural and functional characterization of different subfamilies of K(+)-channels which are thought to be the most diverse ion channels. However, only a limited number of K(+)-channel toxins have been identified from scorpions so far; moreover, little is known about the mechanisms for the generation of a combinatorial peptide library in a venom gland of a scorpion. Here, we identified and characterized three new K(+)-channel toxin-like peptides from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, which were referred to as BmKcug1, BmKcug2 and BmKcugx, respectively. BmKcug1 and BmKcug2 are two new members of α-KTx1 subfamily, and have been classified as α-KTx1.14 and α-KTx1.15, respectively. BmKcugx represents a new subfamily of K(+)-channel specific toxins which was classified into α-KTx22. BmKcugx was thus classified as α-KTx22.1. Genomic analysis demonstrated that BmKcugx gene has two exons interrupted by an intron inserted in the signal peptide encoding region, whereas BmKcug1a (a close homologue of BmKcug1)/BmKcug2 gene was interrupted by two introns, located within the 5'UTR of the gene and in the signal peptide encoding region, respectively. Transcriptomic analysis for the venom glands of M. martensii Karsch indicated that the abundances of the transcripts of BmKcug1a and BmKcug2 are much higher than that of BmKcugx; it suggests that the intron in 5'UTR could markedly increase the expression level of the K(+)-channel toxins. Alignment of the genomic sequences of BmKcug1a and BmKcug2 revealed that an alternative splicing event occurred at the intron 1-exon 2 junction in the 5'UTR of BmKcug2 transcript.

  18. Multi-country Survey Revealed Prevalent and Novel F1534S Mutation in Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel (VGSC Gene in Aedes albopictus.

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    Jiabao Xu


    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is an important dengue vector because of its aggressive biting behavior and rapid spread out of its native home range in Southeast Asia. Pyrethroids are widely used for adult mosquito control, and resistance to pyrethroids should be carefully monitored because vector control is the only effective method currently available to prevent dengue transmission. The voltage-gated sodium channel gene is the target site of pyrethroids, and mutations in this gene cause knockdown resistance (kdr. Previous studies reported various mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC gene, but the spatial distribution of kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus has not been systematically examined, and the association between kdr mutation and phenotypic resistance has not been established.A total of 597 Ae. albopictus individuals from 12 populations across Asia, Africa, America and Europe were examined for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Three domains for a total of 1,107 bp were sequenced for every individual. Two populations from southern China were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard tube bioassay, and the association between kdr mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested.A total of 29 synonymous mutations were found across domain II, III and IV of the VGSC gene. Non-synonymous mutations in two codons of the VGSC gene were detected in 5 populations from 4 countries. A novel mutation at 1532 codon (I1532T was found in Rome, Italy with a frequency of 19.7%. The second novel mutation at codon 1534 (F1534S was detected in southern China and Florida, USA with a frequency ranging from 9.5-22.6%. The WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassay found 90.1% and 96.1% mortality in the two populations from southern China, suggesting resistance and probable resistance. Positive association between kdr mutations with deltamethrin resistance was established in these two populations.Two novel kdr

  19. Evolutionary analyses of KCNQ1 and HERG voltage-gated potassium channel sequences reveal location-specific susceptibility and augmented chemical severities of arrhythmogenic mutations

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    Accili Eric A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in HERG and KCNQ1 potassium channels have been associated with Long QT syndrome and atrial fibrillation, and more recently with sudden infant death syndrome and sudden unexplained death. In other proteins, disease-associated amino acid mutations have been analyzed according to the chemical severity of the changes and the locations of the altered amino acids according to their conservation over metazoan evolution. Here, we present the first such analysis of arrhythmia-associated mutations (AAMs in the HERG and KCNQ1 potassium channels. Results Using evolutionary analyses, AAMs in HERG and KCNQ1 were preferentially found at evolutionarily conserved sites and unevenly distributed among functionally conserved domains. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs are under-represented at evolutionarily conserved sites in HERG, but distribute randomly in KCNQ1. AAMs are chemically more severe, according to Grantham's Scale, than changes observed in evolution and their severity correlates with the expected chemical severity of the involved codon. Expected chemical severity of a given amino acid also correlates with its relative contribution to arrhythmias. At evolutionarily variable sites, the chemical severity of the changes is also correlated with the expected chemical severity of the involved codon. Conclusion Unlike nsSNPs, AAMs preferentially locate to evolutionarily conserved, and functionally important, sites and regions within HERG and KCNQ1, and are chemically more severe than changes which occur in evolution. Expected chemical severity may contribute to the overrepresentation of certain residues in AAMs, as well as to evolutionary change.

  20. Two crustal flowing channels and volcanic magma migration underneath the SE margin of the Tibetan Plateau as revealed by surface wave tomography (United States)

    Wu, Tengfei; Zhang, Shuangxi; Li, Mengkui; Qin, Weibing; Zhang, Chaoyu


    The SE margin of the Tibetan Plateau is an important area to develop a better understanding of the plateau uplift and the Indian-Eurasian continental collision dynamics. Previous studies have reported widespread low-velocity anomalies beneath this region, particularly in the Tengchong volcanic field (TCVF). However, the spatial distribution and dynamic processes of these low-velocity anomalies are not well constrained. In this study, a 3-D S-wave velocity structure model of the crust and upper mantle (10-120 km) in the region is constructed by the inversion of surface wave dispersion data. A two-step inversion procedure is adopted to generate the S-wave velocity structure images. The measured phase velocities and inverted S-wave velocities jointly show a large-scale low-velocity anomaly distributed in the crust, consistent with the view that the region is the passageway of the eastward migration of Tibetan Plateau material. Two crustal flowing channels are clearly observed at depths of ∼20 km and ∼30 km, which connect and rotate clockwise around the Eastern Himalaya Syntaxis. Beneath the TCVF, there are two prominent low-velocity anomaly zones at depths of ∼15-25 km and ∼50-80 km, which indicate the existence of magma chambers. One of the crustal flowing channels is connected with the magma chamber of the TCVF, and the other has a short branch north of Kunming toward the Mile-Shizong fault at a depth of 20 km. Based on the distribution of the S-wave velocities under the TCVF, a dynamic model of the Tengchong volcano magma system is proposed to explain the migration patterns of the volcanic material.

  1. Fragment library screening reveals remarkable similarities between the G protein-coupled receptor histamine H₄ and the ion channel serotonin 5-HT₃A. (United States)

    Verheij, Mark H P; de Graaf, Chris; de Kloe, Gerdien E; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Vischer, Henry F; Smits, Rogier A; Zuiderveld, Obbe P; Hulscher, Saskia; Silvestri, Linda; Thompson, Andrew J; van Muijlwijk-Koezen, Jacqueline E; Lummis, Sarah C R; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P


    A fragment library was screened against the G protein-coupled histamine H(4) receptor (H(4)R) and the ligand-gated ion channel serotonin 5-HT(3A) (5-HT(3A)R). Interestingly, significant overlap was found between H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R hit sets. The data indicates that dual active H(4)R and 5 HT(3A)R fragments have a higher complexity than the selective compounds which has important implications for chemical genomics approaches. The results of our fragment-based library screening study illustrate similarities in ligand recognition between H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R and have important consequences for selectivity profiling in ongoing drug discovery efforts on H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R. The affinity profiles of our fragment screening studies furthermore match the chemical properties of the H(4)R and 5-HT(3A)R binding sites and can be used to define molecular interaction fingerprints to guide the in silico prediction of protein-ligand interactions and structure.

  2. The crystal structure of ferritin from Chlorobium tepidum reveals a new conformation of the 4-fold channel for this protein family. (United States)

    Arenas-Salinas, Mauricio; Townsend, Philip D; Brito, Christian; Marquez, Valeria; Marabolli, Vanessa; Gonzalez-Nilo, Fernando; Matias, Cata; Watt, Richard K; López-Castro, Juan D; Domínguez-Vera, José; Pohl, Ehmke; Yévenes, Alejandro


    Ferritins are ubiquitous iron-storage proteins found in all kingdoms of life. They share a common architecture made of 24 subunits of five α-helices. The recombinant Chlorobium tepidum ferritin (rCtFtn) is a structurally interesting protein since sequence alignments with other ferritins show that this protein has a significantly extended C-terminus, which possesses 12 histidine residues as well as several aspartate and glutamic acid residues that are potential metal ion binding residues. We show that the macromolecular assembly of rCtFtn exhibits a cage-like hollow shell consisting of 24 monomers that are related by 4-3-2 symmetry; similar to the assembly of other ferritins. In all ferritins of known structure the short fifth α-helix adopts an acute angle with respect to the four-helix bundle. However, the crystal structure of the rCtFtn presented here shows that this helix adopts a new conformation defining a new assembly of the 4-fold channel of rCtFtn. This conformation allows the arrangement of the C-terminal region into the inner cavity of the protein shell. Furthermore, two Fe(III) ions were found in each ferroxidase center of rCtFtn, with an average FeA-FeB distance of 3 Å; corresponding to a diferric μ-oxo/hydroxo species. This is the first ferritin crystal structure with an isolated di-iron center in an iron-storage ferritin. The crystal structure of rCtFtn and the biochemical results presented here, suggests that rCtFtn presents similar biochemical properties reported for other members of this protein family albeit with distinct structural plasticity.

  3. Precise localization of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunits Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 revealed in the molecular layer of the rat cerebellar cortex by a pre-embedding immunogold method. (United States)

    Puente, Nagore; Mendizabal-Zubiaga, Juan; Elezgarai, Izaskun; Reguero, Leire; Buceta, Ianire; Grandes, Pedro


    A proper motor activity relies on a correct cerebellar function. The Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 voltage-gated potassium channels are key proteins involved in cerebellar function and dysfunction, as the lack of these causes severe motor deficits. Both channel subunits are coexpressed in granule cells and are rapidly activated at relatively positive potentials to support the generation of fast action potentials. However, the contribution of each subunit to the molecular architecture of the parallel fibers, the granule cell axons, is so far unknown. The goal of this study was to elucidate the relative distribution of Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 in specific compartments of the rat parallel fibers by using a pre-embedding immunocytochemical method for electron microscopy. Numerous Kv3.1b and Kv3.3 silver-intensified gold particles were associated with membranes of parallel fiber synaptic terminals and their intervaricose segments. Kv3.1b was found in about 85% of parallel fiber synaptic terminals and in about 47% of their intervaricose portions. However, only 28% of intervaricosities and 23% of parallel fiber presynaptic boutons were Kv3.3 immunopositive. The analysis also revealed that 54% of Purkinje cell dendritic spines localized Kv3.3. Although both potassium channel subunits share localization in the same presynaptic parallel fiber compartments, the present results with the method used indicate that there are a higher percentage of parallel fibers labeled for Kv3.1b than for Kv3.3, and that the labeling intensity for each subunit is higher in specific subcompartments analyzed than in others.

  4. Co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 in rat and human cochleae reveals a gap in water channel expression at the transduction sites of endocochlear K(+) recycling routes. (United States)

    Eckhard, Andreas; Gleiser, Corinna; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Arnold, Heinz; Liu, Wei; Mack, Andreas; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert; Hirt, Bernhard


    Sensory transduction in the cochlea depends on perilymphatic-endolymphatic potassium (K(+)) recycling. It has been suggested that the epithelial supporting cells (SCs) of the cochlear duct may form the intracellular K(+) recycling pathway. Thus, they must be endowed with molecular mechanisms that facilitate K(+) uptake and release, along with concomitant osmotically driven water movements. As yet, no molecules have been described that would allow for volume-equilibrated transepithelial K(+) fluxes across the SCs. This study describes the subcellular co-localisation of the K(ir)4.1 K(+) channel (K(ir)4.1) and the aquaporin-4 water channel (AQP4) in SCs, on the basis of immunohistochemical double-labelling experiments in rat and human cochleae. The results of this study reveal the expression of K(ir)4.1 in the basal or basolateral membranes of the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti that are adjacent to hair cells and in the non-sensory domains of the inner and outer sulci that abut large extracellular fluid spaces. The SCs of the inner sulcus (interdental cells, inner sulcus cells) and the outer sulcus (Hensen's cells, outer sulcus cells) display the co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 expression. However, the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti reveal a gap in the expression of AQP4. The outer pillar cell is devoid of both K(ir)4.1 and AQP4. The subcellular co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 in the SCs of the cochlea described in this study resembles that of the astroglia of the central nervous system and the glial Mueller cells in the retina.

  5. Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders. (United States)

    Kumar, Pravir; Kumar, Dhiraj; Jha, Saurabh Kumar; Jha, Niraj Kumar; Ambasta, Rashmi K


    The convergent endeavors of the neuroscientist to establish a link between clinical neurology, genetics, loss of function of an important protein, and channelopathies behind neurological disorders are quite intriguing. Growing evidence reveals the impact of ion channels dysfunctioning in neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs). Many neurological/neuromuscular disorders, viz, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and age-related disorders are caused due to altered function or mutation in ion channels. To maintain cell homeostasis, ion channels are playing a crucial role which is a large transmembrane protein. Further, these channels are important as it determines the membrane potential and playing critically in the secretion of neurotransmitter. Behind NDDs, losses of pathological proteins and defective ion channels have been reported and are found to aggravate the disease symptoms. Moreover, ion channel dysfunctions are eliciting a range of symptoms, including memory loss, movement disabilities, neuromuscular sprains, and strokes. Since the possible mechanistic role played by aberrant ion channels, their receptor and associated factors in neurodegeneration remained elusive; therefore, it is a challenging task for the neuroscientist to implement the therapeutics for targeting NDDs. This chapter reviews the potential role of the ion channels in membrane physiology and brain homeostasis, where ion channels and their associated factors have been characterized with their functional consequences in neurological diseases. Moreover, mechanistic role of perturbed ion channels has been identified in various NDDs, and finally, ion channel modulators have been investigated for their therapeutic intervention in treating common NDDs.

  6. Mechanosensitive Channels (United States)

    Martinac, Boris

    Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.

  7. TRP channels and pain. (United States)

    Julius, David


    Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.

  8. Brands & Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alice Yang


    @@ "Brands" and "Channels" are the two most important things in Ku-Hai Chen's eyes when doing business with Main-land China. Ku-Hai Chen, Executive Director of the International Trade Institute of Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), flies frequently between Chinese Taipei and Mainland China, and was in Beijing earlier this month for his seminar.

  9. Positron Channeling

    CERN Document Server

    Badikyan, Karen


    The possibility of channeling the low-energy relativistic positrons around separate crystallographic axes with coaxial symmetry of negative ions in some types of crystals is shown. The process of annihilation of positrons with electrons of medium was studied in detail.

  10. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key compon

  11. Single-channel kinetics of BK (Slo1 channels

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    Yanyan eGeng


    Full Text Available Single-channel kinetics has proven a powerful tool to reveal information about the gating mechanisms that control the opening and closing of ion channels. This introductory review focuses on the gating of large conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK or Slo1 channels at the single-channel level. It starts with single-channel current records and progresses to presentation and analysis of single-channel data and the development of gating mechanisms in terms of discrete state Markov (DSM models. The DSM models are formulated in terms of the tetrameric modular structure of BK channels, consisting of a central transmembrane pore-gate domain (PGD attached to four surrounding transmembrane voltage sensing domains (VSD and a large intracellular cytosolic domain (CTD, also referred to as the gating ring. The modular structure and data analysis shows that the Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating considered separately can each be approximated by 10-state two-tiered models with 5 closed states on the upper tier and 5 open states on the lower tier. The modular structure and joint Ca2+ and voltage dependent gating are consistent with a 50 state two-tiered model with 25 closed states on the upper tier and 25 open states on the lower tier. Adding an additional tier of brief closed (flicker states to the 10-state or 50-state models improved the description of the gating. For fixed experimental conditions a channel would gate in only a subset of the potential number of states. The detected number of states and the correlations between adjacent interval durations are consistent with the tiered models. The examined models can account for the single-channel kinetics and the bursting behavior of gating. Ca2+ and voltage activate BK channels by predominantly increasing the effective opening rate of the channel with a smaller decrease in the effective closing rate. Ca2+ and depolarization thus activate by mainly destabilizing the closed states.

  12. Nonlinear channelizer (United States)

    In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D.; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K.; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R.; Palacios, Antonio


    The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems of the Spider Cupiennius salei Reveals Multiple Putative Cys-Loop Ligand Gated Ion Channel Subunits and an Acetylcholine Binding Protein.

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    Päivi H Torkkeli

    Full Text Available Invertebrates possess a diverse collection of pentameric Cys-loop ligand gated ion channel (LGIC receptors whose molecular structures, evolution and relationships to mammalian counterparts have been intensely investigated in several clinically and agriculturally important species. These receptors are targets for a variety of control agents that may also harm beneficial species. However, little is known about Cys-loop receptors in spiders, which are important natural predators of insects. We assembled de novo transcriptomes from the central and peripheral nervous systems of the Central American wandering spider Cupiennius salei, a model species for neurophysiological, behavioral and developmental studies. We found 15 Cys-loop receptor subunits that are expected to form anion or cation permeable channels, plus a putative acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP that has only previously been reported in molluscs and one annelid. We used phylogenetic and sequence analysis to compare the spider subunits to homologous receptors in other species and predicted the 3D structures of each protein using the I-Tasser server. The quality of homology models improved with increasing sequence identity to the available high-resolution templates. We found that C. salei has orthologous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, GluCl, pHCl, HisCl and nAChα LGIC subunits to other arthropods, but some subgroups are specific to arachnids, or only to spiders. C. salei sequences were phylogenetically closest to gene fragments from the social spider, Stegodyphus mimosarum, indicating high conservation within the Araneomorphae suborder of spiders. C. salei sequences had similar ligand binding and transmembrane regions to other invertebrate and vertebrate LGICs. They also had motifs associated with high sensitivity to insecticides and antiparasitic agents such as fipronil, dieldrin and ivermectin. Development of truly selective control agents for pest species will require information about

  14. Ambiguity Revealed


    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou


    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  15. Ambiguity revealed


    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic


    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  16. Whole-exome sequencing reveals an inherited R566X mutation of the epithelial sodium channel β-subunit in a case of early-onset phenotype of Liddle syndrome. (United States)

    Polfus, Linda M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A; Metcalf, Ginger; Muzny, Donna; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Grove, Megan; Shete, Sanjay; Wallace, Stephanie; Milewicz, Dianna; Hanchard, Neil; Lupski, James R; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha


    To comprehensively evaluate a European-American child with severe hypertension, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the child and parents, which identified causal variation of the proband's early-onset disease. The proband's hypertension was resistant to treatment, requiring a multiple drug regimen including amiloride, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide. We suspected a monogenic form of hypertension because of the persistent hypokalemia with low plasma levels of renin and aldosterone. To address this, we focused on rare functional variants and indels, and performed gene-based tests incorporating linkage scores and allele frequency and filtered on deleterious functional mutations. Drawing upon clinical presentation, 27 genes were selected evidenced to cause monogenic hypertension and matched to the gene-based results. This resulted in the identification of a stop-gain mutation in an epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), SCNN1B, an established Liddle syndrome gene, shared by the child and her father. Interestingly, the father also harbored a missense mutation (p.Trp552Arg) in the α-subunit of the ENaC trimer, SCNN1A, possibly pointing to pseudohypoaldosteronism type I. This case is unique in that we present the early-onset disease and treatment response caused by a canonical stop-gain mutation (p.Arg566*) as well as ENaC digenic hits in the father, emphasizing the utility of WES informing precision medicine.

  17. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L;


    sperm. We show that structurally diverse EDCs activate the sperm-specific CatSper channel and, thereby, evoke an intracellular Ca(2+) increase, a motility response, and acrosomal exocytosis. Moreover, EDCs desensitize sperm for physiological CatSper ligands and cooperate in low-dose mixtures to elevate...... Ca(2+) levels in sperm. We conclude that EDCs interfere with various sperm functions and, thereby, might impair human fertilization....

  18. Rateless Coding for MIMO Block Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yijia; Erkip, Elza; Poor, H Vincent


    In this paper the performance limits and design principles of rateless codes over fading channels are studied. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is used to analyze the system performance for all possible transmission rates. It is revealed from the analysis that the design of such rateless codes follows the design principle of approximately universal codes for parallel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels, in which each sub-channel is a MIMO channel. More specifically, it is shown that for a single-input single-output (SISO) channel, the previously developed permutation codes of unit length for parallel channels having rate LR can be transformed directly into rateless codes of length L having multiple rate levels (R, 2R, . . ., LR), to achieve the DMT performance limit.

  19. Mobile radio channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pätzold, Matthias


    Providing a comprehensive overview of the modelling, analysis and simulation of mobile radio channels, this book gives a detailed understanding of fundamental issues and examines state-of-the-art techniques in mobile radio channel modelling. It analyses several mobile fading channels, including terrestrial and satellite flat-fading channels, various types of wideband channels and advanced MIMO channels, providing a fundamental understanding of the issues currently being investigated in the field. Important classes of narrowband, wideband, and space-time wireless channels are explored in deta

  20. Channel nut tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Marvin


    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  1. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker


    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  2. Mutual Information of Pauli Channels with Correlated Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-zhen; FANG Mao-Fa


    A general formula for the mutual information of the Pauli channels with memory modelled by correlated noise is derived.It is shown that the mutual information depends on the channel shrinking factor,the input state parameter and the channel memory coefficient.The analyses based on the general formula reveal that the entanglement is always a useful resource to enhance the mutual information of some.Pauli channels,such as the bit flip channel and the bit-phase flip channel.Our analyses also show that the entanglement is not advantageous to the reliable transmission of classical information for Borne Pauli channels at any time,such as the phase flip channel and the phase damping channel.

  3. Multi-Channel Retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Morschett, Dr.,


    Full Text Available Multi-channel retailing entails the parallel use by retailing enterprises of several sales channels. The results of an online buyer survey which has been conducted to investigate the impact of multi-channel retailing (i.e. the use of several retail channels by one retail company on consumer behaviour show that the frequently expressed concern that the application of multi-channel systems in retailing would be associated with cannibalization effects, has proven unfounded. Indeed, the appropriate degree of similarity, consistency, integration and agreement achieves the exact opposite. Different channels create different advantages for consumers. Therefore the total benefit an enterprise which has a multi-channel system can offer to its consumers is larger, the greater the number of available channels. The use of multi-channel systems is associated with additional purchases in the different channels. Such systems are thus superior to those offering only one sales channel to their customers. Furthermore, multi-channel systems with integrated channels are superior to those in which the channels are essentially autonomous and independent of one another. In integrated systems, consumers can achieve synergy effects in the use of sales-channel systems. Accordingly, when appropriately formulated, multi-channel systems in retailing impact positively on consumers. They use the channels more frequently, buy more from them and there is a positive customer-loyalty impact. Multi-channel systems are strategic options for achieving customer loyalty, exploiting customer potential and for winning new customers. They are thus well suited for approaching differing and varied target groups.

  4. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels (United States)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  5. Perfect Multi-Channel Flat Reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Asadchy, V S; Elsakka, A; Albooyeh, M; Tretyakov, S A


    Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here we introduce a concept of multi-channel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions or polarization states simultaneously and independently. In particular, we reveal a possibility to create perfect multi-channel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three fundamental classes of multi-channel mirrors. Together they form a basis of all possible reflection functionalities achievable with flat periodically modulated reflectors. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test one of the basis multi-channel reflectors, confirming the desired multi-channel response. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors suppor...

  6. USACE Navigation Channels 2012 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset represents both San Francisco and Los Angeles District navigation channel lines. All San Francisco District channel lines were digitized from CAD files...

  7. Epilepsy-Related Slack Channel Mutants Lead to Channel Over-Activity by Two Different Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Yao Tang


    Full Text Available Twelve sodium-activated potassium channel (KCNT1, Slack genetic mutants have been identified from severe early-onset epilepsy patients. The changes in biophysical properties of these mutants and the underlying mechanisms causing disease remain elusive. Here, we report that seven of the 12 mutations increase, whereas one mutation decreases, the channel’s sodium sensitivity. Two of the mutants exhibit channel over-activity only when the intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i concentration is ∼80 mM. In contrast, single-channel data reveal that all 12 mutants increase the maximal open probability (Po. We conclude that these mutant channels lead to channel over-activity predominantly by increasing the ability of sodium binding to activate the channel, which is indicated by its maximal Po. The sodium sensitivity of these epilepsy causing mutants probably determines the [Na+]i concentration at which these mutants exert their pathological effects.

  8. The small molecule NS11021 is a potent and specific activator of Ca2+-activated big-conductance K+ channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Nardi, Antonio; Calloe, Kirstine


    -channel analysis revealed that NS11021 increased the open probability of the channel by altering gating kinetics without affecting the single-channel conductance. NS11021 (10 microM) influenced neither a number of cloned Kv channels nor endogenous Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels (L- and T-type) in guinea pig cardiac...

  9. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A


    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  10. Quantum Multiple Access Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯广; 黄民信; 张永德


    We consider the transmission of classical information over a quantum channel by many senders, which is a generalization of the two-sender case. The channel capacity region is shown to be a convex hull bound by the yon Neumann entropy and the conditional yon Neumann entropies. The result allows a reasonable distribution of channel capacity over the senders.

  11. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  12. Store-Operated Calcium Channels. (United States)

    Prakriya, Murali; Lewis, Richard S


    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.

  13. Protocol channels as a new design alternative of covert channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wendzel, Steffen


    Covert channel techniques are used by attackers to transfer hidden data. There are two main categories of covert channels: timing channels and storage channels. This paper introduces a third category called protocol channels. A protocol channel switches one of at least two protocols to send a bit combination to a destination while sent packets include no hidden information themselves.

  14. Surface vacancy channels through ion channeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M. [Fachbereich Physik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)


    Damage patterns of single ion impacts on Pt(111) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Low temperature experiments, where surface diffusion is absent, have been performed for argon and xenon ions with energies between 1 keV and 15 keV at an angle of incidence of 86 {sup circle} measured with respect to the surface normal. Ions hitting preexisting illuminated step edges penetrate into the crystal and are guided in open crystallographic directions, one or more layers underneath the surface (subsurface channeling). In the case of argon channeling the resulting surface damage consists of adatom and vacancy pairs aligned in ion beam direction. After xenon channeling thin surface vacancy trenches along the ion trajectories - surface vacancy channels - are observed. They result from very efficient sputtering and adatom production along the ion trajectory. This phenomena is well reproduced in molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts at 0 K. The damage patterns of Argon and Xenon impacts can be traced back to the different energy losses of the particles in the channel. Channeling distances exceeding 1000 A for 15 keV xenon impacts are observed.

  15. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides. (United States)

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor


    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin.

  16. Quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Yard, J; Devetak, I; Yard, Jon; Hayden, Patrick; Devetak, Igor


    We analyze quantum broadcast channels, which are quantum channels with a single sender and many receivers. Focusing on channels with two receivers for simplicity, we generalize a number of results from the network Shannon theory literature which give the rates at which two senders can receive a common message, while a personalized one is sent to one of them. Our first collection of results applies to channels with a classical input and quantum outputs. The second class of theorems we prove concern sending a common classical message over a quantum broadcast channel, while sending quantum information to one of the receivers. The third group of results we obtain concern communication over an isometry, giving the rates at quantum information can be sent to one receiver, while common quantum information is sent to both, in the sense that tripartite GHZ entanglement is established. For each scenario, we provide an additivity proof for an appropriate class of channels, yielding single-letter characterizations of the...

  17. Quantum feedback channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G


    In classical information theory the capacity of a noisy communication channel cannot be increased by the use of feedback. In quantum information theory the no-cloning theorem means that noiseless copying and feedback of quantum information cannot be achieved. In this paper, quantum feedback is defined as the unlimited use of a noiseless quantum channel from receiver to sender. Given such quantum feedback, it is shown to provide no increase in the entanglement-assisted capacities of a noisy quantum channel, in direct analogy to the classical case. It is also shown that in various cases of non-assisted capacities, feedback can increase the capacity of many quantum channels.

  18. Ion channels in asthma. (United States)

    Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén


    Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.

  19. TRP channels in schistosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarna Bais


    Full Text Available Praziquantel (PZQ is effectively the only drug currently available for treatment and control of schistosomiasis, a disease affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Many anthelmintics, likely including PZQ, target ion channels, membrane protein complexes essential for normal functioning of the neuromusculature and other tissues. Despite this fact, only a few classes of parasitic helminth ion channels have been assessed for their pharmacological properties or for their roles in parasite physiology. One such overlooked group of ion channels is the transient receptor potential (TRP channel superfamily. TRP channels share a common core structure, but are widely diverse in their activation mechanisms and ion selectivity. They are critical to transducing sensory signals, responding to a wide range of external stimuli. They are also involved in other functions, such as regulating intracellular calcium and organellar ion homeostasis and trafficking. Here, we review current literature on parasitic helminth TRP channels, focusing on those in schistosomes. We discuss the likely roles of these channels in sensory and locomotor activity, including the possible significance of a class of TRP channels (TRPV that is absent in schistosomes. We also focus on evidence indicating that at least one schistosome TRP channel (SmTRPA has atypical, TRPV1-like pharmacological sensitivities that could potentially be exploited for future therapeutic targeting.

  20. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten


    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  1. A linearization of quantum channels (United States)

    Crowder, Tanner


    Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.

  2. Power Allocation over Two Identical Gilbert-Elliott Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Junhua


    We study the problem of power allocation over two identical Gilbert-Elliot communication channels. Our goal is to maximize the expected discounted number of bits transmitted over an infinite time horizon. This is achieved by choosing among three possible strategies: (1) betting on channel 1 by allocating all the power to this channel, which results in high data rate if channel 1 happens to be in good state, and zero bits transmitted if channel 1 is in bad state (even if channel 2 is in good state) (2) betting on channel 2 by allocating all the power to the second channel, and (3) a balanced strategy whereby each channel is allocated half the total power, with the effect that each channel can transmit a low data rate if it is in good state. We assume that each channel's state is only revealed upon transmission of data on that channel. We model this problem as a partially observable Markov decision processes (MDP), and derive key threshold properties of the optimal policy. Further, we show that by formulating a...

  3. Ion channels in toxicology. (United States)

    Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier


    Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.

  4. Asymptotically Optimal Downlink Scheduling over Markovian Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Wenzhuo; Shroff, Ness B


    We consider the scheduling problem in downlink wireless networks with heterogeneous, Markov-modulated, ON/OFF channels. It is well-known that the performance of scheduling over fading channels heavily depends on the accuracy of the available Channel State Information (CSI), which is costly to acquire. Thus, we consider the CSI acquisition via a practical ARQ-based feedback mechanism whereby channel states are revealed at the end of only scheduled users' transmissions. In the assumed presence of temporally-correlated channel evolutions, the desired scheduler must optimally balance the exploitation-exploration trade-off, whereby it schedules transmissions both to exploit those channels with up-to-date CSI and to explore the current state of those with outdated CSI. In earlier works, Whittle's Index Policy had been suggested as a low-complexity and high-performance solution to this problem. However, analyzing its performance in the typical scenario of statistically heterogeneous channel state processes has remai...

  5. Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.


    Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.

  6. A model for the distribution channels planning process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neves, M.F.; Zuurbier, P.; Campomar, M.C.


    Research of existing literature reveals some models (sequence of steps) for companies that want to plan distribution channels. None of these models uses strong contributions from transaction cost economics, bringing a possibility to elaborate on a "distribution channels planning model", with these c

  7. Ripple Design of LT Codes for BIAWGN Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip;


    This paper presents a novel framework, which enables a design of rateless codes for binary input additive white Gaussian noise (BIAWGN) channels, using the ripple-based approach known from the works for the binary erasure channel (BEC). We reveal that several aspects of the analytical results from...

  8. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks. (United States)

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jia Ming; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Li, Er Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T


    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  9. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  10. TPC1 - SV Channels Gain Shape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rainer Hedrich; Irene Marten


    T The most prominent ion channel localized in plant vacuoles is the slow activating SV type. Slow vacuolar (SV)channels were discovered by patch clamp studies as early as 1986. In the following two decades, numerous studies revealed that these calcium- and voltage-activated, nonselective cation channels are expressed in the vacuoles of all plants and every plant tissue. The voltage-dependent properties of the SV channel are susceptible to modulation by calcium, pH, redox state, as well as regulatory proteins. In Arabidopsis, the SV channel is encoded by the AtTPC1 gene, and even though its gene product represents the by far largest conductance of the vacuolar membrane, tpc1-loss-of-function mutants appeared not to be impaired in major physiological functions such as growth, development, and reproduction. In contrast, the fou2 gain-of-function point mutation D454N within TPC1 leads to a pronounced growth phenotype and increased synthesis of the stress hormone jasmonate. Since the TPC1 gene is present in all land plants, it likely encodes a very general function. In this review, we will discuss major SV channel properties and their impact on plant cell physiology.

  11. Channel Access in Erlang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicklaus, Dennis J. [Fermilab


    We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.

  12. Controls on plan-form evolution of submarine channels (United States)

    Imran, J.; Mohrig, D. C.


    Vertically aggrading sinuous channels constitute a basic building block of modern submarine fans and the greater continental slope. Interpretation of seismically imaged channels reveals a significant diversity in internal architecture, as well as important similarities and differences in the evolution of submarine channels relative to better studied rivers. Many submarine channel cross sections possess a 'gull wing' shape. Successive stacking of such channels demonstrates that systematic bank erosion is not required in order for lateral migration to occur. The lateral shift of such aggrading channels, however, is expected to be much less dynamic than in the case of terrestrial rivers. Recent high-resolution 3D seismic data from offshore Angola and an upstream segment of the Bengal Submarine Fan show intensely meandering channels that experience considerable lateral shifting during periods of active migration within submarine valleys. The cross sections of the actively migrating channels are similar to meandering river channels characterized by an outer cut-bank and inner-bank accretion. In submarine channels, the orientation of the secondary flow can be river-like or river-reverse depending on the channel gradient, cross sectional shape, and the adaptation length of the channel bend. In river channels, a single circulation cell commonly occupies the entire channel relief, redistributing the bed-load sediment across the channel, and influencing the thread of high velocity and thus the plan-form evolution of the channel. In submarine environments, the height of the circulation cell will be significantly smaller than channel relief, thus leading to development of lower relief point bars from bed-load transport. Nevertheless these "underfit" bars may play an important role in plan-form evolution of submarine channels. In rivers and submarine channels, the inclined surface accretion can be constructed via pure bed-load, suspended-load, or a combination of both transport

  13. An Insight to Covert Channels


    Salwan, Nitish; Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Suket; Singh, Amarpreet


    This paper presents an overview of different concepts regarding covert channels. It discusses the various classifications and the detailing of various fields used to manipulate for the covert channel execution.Different evaluation criterias are presented for measuring the strength of covert channels. The defenses and prevention schemes for this covert channel will also be discussed. This paper also discuss about an advanced timing channel i.e.Temperature Based Covert Channel.

  14. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille


    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  15. The molecular choreography of a store-operated calcium channel. (United States)

    Lewis, Richard S


    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) serve essential functions from secretion and motility to gene expression and cell growth. A fundamental mystery is how the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates Ca2+ entry through SOCs in the plasma membrane. Recent studies using genetic approaches have identified genes encoding the ER Ca2+ sensor and a prototypic SOC, the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. New findings reveal a unique mechanism for channel activation, in which the CRAC channel and its sensor migrate independently to closely apposed sites of interaction in the ER and the plasma membrane.

  16. Cooperative gating between ion channels. (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun


    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  17. Sensing with Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Martinac, Boris


    All living cells are able to detect and translate environmental stimuli into biologically meaningful signals. Sensations of touch, hearing, sight, taste, smell or pain are essential to the survival of all living organisms. The importance of sensory input for the existence of life thus justifies the effort made to understand its molecular origins. Sensing with Ion Channels focuses on ion channels as key molecules enabling biological systems to sense and process the physical and chemical stimuli that act upon cells in their living environment. Its aim is to serve as a reference to ion channel specialists and as a source of new information to non specialists who want to learn about the structural and functional diversity of ion channels and their role in sensory physiology.

  18. Covert Channels within IRC (United States)


    Communications ....................................... 2 1.3 Steganography and Covert Channels .......................................................... 3...Internet Relay Chat ..................................................................................... 7 2.2 Steganography ...13 2.2.2 Encrypted Steganographic Systems .............................................. 15 2.2.3 Text-Based Steganography

  19. Channelized Streams in Iowa (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  20. Authentication over Noisy Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent


    In this work, message authentication over noisy channels is studied. The model developed in this paper is the authentication theory counterpart of Wyner's wiretap channel model. Two types of opponent attacks, namely impersonation attacks and substitution attacks, are investigated for both single message and multiple message authentication scenarios. For each scenario, information theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent's success probability are derived. Remarkably, in both scenarios, lower and upper bounds are shown to match, and hence the fundamental limit of message authentication over noisy channels is fully characterized. The opponent's success probability is further shown to be smaller than that derived in the classic authentication model in which the channel is assumed to be noiseless. These results rely on a proposed novel authentication scheme in which key information is used to provide simultaneous protection again both types of attacks.

  1. Cl- channels in apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida


    , and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also......(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated...... by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling....

  2. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  3. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN


    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  4. Fracture channel waves (United States)

    Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael


    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.

  5. Course on Ionic Channels

    CERN Document Server


    This book is based on a series of lectures for a course on ionic channels held in Santiago, Chile, on November 17-20, 1984. It is intended as a tutorial guide on the properties, function, modulation, and reconstitution of ionic channels, and it should be accessible to graduate students taking their first steps in this field. In the presentation there has been a deliberate emphasis on the spe­ cific methodologies used toward the understanding of the workings and function of channels. Thus, in the first section, we learn to "read" single­ channel records: how to interpret them in the theoretical frame of kinetic models, which information can be extracted from gating currents in re­ lation to the closing and opening processes, and how ion transport through an open channel can be explained in terms of fluctuating energy barriers. The importance of assessing unequivocally the origin and purity of mem­ brane preparations and the use of membrane vesicles and optical tech­ niques in the stUGY of ionic channels a...

  6. Mutational consequences of aberrant ion channels in neurological disorders. (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir


    Neurological channelopathies are attributed to aberrant ion channels affecting CNS, PNS, cardiac, and skeletal muscles. To maintain the homeostasis of excitable tissues, functional ion channels are necessary to rely electrical signals, whereas any malfunctioning serves as an intrinsic factor to develop neurological channelopathies. Molecular basis of these disease is studied based on genetic and biophysical approaches, e.g., loci positional cloning, whereas pathogenesis and bio-behavioral analysis revealed the dependency on genetic mutations and inter-current triggering factors. Although electrophysiological studies revealed the possible mechanisms of diseases, analytical study of ion channels remained unsettled and therefore underlying mechanism in channelopathies is necessary for better clinical application. Herein, we demonstrated (i) structural and functional role of various ion channels (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+),Cl(-)), (ii) pathophysiology involved in the onset of their associated channelopathies, and (iii) comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of diversified sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ion channel subtypes.

  7. Channel estimation for MIMO-OFDM systems in mobile wireless channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao


    A channel estimation method is proposed for multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency di-vision multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems in time-varying fading channels. In this method, a decision-direct-ed space-ahernating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm is introduced to the tracking of time-varying fading. In order to improve the estimation performance of the SAGE algorithm, a low rank approxi-mation method is presented by using the signal subspaee of the channel frequency autocorrelation matrix. The study reveals that this method can be incorporated into the SAGE algorithm. Furthermore, a modified fast sub-space tracking algorithm is given to adaptively estimate the signal subspace by utilizing training OFDM blocks sent at regular interval. Simulation results demonstrate the considerable benefits of the proposed channel estima-tion method.

  8. Electrokinetic inversion of ion screening charges in nano-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xin; Ni, Sheng; Zhang, Xingye; Liu, Yang


    This work studies a counter-intuitive but basic process of ionic screening in nano-fluidic channels. Numerical simulations and perturbation analysis reveal that, under significant electrokinetic transport, the ion screening charges can be locally inverted in the channels: their charge sign becomes the same as that of the channel surface charges. The process is identified to originate from the coupling of longitudinal transport and junction electrostatics. This finding may revise the common understanding of ionic screening in nano-channels and indicates that their ion selectivity can be locally changed by transport. Furthermore, the charge inversion process results in a body force torque on channel fluids, which is a possible mechanism for vortex generation in the channels.

  9. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier. (United States)

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior


    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  10. Interaction of Two Filament Channels of Different Chiralities

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Schmieder, Brigitte; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Young-Jae; Uddin, Wahab


    We present observations of interactions between the two filament channels of different chiralities and associated dynamics that occurred during 2014 April 18 -- 20. While two flux ropes of different helicity with parallel axial magnetic fields can only undergo a bounce interaction when they are brought together, the observations at the first glance show that the heated plasma is moving from one filament channel to the other. The SDO/AIA 171 A observations and the PFSS magnetic field extrapolation reveal the presence of fan-spine magnetic configuration over the filament channels with a null point located above them. Three different events of filament activations, partial eruptions, and associated filament channel interactions have been observed. The activation initiated in one filament channel seems to propagate along the neighbour filament channel. We believe that the activation and partial eruption of the filaments bring the field lines of flux ropes containing them closer to the null point and trigger the m...

  11. Screen-based identification and validation of four novel ion channels as regulators of renal ciliogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats, Gisela G; Wheway, Gabrielle; Foletto, Veronica; Szymanska, Katarzyna; van Balkom, Bas W M; Logister, Ive; Den Ouden, Krista; Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G; Lilien, Marc R; Knoers, Nine V; Johnson, Colin A; Giles, Rachel H


    To investigate the contribution of ion channels to ciliogenesis we carried out an siRNA-based reverse genetics screen of all ion channels in the mouse genome in murine inner medullary collecting duct kidney cells. This screen revealed four candidate ion channel genes: Kcnq1, Kcnj10, Kcnf1 and Clcn4.

  12. Channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Nax is a sodium-concentration ([Na+]-sensitive Na channel with a gating threshold of ~150 mM for extracellular [Na+] ([Na+]o in vitro. We previously reported that Nax was preferentially expressed in the glial cells of sensory circumventricular organs including the subfornical organ, and was involved in [Na+] sensing for the control of salt-intake behavior. Although Nax was also suggested to be expressed in the neurons of some brain regions including the amygdala and cerebral cortex, the channel properties of Nax have not yet been adequately characterized in neurons. We herein verified that Nax was expressed in neurons in the lateral amygdala of mice using an antibody that was newly generated against mouse Nax. To investigate the channel properties of Nax expressed in neurons, we established an inducible cell line of Nax using the mouse neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2a, which is endogenously devoid of the expression of Nax. Functional analyses of this cell line revealed that the [Na+]-sensitivity of Nax in neuronal cells was similar to that expressed in glial cells. The cation selectivity sequence of the Nax channel in cations was revealed to be Na+ ≈ Li+ > Rb+ > Cs+ for the first time. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nax bound to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 through its PSD95/Disc-large/ZO-1 (PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus in neurons. The interaction between Nax and PSD95 may be involved in promoting the surface expression of Nax channels because the depletion of endogenous PSD95 resulted in a decrease in Nax at the plasma membrane. These results indicated, for the first time, that Nax functions as a [Na+]-sensitive Na channel in neurons as well as in glial cells.

  13. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.


    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  14. Dequantization Via Quantum Channels (United States)

    Andersson, Andreas


    For a unital completely positive map {Φ} ("quantum channel") governing the time propagation of a quantum system, the Stinespring representation gives an enlarged system evolving unitarily. We argue that the Stinespring representations of each power {Φ^m} of the single map together encode the structure of the original quantum channel and provide an interaction-dependent model for the bath. The same bath model gives a "classical limit" at infinite time {mto∞} in the form of a noncommutative "manifold" determined by the channel. In this way, a simplified analysis of the system can be performed by making the large- m approximation. These constructions are based on a noncommutative generalization of Berezin quantization. The latter is shown to involve very fundamental aspects of quantum-information theory, which are thereby put in a completely new light.

  15. Chaos in quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hosur, Pavan; Roberts, Daniel A; Yoshida, Beni


    We study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. These results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zheng; Jia Ying; Yin Qinye


    Delay diversity is an effective transmit diversity technique to combat adverse ef-fects of fading. Thus far, previous work in delay diversity assumed that perfect estimates ofcurrent channel fading conditions are available at the receiver and training symbols are requiredto estimate the channel from the transmitter to the receiver. However, increasing the number ofthe antennas increases the required training interval and reduces the available time within whichdata may be transmitted. Learning the channel coefficients becomes increasingly difficult for thefrequency selective channels. In this paper, with the subspace method and the delay character ofdelay diversity, a channel estimation method is proposed, which does not use training symbols. Itaddresses the transmit diversity for a frequency selective channel from a single carrier perspectivein the form of a simple equivalent fiat fading model. Monte Carlo simulations give the perfor-mance of channel estimation and the performance comparison of our channel-estimation-baseddetector with decision feedback equalization, which uses the perfect channel information.

  17. K(v)7 channels: function, pharmacology and channel modulators. (United States)

    Dalby-Brown, William; Hansen, Henrik H; Korsgaard, Mads P G; Mirza, Naheed; Olesen, Søren-P


    K(v)7 channels are unique among K(+) channels, since four out of the five channel subtypes have well-documented roles in the development of human diseases. They have distinct physiological functions in the heart and in the nervous system, which can be ascribed to their voltage-gating properties. The K(v)7 channels also lend themselves to pharmacological modulation, and synthetic openers as well as blockers of the channels, regulating neuronal excitability, have existed even before the K(v)7 channels were identified by cloning. In the present review we give an account on the focused efforts to develop selective modulators, openers as well as blockers, of the K(v)7 channel subtypes, which have been undertaken during recent years, along with a discussion of the K(v)7 ion channel physiology and therapeutic indications for modulators of the neuronal K(v)7 channels.

  18. Single-cell census of mechanosensitive channels in living bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Bialecka-Fornal

    Full Text Available Bacteria are subjected to a host of different environmental stresses. One such insult occurs when cells encounter changes in the osmolarity of the surrounding media resulting in an osmotic shock. In recent years, a great deal has been learned about mechanosensitive (MS channels which are thought to provide osmoprotection in these circumstances by opening emergency release valves in response to membrane tension. However, even the most elementary physiological parameters such as the number of MS channels per cell, how MS channel expression levels influence the physiological response of the cells, and how this mean number of channels varies from cell to cell remain unanswered. In this paper, we make a detailed quantitative study of the expression of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL in different media and at various stages in the growth history of bacterial cultures. Using both quantitative fluorescence microscopy and quantitative Western blots our study complements earlier electrophysiology-based estimates and results in the following key insights: i the mean number of channels per cell is much higher than previously estimated, ii measurement of the single-cell distributions of such channels reveals marked variability from cell to cell and iii the mean number of channels varies under different environmental conditions. The regulation of MscL expression displays rich behaviors that depend strongly on culturing conditions and stress factors, which may give clues to the physiological role of MscL. The number of stress-induced MscL channels and the associated variability have far reaching implications for the in vivo response of the channels and for modeling of this response. As shown by numerous biophysical models, both the number of such channels and their variability can impact many physiological processes including osmoprotection, channel gating probability, and channel clustering.

  19. Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds (United States)

    Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.


    We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).

  20. Communicating Under Channel Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, Naqueeb; Shah, Tapan


    For a single transmit and receive antenna system, a new constellation design is proposed to combat errors in the phase estimate of the channel coefficient. The proposed constellation is a combination of PSK and PAM constellations, where PSK is used to provide protection against phase errors, while PAM is used to increase the transmission rate using the knowledge of the magnitude of the channel coefficient. The performance of the proposed constellation is shown to be significantly better than the widely used QAM in terms of probability of error. The proposed strategy can also be extended to systems using multiple transmit and receive antennas.

  1. Channel width dependence of electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs under bending stresses (United States)

    Oh, Hyungon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig


    In this study, we investigate the electrical characteristics of bendable a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel widths as a function of bending stress. Compared with a narrower channel TFT, a wider channel TFT exhibits a stable performance even at a bending strain of 1.3%. Our stress and strain distribution analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the channel width and the channel stress. As the channel width widens from 8 to 50 μm, the stress experienced by the middle channel region decreases from 545 to 277 MPa. Moreover, a 50 μm-channel-width TFT operates stably even after a 15 000 bending cycle while the 8 μm-channel-width TFT fails to operate after a 2000 bending cycle.

  2. Sedimentary processes of the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (United States)

    Klaucke, I.; Masson, D.G.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Gardner, J.V.


    The distribution of deposits, sediment transport pathways and processes on the lower Monterey Fan channel and channel-mouth lobe (CML) are studied through the integration of GLORIA and TOBI sidescan sonar data with 7-kHz subbottom profiler records and sediment cores for ground-truthing. The lower Monterey channel is characterised by an up to 30-m-deep channel with poorly developed levees and alternating muddy and silty muddy overbank deposits. The channel is discontinuous, disappearing where gradients are less than about 1:350. Ground-truthing of the large CML shows that the entire CML is characterised by widespread deposits of generally fine sand, with coarser sand at the base of turbidites. Sand is particularly concentrated in finger-like areas of low-backscatter intensity and is interpreted as the result of non-turbulent sediment-gravity flows depositing metres thick massive, fine sand. TOBI sidescan sonar data reveal recent erosional features in the form of scours, secondary channels, large flow slides, and trains of blocks at the distal end of the CML. Erosion is probably related to increasing gradient as the CML approaches Murray Fracture zone and to differential loading of sandy submarine fan deposits onto pelagic clays. Reworking of older flow slides by sediment transport processes on the lobe produces trains of blocks that are several metres in diameter and aligned parallel to the flow direction. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of salt marsh plants on tidal channel initiation and inheritance (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Ye, Q. H.; Wal, D.; Zhang, L. Q.; Bouma, T.; Ysebaert, T.; Herman, P. M. J.


    At the transition between mudflat and salt marsh, vegetation is traditionally regarded as a sustaining factor for previously incised mudflat channels, able to conserve the channel network via bank stabilization following plant colonization (i.e., vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance). This is in contrast to recent studies revealing vegetation as the main driver of tidal channel emergence through vegetation-induced channel erosion. We present a coupled hydrodynamic morphodynamic plant growth model to simulate plant expansion and channel formation by our model species (Spartina alterniflora) during a mudflat-salt marsh transition with various initial bathymetries (flat, shoal dense, shoal sparse, and deep dense channels). This simulated landscape development is then compared to remote sensing images of the Yangtze estuary, China, and the Scheldt estuary in Netherlands. Our results propose the existence of a threshold in preexisting mudflat channel depth, which favors either vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance or vegetation-induced channel erosion processes. The increase in depth of preexisting mudflat channels favors flow routing through them, consequently leaving less flow and momentum remaining for vegetation-induced channel erosion processes. This threshold channel depth will be influenced by field specific parameters such as hydrodynamics (tidal range and flow), sediment characteristics, and plant species. Hence, our study shows that the balance between vegetation-stabilized channel inheritance and vegetation-induced channel erosion depends on ecosystem properties.

  4. All channels open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan


    Original title: Alle kanalen staan open. The rapid changes taking place in the media landscape in the Netherlands - characterised by digitisation and convergence of media technologies - raise the question of how the Dutch are dealing with the many new opportunities that have opened up. All channels

  5. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.


    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique eBalderas


    Full Text Available Since its discovery in a glioma cell line 15 years ago, mitochondrial BKCa channel (mitoBKCa has been studied in brain cells and cardiomyocytes sharing general biophysical properties such as high K+ conductance (~300 pS, voltage-dependency and Ca2+-sensitivity. Main advances in deciphering the molecular composition of mitoBKCa have included establishing that it is encoded by the Kcnma1 gene, that a C-terminal splice insert confers mitoBKCa ability to be targeted to cardiac mitochondria, and evidence for its potential coassembly with β subunits. Notoriously, β1 subunit directly interacts with cytochrome c oxidase and mitoBKCa can be modulated by substrates of the respiratory chain. mitoBKCa channel has a central role in protecting the heart from ischemia, where pharmacological activation of the channel impacts the generation of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial Ca2+ preventing cell death likely by impeding uncontrolled opening of the mitochondrial transition pore. Supporting this view, inhibition of mitoBKCa with Iberiotoxin, enhances cytochrome c release from glioma mitochondria. Many tantalizing questions remain. Some of them are: how is mitoBKCa coupled to the respiratory chain? Does mitoBKCa play non-conduction roles in mitochondria physiology? Which are the functional partners of mitoBKCa? What are the roles of mitoBKCa in other cell types? Answers to these questions are essential to define the impact of mitoBKCa channel in mitochondria biology and disease.

  7. Ion Channels in Leukocytes (United States)


    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about analysbib of Lt. Potassium permeability in HeLa cancer BioL Chem. 265: 142416-141263, 1990. cells. evidence for a calcium-a’tivated potassium

  8. Ion channels in inflammation. (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen


    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  9. Intermittency and exotic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, A


    It is pointed out that accurate measurements of short-range two-particle correlations in like-charge K\\pi and in \\pi^ 0\\pi^ 0 channels should be very helpful in determining the origin of the \\lq\\lq intermittency\\rq\\rq\\ phenomenon observed recently for the like-charge pion pairs.

  10. TRP channels: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Stine Falsig; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd


    to a plethora of data on the roles of TRPs in a variety of tissues and species, including mammals, insects, and yeast. The present review summarizes the most pertinent recent evidence regarding the structural and functional properties of TRP channels, focusing on the regulation and physiology of mammalian TRPs....

  11. Strategies for sustainable channel relations in mobile telecom sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa Heggde


    Full Text Available The telecom sector in India largely comprises of wireless connections for phones. As of today, there are approximately 21 network providers in the country with about 7 per each circle, each offering competitive pricing to the consumers. The main objective of the study is to provide an accurate role for the company executive in developing channel relations. Further to this, the study explores the strategies which can sustain a good working relationship between the company and its channel members in the mobile telecom sector. The constructs identified for developing sustainable relationships were Setting distribution objectives, Channel design, Logistics, Image Building, Inventory management, Channel management, Payment & credit, Promotional assistance, Setting targets, Coverage frequency , Motivating channel members to perform. The sample selected contained distributors from the Mobile telecom sector and company executives/channel managers of leading telecom companies. Factor analysis and Friedman’s test was applied. The findings revealed a correlation in attitude between distributors and the executives. Motivating distributors was rated as the most important strategy by the company. The distributors felt that all channel partners needed to have positive attitude towards the channel while company executives felt that aggression made channel members perform effectively. Such findings will be of use to mobile telecom companies who are new entrants to the Indian market and to existing companies who plan to expand their coverage.

  12. A New Covert Channel over Cellular Voice Channel in Smartphones


    Aloraini, Bushra; Johnson, Daryl; Stackpole, Bill; Mishra, Sumita


    Investigating network covert channels in smartphones has become increasingly important as smartphones have recently replaced the role of traditional computers. Smartphones are subject to traditional computer network covert channel techniques. Smartphones also introduce new sets of covert channel techniques as they add more capabilities and multiple network connections. This work presents a new network covert channel in smartphones. The research studies the ability to leak information from the...

  13. Acoustic resonance phenomena in air bleed channels in aviation engines (United States)

    Aleksentsev, A. A.; Sazhenkov, A. N.; Sukhinin, S. V.


    The existence of axial-radial acoustic resonance oscillations of the basic air flow in bleed channels of aviation engines is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Numerical and analytical methods are used to determine the frequency of acoustic resonance oscillations for the lowest modes of open and closed bleed channels of the PS-90A engine. Experimental investigations reveal new acoustic resonance phenomena arising in the air flow in bleed channel cavities in the core duct of this engine owing to instability of the basic air flow. The results of numerical, analytical, and experimental studies of the resonance frequencies reached in the flow in bleed channel cavities in the core duct of the PS-90A engine are found to be in reasonable agreement. As a result, various types of resonance oscillations in bleed channels can be accurately described.

  14. Voltage-gated Calcium Channels and Autism Spectrum Disorders. (United States)

    Breitenkamp, Alexandra F; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan


    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex-genetic disease and its etiology is unknown for the majority of cases. So far, more than one hundred different susceptibility genes were detected. Voltage-gated calcium channels are among the candidates linked to autism spectrum disorder by results of genetic studies. Mutations of nearly all pore-forming and some auxiliary subunits of voltage gated calcium channels have been revealed from investigations of autism spectrum disorder patients and populations. Though there are only few electrophysiological characterizations of voltage-gated calcium channel mutations found in autistic patients these studies suggest their functional relevance. In summary, both genetic and functional data suggest a potential role of voltage-gated calcium channels in autism spectrum disorder. Future studies require refinement of the clinical and systems biological concepts of autism spectrum disorder and an appropriate holistic approach at the molecular level, e.g. regarding all facets of calcium channel functions.

  15. Kv7 channels can function without constitutive calmodulin tethering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Gómez-Posada

    Full Text Available M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC, a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that Kv7.2 mutants deficient in calmodulin binding are not functional, calmodulin has been defined as an auxiliary subunit of Kv7 channels. However, we have identified a presumably phosphomimetic mutation S511D that permits calmodulin-independent function. Thus, our data reveal that constitutive tethering of calmodulin is not required for Kv7 channel function.

  16. Kv7 Channels Can Function without Constitutive Calmodulin Tethering (United States)

    Alberdi, Araitz; Alaimo, Alessandro; Etxeberría, Ainhoa; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Zamalloa, Teresa; Roura-Ferrer, Meritxell; Villace, Patricia; Areso, Pilar; Casis, Oscar; Villarroel, Alvaro


    M-channels are voltage-gated potassium channels composed of Kv7.2-7.5 subunits that serve as important regulators of neuronal excitability. Calmodulin binding is required for Kv7 channel function and mutations in Kv7.2 that disrupt calmodulin binding cause Benign Familial Neonatal Convulsions (BFNC), a dominantly inherited human epilepsy. On the basis that Kv7.2 mutants deficient in calmodulin binding are not functional, calmodulin has been defined as an auxiliary subunit of Kv7 channels. However, we have identified a presumably phosphomimetic mutation S511D that permits calmodulin-independent function. Thus, our data reveal that constitutive tethering of calmodulin is not required for Kv7 channel function. PMID:21980481

  17. Nearinfrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels


    Barnes, J.W.; Radebaugh, J.; Brown, R. H.; Wall, S.; Soderblum, L.; Lunine, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Baines, K.H.; Sotin, C.; Le Mouelic, S.; Rodriguez, S.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P. D; Jaumann, Ralf (Prof. Dr.); Lopes, R.


    Cassini studies of the surface of Titan are beginning to reveal its nature. In addition to hills, channels, and cobbles seen by the Huygens probe, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) and RADAR instruments onboard the orbiter have seen sand dunes , channels , mountains [5, 6], and cryovolcanic candidates. Recently the RADAR team announced the discovery of possible lakes near Titan’s north pole.

  18. Radar channel balancing with commutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter


    When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.

  19. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others


    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  20. Lipid Ion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Heimburg, Thomas


    The interpretation electrical phenomena in biomembranes is usually based on the assumption that the experimentally found discrete ion conduction events are due to a particular class of proteins called ion channels while the lipid membrane is considered being an inert electrical insulator. The particular protein structure is thought to be related to ion specificity, specific recognition of drugs by receptors and to macroscopic phenomena as nerve pulse propagation. However, lipid membranes in their chain melting regime are known to be highly permeable to ions, water and small molecules, and are therefore not always inert. In voltage-clamp experiments one finds quantized conduction events through protein-free membranes in their melting regime similar to or even undistinguishable from those attributed to proteins. This constitutes a conceptual problem for the interpretation of electrophysiological data obtained from biological membrane preparations. Here, we review the experimental evidence for lipid ion channels...

  1. ``Just Another Distribution Channel?'' (United States)

    Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul

    The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.

  2. DMT of weighted Parallel Channels: Application to Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Mroueh, Lina; Othman, Ghaya Rekaya-Ben; Belfiore, Jean-Claude


    In a broadcast channel with random packet arrival and transmission queues, the stability of the system is achieved by maximizing a weighted sum rate capacity with suitable weights that depend on the queue size. The weighted sum rate capacity using Dirty Paper Coding (DPC) and Zero Forcing (ZF) is asymptotically equivalent to the weighted sum capacity over parallel single-channels. In this paper, we study the Diversity Multiplexing Tradeoff (DMT) of the fading broadcast channel under a fixed weighted sum rate capacity constraint. The DMT of both identical and different parallel weighted MISO channels is first derived. Finally, we deduce the DMT of a broadcast channel using DPC and ZF precoders.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Channel Geometric Effect for Fischer-Tropsch Microchannel Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jonggeol; Jung, Ikhwan; Kshetrimayum, Krishnadash S.; Park, Seongho; Park, Chansaem; Han, Chonghun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Driven by both environmental and economic reasons, the development of small to medium scale GTL(gas-to-liquid) process for offshore applications and for utilizing other stranded or associated gas has recently been studied increasingly. Microchannel GTL reactors have been preferred over the conventional GTL reactors for such applications, due to its compactness, and additional advantages of small heat and mass transfer distance desired for high heat transfer performance and reactor conversion. In this work, multi-microchannel reactor was simulated by using commercial CFD code, ANSYS FLUENT, to study the geometric effect of the microchannels on the heat transfer phenomena. A heat generation curve was first calculated by modeling a Fischer-Tropsch reaction in a single-microchannel reactor model using Matlab-ASPEN integration platform. The calculated heat generation curve was implemented to the CFD model. Four design variables based on the microchannel geometry namely coolant channel width, coolant channel height, coolant channel to process channel distance, and coolant channel to coolant channel distance, were selected for calculating three dependent variables namely, heat flux, maximum temperature of coolant channel, and maximum temperature of process channel. The simulation results were visualized to understand the effects of the design variables on the dependent variables. Heat flux and maximum temperature of cooling channel and process channel were found to be increasing when coolant channel width and height were decreased. Coolant channel to process channel distance was found to have no effect on the heat transfer phenomena. Finally, total heat flux was found to be increasing and maximum coolant channel temperature to be decreasing when coolant channel to coolant channel distance was decreased. Using the qualitative trend revealed from the present study, an appropriate process channel and coolant channel geometry along with the distance between the adjacent

  4. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej


    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  5. Ion channeling revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Corona, Aldo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nguyen, Anh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for axes and [hkl] planes up to (555).

  6. TRESK potassium channel in human T lymphoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Miguel, Dénison Selene, E-mail: [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico); García-Dolores, Fernando, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Av. Niños Héroes 130, Col. Doctores, C.P. 06720 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rosa Flores-Márquez, María, E-mail: [National Medical Center of Occident (CMNO) IMSS, Belisario Dominguez 735, Col. Independencia Oriente, C.P. 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Delgado-Enciso, Iván [University of Colima, School of Medicine, Av. Universidad 333, Col. Las Viboras, C.P. 28040 Colima (Mexico); Pottosin, Igor, E-mail: [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico); Dobrovinskaya, Oxana, E-mail: [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico)


    Highlights: • TRESK (KCNK18) mRNA is present in different T lymphoblastic cell lines. • KCNK18 mRNA was not found in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes. • Clinical samples of T lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas were positive for TRESK. • TRESK in T lymphoblasts has dual localization, in plasma membrane and intracellular. -- Abstract: TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K{sup +}) channel, encoded by KCNK18 gene, belongs to the double-pore domain K{sup +} channel family and in normal conditions is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. In our previous patch-clamp study on Jurkat T lymphoblasts we have characterized highly selective K{sup +} channel with pharmacological profile identical to TRESK. In the present work, the presence of KCNK18 mRNA was confirmed in T lymphoblastic cell lines (Jurkat, JCaM, H9) but not in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors. Positive immunostaining for TRESK was demonstrated in lymphoblastic cell lines, in germinal centers of non-tumoral lymph nodes, and in clinical samples of T acute lymphoblastic leukemias/lymphomas. Besides detection in the plasma membrane, intracellular TRESK localization was also revealed. Possible involvement of TRESK channel in lymphocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis is discussed.

  7. The elusive character of discontinuous deep-water channels: New insights from Lucia Chica channel system, offshore California (United States)

    Maier, K.L.; Fildani, A.; Paull, C.K.; Graham, S.A.; McHargue, T.R.; Caress, D.W.; McGann, M.


    New high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) seafloor images, with 1 m lateral resolution and 0.3 m vertical resolution, reveal unexpected seafloor rugosity and low-relief (architecture of the depositional area. Flowstripped turbidity currents separated into and reactivated multiple channels to create a distributary pattern and developed discontinuous trains of cyclic scours and megaflutes, which may be erosional precursors to continuous channels. The diverse features now imaged in the Lucia Chica channel system (offshore California) are likely common in modern and ancient systems with similar overall morphologies, but have not been previously mapped with lower-resolution detection methods in any of these systems. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  8. The Diversity Potential of Relay Selection with Practical Channel Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Michalopoulos, Diomidis S; Schober, Robert; Karagiannidis, George K


    We investigate the diversity order of decode-and-forward relay selection in Nakagami-m fading, in cases where practical channel estimation techniques are applied. In this respect, we introduce a unified model for the imperfect channel estimates, where the effects of noise, time-varying channels, and feedback delays are jointly considered. Based on this model, the correlation between the actual and the estimated channel values, \\rho, is expressed as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), yielding closed-form expressions for the overall outage probability as a function of \\rho. The resulting diversity order and power gain reveal a high dependence of the performance of relay selection on the high SNR behavior of \\rho, thus shedding light onto the effect of channel estimation on the overall performance. It is shown that when the channel estimates are not frequently updated in applications involving time-varying channels, or when the amount of power allocated for channel estimation is not sufficiently high...

  9. Effects of curcumin on ion channels and transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei eZhang


    Full Text Available Curcumin [1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione], a polyphenolic compound isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric, has been shown to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-microbial and wound healing effects. These activities of curcumin are based on its complex molecular structure and chemical features, as well as its ability to interact with multiple signaling molecules. The ability of curcumin to regulate ion channels and transporters was recognized a decade ago. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is a well-studied ion channel target of curcumin. During the process of studying its anti-cancer properties, curcumin was found to inhibit ATP-binding cassette (ABC family members including ABCA1, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2. Recent studies have revealed that many channels and transporters are modulated by curcumin, such as voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels, high-voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (HVGCC, volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC, Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel (CRAC, aquaporin-4 (AQP-4, glucose transporters, etc. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the interactions of curcumin with different types of ion channels and transporters and to help better understand and integrate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the multiple pharmacological activities of curcumin.

  10. Secrecy Capacity of the Wiretap Channel with Noisy Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent


    In this work, the role of noisy feedback in enhancing the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is investigated. A model is considered in which the feed-forward and feedback signals share the same noisy channel. More specifically, a discrete memoryless modulo-additive channel with a full-duplex destination node is considered first, and it is shown that a judicious use of feedback increases the perfect secrecy capacity to the capacity of the source-destination channel in the absence of the wiretapper. In the achievability scheme, the feedback signal corresponds to a private key, known only to the destination. Then a half-duplex system is considered, for which a novel feedback technique that always achieves a positive perfect secrecy rate (even when the source-wiretapper channel is less noisy than the source-destination channel) is proposed. These results hinge on the modulo-additive property of the channel, which is exploited by the destination to perform encryption over the channel without revealing its key...

  11. Selection of effective EEG channels in brain computer interfaces based on inconsistencies of classifiers. (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Guan, Cuntai; Ang, Kai Keng; Phua, Kok Soon; Wang, Chuanchu


    This paper proposed a novel method to select the effective Electroencephalography (EEG) channels for the motor imagery tasks based on the inconsistencies from multiple classifiers. The inconsistency criterion for channel selection was designed based on the fluctuation of the classification accuracies among different classifiers when the noisy channels were included. These noisy channels were then identified and removed till a required number of channels was selected or a predefined classification accuracy with reference to baseline was obtained. Experiments conducted on a data set of 13 healthy subjects performing hand grasping and idle revealed that the EEG channels from the motor area were most frequently selected. Furthermore, the mean increases of 4.07%, 3.10% and 1.77% of the averaged accuracies in comparison with the four existing channel selection methods were achieved for the non-feedback, feedback and calibration sessions, respectively, by selecting as low as seven channels. These results further validated the effectiveness of our proposed method.

  12. HCN Channels and Heart Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Dentamaro


    Full Text Available Hyperpolarization and Cyclic Nucleotide (HCN -gated channels represent the molecular correlates of the “funny” pacemaker current (If, a current activated by hyperpolarization and considered able to influence the sinus node function in generating cardiac impulses. HCN channels are a family of six transmembrane domain, single pore-loop, hyperpolarization activated, non-selective cation channels. This channel family comprises four members: HCN1-4, but there is a general agreement to consider HCN4 as the main isoform able to control heart rate. This review aims to summarize advanced insights into the structure, function and cellular regulation of HCN channels in order to better understand the role of such channels in regulating heart rate and heart function in normal and pathological conditions. Therefore, we evaluated the possible therapeutic application of the selective HCN channels blockers in heart rate control.

  13. The Extended-Window Channel Estimator for Iterative Channel-and-Symbol Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry John R


    Full Text Available The application of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm to channel estimation results in a well-known iterative channel-and-symbol estimator (ICSE. The EM-ICSE iterates between a symbol estimator based on the forward-backward recursion (BCJR equalizer and a channel estimator, and may provide approximate maximum-likelihood blind or semiblind channel estimates. Nevertheless, the EM-ICSE has high complexity, and it is prone to misconvergence. In this paper, we propose the extended-window (EW estimator, a novel channel estimator for ICSE that can be used with any soft-output symbol estimator. Therefore, the symbol estimator may be chosen according to performance or complexity specifications. We show that the EW-ICSE, an ICSE that uses the EW estimator and the BCJR equalizer, is less complex and less susceptible to misconvergence than the EM-ICSE. Simulation results reveal that the EW-ICSE may converge faster than the EM-ICSE.

  14. Anion-Channel Blockers Inhibit S-Type Anion Channels and Abscisic Acid Responses in Guard Cells. (United States)

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Schwarz, M.; Scheaffer, J.; Assmann, S. M.; Schroeder, J. I.


    The effects of anion-channel blockers on light-mediated stomatal opening, on the potassium dependence of stomatal opening, on stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and on current through slow anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells were investigated. The anion-channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) and niflumic acid blocked current through slow anion channels of Vicia faba L. guard cells. Both 9-AC and niflumic acid reversed ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in V. faba L. and Commelina communis L. The anion-channel blocker probenecid also abolished ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in both species. Additional tests of 9-AC effects on stomatal aperture in Commelina revealed that application of this anion-channel blocker allowed wide stomatal opening under low (1 mM) KCI conditions and increased the rate of stomatal opening under both low and high (100 mM) KCI conditions. These results indicate that anion channels can function as a negative regulator of stomatal opening, presumably by allowing anion efflux and depolarization, which prohibits ion up-take in guard cells. Furthermore, 9-AC prevented ABA induction of stomatal closure. A model in which ABA activation of anion channels contributes a rate-limiting mechanism during ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening is discussed.

  15. State transfer in intrinsic decoherence spin channels

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ming-Liang; 10.1140/epjd/e2009-00220-8


    By analytically solving the master equation, we investigate quantum state transfer, creation and distribution of entanglement in the model of Milburn's intrinsic decoherence. Our results reveal that the ideal spin channels will be destroyed by the intrinsic decoherence environment, and the detrimental effects become severe as the decoherence rate $\\gamma$ and the spin chain length $N$ increase. For infinite evolution time, both the state transfer fidelity and the concurrence of the created and distributed entanglement approach steady state values, which are independent of the decoherence rate $\\gamma$ and decrease as the spin chain length $N$ increases. Finally, we present two modified spin chains which may serve as near perfect spin channels for long distance state transfer even in the presence of intrinsic decoherence environments $\\mathcal {F}{[\\rho(t)]}$.

  16. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus. (United States)

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam


    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  17. Expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel mRNAs in the mouse olfactory bulb. (United States)

    Dong, Hong-Wei; Davis, James C; Ding, ShengYuan; Nai, Qiang; Zhou, Fu-Ming; Ennis, Matthew


    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a large family of cation channels. The 28 TRP channel subtypes in rodent are divided into 6 subfamilies: TRPC1-7, TRPV1-6, TRPM1-8, TRPP2/3/5, TRPML1-3 and TRPA1. TRP channels are involved in peripheral olfactory transduction. Several TRPC channels are expressed in unidentified neurons in the main olfactory bulb (OB), but the expression of most TRP channels in the OB has not been investigated. The present study employed RT-PCR as an initial survey of the expression of TRP channel mRNAs in the mouse OB and in 3 cell types: external tufted, mitral and granule cells. All TRP channel mRNAs except TRPV5 were detected in OB tissue. Single cell RT-PCR revealed that external tufted, mitral and granule cell populations expressed in aggregate 14 TRP channel mRNAs encompassing members of all 6 subfamilies. These different OB neuron populations expressed 7-12 channel mRNAs. Common channel expression was more similar among external tufted and mitral cells than among these cells and granule cells. These results indicate that a large number of TRP channel subtypes are expressed in OB neurons, providing the molecular bases for these channels to regulate OB neuron activity and central olfactory processing.

  18. Cholesterol binding to ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena eLevitan


    Full Text Available Numerous studies demonstrated that membrane cholesterol is a major regulator of ion channel function. The goal of this review is to discuss significant advances that have been recently achieved in elucidating the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol regulation of ion channels. The first major insight that comes from growing number of studies that based on the sterol specificity of cholesterol effects, show that several types of ion channels (nAChR, Kir, BK, TRPV are regulated by specific sterol-protein interactions. This conclusion is supported by demonstrating direct saturable binding of cholesterol to a bacterial Kir channel. The second major advance in the field is the identification of putative cholesterol binding sites in several types of ion channels. These include sites at locations associated with the well-known cholesterol binding motif CRAC and its reversed form CARC in nAChR, BK, and TRPV, as well as novel cholesterol binding regions in Kir channels. Notably, in the majority of these channels, cholesterol is suggested to interact mainly with hydrophobic residues in non-annular regions of the channels being embedded in between transmembrane protein helices. We also discuss how identification of putative cholesterol binding sites is an essential step to understand the mechanistic basis of cholesterol-induced channel regulation. Clearly, however, these are only the first few steps in obtaining a general understanding of cholesterol-ion channels interactions and their roles in cellular and organ functions.

  19. Channel Wall Landslides (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Multiuser MIMO Channel Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, three beamforming design are considered for multi user MIMO system. First, transmit beamformers are fixed and the receive (RX beamformers are calculated. Transmit beamformer (TX-BFis projectedas a null space of appropriate channels. It reduces the interference for each user. Then the receiver beamformer is determined which maximize the SNR. This beamforming design provides less computation time. The second case is joint TX and RX beamformer for SNR maximization. In this transmitter and receiver beamformer are calculated using extended alternating optimization (EAO algorithm. The third one is joint transmitter and receiver beamforming for SNR and SINR maximization using EAO algorithm. This algorithm provides better error performance and sum rate performance. All the design cases are simulated by using standard multipath channel model. Our simulation results illustrate that compared to the least square design and zero forcing design, the joint TX and RX beamforming design using EAO algorithm provides faster beamforming and improved error performance and sum rate.

  1. A Micromechanical RF Channelizer (United States)

    Akgul, Mehmet

    The power consumption of a radio generally goes as the number and strength of the RF signals it must process. In particular, a radio receiver would consume much less power if the signal presented to its electronics contained only the desired signal in a tiny percent bandwidth frequency channel, rather than the typical mix of signals containing unwanted energy outside the desired channel. Unfortunately, a lack of filters capable of selecting single channel bandwidths at RF forces the front-ends of contemporary receivers to accept unwanted signals, and thus, to operate with sub-optimal efficiency. This dissertation focuses on the degree to which capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators can achieve the aforementioned RF channel-selecting filters. It aims to first show theoretically that with appropriate scaling capacitive-gap transducers are strong enough to meet the needed coupling requirements; and second, to fully detail an architecture and design procedure needed to realize said filters. Finally, this dissertation provides an actual experimentally demonstrated RF channel-select filter designed using the developed procedures and confirming theoretical predictions. Specifically, this dissertation introduces four methods that make possible the design and fabrication of RF channel-select filters. The first of these introduces a small-signal equivalent circuit for parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical resonators that employs negative capacitance to model the dependence of resonance frequency on electrical stiffness in a way that facilitates the analysis of micromechanical circuits loaded with arbitrary electrical impedances. The new circuit model not only correctly predicts the dependence of electrical stiffness on the impedances loading the input and output electrodes of parallel-plate capacitive-gap transduced micromechanical device, but does so in a visually intuitive way that identifies current drive as most appropriate for

  2. Spatial channel interactions in cochlear implants (United States)

    Tang, Qing; Benítez, Raul; Zeng, Fan-Gang


    The modern multi-channel cochlear implant is widely considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis owing to its ability to restore partial hearing to post-lingually deafened adults and to allow essentially normal language development in pre-lingually deafened children. However, the implant performance varies greatly in individuals and is still limited in background noise, tonal language understanding, and music perception. One main cause for the individual variability and the limited performance in cochlear implants is spatial channel interaction from the stimulating electrodes to the auditory nerve and brain. Here we systematically examined spatial channel interactions at the physical, physiological, and perceptual levels in the same five modern cochlear implant subjects. The physical interaction was examined using an electric field imaging technique, which measured the voltage distribution as a function of the electrode position in the cochlea in response to the stimulation of a single electrode. The physiological interaction was examined by recording electrically evoked compound action potentials as a function of the electrode position in response to the stimulation of the same single electrode position. The perceptual interactions were characterized by changes in detection threshold as well as loudness summation in response to in-phase or out-of-phase dual-electrode stimulation. To minimize potentially confounding effects of temporal factors on spatial channel interactions, stimulus rates were limited to 100 Hz or less in all measurements. Several quantitative channel interaction indexes were developed to define and compare the width, slope and symmetry of the spatial excitation patterns derived from these physical, physiological and perceptual measures. The electric field imaging data revealed a broad but uniformly asymmetrical intracochlear electric field pattern, with the apical side producing a wider half-width and shallower slope than the basal

  3. Mechanosensitive channels: feeling tension in a world under pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyronnet eRemi


    Full Text Available Plants, like other organisms, are facing multiple mechanical constraints generated both in their tissues and by the surrounding environment. They need to sense and adapt to these forces throughout their lifetime. To do so, different mechanisms devoted to force transduction have emerged. Here we focus on fascinating proteins: the mechanosenstive (MS channels. Mechanosensing in plants has been described for centuries but the molecular identification of MS channels occurred only recently. This review is aimed at plant biologists and plant biomechanists who want to be introduced to MS channel identity, how do they work and what they might do in planta? In this review, electrophysiological properties, regulations and functions of well characterized MS channels belonging to bacteria and animals are compared with those of plant . Common and specific properties are discussed. We deduce which tools and concepts from animal and bacterial fields could be helpful for improving our understanding of plant mechanotransduction. MS channel embedded in its plasma membrane is sandwiched between the cell wall and the cytoskeleton. The consequences of this peculiar situation are analyzed and discussed. We also stress how important it is to probe mechanical forces at cellular and subcellular levels in planta in order to reveal the intimate relationship linking the membrane with MS channel activity. Finally we will propose new tracks to help to reveal their physiological functions at tissue and plant levels.

  4. Ion channels-related diseases. (United States)

    Dworakowska, B; Dołowy, K


    There are many diseases related to ion channels. Mutations in muscle voltage-gated sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride channels, and acetylcholine-gated channel may lead to such physiological disorders as hyper- and hypokalemic periodic paralysis, myotonias, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, malignant hyperthermia and myasthenia. Neuronal disorders, e.g., epilepsy, episodic ataxia, familial hemiplegic migraine, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, hyperekplexia may result from dysfunction of voltage-gated sodium, potassium and calcium channels, or acetylcholine- and glycine-gated channels. Some kidney disorders, e.g., Bartter's syndrome, policystic kidney disease and Dent's disease, secretion disorders, e.g., hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy and cystic fibrosis, vision disorders, e.g., congenital stationary night blindness and total colour-blindness may also be linked to mutations in ion channels.

  5. Unifying Theories of Mobile Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Ekembe Ngondi


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the denotational semantics for channel mobility in the Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP semantics framework. The basis for the model is the UTP theory of reactive processes (precisely, the UTP semantics for Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP, which is slightly extended to allow the mobility of channels: the set of actions in which a process is authorised to participate, originally static or constant (set during the process's definition, is now made dynamic or variable: it can change during the process's execution. A channel is thus moved around by communicating it via other channels and then allowing the receiving process to extend its alphabet with the received channel. New healthiness conditions are stated to ensure an appropriate use of mobile channels.

  6. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma


    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  7. Geometric pumping in autophoretic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Michelin, Sebastien; De Canio, Gabriele; Lobato-Dauzier, Nicolas; Lauga, Eric


    Many microfluidic devices use macroscopic pressure differentials to overcome viscous friction and generate flows in microchannels. In this work, we investigate how the chemical and geometric properties of the channel walls can drive a net flow by exploiting the autophoretic slip flows induced along active walls by local concentration gradients of a solute species. We show that chemical patterning of the wall is not required to generate and control a net flux within the channel, rather channel geometry alone is sufficient. Using numerical simulations, we determine how geometric characteristics of the wall influence channel flow rate, and confirm our results analytically in the asymptotic limit of lubrication theory.

  8. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels. (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M


    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  9. TRP channels and psychiatric disorders. (United States)

    Chahl, Loris A


    Depression and schizophrenia are major psychiatric disorders that cause much human suffering. Current treatments have major limitations and new drug targets are eagerly sought. Study of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in these disorders is at an early stage and the potential of agents that activate or inhibit these channels remains speculative. The findings that TRPC6 channels promote dendritic growth and are selectively activated by hyperforin, the key constitutent of St John's wort, suggest that TRPC6 channels might prove to be a new target for antidepressant drug development. There is now considerable evidence that TRPV1 antagonists have anxiolytic activity but there is no direct evidence that they have antidepressant activity. There is also no direct evidence that TRP channels play a role in schizophrenia. However, the findings that TRPC channels are involved in neuronal development and fundamental synaptic mechanisms, and that TRPV1 channels play a role in central dopaminergic and cannabinoid mechanisms is suggestive of potential roles of these channels in schizophrenia. Investigation of TRP channels in psychiatric disorders holds the promise of yielding further understanding of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders and the development of new drug treatments.

  10. Capacities of quantum amplifier channels (United States)

    Qi, Haoyu; Wilde, Mark M.


    Quantum amplifier channels are at the core of several physical processes. Not only do they model the optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion, but the transformation corresponding to an amplifier channel also describes the physics of the dynamical Casimir effect in superconducting circuits, the Unruh effect, and Hawking radiation. Here we study the communication capabilities of quantum amplifier channels. Invoking a recently established minimum output-entropy theorem for single-mode phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, we determine capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels in three different scenarios. First, we establish the capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for one of the most general communication tasks, characterized by the trade-off between classical communication, quantum communication, and entanglement generation or consumption. Second, we establish capacities of quantum-limited amplifier channels for the trade-off between public classical communication, private classical communication, and secret key generation. Third, we determine the capacity region for a broadcast channel induced by the quantum-limited amplifier channel, and we also show that a fully quantum strategy outperforms those achieved by classical coherent-detection strategies. In all three scenarios, we find that the capacities significantly outperform communication rates achieved with a naive time-sharing strategy.

  11. Demystifying Mechanosensitive Piezo Ion Channels. (United States)

    Xu, X Z Shawn


    Mechanosensitive channels mediate touch, hearing, proprioception, and blood pressure regulation. Piezo proteins, including Piezo1 and Piezo2, represent a new class of mechanosensitive channels that have been reported to play key roles in most, if not all, of these modalities. The structural architecture and molecular mechanisms by which Piezos act as mechanosensitive channels, however, remain mysterious. Two new studies have now provided critical insights into the atomic structure and molecular basis of the ion permeation and mechano-gating properties of the Piezo1 channel.

  12. TRP channels: sensors and transducers of gasotransmitter signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki eTakahashi


    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential (trp gene superfamily encodes cation channels that act as multimodal sensors for a wide variety of stimuli from outside and inside the cell. Upon sensing, they transduce electrical and Ca2+ signals via their cation channel activities. These functional features of TRP channels allow the body to react and adapt to different forms of environmental changes. Indeed, members of one class of TRP channels have emerged as sensors of gaseous messenger molecules that control various cellular processes. Nitric oxide (NO, a vasoactive gaseous molecule, regulates TRP channels directly via cysteine S-nitrosylation or indirectly via cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation. Recent studies have revealed that changes in the availability of molecular oxygen (O2 also control the activation of TRP channels. Anoxia induced by O2-glucose deprivation and severe hypoxia (1% O2 activates TRPM7 and TRPC6, respectively, whereas TRPA1 has recently been identified as a novel sensor of hyperoxia and mild hypoxia (15% O2 in vagal and sensory neurons. TRPA1 also detects other gaseous molecules such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S and carbon dioxide (CO2. In this review, we focus on how signaling by gaseous molecules is sensed and integrated by TRP channels.

  13. MIMO Multiple Access Channel with an Arbitrarily Varying Eavesdropper

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiang; Yener, Aylin


    A two-transmitter Gaussian multiple access wiretap channel with multiple antennas at each of the nodes is investigated. The channel matrices at the legitimate terminals are fixed and revealed to all the terminals, whereas the channel matrix of the eavesdropper is arbitrarily varying and only known to the eavesdropper. The secrecy degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) region under a strong secrecy constraint is characterized. A transmission scheme that orthogonalizes the transmit signals of the two users at the intended receiver and uses a single-user wiretap code is shown to be sufficient to achieve the s.d.o.f. region. The converse involves establishing an upper bound on a weighted-sum-rate expression. This is accomplished by using induction, where at each step one combines the secrecy and multiple-access constraints associated with an adversary eavesdropping a carefully selected group of sub-channels.

  14. Effective capacity of multiple antenna channels: Correlation and keyhole

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Caijun


    In this study, the authors derive the effective capacity limits for multiple antenna channels which quantify the maximum achievable rate with consideration of link-layer delay-bound violation probability. Both correlated multiple-input single-output and multiple-input multiple-output keyhole channels are studied. Based on the closed-form exact expressions for the effective capacity of both channels, the authors look into the asymptotic high and low signal-to-noise ratio regimes, and derive simple expressions to gain more insights. The impact of spatial correlation on effective capacity is also characterised with the aid of a majorisation theory result. It is revealed that antenna correlation reduces the effective capacity of the channels and a stringent quality-of-service requirement causes a severe reduction in the effective capacity but can be alleviated by increasing the number of antennas. © 2012 The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

  15. Beyond the Manual Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , the main focus there is on spoken languages in their written and spoken forms. This series of workshops, however, offers a forum for researchers focussing on sign languages. For the fourth time, the workshop had sign language corpora as its main topic. This time, the focus was on any aspect beyond......This collection of papers stems from the Sixth Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages, held in May 2014 as a satellite to the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference in Reykjavik. While there has been occasional attention for sign languages at the main LREC conference...... the manual channel. Not surprisingly, most papers deal with non-manuals on the face. Once again, the papers at this workshop clearly identify the potentials of even closer cooperation between sign linguists and sign language engineers, and we think it is events like this that contribute a lot to a better...

  16. Channel Floor Yardangs (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 19 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. The yardangs in this image are forming in channel floor deposits. The channel itself is funneling the wind to cause the erosion. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 4.5, Longitude 229.7 East (133.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from

  17. Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab


    While information exists on high energy negative particle channeling there has been little study of the challenges of negative particle bending and channeling collimation. Partly this is because negative dechanneling lengths are relatively much shorter. Electrons are not particularly useful for investigating negative particle channeling effects because their material interactions are dominated by channeling radiation. Another important factor is that the current central challenge in channeling collimation is the proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) where both beams are positive. On the other hand in the future the collimation question might reemerge for electon-positron or muon colliders. Dechanneling lengths increase at higher energies so that part of the negative particle experimental challenge diminishes. In the article different approaches to determining negative dechanneling lengths are reviewed. The more complicated case for axial channeling is also discussed. Muon channeling as a tool to investigate dechanneling is also discussed. While it is now possible to study muon channeling it will probably not illuminate the study of negative dechanneling.

  18. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; van Dijk, W. M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.


    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. H. Sayhood; Wu Lenan


    A method of coherent detection and channel estimation for punctured convolutional coded binary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) signals transmitted over a frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels used for a digital radio broadcasting transmission is presented. Some known symbols are inserted in the encoded data stream to enhance the channel estimation process.The pilot symbols are used to replace the existing parity symbols so no bandwidth expansion is required. An iterative algorithm that uses decoding information as well as the information contained in the known symbols is used to improve the channel parameter estimate. The scheme complexity grows exponentially with the channel estimation filter length. The performance of the system is compared for a normalized fading rate with both perfect coherent detection (corresponding to a perfect knowledge of the fading process and noise variance) and differential detection of Differential Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (DAPSK). The tradeoff between simplicity of implementation and bit-error-rate performance of different techniques is also compared.

  20. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)


    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  1. Compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation for OFDM communication systems: high performance and low complexity. (United States)

    Gui, Guan; Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki


    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods.

  2. Channel Acquisition for Massive MIMO-OFDM With Adjustable Phase Shift Pilots (United States)

    You, Li; Gao, Xiqi; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Zhong, Wen


    We propose adjustable phase shift pilots (APSPs) for channel acquisition in wideband massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the pilot overhead. Based on a physically motivated channel model, we first establish a relationship between channel space-frequency correlations and the channel power angle-delay spectrum in the massive antenna array regime, which reveals the channel sparsity in massive MIMO-OFDM. With this channel model, we then investigate channel acquisition, including channel estimation and channel prediction, for massive MIMO-OFDM with APSPs. We show that channel acquisition performance in terms of sum mean square error can be minimized if the user terminals' channel power distributions in the angle-delay domain can be made non-overlapping with proper phase shift scheduling. A simplified pilot phase shift scheduling algorithm is developed based on this optimal channel acquisition condition. The performance of APSPs is investigated for both one symbol and multiple symbol data models. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed APSP approach can provide substantial performance gains in terms of achievable spectral efficiency over the conventional phase shift orthogonal pilot approach in typical mobility scenarios.

  3. Littoral steering of deltaic channels (United States)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Giosan, Liviu


    The typically single-threaded channels on wave-influenced deltas show striking differences in their orientations, with some channels oriented into the incoming waves (e.g., Ombrone, Krishna), and others oriented away from the waves (e.g., Godavari, Sao Francisco). Understanding the controls on channel orientation is important as the channel location greatly influences deltaic morphology and sedimentology, both subaerially and subaqueously. Here, we explore channel orientation and consequent feedbacks with local shoreline dynamics using a plan-form numerical model of delta evolution. The model treats fluvial sediment delivery to a wave-dominated coast in two ways: 1) channels are assumed to prograde in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation and 2) a controlled fraction of littoral sediment transport can bypass the river mouth. Model results suggest that channels migrate downdrift when there is a significant net littoral transport and alongshore transport bypassing of the river mouth is limited. In contrast, river channels tend to orient themselves into the waves when fluvial sediment flux is relatively large, causing the shoreline of the downdrift delta flank to attain the orientation of maximum potential sediment transport for the incoming wave climate. Using model results, we develop a framework to estimate channel orientations for wave-influenced deltas that shows good agreement with natural examples. An increase in fluvial sediment input can cause a channel to reorient itself into incoming waves, behavior observed, for example, in the Ombrone delta in Italy. Our results can inform paleoclimate studies by linking channel orientation to fluvial sediment flux and wave energy. In particular, our approach provides a means to quantify past wave directions, which are notoriously difficult to constrain.

  4. The Structural Basis and Functional Consequences of Interactions Between Tetrodotoxin and Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruben


    Full Text Available Abstract: Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a highly specific blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels. The dissociation constant of block varies with different channel isoforms. Until recently, channel resistance was thought to be primarily imparted by amino acid substitutions at a single position in domain I. Recent work reveals a novel site for tetrodotoxin resistance in the P-region of domain IV.

  5. Lattice site and hyperfine field of Fr in Fe studied by nuclear orientation and emission channelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, M. (Physics Dept., Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)); Richards, P. (Physics Dept., Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)); De Wachter, J. (Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven (Belgium)); Wahl, U. (Fakultaet fuer Physik, Univ. Konstanz (Germany)); Haas, H. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Pattyn, H. (Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven (Belgium)); Rikovska, J. (Physics Dept., Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)); Stone, N.J. (Physics Dept., Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)); Langouche, G. (Inst. voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven (Belgium)); Nishimura, K. (Physics Dept., Toyama Univ. (Japan)); Oliveira, I.S. (Physics Dept., Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)); Veskovic, M. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); NICOLE and ISOLDE Collaborations


    The issue of lattice sites of Fr in Fe has been studied with two different techniques, integral low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) and emission channelling. Monte Carlo simulations of the system fitted to the channelling spectra reveal a large fraction of Fr in substitutional sites and hint at a possible complex site distribution. Using a two-site model for the LTNO data, a large fraction in high field site, in agreement with the channelling data, is deduced. (orig.)

  6. Mucolipins: Intracellular TRPML1-3 channels. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiping; Shen, Dongbiao; Samie, Mohammad; Xu, Haoxing


    The mucolipin family of Transient Receptor Potential (TRPML) proteins is predicted to encode ion channels expressed in intracellular endosomes and lysosomes. Loss-of-function mutations of human TRPML1 cause type IV mucolipidosis (ML4), a childhood neurodegenerative disease. Meanwhile, gain-of-function mutations in the mouse TRPML3 result in the varitint-waddler (Va) phenotype with hearing and pigmentation defects. The broad spectrum phenotypes of ML4 and Va appear to result from certain aspects of endosomal/lysosomal dysfunction. Lysosomes, traditionally believed to be the terminal "recycling center" for biological "garbage", are now known to play indispensable roles in intracellular signal transduction and membrane trafficking. Studies employing animal models and cell lines in which TRPML genes have been genetically disrupted or depleted have uncovered roles of TRPMLs in multiple cellular functions including membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and organellar ion homeostasis. Physiological assays of mammalian cell lines in which TRPMLs are heterologously overexpressed have revealed the channel properties of TRPMLs in mediating cation (Ca(2+)/Fe(2+)) efflux from endosomes and lysosomes in response to unidentified cellular cues. This review aims to summarize these recent advances in the TRPML field and to correlate the channel properties of endolysosomal TRPMLs with their biological functions. We will also discuss the potential cellular mechanisms by which TRPML deficiency leads to neurodegeneration.

  7. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas


    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  8. An improved channel assessment scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed


    A source node in a multihop network determines whether to transmit in a channel based on whether the channel is occupied by a packet transmission with a large number of relays; whether the source node is in the data tones back-off zone; and the source node is in the busy tone back-off zone.

  9. Channel's Concurrence and Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yin-Sheng


    Concurrence can measure the entanglement property of a system. If the channel is a pure state, positive concurrence state can afford the good performance in the teleportation process. If the channel ia a mixed state, positive concurrence state cannot assure the good performance in the teleportation. The conditions of the positive concurrence and the quantum teleportation in the Heisenberg spin ring is derived.

  10. Kv Channel S1-S2 Linker Working as a Binding Site of Human β-Defensin 2 for Channel Activation Modulation. (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Yang, Weishan; Xie, Zili; Xiang, Fang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Hu, Hongzhen; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang


    Among the three extracellular domains of the tetrameric voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels consisting of six membrane-spanning helical segments named S1-S6, the functional role of the S1-S2 linker still remains unclear because of the lack of a peptide ligand. In this study, the Kv1.3 channel S1-S2 linker was reported as a novel receptor site for human β-defensin 2 (hBD2). hBD2 shifts the conductance-voltage relationship curve of the human Kv1.3 channel in a positive direction by nearly 10.5 mV and increases the activation time constant for the channel. Unlike classical gating modifiers of toxin peptides from animal venoms, which generally bind to the Kv channel S3-S4 linker, hBD2 only targets residues in both the N and C termini of the S1-S2 linker to influence channel gating and inhibit channel currents. The increment and decrement of the basic residue number in a positively charged S4 sensor of Kv1.3 channel yields conductance-voltage relationship curves in the positive direction by ∼31.2 mV and 2-4 mV, which suggests that positively charged hBD2 is anchored in the channel S1-S2 linker and is modulating channel activation through electrostatic repulsion with an adjacent S4 helix. Together, these findings reveal a novel peptide ligand that binds with the Kv channel S1-S2 linker to modulate channel activation. These findings also highlight the functional importance of the Kv channel S1-S2 linker in ligand recognition and modification of channel activation.

  11. Quantum channel capacities - multiparty communication

    CERN Document Server

    Demianowicz, M; Demianowicz, Maciej; Horodecki, Pawel


    We analyze different aspects of multiparty communication over quantum memoryless channels and generalize some of key results known from bipartite channels to that of multiparty scenario. In particular, we introduce multiparty versions of minimal subspace transmission fidelity and entanglement transmission fidelity. We also provide alternative, local, versions of fidelities and show their equivalence to the global ones in context of capacity regions defined. The equivalence of two different capacity notions with respect to two types of the fidelities is proven. In analogy to bipartite case it is shown, via sufficiency of isometric encoding theorem, that additional classical forward side channel does not increase capacity region of any quantum channel with $k$ senders and $m$ receivers which represents a compact unit of general quantum networks theory. The result proves that recently provided capacity region of multiple access channel ([M. Horodecki et al, Nature {\\bf 436} 673 (2005)], [J.Yard et al, quant-ph/0...

  12. Channelling, a new immunization strategy. (United States)

    Gacharna Romero, M G; Silva Pizano, E; Avendano Lamo, J


    In 1981, with PAHO/WHO technical assistance, the Ministry of Health, Colombia, designed what is known as the channelling strategy, aimed at improving immunization coverage. This name was given because the strategy is designed to establish communication channels through direct action aimed at promoting health. Health workers and community leaders or guides conduct household visits to identify unvaccinated children or those with incomplete vaccination schedules and "channel" them to health centers or health posts. The channelling strategy developed in Colombia was briefly mentioned in the case study on the Colombian Vaccination Crusade of 1984. It is now being employed for ORT and other PHC components in the Colombian Child Survival and Development Plan, 1985-1987. In the meantime, other countries have adopted the channelling strategy, which is described in this article.

  13. Kinetics properties of voltage induced colicin Ia channels into a lipid bilayer

    CERN Document Server

    Cassia-Moura, R


    The activation kinetics of the ion channels formed by colicin Ia incorporated into a planar bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) was investigated by the voltage clamp technique using different step voltage stimuli. The temporal behaviour of ion channels put in evidence a gain or a loss of memory, revealed by a specific sequence of electrical pulses used for stimulation.

  14. Molecular Cloning and Sequencing of Hemoglobin-Beta Gene of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Punctatus Rafinesque (United States)

    : Hemoglobin-y gene of channel catfish , lctalurus punctatus, was cloned and sequenced . Total RNA from head kidneys was isolated, reverse transcribed and amplified . The sequence of the channel catfish hemoglobin-y gene consists of 600 nucleotides . Analysis of the nucleotide sequence reveals one o...

  15. The Wiretap Channel with Feedback: Encryption over the Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Lifeng; Poor, H Vincent


    In this work, the critical role of noisy feedback in enhancing the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel is established. Unlike previous works, where a noiseless public discussion channel is used for feedback, the feed-forward and feedback signals share the same noisy channel in the present model. Quite interestingly, this noisy feedback model is shown to be more advantageous in the current setting. More specifically, the discrete memoryless modulo-additive channel with a full-duplex destination node is considered first, and it is shown that the judicious use of feedback increases the perfect secrecy capacity to the capacity of the source-destination channel in the absence of the wiretapper. In the achievability scheme, the feedback signal corresponds to a private key, known only to the destination. In the half-duplex scheme, a novel feedback technique that always achieves a positive perfect secrecy rate (even when the source-wiretapper channel is less noisy than the source-destination channel) is proposed....

  16. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.


    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  17. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao


    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  18. Opening Channels of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Moura Costa


    Full Text Available Psychosis, as described through a psychodynamic perspective, is conceptualized as an attempt to deny the enveloping reality to avoid contact with the other. Music therapy is a way to break this barrier of non-communication raised by the patients. The music therapy process is configured as a trinomial – action (making music/ relationship (action with the other/communication (musical or verbal voluntary expression of feelings and conflicts, which, although intrinsically connected, is perceived in a sequential process. Aulagnier asserts that psychic activity represents the conjunction of three modes of functioning: the original process, the primary process and the secondary process. The perception of sound passes through three phases, corresponding to each manner of functioning of the psychic system – the pleasure of hearing, the desire to listen (to the other and the imperative of meaning. The music therapy process offers a significant similarity with the theory proposed by Aulagnier. We propose the hypothesis that in music therapy, there is an opportunity to (reexperience very archaic phases in the constitution of the ego, but in a new manner, so helping to open communication channels. This theoretical hypothesis is illustrated by real examples of patients.

  19. Ergodic channel capacity of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-ping; WU Ping; LIU Ai-jun


    The theoretical capacity of the spatial correlated Rayleigh multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel is an important issue in MIMO technology. In this article, an ergodic channel capacity formula of the spatial correlated rayleigh MIMO channel is provided, which is deduced when two antennas exist at either the transmitter or the receiver. The multi-dimensional least-squares fit algorithm is employed to narrow the difference between the theoretical formula capacity and the practical capacity. Simulation results show that the theoretical capacity approaches the practical one closely.

  20. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  1. Cooperative transition between open and closed conformations in potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Haliloglu

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ ion channels switch between open and closed conformations. The nature of this important transition was revealed by comparing the X-ray crystal structures of the MthK channel from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, obtained in its open conformation, and the KcsA channel from Streptomyces lividans, obtained in its closed conformation. We analyzed the dynamic characteristics and energetics of these homotetrameric structures in order to study the role of the intersubunit cooperativity in this transition. For this, elastic models and in silico alanine-scanning mutagenesis were used, respectively. Reassuringly, the calculations manifested motion from the open (closed towards the closed (open conformation. The calculations also revealed a network of dynamically and energetically coupled residues. Interestingly, the network suggests coupling between the selectivity filter and the gate, which are located at the two ends of the channel pore. Coupling between these two regions was not observed in calculations that were conducted with the monomer, which emphasizes the importance of the intersubunit interactions within the tetrameric structure for the cooperative gating behavior of the channel.

  2. Channel Coding in Random Access Communication over Compound Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zheng


    Due to the short and bursty incoming messages, channel access activities in a wireless random access system are often fractional. The lack of frequent data support consequently makes it difficult for the receiver to estimate and track the time varying channel states with high precision. This paper investigates random multiple access communication over a compound wireless channel where channel realization is known neither at the transmitters nor at the receiver. An achievable rate and error probability tradeoff bound is derived under the non-asymptotic assumption of a finite codeword length. The results are then extended to the random multiple access system where the receiver is only interested in decoding messages from a user subset.

  3. Functional expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in spinal motoneurons of the adult turtle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Canto-Bustos

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV channels are transmembrane proteins comprising three subfamilies named CaV1, CaV2 and CaV3. The CaV3 channel subfamily groups the low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels (LVA or T-type a significant role in regulating neuronal excitability. CaV3 channel activity may lead to the generation of complex patterns of action potential firing such as the postinhibitory rebound (PIR. In the adult spinal cord, these channels have been found in dorsal horn interneurons where they control physiological events near the resting potential and participate in determining excitability. In motoneurons, CaV3 channels have been found during development, but their functional expression has not yet been reported in adult animals. Here, we show evidence for the presence of CaV3 channel-mediated PIR in motoneurons of the adult turtle spinal cord. Our results indicate that Ni2+ and NNC55-0396, two antagonists of CaV3 channel activity, inhibited PIR in the adult turtle spinal cord. Molecular biology and biochemical assays revealed the expression of the CaV3.1 channel isotype and its localization in motoneurons. Together, these results provide evidence for the expression of CaV3.1 channels in the spinal cord of adult animals and show also that these channels may contribute to determine the excitability of motoneurons.

  4. Channel estimation in TDD mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; GU Jian; YANG Da-cheng


    An efficient solution is proposed in this article for the channel estimation in time division duplex (TDD) mode wireless communication systems. In the proposed solution, the characteristics of fading channels in TDD mode systems are fully exploited to estimate the path delay of the fading channel.The corresponding amplitude is estimated using the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. As a result, it is shown that the proposed novel solution is more accurate and efficient than the traditional solution, and the improvement is beneficial to the performance of Joint Detection.

  5. Ion channels in neuronal survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The study of ion channels represents one of the most active fields in neuroscience research in China.In the last 10 years,active research in various Chinese neuroscience institutions has sought to understand the mechanisms responsible for sensory processing,neural development and neurogenesis,neural plasticity,as well as pathogenesis.In addition,extensive studies have been directed to measure ion channel activity,structure-function relationships,as well as many other biophysical and biochemical properties.This review focuses on the progress achieved in the investigation of ion channels in neuronal survival during the past 10 years in China.

  6. Marine Toxins Targeting Ion Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R. Arias


    Full Text Available Abstract: This introductory minireview points out the importance of ion channels for cell communication. The basic concepts on the structure and function of ion channels triggered by membrane voltage changes, the so-called voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs, as well as those activated by neurotransmitters, the so-called ligand-gated ion channel (LGICs, are introduced. Among the most important VGIC superfamiles, we can name the voltage-gated Na+ (NaV, Ca2+ (CaV, and K+ (KV channels. Among the most important LGIC super families, we can include the Cys-loop or nicotinicoid, the glutamate-activated (GluR, and the ATP-activated (P2XnR receptor superfamilies. Ion channels are transmembrane proteins that allow the passage of different ions in a specific or unspecific manner. For instance, the activation of NaV, CaV, or KV channels opens a pore that is specific for Na+, Ca2+, or K+, respectively. On the other hand, the activation of certain LGICs such as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, GluRs, and P2XnRs allows the passage of cations (e.g., Na+, K+, and/or Ca2+, whereas the activation of other LGICs such as type A γ-butyric acid and glycine receptors allows the passage of anions (e.g., Cl− and/or HCO3−. In this regard, the activation of NaV and CaV as well as ligand-gated cation channels produce membrane depolarization, which finally leads to stimulatory effects in the cell, whereas the activation of KV as well as ligand-gated anion channels induce membrane hyperpolarization that finally leads to inhibitory effects in the cell. The importance of these ion channel superfamilies is emphasized by considering their physiological functions throughout the body as well as their pathophysiological implicance in several neuronal diseases. In this regard, natural molecules, and especially marine toxins, can be potentially used as modulators (e.g., inhibitors or prolongers of ion channel functions to treat or to alleviate a specific

  7. Skeletal Muscle Na+ Channel Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina eSimkin


    Full Text Available Five inherited human disorders affecting skeletal muscle contraction have been traced to mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.4. The main symptoms of these disorders are myotonia or periodic paralysis caused by changes in skeletal muscle fiber excitability. Symptoms of these disorders vary from mild or latent disease to incapacitating or even death in severe cases. As new human sodium channel mutations corresponding to disease states become discovered, the importance of understanding the role of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle function and disease state grows.

  8. Design of a specific activator for skeletal muscle sodium channels uncovers channel architecture. (United States)

    Cohen, Lior; Ilan, Nitza; Gur, Maya; Stühmer, Walter; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael


    Gating modifiers of voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) are important tools in neuroscience research and may have therapeutic potential in medicinal disorders. Analysis of the bioactive surface of the scorpion beta-toxin Css4 (from Centruroides suffusus suffusus) toward rat brain (rNa(v)1.2a) and skeletal muscle (rNa(v)1.4) channels using binding studies revealed commonality but also substantial differences, which were used to design a specific activator, Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R), of rNa(v)1.4 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The therapeutic potential of Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R) was tested using an rNa(v)1.4 mutant carrying the same mutation present in the genetic disorder hypokalemic periodic paralysis. The activator restored the impaired gating properties of the mutant channel expressed in oocytes, thus offering a tentative new means for treatment of neuromuscular disorders with reduced muscle excitability. Mutant double cycle analysis employing toxin residues involved in the construction of Css4(F14A/E15A/E28R) and residues whose equivalents in the rat brain channel rNa(v)1.2a were shown to affect Css4 binding revealed significant coupling energy (>1.3 kcal/mol) between F14A and E592A at Domain-2/voltage sensor segments 1-2 (D2/S1-S2), R27Q and E1251N at D3/SS2-S6, and E28R with both E650A at D2/S3-S4 and E1251N at D3/SS2-S6. These results show that despite the differences in interactions with the rat brain and skeletal muscle Na(v)s, Css4 recognizes a similar region on both channel subtypes. Moreover, our data indicate that the S3-S4 loop of the voltage sensor module in Domain-2 is in very close proximity to the SS2-S6 segment of the pore module of Domain-3 in rNa(v)1.4. This is the first experimental evidence that the inter-domain spatial organization of mammalian Na(v)s resembles that of voltage-gated potassium channels.

  9. Infinitely many kinds of quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We define the ability of a quantum channel to simulate another by means of suitable encoding and decoding operations. While classical channels have only two equivalence classes under simulation (channels with non-vanishing capacity and those with vanishing capacity), we show that there are an uncountable infinity of different equivalence classes of quantum channels using the example of the quantum erasure channel. Our results also imply a kind of 'Matthew principle' for error correction on certain channels.

  10. The First Extracellular Domain Plays an Important Role in Unitary Channel Conductance of Cx50 Gap Junction Channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tong

    Full Text Available Gap junction (GJ channels provide direct passage for ions and small molecules to be exchanged between neighbouring cells and are crucial for many physiological processes. GJ channels can be gated by transjunctional voltage (known as Vj-gating and display a wide range of unitary channel conductance (γj, yet the domains responsible for Vj-gating and γj are not fully clear. The first extracellular domain (E1 of several connexins has been shown to line part of their GJ channel pore and play important roles in Vj-gating properties and/or ion permeation selectivity. To test roles of the E1 of Cx50 GJ channels, we generated a chimera, Cx50Cx36E1, where the E1 domain of Cx50 was replaced with that of Cx36, a connexin showing quite distinct Vj-gating and γj from those of Cx50. Detailed characterizations of the chimera and three point mutants in E1 revealed that, although the E1 domain is important in determining γj, the E1 domain of Cx36 is able to effectively function within the context of the Cx50 channel with minor changes in Vj-gating properties, indicating that sequence differences between the E1 domains in Cx36 and Cx50 cannot account for their drastic differences in Vj-gating and γj. Our homology models of the chimera and the E1 mutants revealed that electrostatic properties of the pore-lining residues and their contribution to the electric field in the pore are important factors for the rate of ion permeation of Cx50 and possibly other GJ channels.

  11. Trails of kilovolt ions created by subsurface channeling. (United States)

    Redinger, Alex; Standop, Sebastian; Michely, Thomas; Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M


    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe the damage trails produced by keV noble-gas ions incident at glancing angles onto Pt(111). Surface vacancies and adatoms aligned along the ion trajectory constitute the ion trails. Atomistic simulations reveal that these straight trails are produced by nuclear (elastic) collisions with surface layer atoms during subsurface channeling of the projectiles. In a small energy window around 5 keV, Xe+ ions create vacancy grooves that mark the ion trajectory with atomic precision. The asymmetry of the adatom production on the two sides of the projectile path is traced back to the asymmetry of the ion's subsurface channel.

  12. Channelized bottom melting and stability of floating ice shelves


    Rignot, E; Steffen, K.


    The floating ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, in northwest Greenland, experiences massive bottom melting that removes 80% of its ice before calving into the Arctic Ocean. Detailed surveys of the ice shelf reveal the presence of 1-2 km wide, 200-400 in deep, sub-ice shelf channels, aligned with the flow direction and spaced by 5 km. We attribute their formation to the bottom melting of ice from warm ocean waters underneath. Drilling at the center of one of channel, only 8 m above sea l...

  13. ROMK1 channel activity is regulated by monoubiquitination. (United States)

    Lin, Dao-Hong; Sterling, Hyacinth; Wang, Zhijian; Babilonia, Elisa; Yang, Baofeng; Dong, Ke; Hebert, Steven C; Giebisch, Gerhard; Wang, Wen-Hui


    The ubiquitination of proteins can signal their degradation, modify their activity or target them to specific membranes or cellular organelles. Here, we show that monoubiquitination regulates the plasma membrane abundance and function of the potassium channel, ROMK. Immunoprecipitation of proteins obtained from renal cortex and outer medulla with ROMK antibody revealed that this channel was monoubiquitinated. To determine the ubiquitin binding site on ROMK1, all intracellular lysine (Lys) residues of ROMK1 were individually mutated to arginine (Arg), and a two-electrode voltage clamp was used to measure the ROMK1 channel activity in Xenopus oocytes. ROMK1 channel activity increased from 8.1 to 27.2 microA only when Lys-22 was mutated to Arg. Furthermore, Western blotting failed to detect the ubiquitinated ROMK1 in oocytes injected with R1K22R. Patch-clamp experiments showed that biophysical properties of R1K22R were identical to those of wild-type ROMK1. Although total protein expression levels of GFP-ROMK1 and GFP-R1K22R in oocytes were similar, confocal microscopy showed that the surface fluorescence intensity in oocytes injected with GFP-R1K22R was higher than that of GFP-ROMK1. In addition, biotin labeling of ROMK1 and R1K22R proteins expressed in HEK293 cells showed increased surface expression of the Lys-22 mutant channel. Finally, expression of R1K22R in COS7 cells significantly stimulated the surface expression of ROMK1. We conclude that ROMK1 can be monoubiquitinated and that Lys-22 is an ubiquitin-binding site. Thus, monoubiquitination of ROMK1 regulates channel activity by reducing the surface expression of channel protein. This finding implicates the linking of a single ubiquitin molecule to channels as an important posttranslational regulatory signal.

  14. Message Authentication over Noisy Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zheng


    Full Text Available The essence of authentication is the transmission of unique and irreproducible information. In this paper, the authentication becomes a problem of the secure transmission of the secret key over noisy channels. A general analysis and design framework for message authentication is presented based on the results of Wyner’s wiretap channel. Impersonation and substitution attacks are primarily investigated. Information-theoretic lower and upper bounds on the opponent’s success probability are derived, and the lower bound and the upper bound are shown to match. In general, the fundamental limits on message authentication over noisy channels are fully characterized. Analysis results demonstrate that introducing noisy channels is a reliable way to enhance the security of authentication.

  15. FMCG companies specific distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Barin


    Full Text Available Distribution includes all activities undertaken by the producer, alone or in cooperation, since the end of the final finished products or services until they are in possession of consumers. The distribution consists of the following major components: distribution channels or marketing channels, which together form a distribution network; logistics o rphysical distribution. In order to effective achieve, distribution of goods requires an amount of activities and operational processes related to transit of goods from producer to consumer, the best conditions, using existing distribution channels and logistics system. One of the essential functions of a distribution is performing acts of sale, through which, with the actual movement of goods, their change of ownership takes place, that the successive transfer of ownership from producer to consumer. This is an itinerary in the economic cycle of goods, called the distribution channel.

  16. The Degraded Poisson Wiretap Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Laourine, Amine


    Providing security guarantees for wireless communication is critically important for today's applications. While previous work in this area has concentrated on radio frequency (RF) channels, providing security guarantees for RF channels is inherently difficult because they are prone to rapid variations due small scale fading. Wireless optical communication, on the other hand, is inherently more secure than RF communication due to the intrinsic aspects of the signal propagation in the optical and near-optical frequency range. In this paper, secure communication over wireless optical links is examined by studying the secrecy capacity of a direct detection system. For the degraded Poisson wiretap channel, a closed-form expression of the secrecy capacity is given. A complete characterization of the general rate-equivocation region is also presented. For achievability, an optimal code is explicitly constructed by using the structured code designed by Wyner for the Poisson channel. The converse is proved in two dif...

  17. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  18. Covert Channel Synthesis for Transducers


    Benattar, Gilles; Bérard, Béatrice; Lime, Didier; Mullins, John; Roux, Olivier Henri; Sassolas, Mathieu


    Research report; Covert channels are a security threat for information systems, since they permit illegal flows, and sometimes leaks, of classified data. Although numerous descriptions have been given at a concrete level, relatively little work has been carried out at a more abstract level, outside probabilistic models. In this paper, we propose a definition of covert channels based on encoding and decoding binary messages with transducers, in a finite transition system. We first compare this...

  19. The Degraded Poisson Wiretap Channel


    Laourine, Amine; Wagner, Aaron B.


    Providing security guarantees for wireless communication is critically important for today's applications. While previous work in this area has concentrated on radio frequency (RF) channels, providing security guarantees for RF channels is inherently difficult because they are prone to rapid variations due small scale fading. Wireless optical communication, on the other hand, is inherently more secure than RF communication due to the intrinsic aspects of the signal propagation in the optical ...

  20. TRP Channels in Human Prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Van Haute


    Full Text Available This review gives an overview of morphological and functional characteristics in the human prostate. It will focus on the current knowledge about transient receptor potential (TRP channels expressed in the human prostate, and their putative role in normal physiology and prostate carcinogenesis. Controversial data regarding the expression pattern and the potential impact of TRP channels in prostate function, and their involvement in prostate cancer and other prostate diseases, will be discussed.

  1. Eight channel telephone telemetry system (United States)

    Smith, R. E.


    A portable, indirectly coupled telephone system is reported which transmits/to a central receiving site eight channels of EEG data of sufficient fidelity for screening and/or limited diagnostic use. The system requires no electrical connection to the telephone at the transmitter or at the receiver and is compatible with common EEG recording practice for real-time recording. It accepts 8 input channels simultaneously with one telephone transmitter and one telephone receiver operates from standard power sources.

  2. Ca2+ Channel Re-localization to Plasma-Membrane Microdomains Strengthens Activation of Ca2+-Dependent Nuclear Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samanta


    Full Text Available In polarized cells or cells with complex geometry, clustering of plasma-membrane (PM ion channels is an effective mechanism for eliciting spatially restricted signals. However, channel clustering is also seen in cells with relatively simple topology, suggesting it fulfills a more fundamental role in cell biology than simply orchestrating compartmentalized responses. Here, we have compared the ability of store-operated Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC channels confined to PM microdomains with a similar number of dispersed CRAC channels to activate transcription factors, which subsequently increase nuclear gene expression. For similar levels of channel activity, we find that channel confinement is considerably more effective in stimulating gene expression. Our results identify a long-range signaling advantage to the tight evolutionary conservation of channel clustering and reveal that CRAC channel aggregation increases the strength, fidelity, and reliability of the general process of excitation-transcription coupling.

  3. On Cellular MIMO Channel Capacity (United States)

    Adachi, Koichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki; Nakagawa, Masao

    To increase the transmission rate without bandwidth expansion, the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has recently been attracting much attention. The MIMO channel capacity in a cellular system is affected by the interference from neighboring co-channel cells. In this paper, we introduce the cellular channel capacity and evaluate its outage capacity, taking into account the frequency-reuse factor, path loss exponent, standard deviation of shadowing loss, and transmission power of a base station (BS). Furthermore, we compare the cellular MIMO downlink channel capacity with those of other multi-antenna transmission techniques such as single-input multiple-output (SIMO) and space-time block coded multiple-input single-output (STBC-MISO). We show that the optimum frequency-reuse factor F that maximizes 10%-outage capacity is 3 and both 50%- and 90%-outage capacities is 1 irrespective of the type of multi-antenna transmission technique, where q%-outage capacity is defined as the channel capacity that gives an outage probability of q%. We also show that the cellular MIMO channel capacity is always higher than those of SIMO and STBC-MISO.

  4. Suppression of nano-channel ion conductance by electro-osmotic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Zhu, Xin; Ran, Qiushi; Dutton, Robert


    This theoretical study concerns a basic understanding of ion transport in nano-channels that have weakly overlapping electric double layers. Numerical simulations reveal that the electro-osmotic flow (EOF) interplays with the concentration-polarization process and drives the ion depletion zone into the channels, thus significantly suppressing the channel conductance. The conductance may be restored at high electrical biases in the presence of recirculating vortices within the channels. Further analysis are conducted based on a 1-D, long channel model, and analytic expressions derived to quantitatively account for the EOF-driven ion depletion process. A limiting-conductance behavior is revealed as intrinsically different from the classical limiting-current behavior.

  5. Airborne radar imaging of subaqueous channel evolution in Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, USA (United States)

    Shaw, John B.; Ayoub, Francois; Jones, Cathleen E.; Lamb, Michael P.; Holt, Benjamin; Wagner, R. Wayne; Coffey, Thomas S.; Chadwick, J. Austin; Mohrig, David


    Shallow coastal regions are among the fastest evolving landscapes but are notoriously difficult to measure with high spatiotemporal resolution. Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) data, we demonstrate that high signal-to-noise L band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can reveal subaqueous channel networks at the distal ends of river deltas. Using 27 UAVSAR images collected between 2009 and 2015 from the Wax Lake Delta in coastal Louisiana, USA, we show that under normal tidal conditions, planform geometry of the distributary channel network is frequently resolved in the UAVSAR images, including ~700 m of seaward network extension over 5 years for one channel. UAVSAR also reveals regions of subaerial and subaqueous vegetation, streaklines of biogenic surfactants, and what appear to be small distributary channels aliased by the survey grid, all illustrating the value of fine resolution, low noise, L band SAR for mapping the nearshore subaqueous delta channel network.

  6. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan


    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  7. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard


    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  8. NALCN ion channels have alternative selectivity filters resembling calcium channels or sodium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available NALCN is a member of the family of ion channels with four homologous, repeat domains that include voltage-gated calcium and sodium channels. NALCN is a highly conserved gene from simple, extant multicellular organisms without nervous systems such as sponges and placozoans and mostly remains a single gene compared to the calcium and sodium channels which diversified into twenty genes in humans. The single NALCN gene has alternatively-spliced exons at exons 15 or exon 31 that splices in novel selectivity filter residues that resemble calcium channels (EEEE or sodium channels (EKEE or EEKE. NALCN channels with alternative calcium, (EEEE and sodium, (EKEE or EEKE -selective pores are conserved in simple bilaterally symmetrical animals like flatworms to non-chordate deuterostomes. The single NALCN gene is limited as a sodium channel with a lysine (K-containing pore in vertebrates, but originally NALCN was a calcium-like channel, and evolved to operate as both a calcium channel and sodium channel for different roles in many invertebrates. Expression patterns of NALCN-EKEE in pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis suggest roles for NALCN in secretion, with an abundant expression in brain, and an up-regulation in secretory organs of sexually-mature adults such as albumen gland and prostate. NALCN-EEEE is equally abundant as NALCN-EKEE in snails, but is greater expressed in heart and other muscle tissue, and 50% less expressed in the brain than NALCN-EKEE. Transfected snail NALCN-EEEE and NALCN-EKEE channel isoforms express in HEK-293T cells. We were not able to distinguish potential NALCN currents from background, non-selective leak conductances in HEK293T cells. Native leak currents without expressing NALCN genes in HEK-293T cells are NMDG(+ impermeant and blockable with 10 µM Gd(3+ ions and are indistinguishable from the hallmark currents ascribed to mammalian NALCN currents expressed in vitro by Lu et al. in Cell. 2007 Apr 20;129(2:371-83.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.H.Sayhood; WuLenan


    A method of coherent detection and channel estimation for punctured convolutional coded binary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) signals transmitted over a frequency-flat Rayleigh fading channels used for a digital radio broadcasting transmission is presented.Some known symbols are inserted in the encoded data stream to enhance the channel estimation process.The puilot symbols are used to replace the existing parity symbols so no bandwidth expansion is required.An iterative algorithm that uses decoding information as well as the information contained in the known symbols is used to improve the channel parameter estimate.The scheme complexity grows exponentially with the channel estimation filter length,The performance of the system is compared for a normalized fading rate with both perfect coherent detection(Corresponding to a perfect knowledge of the fading process and noise variance)and differential detection of Differential Amplitude Phase Shift Keying (DAPSK).The tradeoff between simplicity of implementation and bit-error-rate performance of different techniques is also compared.

  10. Stability of stratified two-phase flows in inclined channels

    CERN Document Server

    Barmak, Ilya; Ullmann, Amos; Brauner, Neima


    Linear stability of stratified gas-liquid and liquid-liquid plane-parallel flows in inclined channels is studied with respect to all wavenumber perturbations. The main objective is to predict parameter regions in which stable stratified configuration in inclined channels exists. Up to three distinct base states with different holdups exist in inclined flows, so that the stability analysis has to be carried out for each branch separately. Special attention is paid to the multiple solution regions to reveal the feasibility of non-unique stable stratified configurations in inclined channels. The stability boundaries of each branch of steady state solutions are presented on the flow pattern map and are accompanied by critical wavenumbers and spatial profiles of the most unstable perturbations. Instabilities of different nature are visualized by streamlines of the neutrally stable perturbed flows, consisting of the critical perturbation superimposed on the base flow. The present analysis confirms the existence of ...

  11. Structure and Mechanism of a Pentameric Formate Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waight, A.; Love, J; Wang, D


    Formate transport across the inner membrane is a critical step in anaerobic bacterial respiration. Members of the formate/nitrite transport protein family function to shuttle substrate across the cytoplasmic membrane. In bacterial pathogens, the nitrite transport protein is involved in protecting bacteria from peroxynitrite released by host macrophages. We have determined the 2.13-{angstrom} structure of the formate channel FocA from Vibrio cholerae, which reveals a pentamer in which each monomer possesses its own substrate translocation pore. Unexpectedly, the fold of the FocA monomer resembles that found in water and glycerol channels. The selectivity filter in FocA consists of a cytoplasmic slit and a central constriction ring. A 2.5-{angstrom} high-formate structure shows two formate ions bound to the cytoplasmic slit via both hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions, providing a structural basis for the substrate selectivity of the channel.

  12. Strain Engineering Water Transport in Graphene Nano-channels

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Wei; Ma, Ming; Xu, Zhiping; Sheridan, John; Zheng, Quanshui


    Using equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, we found that engineering the strain on the graphene planes forming a channel can drastically change the interfacial friction of water transport through it. There is a sixfold change of interfacial friction stress when the strain changes from -10% to 10%. Stretching the graphene walls increases the interfacial shear stress, while compressing the graphene walls reduces it. Detailed analysis of the molecular structure reveals the essential roles of the interfacial potential energy barrier and the structural commensurateness between the solid walls and the first water layer. Our results suggest that the strain engineering is an effective way of controlling the water transport inside nano-channels. The resulting quantitative relations between shear stress and slip velocity and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms will be invaluable in designing graphene nano-channel devices.

  13. Patterning of polymers: precise channel stamping by optimizing wetting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, Ralf; Kramer, Edward J; Lange, Frederick F [Mitsubishi Chemical Center for Advanced Materials, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)


    Channel stamping is a soft lithography technique that can be used to fabricate small structures of polymeric materials. This technique is cheap and easy but a considerable drawback is the fact that reproduction of the patterns of the stamp is often imprecise due to the wetting properties of liquid and stamp. In this paper, we report on experiments that reveal the parameters governing the behaviour of liquids in grooves and on edges. Optimizing these parameters leads to better-quality channel-stamped structures and enables the design of sophisticated structured polymeric materials, allowing channels as small as about 100 nm to be fabricated. Moreover, we show that it is even possible to build up a freestanding three-dimensional structure by stamping line patterns on top of each other.

  14. Molecular Structure of the Human CFTR Ion Channel. (United States)

    Liu, Fangyu; Zhang, Zhe; Csanády, László; Gadsby, David C; Chen, Jue


    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that uniquely functions as an ion channel. Here, we present a 3.9 Å structure of dephosphorylated human CFTR without nucleotides, determined by electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Close resemblance of this human CFTR structure to zebrafish CFTR under identical conditions reinforces its relevance for understanding CFTR function. The human CFTR structure reveals a previously unresolved helix belonging to the R domain docked inside the intracellular vestibule, precluding channel opening. By analyzing the sigmoid time course of CFTR current activation, we propose that PKA phosphorylation of the R domain is enabled by its infrequent spontaneous disengagement, which also explains residual ATPase and gating activity of dephosphorylated CFTR. From comparison with MRP1, a feature distinguishing CFTR from all other ABC transporters is the helix-loop transition in transmembrane helix 8, which likely forms the structural basis for CFTR's channel function.

  15. Sanshool on The Fingertip Interferes with Vibration Detection in a Rapidly-Adapting (RA) Tactile Channel (United States)

    Kuroki, Scinob; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Nishida, Shin’ya; Haggard, Patrick; Watanabe, Junji


    An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool), is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA) channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience. However, since the RA channel may not be the only channel activated by sanshool, there could be a possibility that the sanshool tingling percept may be caused in whole or in part by other sensory channels. Here, by using a perceptual interference paradigm, we show that the sanshool-induced RA input indeed contributes to the human tactile processing. The absolute detection thresholds for vibrotactile input were measured with and without sanshool application on the fingertip. Sanshool significantly impaired detection of vibrations at 30 Hz (RA channel dominant frequency), but did not impair detection of higher frequency vibrations at 240 Hz (Pacinian-corpuscle (PC) channel dominant frequency) or lower frequency vibrations at 1 Hz (slowly adapting 1 (SA1) channel dominant frequency). These results show that the sanshool induces a peripheral RA channel activation that is relevant for tactile perception. This anomalous activation of RA channels may contribute to the unique tingling experience of sanshool. PMID:27935970

  16. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik


    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  17. MIMO Relaying Broadcast Channels with Linear Precoding and Quantized Channel State Information Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wei; Lu, Wu-Sheng; 10.1109/TSP.2010.2056687


    Multi-antenna relaying has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the system performance in cellular networks. However, when precoding techniques are utilized to obtain multi-antenna gains, the system generally requires channel state information (CSI) at the transmitters. We consider a linear precoding scheme in a MIMO relaying broadcast channel with quantized CSI feedback from both two-hop links. With this scheme, each remote user feeds back its quantized CSI to the relay, and the relay sends back the quantized precoding information to the base station (BS). An upper bound on the rate loss due to quantized channel knowledge is first characterized. Then, in order to maintain the rate loss within a predetermined gap for growing SNRs, a strategy of scaling quantization quality of both two-hop links is proposed. It is revealed that the numbers of feedback bits of both links should scale linearly with the transmit power at the relay, while only the bit number of feedback from the relay to the BS needs to gr...

  18. Transient receptor potential channels in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Daoyan; Scholze, Alexandra; Zhu, Zhiming;


    The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated.......The role of nonselective cation channels of the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) family in essential hypertension has not yet been investigated....

  19. Minimum output entropy of Gaussian channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, S; Maccone, L; Pirandola, S; Garcia-Patron, R


    We show that the minimum output entropy for all single-mode Gaussian channels is additive and is attained for Gaussian inputs. This allows the derivation of the channel capacity for a number of Gaussian channels, including that of the channel with linear loss, thermal noise, and linear amplification.

  20. Information transfer through quantum channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, D.


    This PhD thesis represents work done between Aug. 2003 and Dec. 2006 in Reinhard F. Werner's quantum information theory group at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, and Artur Ekert's Centre for Quantum Computation at the University of Cambridge. My thesis falls into the field of abstract quantum information theory. This work investigates both fundamental properties of quantum channels and their asymptotic capacities for classical as well as quantum information transfer. Stinespring's theorem is the basic structure theorem for quantum channels. It implies that every quantum channel can be represented as a unitary evolution on an enlarged system. In Ch. 3 we present a continuity theorem for Stinespring's representation: two quantum channels are similar if and only if it is possible to find unitary implementations that are likewise similar, with dimension-independent norm bounds. The continuity theorem allows to derive a formulation of the information-disturbance tradeoff in terms of quantum channels, and a continuity estimate for the no-broadcasting principle. In Ch. 4 we then apply the continuity theorem to give a strengthened no-go proof for quantum bit commitment, an important cryptographic primitive. This result also provides a natural characterization of those protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unconditional security, and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present a new such protocol whose security relies on decoherence in the receiver's lab. Ch. 5 reviews the capacities of quantum channels for the transfer of both classical and quantum information, and investigates several variations in the notion of channel capacity. Memory effects are then investigated in detail in Ch. 6. We advertise a model which is sufficiently general to encompass all causal automata: every quantum process in which the outputs up to any given time t do not depend on the inputs at times t'>t can be represented as a concatenated memory

  1. Quantum channels with a finite memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, G; Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano


    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  2. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions. (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong


    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008 (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi


    On the discovery of coherent Bremsstrahlung in a single crystal at the Frascati National Laboratories / C. Barbiellini, G. P. Murtas and S. B. Dabagov -- Advances in coherent Bremsstrahlung and LPM-effect studies (to the lOOth anniversary from the birth of L. D. Landau) / N. F. Shul'ga -- Spectra of radiation and created particles at intermediate energy in oriented crystal taking into account energy loss / V. N. Baier and V. M. Katkov -- The coherent Bremsstrahlung beam at MAX-lab facility / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Radiation from thin, structured targets (CERN NA63) / A. Dizdar -- Hard incoherent radiation in thick crystals / N. F. Shul'ga, V. V. Syshchenko and A. I. Tarnovsky -- Coherent Bremsstrahlung in periodically deformed crystals with a complex base / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Induction of coherent x-ray Bremsstrahlung in crystals under the influence of acoustic waves / A. R. Mkrtchyan and V. V. Parazian -- Coherent processes in bent single crystals / V. A. Maisheev -- Experimental and theoretical investigation of complete transfer phenomenon for media with various heat exchange coefficients / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. E. Movsisyan and V. R. Kocharyan -- Coherent pair production in crystals / A. R. Mkrtchyan, A. A. Saharian and V. V. Parazian -- Negative particle planar and axial channeling and channeling collimation / R. A. Carrigan, Jr. -- CERN crystal-based collimation in modern hadron colliders / W. Scandale -- Studies and application of bent crystals for beam steering at 70 GeV IHEP accelerator / A. G. Afonin ... [et al.] -- Crystal collimation studies at the Tevatron (T-980) / N. V. Mokhov ... [et al.] -- Fabrication of crystals for channeling of particles in accellerators / A. Mazzolari ... [et al.] -- New possibilities to facilitate collimation of both positively and negatively charged particle beams by crystals / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- Increase of probability of particle capture into the channeling

  4. Multiple Parameter Estimation With Quantized Channel Output

    CERN Document Server

    Mezghani, Amine; Nossek, Josef A


    We present a general problem formulation for optimal parameter estimation based on quantized observations, with application to antenna array communication and processing (channel estimation, time-of-arrival (TOA) and direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation). The work is of interest in the case when low resolution A/D-converters (ADCs) have to be used to enable higher sampling rate and to simplify the hardware. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) based algorithm is proposed for solving this problem in a general setting. Besides, we derive the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) and discuss the effects of quantization and the optimal choice of the ADC characteristic. Numerical and analytical analysis reveals that reliable estimation may still be possible even when the quantization is very coarse.

  5. Bubbles, Gating, and Anesthetics in Ion Channels


    Roth, Roland, imp.; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Eisenberg, Robert E.


    We suggest that bubbles are the bistable hydrophobic gates responsible for the on-off transitions of single channel currents. In this view, many types of channels gate by the same physical mechanism—dewetting by capillary evaporation—but different types of channels use different sensors to modulate hydrophobic properties of the channel wall and thereby trigger and control bubbles and gating. Spontaneous emptying of channels has been seen in many simulations. Because of the physics involved, s...

  6. Surfing Peer-to-Peer IPTV: Distributed Channel Switching (United States)

    Kermarrec, A.-M.; Le Merrer, E.; Liu, Y.; Simon, G.

    It is now common for IPTV systems attracting millions of users to be based on a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture. In such systems, each channel is typically associated with one P2P overlay network connecting the users. This significantly enhances the user experience by relieving the source from dealing with all connections. Yet, the joining process resulting in a peer to be integrated in channel overlay usually requires a significant amount of time. As a consequence, switching from one channel to another is far to be as fast as in IPTV solutions provided by telco operators. In this paper, we tackle the issue of efficient channel switching in P2P IPTV system. This is to the best of our knowledge the first study on this topic. First, we conducted and analyzed a set of measurements of one of the most popular P2P systems (PPlive). These measurements reveal that the set of contacts that a joining peer receives from the central server are of the utmost importance in the start-up process. On those neigbors, depends the speed to acquire the first video frames to play. We then formulate the switching problem, and propose a simple distributed algorithm, as an illustration of the concept, which aims at leveraging the presence of peers in the network to fasten the switch process. The principle is that each peer maintains as neighbors peers involved in other channels, providing peers with good contacts upon channel switching. Finally, simulations show that our approach leads to substantial improvements on the channel switching time. As our algorithmic solution does not have any prerequisite on the overlays, it appears to be an appealing add-on for existing P2P IPTV systems.

  7. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins (United States)

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo


    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  8. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Andrés Peralta


    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators.

  9. TRP channel gene expression in the mouse retina. (United States)

    Gilliam, Jared C; Wensel, Theodore G


    In order to identify candidate cation channels important for retinal physiology, 28 TRP channel genes were surveyed for expression in the mouse retina. Transcripts for all TRP channels were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing. Northern blotting revealed that mRNAs for 12 TRP channel genes are enriched in the retina. The strongest signals were observed for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPM1, TRPM3, and TRPML1, and clear signals were obtained for TRPC4, TRPM7, TRPP2, TRPV2, and TRPV4. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence revealed widespread expression throughout multiple retinal layers for TRPC1, TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPML1, PKD1, and TRPP2. Striking localization of enhanced mRNA expression was observed for TRPC1 in the photoreceptor inner segment layer, for TRPM1 in the inner nuclear layer (INL), for TRPM3 in the INL, and for TRPML1 in the outer plexiform and nuclear layers. Strong immunofluorescence signal in cone outer segments was observed for TRPM7 and TRPP2. TRPC5 immunostaining was largely confined to INL cells immediately adjacent to the inner plexiform layer. TRPV2 antibodies stained photoreceptor axons in the outer plexiform layer. Expression of TRPM1 splice variants was strong in the ciliary body, whereas TRPM3 was strongly expressed in the retinal pigmented epithelium.

  10. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Haiqi


    Full Text Available Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  11. A new sensors-based covert channel on android. (United States)

    Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Ismail, Mahamod; Nordin, Rosdiadee


    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5-5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications.

  12. Probing Protein Channel Dynamics At The Single Molecule Level. (United States)

    Lee, M. Ann; Dunn, Robert C.


    It would be difficult to overstate the importance played by protein ion channels in cellular function. These macromolecular pores allow the passage of ions across the cellular membrane and play indispensable roles in all aspects of neurophysiology. While the patch-clamp technique continues to provide elegant descriptions of the kinetic processes involved in ion channel gating, the associated conformational changes remain a mystery. We are using the spectroscopic capabilities and single molecule fluorescence sensitivity of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to probe these dynamics at the single channel level. Using a newly developed cantilevered NSOM probe capable of probing soft biological samples with single molecule fluorescence sensitivity, we have begun mapping the location of single NMDA receptors in intact rat cortical neurons with <100 nm spatial resolution. We will also present recent results exploring the conformational changes accompanying activation of nuclear pore channels located in the nuclear membrane of Xenopus oocytes. Our recent NSOM and AFM measurements on single nuclear pore complexes reveal large conformational changes taking place upon activation, providing rich, new molecular level details of channel function.

  13. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android (United States)


    Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications. PMID:25295311

  14. Information-theoretic analysis of MIMO channel sounding

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Daniel S


    The large majority of commercially available multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radio channel measurement devices (sounders) is based on time-division multiplexed switching (TDMS) of a single transmit/receive radio-frequency chain into the elements of a transmit/receive antenna array. While being cost-effective, such a solution can cause significant measurement errors due to phase noise and frequency offset in the local oscillators. In this paper, we systematically analyze the resulting errors and show that, in practice, overestimation of channel capacity by several hundred percent can occur. Overestimation is caused by phase noise (and to a lesser extent frequency offset) leading to an increase of the MIMO channel rank. Our analysis furthermore reveals that the impact of phase errors is, in general, most pronounced if the physical channel has low rank (typical for line-of-sight or poor scattering scenarios). The extreme case of a rank-1 physical channel is analyzed in detail. Finally, we present measureme...

  15. Inequalities and separations among assisted capacities of quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, C H; Shor, P W; Smolin, J A; Bennett, Charles H.; Devetak, Igor; Shor, Peter W.; Smolin, John A.


    We exhibit discrete memoryless quantum channels whose quantum capacity assisted by two-way classical communication, $Q_2$, exceeds their unassisted one-shot Holevo capacity $C_H$. These channels may be thought of as having a data input and output, along with a control input that partly influences, and a control output that partly reveals, which of a set of unitary evolutions the data undergoes en route from input to output. The channel is designed so that the data's evolution can be exactly inferred by a classically coordinated processing of 1) the control output, and 2) a reference system entangled with the control input, but not from either of these resources alone. Thus a two-way classical side channel allows the otherwise noisy evolution of the data to be corrected, greatly increasing the capacity. The same family of channels provides examples where the classical capacity assisted by classical feedback, $C_B$, and the quantum capacity assisted by classical feedback $Q_B$, both exceed $C_H$. A related chan...

  16. Information geometry of Gaussian channels

    CERN Document Server

    Monras, Alex


    We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated from distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under some restriction on the available resources. We prove that optimal states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes that are needed. This has experimental and computational advantages: It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric. Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for computing the metric. We provide explicit formulae for computing the multiparametric quantum F...

  17. Membrane coordination of receptors and channels mediating the inhibition of neuronal ion currents by ADP. (United States)

    Gafar, Hend; Dominguez Rodriguez, Manuel; Chandaka, Giri K; Salzer, Isabella; Boehm, Stefan; Schicker, Klaus


    ADP and other nucleotides control ion currents in the nervous system via various P2Y receptors. In this respect, Cav2 and Kv7 channels have been investigated most frequently. The fine tuning of neuronal ion channel gating via G protein coupled receptors frequently relies on the formation of higher order protein complexes that are organized by scaffolding proteins and harbor receptors and channels together with interposed signaling components. However, ion channel complexes containing P2Y receptors have not been described. Therefore, the regulation of Cav2.2 and Kv7.2/7.3 channels via P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors and the coordination of these ion channels and receptors in the plasma membranes of tsA 201 cells have been investigated here. ADP inhibited currents through Cav2.2 channels via both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors with phospholipase C and pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins being involved, respectively. The nucleotide controlled the gating of Kv7 channels only via P2Y1 and phospholipase C. In fluorescence energy transfer assays using conventional as well as total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, both P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors were found juxtaposed to Cav2.2 channels, but only P2Y1, and not P2Y12, was in close proximity to Kv7 channels. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching in TIRF microscopy, evidence for a physical interaction was obtained for the pair P2Y12/Cav2.2, but not for any other receptor/channel combination. These results reveal a membrane juxtaposition of P2Y receptors and ion channels in parallel with the control of neuronal ion currents by ADP. This juxtaposition may even result in apparent physical interactions between receptors and channels.

  18. Channel incision and water quality (United States)

    Shields, F. D.


    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p Ecological engineering of stream corridors must focus at least as much energy on mediating hydrologic

  19. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator. (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell


    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  20. Quantum Markov Channels for Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Daffer, S; McIver, J K; Daffer, Sonja; Wodkiewicz, Krzysztof; Iver, John K. Mc


    We examine stochastic maps in the context of quantum optics. Making use of the master equation, the damping basis, and the Bloch picture we calculate a non-unital, completely positive, trace-preserving map with unequal damping eigenvalues. This results in what we call the squeezed vacuum channel. A geometrical picture of the effect of stochastic noise on the set of pure state qubit density operators is provided. Finally, we study the capacity of the squeezed vacuum channel to transmit quantum information and to distribute EPR states.

  1. Interference Decoding for Deterministic Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Bernd


    An inner bound to the capacity region of a class of three user pair deterministic interference channels is presented. The key idea is to simultaneously decode the combined interference signal and the intended message at each receiver. It is shown that this interference decoding inner bound is strictly larger than the inner bound obtained by treating interference as noise, which includes interference alignment for deterministic channels. The gain comes from judicious analysis of the number of combined interference sequences in different regimes of input distributions and message rates.

  2. Quantum teleportation without classical channel (United States)

    Al Amri, M.; Li, Zheng-Hong; Zubairy, M. Suhail


    For the first time, we show how quantum teleportation can be achieved without the assistance of classical channels. Our protocol does not need any pre-established entangled photon pairs beforehand. Just by utilizing quantum Zeno effect and couterfactual communication idea, we can achieve two goals; entangling a photon and an atom and also disentangling them by non-local interaction. Information is completely transferred from atom to photon with controllable disentanglement processes. More importantly, there is no need to confirm teleportation results via classical channels.

  3. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C


    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  4. Dynamics of the outflow and its effect on the hydraulics of two-layer exchange flows in a channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper reports that an experimental study is conducted to examine the dynamics of the outflow in two-layer exchange flows in a channel connecting between two water bodies with a small density difference. The experiments reveal the generation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities within the hydraulically sub-critical flow region of the channel. During maximal exchange, those KH instabilities develops into large-amplitude KH waves as they escape the channel exit into the reservoir. The propagation speed ...

  5. Effects of fluoxetine on protein expression of potassium ion channels in the brain of chronic mild stress rats


    Chunlin Chen; Ling Wang; Xianfang Rong; Weiping Wang; Xiaoliang Wang


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of major potassium channel subtypes in the brain of chronical mild stress (CMS) rats and reveal the effects of fluoxetine on the expression of these channels. Rats were exposed to a variety of unpredictable stress for three weeks and induced anhedonia, lower sucrose preference, locomotor activity and lower body weight. The protein expressions were determined by Western blot. CMS significantly increased the expression of Kv2.1 channel ...

  6. Ion channels in development and cancer. (United States)

    Bates, Emily


    Ion channels have emerged as regulators of developmental processes. In model organisms and in people with mutations in ion channels, disruption of ion channel function can affect cell proliferation, cell migration, and craniofacial and limb patterning. Alterations of ion channel function affect morphogenesis in fish, frogs, mammals, and flies, demonstrating that ion channels have conserved roles in developmental processes. One model suggests that ion channels affect proliferation and migration through changes in cell volume. However, ion channels have not explicitly been placed in canonical developmental signaling cascades until recently. This review gives examples of ion channels that influence developmental processes, offers a potential underlying molecular mechanism involving bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and finally explores exciting possibilities for manipulating ion channels to influence cell fate for regenerative medicine and to impact disease.

  7. A conserved residue cluster that governs kinetics of ATP-dependent gating of Kir6.2 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan; Pless, Stephan Alexander;


    that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, potentially necessary to localize the ε-amine of Lys......ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly-rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel...... elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of approximately 60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly...

  8. Improved Ion-Channel Biosensors (United States)

    Nadeau, Jay; White, Victor; Dougherty, Dennis; Maurer, Joshua


    An effort is underway to develop improved biosensors of a type based on ion channels in biomimetic membranes. These sensors are microfabricated from silicon and other materials compatible with silicon. As described, these sensors offer a number of advantages over prior sensors of this type.

  9. Visualizing multi-channel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antemijczuk, Paweł; Magiera, Marta; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann;


    In this paper, we propose a visualization to illustrate social interactions, built from multiple distinct channels of communication. The visualization displays a summary of dense personal information in a compact graphical notation. The starting point is an abstract drawing of a spider’s web. Below...

  10. Wireless Communication over Dispersive Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.


    Broadband wireless communication systems require high transmission rates, where the bandwidth of the transmitted signal is larger than the channel coherence bandwidth. This gives rise to time dispersion of the transmitted symbols or frequency-selectivity with different frequency components exhibitin

  11. Driven tracers in narrow channels (United States)

    Cividini, J.; Mukamel, D.; Posch, H. A.


    Steady-state properties of a driven tracer moving in a narrow two-dimensional (2D) channel of quiescent medium are studied. The tracer drives the system out of equilibrium, perturbs the density and pressure fields, and gives the bath particles a nonzero average velocity, creating a current in the channel. Three models in which the confining effect of the channel is probed are analyzed and compared in this study: the first is the simple symmetric exclusion process (SSEP), for which the stationary density profile and the pressure on the walls in the frame of the tracer are computed. We show that the tracer acts like a dipolar source in an average velocity field. The spatial structure of this 2D strip is then simplified to a one-dimensional (1D) SSEP, in which exchanges of position between the tracer and the bath particles are allowed. Using a combination of mean-field theory and exact solution in the limit where no exchange is allowed gives good predictions of the velocity of the tracer and the density field. Finally, we show that results obtained for the 1D SSEP with exchanges also apply to a gas of overdamped hard disks in a narrow channel. The correspondence between the parameters of the SSEP and of the gas of hard disks is systematic and follows from simple intuitive arguments. Our analytical results are checked numerically.

  12. Higgs in Bosonic channel (CMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Gori, Valentina


    All the investigated properties result to be fully consistent with the SM predictions: the signal strength and the signal strength modifiers are consistent with unity in all the bosonic channels considered; the hypothesis of a scalar particle is strongly favored, ag...

  13. EPICS: Channel Access security design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.; Hill, J.


    This document presents the design for implementing the requirements specified in: EPICS -- Channel Access Security -- functional requirements, Ned. D. Arnold, 03/09/92. Use of the access security system is described along with a summary of the functional requirements. The programmer`s interface is given. Security protocol is described and finally aids for reading the access security code are provided.

  14. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.


    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the c

  15. Vascular potassium channels in NVC. (United States)

    Yamada, K


    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead.

  16. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)


    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outco


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov


    Full Text Available Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of super long ionized channels with a characteristic diameter of ~100  µ  in atmosphere along the  beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below  10 ⋅ 16 cm–3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0,5–1,0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation.  In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J. An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m.Not so long ago scientific group from P. N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap – 1 m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result  –  16 m long conducting channel controlled by a  laser spark at the voltage  –  3 MV  – was obtained more than 20 years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2  laser with energy  –  0,5 kJ. An average electric field strength  was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  18. Hidden systematics of fission channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Karl-Heinz


    Full Text Available It is a common procedure to describe the fission-fragment mass distributions of fissioning systems in the actinide region by a sum of at least 5 Gaussian curves, one for the symmetric component and a few additional ones, together with their complementary parts, for the asymmetric components. These components have been attributed to the influence of fragment shells, e.g. in the statistical scission-point model of Wilkins, Steinberg and Chasman. They have also been associated with valleys in the potential-energy landscape between the outer saddle and the scission configuration in the multi-channel fission model of Brosa. When the relative yields, the widths and the mean mass-asymmetry values of these components are fitted to experimental data, the mass distributions can be very well reproduced. Moreover, these fission channels are characterised by specific values of charge polarisation, total kinetic energy and prompt-neutron yields. The present contribution investigates the systematic variation of the characteristic fission-channel properties as a function of the composition and the excitation energy of the fissioning system. The mean position of the asymmetric fission channels in the heavy fragment is almost constant in atomic number. The deformation of the nascent fragments at scission, which is the main source of excitation energy of the separated fission fragments ending up in prompt-neutron emission, is found to be a unique function of Z for the light and the heavy fragment of the asymmetric fission channels. A variation of the initial excitation energy of the fissioning system above the fission saddle is only seen in the neutron yield of the heavy fragment. The charge polarisation in the two most important asymmetric fission channels is found to be constant and to appreciably exceed the macroscopic value. The variation of the relative yields and of the positions of the fission channels as a function of the composition and excitation energy

  19. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu


    Full Text Available Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the effects brought about sharing demand information with potential entrants and building marketing channel, which reveals information sharing and channel building mechanism in the supply chain. The study found that the five-force model of Porter regards potential entrants only as a threat that is one-sided. When the channel competitiveness meets certain conditions, manufacturer and retailer will share demand information with potential entrants. Building composite marketing channel is the manufacturer's absolute dominant strategy. Channel construction will increase the entry barriers for potential entrants and weaken the effect of double marginalization; meanwhile, the performance of supply chain will be augmented.

  20. Quantum channels and memory effects (United States)

    Caruso, Filippo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano


    Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.

  1. Anatomy and growth pattern of Amazon deep-sea fan as revealed by long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) and high-resolution seismic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damuth, J.E.; Flood, R.D.; Kowsmann, R.O.; Belderson, R.H.; Gorini, M.A.


    Imaging of the Amazon deep-sea fan with long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) has, for the first time, revealed the anatomy, trends, and growth pattern of distributary channels on this fan. Only one channel-levee system was active at any given time and extended from the Amazon Submarine Canyon downslope onto the lower fan (> 4,200 m). Formation of new channel-levee systems occurred when a currently active channel-levee system was cut off and abandoned through avulsion, and a new channel-levee system was established nearby. Through time, successive channel-levee formation and abandonment built two broad levee complexes consisting of groups of overlapping, coalescing segments of channel-levee systems across the present fan surface. These, plus older, now buried levee complexes, indicate that fan growth is radially outward and downslope through development of successive levee complexes. The most striking characteristic of the distributary channels is their intricate, often recurving, meanders with sinuosities of up to 2.5. Cutoffs and abandoned meander loops indicate that the channels migrate laterally through time. Channel bifurcation results predominantly from avulsion when flows breach a channel levee, thereby abandoning the present channel and establishing a new channel-levee segment nearby. No clear evidence of channel branching (i.e., division of a single channel into two active segments) or braiding was observed. 22 figs.

  2. Secrecy in Cooperative Relay Broadcast Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ekrem, E


    We investigate the effects of user cooperation on the secrecy of broadcast channels by considering a cooperative relay broadcast channel. We show that user cooperation can increase the achievable secrecy region. We propose an achievable scheme that combines Marton's coding scheme for broadcast channels and Cover and El Gamal's compress-and-forward scheme for relay channels. We derive outer bounds for the rate-equivocation region using auxiliary random variables for single-letterization. Finally, we consider a Gaussian channel and show that both users can have positive secrecy rates, which is not possible for scalar Gaussian broadcast channels without cooperation.

  3. Integrated criteria for covert channel auditing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-da WANG; Shi-guang JU


    A new concept, the security level difference of a covert channel, is presented, which means the security level span from the sender to the receiver of the covert channel. Based on this, the integrated criteria for covert channel auditing are given. Whereas TCSEC (Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria) or CC (Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation) only use the bandwidth to evaluate the threat of covert channels, our new criteria integrate the security level difference, the bandwidth sensitive parameter, bandwidth, duration and instantaneous time of covert channels, so as to give a comprehensive evaluation of the threat of covert channels in a multilevel security system.

  4. Chemical UV Filters Mimic the Effect of Progesterone on Ca(2+) Signaling in Human Sperm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, A; Dissing, S; Skakkebæk, N E


    Progesterone released by cumulus cells surrounding the egg induces a Ca(2+) influx into human sperm cells via the cationic channel of sperm (CatSper) Ca(2+) channel and controls multiple Ca(2+)-dependent responses essential for fertilization. We hypothesized that chemical UV filters may mimic...... competitively inhibited progesterone-induced Ca(2+) signals. In vivo exposure studies are needed to investigate whether UV filter exposure affects human fertility....

  5. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  6. Revealing the Beast Within (United States)


    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  7. Nanometer-scale water- and proton-diffusion heterogeneities across water channels in polymer electrolyte membranes. (United States)

    Song, Jinsuk; Han, Oc Hee; Han, Songi


    Nafion, the most widely used polymer for electrolyte membranes (PEMs) in fuel cells, consists of a fluorocarbon backbone and acidic groups that, upon hydration, swell to form percolated channels through which water and ions diffuse. Although the effects of the channel structures and the acidic groups on water/ion transport have been studied before, the surface chemistry or the spatially heterogeneous diffusivity across water channels has never been shown to directly influence water/ion transport. By the use of molecular spin probes that are selectively partitioned into heterogeneous regions of the PEM and Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization relaxometry, this study reveals that both water and proton diffusivity are significantly faster near the fluorocarbon and the acidic groups lining the water channels than within the water channels. The concept that surface chemistry at the (sub)nanometer scale dictates water and proton diffusivity invokes a new design principle for PEMs.

  8. Microfluidic channel for characterizing normal and breast cancer cells (United States)

    TruongVo, T. N.; Kennedy, R. M.; Chen, H.; Chen, A.; Berndt, A.; Agarwal, M.; Zhu, L.; Nakshatri, H.; Wallace, J.; Na, S.; Yokota, H.; Ryu, J. E.


    A microfluidic channel was designed and fabricated for the investigation of behaviors of normal and cancer cells in a narrow channel. A specific question addressed in this study was whether it is possible to distinguish normal versus cancer cells by detecting their stationary and passing behaviors through a narrow channel. We hypothesized that due to higher deformability, softer cancer cells will pass through the channel further and quicker than normal cells. Two cell lines, employed herein, were non-tumor breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A; 11.2  ±  2.4 µm in diameter) and triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231; 12.4  ±  2.1 µm in diameter). The microfluidic channel was 300 µm long and linearly tapered with a width of 30 µm at an inlet to 5 µm at an outlet. The result revealed that MDA-MB-231 cells entered and stuck further toward the outlet than MCF-10A cells in response to a slow flow (2 µl min‑1). Further, in response to a fast flow (5 µl min‑1), the passage time (mean  ±  s.d.) was 26.6  ±  43.9 s for normal cells (N  =  158), and 1.9  ±  1.4 s for cancer cells (N  =  128). The measurement of stiffness by atomic force microscopy as well as model-based predictions pointed out that MDA-MB-231 cells are significantly softer than MCF-10A cells. Collectively, the result in this study suggests that analysis of an individual cell’s behavior through a narrow channel can characterize deformable cancer cells from normal ones, supporting the possibility of enriching circulating tumor cells using novel microfluidics-based analysis.

  9. Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding on a Multiple Access Channel with Side Information

    CERN Document Server

    Rajesh, R


    We consider the problem of transmission of several distributed sources over a multiple access channel (MAC) with side information at the sources and the decoder. Source-channel separation does not hold for this channel. Sufficient conditions are provided for transmission of sources with a given distortion. The source and/or the channel could have continuous alphabets (thus Gaussian sources and Gaussian MACs are special cases). Various previous results are obtained as special cases. We also provide several good joint source-channel coding schemes for a discrete/continuous source and discrete/continuous alphabet channel. Channels with feedback and fading are also considered. Keywords: Multiple access channel, side information, lossy joint source-channel coding, channels with feedback, fading channels.

  10. Channel estimation in DCT-based OFDM. (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Gengxin; Xie, Zhidong; Hu, Jing


    This paper derives the channel estimation of a discrete cosine transform-(DCT-) based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system over a frequency-selective multipath fading channel. Channel estimation has been proved to improve system throughput and performance by allowing for coherent demodulation. Pilot-aided methods are traditionally used to learn the channel response. Least square (LS) and mean square error estimators (MMSE) are investigated. We also study a compressed sensing (CS) based channel estimation, which takes the sparse property of wireless channel into account. Simulation results have shown that the CS based channel estimation is expected to have better performance than LS. However MMSE can achieve optimal performance because of prior knowledge of the channel statistic.

  11. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  12. The quantum capacity with symmetric side channels

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, G; Winter, A; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John A.; Winter, Andreas


    We present an upper bound for the quantum channel capacity that is both additive and convex. Our bound can be interpreted as the capacity of a channel for high-fidelity communication when assisted by the family of all channels mapping symmetrically to their output and environment. The bound seems to be quite tight, and for degradable quantum channels it coincides with the unassisted channel capacity. Using this symmetric side channel capacity, we find new upper bounds on the capacity of the depolarizing channel. We also briefly indicate an analogous notion for distilling entanglement using the same class of (one-way) channels, yielding one of the few genuinely 1-LOCC monotonic entanglement measures.

  13. Degenerate RFID Channel Modeling for Positioning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Povalac


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the theory of channel modeling for positioning applications in UHF RFID. It explains basic parameters for channel characterization from both the narrowband and wideband point of view. More details are given about ranging and direction finding. Finally, several positioning scenarios are analyzed with developed channel models. All the described models use a degenerate channel, i.e. combined signal propagation from the transmitter to the tag and from the tag to the receiver.

  14. Covert channel detection using Information Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hélouët, Loïc; 10.4204/EPTCS.51.3


    This paper presents an information theory based detection framework for covert channels. We first show that the usual notion of interference does not characterize the notion of deliberate information flow of covert channels. We then show that even an enhanced notion of "iterated multivalued interference" can not capture flows with capacity lower than one bit of information per channel use. We then characterize and compute the capacity of covert channels that use control flows for a class of systems.

  15. Covert channel detection using Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Hélouët


    Full Text Available This paper presents an information theory based detection framework for covert channels. We first show that the usual notion of interference does not characterize the notion of deliberate information flow of covert channels. We then show that even an enhanced notion of "iterated multivalued interference" can not capture flows with capacity lower than one bit of information per channel use. We then characterize and compute the capacity of covert channels that use control flows for a class of systems.

  16. Optimal superdense coding over memory channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadman, Z.; Kampermann, H.; Bruss, D.; Macchiavello, C. [Institute fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf, DE-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFM-Unita di Pavia, Via Bassi 6, IT-27100 Pavia (Italy)


    We study the superdense coding capacity in the presence of quantum channels with correlated noise. We investigate both the cases of unitary and nonunitary encoding. Pauli channels for arbitrary dimensions are treated explicitly. The superdense coding capacity for some special channels and resource states is derived for unitary encoding. We also provide an example of a memory channel where nonunitary encoding leads to an improvement in the superdense coding capacity.

  17. Radio propagation measurement and channel modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Salous, Sana


    While there are numerous books describing modern wireless communication systems that contain overviews of radio propagation and radio channel modelling, there are none that contain detailed information on the design, implementation and calibration of radio channel measurement equipment, the planning of experiments and the in depth analysis of measured data. The book would begin with an explanation of the fundamentals of radio wave propagation and progress through a series of topics, including the measurement of radio channel characteristics, radio channel sounders, measurement strategies

  18. Walking droplets in linear channels (United States)

    Filoux, Boris; Hubert, Maxime; Schlagheck, Peter; Vandewalle, Nicolas


    When a droplet is placed onto a vertically vibrated bath, it can bounce without coalescing. Upon an increase of the forcing acceleration, the droplet is propelled by the wave it generates and becomes a walker with a well-defined speed. We investigate the confinement of a walker in different rectangular cavities, used as waveguides for the Faraday waves emitted by successive droplet bounces. By studying the walker velocities, we discover that one-dimensional confinement is optimal for narrow channels of width of D ≃1.5 λF . Thereby, the walker follows a quasilinear path. We also propose an analogy with waveguide models based on the observation of the Faraday instability within the channels.

  19. Identity Authentication over Noisy Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanfan Zheng


    Full Text Available Identity authentication is the process of verifying users’ validity. Unlike classical key-based authentications, which are built on noiseless channels, this paper introduces a general analysis and design framework for identity authentication over noisy channels. Specifically, the authentication scenarios of single time and multiple times are investigated. For each scenario, the lower bound on the opponent’s success probability is derived, and it is smaller than the classical identity authentication’s. In addition, it can remain the same, even if the secret key is reused. Remarkably, the Cartesian authentication code proves to be helpful for hiding the secret key to maximize the secrecy performance. Finally, we show a potential application of this authentication technique.

  20. Network excitability in a model of chronic temporal lobe epilepsy critically depends on SK channel-mediated AHP currents. (United States)

    Schulz, Robert; Kirschstein, Timo; Brehme, Hannes; Porath, Katrin; Mikkat, Ulrike; Köhling, Rüdiger


    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons generate an after-hyperpolarization (AHP) whose medium component is thought to be generated by small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels). Neuronal excitability is increased in epilepsy, and the AHP in turn is fundamentally involved in regulation of cellular excitability. We therefore investigated the involvement of the SK channel-mediated AHP in controlling cell and network excitability in the pilocarpine model epilepsy. Both acutely isolated CA1 pyramidal cells and isolated hippocampal slices were investigated in terms of the impact of SK channel-mediated AHP on hyperexcitability. Our findings show that pilocarpine-treated chronically epileptic rats exhibit significantly reduced SK channel-mediated hyperpolarizing outward current which was accompanied by a significant decrease in the somatic AHP. Paradoxically, inhibiting SK channels strongly exacerbated 0-Mg(2+)-induced epileptiform activity in slices from pilocarpine-treated animals, while having a significantly smaller effect in control tissue. This suggests that in chronically epileptic tissue, network excitability very critically depends on the remaining SK-channel mediated AHP. Additional real-time RT-PCR and semiquantitative Western blot experiments revealed that both the SK2 channel transcript and protein were significantly downregulated in the epileptic CA1 region. We conclude that SK2 channels are down-regulated in chronic epilepsy underlying the impaired SK channel function in CA1 pyramidal cells, and a further reduction of the remaining critical mass of SK channels results in an acute network decompensation.

  1. Physiological role of Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocyte cell investigated quantitatively by kinetic modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Hou

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 channel is a delayed rectifier channel abundant in human T lymphocytes. Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders lead to the over-expression of Kv1.3 in T cells. To quantitatively study the regulatory mechanism and physiological function of Kv1.3 in T cells, it is necessary to have a precise kinetic model of Kv1.3. In this study, we firstly established a kinetic model capable to precisely replicate all the kinetic features for Kv1.3 channels, and then constructed a T-cell model composed of ion channels including Ca2+-release activated calcium (CRAC channel, intermediate K+ (IK channel, TASK channel and Kv1.3 channel for quantitatively simulating the changes in membrane potentials and local Ca2+ signaling messengers during activation of T cells. Based on the experimental data from current-clamp recordings, we successfully demonstrated that Kv1.3 dominated the membrane potential of T cells to manipulate the Ca2+ influx via CRAC channel. Our results revealed that the deficient expression of Kv1.3 channel would cause the less Ca2+ signal, leading to the less efficiency in secretion. This was the first successful attempt to simulate membrane potential in non-excitable cells, which laid a solid basis for quantitatively studying the regulatory mechanism and physiological role of channels in non-excitable cells.

  2. Vehicular Channel Characterization and Modeling


    Oestges, Claude; 10th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP)


    Vehicle-to-vehicle transmissions have emerged as a key component of future communication standards, whose design and testing critically depends upon the understanding of propagation mechanisms. An important and specific aspect of vehicular communication channels lies in the fact that these are essentially non-stationary. Hence, this communication addresses two recent contributions in the field of non-stationary vehicular propagation, based on extensive measurements conducted at 5.3 GHz in sub...

  3. RECAT - Redundant Channel Alignment Technique (United States)


    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT A problem in the analog-to- digital , (A/D), conversion of broadband tape recorded...Alignment Technique, is used to align data taken on one pass with data from any other pass. The accuracy of this alignment is a function of the digital ...Redundant Channel Alignment Technique; analog-to- digital ; A/D; Broadband Bearing Time Processing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  4. Channeled and microactiviation of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggiore, C.J.; Blacic, J.D.; Blondiaux, G.; Debrun, J.L.; Ali, M.H.; Mathez, E.; Misdaq, M.A.; Valladon, M.


    Charged particle activation analysis can be combined with channeling to determine lattice location of impurities at the trace level in single crystal samples. It can also be used with a nuclear microprobe to measure impurities at trace levels in small or spatially inhomogeneous samples. Examples of these extensions of activation analysis to realistic samples are carbon determination in organometallic vapor phase epitaxial layers of GaAlAs on GaAs and oxygen determination in diamonds. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Higgs in bosonic channels (CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gori Valentina


    The Higgs boson mass measurement from the combination of H → ZZ → 4ℓ and H → γγ channels gives a value mH = 125.03+0.26−0.27 (stat. +0.13−0.15 (syst.. An upper limit ΓH < 22 MeV can be put on the Higgs boson width thanks to the new indirect method.

  6. Leucettamols, Bifunctionalized Marine Sphingoids, Act as Modulators of TRPA1 and TRPM8 Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati


    Full Text Available Leucettamols, bifunctionalized sphingoid-like compounds obtained from a marine sponge Leucetta sp., act as non-electrophilic activators of the TRPA1 channel and potent inhibitors of the icilin-mediated activation of the TRPM8 channel, while they are inactive on CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptors. Leucettamols represent the first compounds of marine origin to target TRPA1 and the first class of natural products to inhibit TRPM8 channels. The preparation of a small series of semi-synthetic derivatives revealed interesting details on the structure-activity relationships within this new chemotype of simple acyclic TRP modulators.

  7. Results of Nucleon Resonance Extraction via Dynamical Coupled-Channels Analysis from Collaboration @ EBAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiroyuki Kamano


    We review a global analysis of meson production reactions off the nucleons by a collaboration at Excited Baryon Analysis Center of Jefferson Lab. The analysis is pursued with a dynamical coupled-channels approach, within which the dynamics of multi-channel reaction processes are taken into account in a fully consistent way with the two-body as well as three-body unitarity of the S-matrix. With this approach, new features of nucleon excitations are revealed as resonant particles originating from the non-trivial multi-channel reaction dynamics, which cannot be addressed by static hadron models where the nucleon excitations are treated as stable particles.

  8. Channel selection for automatic seizure detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Kjaer, Troels Wesenberg; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg


    of an automatic channel selection method. The characteristics of the seizures are extracted by the use of a wavelet analysis and classified by a support vector machine. The best channel selection method is based upon maximum variance during the seizure. Results: Using only three channels, a seizure detection...

  9. Comments on Ionization Cooling Channel Characteristics


    Neuffer, David


    Ionization cooling channels with a wide variety of characteristics and cooling properties are being developed. These channels can produce cooling performances that are largely consistent with the ionization cooling theory developed previously. In this paper we review ionization cooling theory, discuss its application to presently developing cooling channels, and discuss criteria for optimizing cooling.

  10. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll


    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  11. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo


    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X. Z. Shawn


    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels.

  12. 47 CFR 95.29 - Channels available. (United States)


    ... no more than 5 watts ERP. (g) Fixed stations in GMRS systems authorized before March 18, 1968... transmission of another GMRS station on a different channel or channels), the licensee of the GMRS system must... GMRS system from the following 462 MHz channels: 462.5500, 462.5750, 462.6000, 462.6250, 462.6500,...

  13. Transitional behavior of quantum Gaussian memory channels (United States)

    Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.


    We address the question of optimality of entangled input states in quantum Gaussian memory channels. For a class of such channels, which can be traced back to the memoryless setting, we state a criterion which relates the optimality of entangled inputs to the symmetry properties of the channels’ action. Several examples of channel models belonging to this class are discussed.

  14. Usefulness of targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels in the treatment of respiratory diseases. (United States)

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Tachi, Masahiro


    T lymphocytes predominantly express delayed rectifier K(+)-channels (Kv1.3) in their plasma membranes. Patch-clamp studies revealed that the channels play crucial roles in facilitating the calcium influx necessary to trigger lymphocyte activation and proliferation. Using selective channel inhibitors in experimental animal models, in vivo studies further revealed the clinically relevant relationship between the channel expression and the development of chronic respiratory diseases, in which chronic inflammation or the overstimulation of cellular immunity in the airways is responsible for the pathogenesis. In chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, in addition to the supportive management for the symptoms, the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolide antibiotics were shown to be effective against the over-activation or proliferation of T lymphocytes. Recently, we provided physiological and pharmacological evidence that macrolide antibiotics, together with calcium channel blockers, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, effectively suppress the Kv1.3-channel currents in lymphocytes, and thus exert anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory effects. In this review article, based on the findings obtained from recent in vivo and in vitro studies, we address the novel therapeutic implications of targeting the lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels for the treatment of chronic or acute respiratory diseases.

  15. Local Transfer Coefficient, Smooth Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Kukreja


    Full Text Available Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist in he turn and in the region immediately downstream of the turn in the second straight pass. In the first straight pass, the rotation-induced Coriolis forces reduce the mass transfer on the leading wall and increase the mass transfer on the trailing wall. In the turn, rotation significantly increases the mass transfer on the leading wall, especially in the upstream half of the turn. Rotation also increases the mass transfer on the trailing wall, more in the downstream half of the turn than in the upstream half of the turn. Immediately downstream of the turn, rotation causes the mass transfer to be much higher on the trailing wall near the downstream corner of the tip of the inner wall than on the opposite leading wall. The mass transfer in the second pass is higher on the leading wall than on the trailing wall. A slower flow causes higher mass transfer enhancement in the turn on both the leading and trailing walls.

  16. Interference Channels with Strong Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiang


    It is known that given the real sum of two independent uniformly distributed lattice points from the same nested lattice codebook, the eavesdropper can obtain at most 1 bit of information per channel regarding the value of one of the lattice points. In this work, we study the effect of this 1 bit information on the equivocation expressed in three commonly used information theoretic measures, i.e., the Shannon entropy, the Renyi entropy and the min entropy. We then demonstrate its applications in an interference channel with a confidential message. In our previous work, we showed that nested lattice codes can outperform Gaussian codes for this channel when the achieved rate is measured with the weak secrecy notion. Here, with the Renyi entropy and the min entropy measure, we prove that the same secure degree of freedom is achievable with the strong secrecy notion as well. A major benefit of the new coding scheme is that the strong secrecy is generated from a single lattice point instead of a sequence of lattic...

  17. Water channels in peritoneal dialysis. (United States)

    Devuyst, Olivier


    Peritoneal dialysis involves diffusive and convective transports and osmosis through the highly vascularized peritoneal membrane. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) corresponds to the ultrasmall pore predicted by the modelization of peritoneal transport. Proof-of-principle studies have shown that up-regulation of the expression of AQP1 in peritoneal capillaries is reflected by increased water permeability and ultrafiltration, without affecting the osmotic gradient and the permeability for small solutes. Inversely, studies in Aqp1 mice have shown that haploinsufficiency in AQP1 is reflected by significant attenuation of water transport. Recent studies have identified lead compounds that could act as agonists of aquaporins, as well as putative binding sites and potential mechanisms of gating the water channel. By modulating water transport, these pharmacological agents could have clinically relevant effects in targeting specific tissues or disease states. These studies on the peritoneal membrane also provide an experimental framework to investigate the role of water channels in the endothelium and various cell types.

  18. Analysis and Transceiver Design for the MIMO Broadcast Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Hunger, Raphael


    This book deals with the optimization-based joint design of the transmit and receive filters in   MIMO broadcast channel in which the user terminals may be equipped with several antenna elements. Furthermore, the maximum performance of the system in the high power regime as well as the set of all feasible quality-of-service requirements is analyzed. First, a fundamental duality is derived that holds between the MIMO broadcast channel and virtual MIMO multiple access channel. This duality construct allows for the efficient solution of problems originally posed in the broadcast channel in the dual domain where a possibly hidden convexity can often be revealed. On the basis of the established duality result, the gradient-projection algorithm is introduced as a tool to solve constrained optimization problems to global optimality under certain conditions. The gradient-projection tool is then applied to solving the weighted sum rate maximization problem which is a central optimization that arises in any network u...

  19. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels (United States)

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.


    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q flow channels revealed that the discharge exponent (flow shear stress distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to rivers.material. For both cases observed flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  20. An analytical channel thermal noise model for deep-submicron MOSFETs with short channel effects (United States)

    Jeon, Jongwook; Lee, Jong Duk; Park, Byung-Gook; Shin, Hyungcheol


    In this work, an analytical channel thermal noise model for short channel MOSFETs is derived. The transfer function of the noise was derived by following the Tsividis' method. The proposed model takes into account the channel length modulation, velocity saturation, and carrier heating effects in the gradual channel region. Modeling results show good agreements with the measured noise data.

  1. Single-channel properties of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel in slow- and fast-twitch muscles of Rhesus monkeys. (United States)

    Bastide, B; Mounier, Y


    RyR1 is the main isoform of ryanodine receptor expressed in fast- and slow-twitch mammalian skeletal muscles although differences in Ca2+-release kinetics and properties have been reported. Single-channel measurements reveal that a large proportion (82%) of Ca2+-release channels measured in slow-twitch muscle preparations have properties similar to those of the Ca2+-release channels of fast-twitch preparations, i.e. the same conductance, an identical sensitivity to caffeine and a bell-shaped Ca2+ activation curve for pCa (-log10[Ca2+]) 7 to 3. A low proportion (18%) of Ca2+-release channels observed in preparations from slow-twitch muscles were characterized by a very high activity level. These channels were not inhibited at a millimolar concentration of Ca2+. Our data suggest that the different properties of Ca2+ release in slow- and fast-twitch muscles might not be related to intrinsic properties of the Ca2+-release channels of each type of muscle but rather to the co-expression of two isoforms of ryanodine receptor and the lower amount of Ca2+-release channels expressed in slow- than in fast-twitch muscles.

  2. Synergistic antiarrhythmic effect of combining inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels and voltage-gated Na(+) channels in an isolated heart model of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Goldin Diness, Jonas; Sheykhzade, Majid;


    of the adverse effect profile could be an additional advantage if compound concentrations could be reduced. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that combined inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) and voltage-gated Na(+) channels, in concentrations that would......)thiazol-2-amine (ICA) in a Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart model in which AF was induced after acetylcholine application and burst pacing. RESULTS: AF duration was reduced when both flecainide and ranolazine were combined with ICA in doses that did not reduce AF as monotherapy. At higher...... concentrations, both flecainide and ranolazine revealed proarrhythmic properties. CONCLUSION: A synergistic effect in AF treatment was obtained by combining low concentrations of SK and Na(+) channel blockers....

  3. Effects of K+ channel agonists cromakalim and pinacidil on rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells are mediated by Ca(++)-activated K+ channels. (United States)

    Stockbridge, N; Zhang, H; Weir, B


    Whole-cell and cell-free inside-out patch-clamp recording techniques were used to examine the actions of potassium channel openers pinacidil and cromakalim in enzymatically isolated smooth muscle cells of rat basilar artery. Delayed rectifier and calcium-dependent potassium currents were identified from the whole-cell recordings. Only the calcium-dependent potassium current was increased by cromakalim and pinacidil. Recordings from inside-out membrane patches revealed a large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channel, which was blocked by charybdotoxin but unaffected by ATP less than 10 mM. Cromakalim and pinacidil increased the open probability of this channel. On the basis of these results, we suggest that such drugs, acting on cerebral arterial smooth muscle cell potassium channels, may be of some benefit in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  4. A simple channel estimator for space-time coded OFDM systems in rapid fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单淑伟; 罗汉文; 宋文涛


    A simple channel estimator for space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in rapid fading channels is proposed. The channels at the training bauds are estimated using the EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm, while the channels at the data bauds are estimated based on the method for modelling the time-varying channel as the linear combination of several time-invariant " Doppler channels". Computer simulations showed that this estimator outperforms the decision-directed tracking in rapid fading channels and that the performance of this method can be improved by iteration.

  5. A simple channel estimator for space-time coded OFDM systems in rapid fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Shu-wei(单淑伟); LUO Han-wen(罗汉文); SONG Wen-tao(宋文涛)


    A simple channel estimator for space-time coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in rapid fading channels is proposed. The channels at the training bauds are estimated using the EM (expectation-maximization) algorithm, while the channels at the data bauds are estimated based on the method for modelling the time-varying channel as the linear combination of several time-invariant "Doppler channels". Computer simulations showed that this estimator outperforms the decision-directed tracking in rapid fading channels and that the performance of this method can be improved by iteration.

  6. A proton wire and water channel revealed in the crystal structure of isatin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan Kristian;


    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state, are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to ...... of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora....

  7. Ion Channel Photoswitch Reveals Crosstalk between Intact and Injured Nociceptive Neurons after Nerve Injury


    Herold, Christian


    The development of novel techniques utilizing the advantages of light has created an optical revolution for neuroscience research. Controlling and probing neuronal function with light has provided unprecedented insights by being able to manipulate many neurons simultaneously in intact circuits and living organisms.In my dissertation research, I used novel optical methods to probe the cellular permeability of sensory neuron populations. Primary nociceptive afferents detect, modulate and integr...

  8. Rock infromation of the moon revealed by multi-channel microwave radiometer data (United States)

    Hu, Guo-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Chun; Chan, Kwing Lam; Xu, Ao-Ao; This work is supported by Science and Technology Development Fund in Macao SAR 048/2012/A2 and 039/2013/A2, and the NSFC program (41490633). The CE data was supported by the Key Laboratory of Lunar and Deep Space Exploration (2013DP173157), National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.


    Rock abundance on lunar surface is an important consideration for understanding the physical properties of the Moon. With the deeper penetration power of the microwave, data from Chang'E (CE) multichannel (3.0-, 7.8-, 19.35-, and 37-GHz) microwave radiometer (MRM) are used to constrain the rock distribution on the Moon. The contrasting thermo-physical properties between rocks and regolith fines cause multiple brightness temperature (TB) to be present within the field of view of CE microwave data. But these variations could be easily masked by the more significant effect of ilmenite on TB, especially in the mare regions which are rich in ilmenite.To highlight the rock effect in TB, the diurnal TB difference, which has the effect of enlarging the TB difference caused by the rock abundance and reducing the absolute error of the CE microwave data, is considered here. The rock information in TB data is distinguished from the ilmenite effect by comparing the diurnal TB difference with a statistical TB model of the mare regions which are relatively low in rock abundance. The employed statistical TB model is a polynomial fitting formula between the selected CE TB data from mare regions and the corresponding TiO2 content data from Clementine UVVIS data. The correlation coefficients of the polynomial fit between TB and TiO2 content are 0.94 at lunar daytime and 0.84 at lunar nighttime, respectively. This polynomial fit forms an approximated relationship between the TiO2 content and TB when rock abundance is zero, with a standard error determined from the regression procedure.Based on the TiO2 map retrieved from Clementine UVVIS data, the TB map that is deflated to a lower TiO2 content shows a distribution trend similar to the rock abundance map retrieved by LRO data, except for the mare regions at the nearside of the Moon. The bigger diurnal TB difference in the mare regions could be either caused by the rich ilmenite rocks or the smaller rocks which cannot be recognized by the LRO data.

  9. Molecular and functional characterization of Bemisia tabaci aquaporins reveals the water channel diversity of hemipteran insects (United States)

    The Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is an economically important pest of food, fiber, and ornamental crops. This pest has evolved a number of adaptations to overcome physiological challenges, including 1) the ability to regulate osmotic stress between gut lumen ...

  10. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  11. Identification of the molecular site of ivabradine binding to HCN4 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Bucchi

    Full Text Available Ivabradine is a specific heart rate-reducing agent approved as a treatment of chronic stable angina. Its mode of action involves a selective and specific block of HCN channels, the molecular components of sinoatrial "funny" (f-channels. Different studies suggest that the binding site of ivabradine is located in the inner vestibule of HCN channels, but the molecular details of ivabradine binding are unknown. We thus sought to investigate by mutagenesis and in silico analysis which residues of the HCN4 channel, the HCN isoform expressed in the sinoatrial node, are involved in the binding of ivabradine. Using homology modeling, we verified the presence of an inner cavity below the channel pore and identified residues lining the cavity; these residues were replaced with alanine (or valine either alone or in combination, and WT and mutant channels were expressed in HEK293 cells. Comparison of the block efficiency of mutant vs WT channels, measured by patch-clamp, revealed that residues Y506, F509 and I510 are involved in ivabradine binding. For each mutant channel, docking simulations correctly explain the reduced block efficiency in terms of proportionally reduced affinity for ivabradine binding. In summary our study shows that ivabradine occupies a cavity below the channel pore, and identifies specific residues facing this cavity that interact and stabilize the ivabradine molecule. This study provides an interpretation of known properties of f/HCN4 channel block by ivabradine such as the "open channel block", the current-dependence of block and the property of "trapping" of drug molecules in the closed configuration.

  12. Na+ channel β subunits: Overachievers of the ion channel family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brackenbury


    Full Text Available Voltage gated Na+ channels (VGSCs in mammals contain a pore-forming α subunit and one or more β subunits. There are five mammalian β subunits in total: β1, β1B, β2, β3, and β4, encoded by four genes: SCN1B-SCN4B. With the exception of the SCN1B splice variant, β1B, the β subunits are type I topology transmembrane proteins. In contrast, β1B lacks a transmembrane domain and is a secreted protein. A growing body of work shows that VGSC β subunits are multifunctional. While they do not form the ion channel pore, β subunits alter gating, voltage-dependence, and kinetics of VGSC α subunits and thus regulate cellular excitability in vivo. In addition to their roles in channel modulation, β subunits are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs and regulate cell adhesion and migration. β subunits are also substrates for sequential proteolytic cleavage by secretases. An example of the multifunctional nature of β subunits is β1, encoded by SCN1B, that plays a critical role in neuronal migration and pathfinding during brain development, and whose function is dependent on Na+ current and γ-secretase activity. Functional deletion of SCN1B results in Dravet Syndrome, a severe and intractable pediatric epileptic encephalopathy. β subunits are emerging as key players in a wide variety of pathophysiologies, including epilepsy, cardiac arrhythmia, multiple sclerosis, Huntington’s disease, neuropsychiatric disorders, neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and cancer. β subunits mediate multiple signaling pathways on different timescales, regulating electrical excitability, adhesion, migration, pathfinding, and transcription. Importantly, some β subunit functions may operate independent of α subunits. Thus, β subunits perform critical roles during development and disease. As such, they may prove useful in disease diagnosis and therapy.

  13. Bedrock Channels: Towards a Process-Based Understanding (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Darby, S. E.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Best, J.; Nicholas, A. P.; Aalto, R. E.; Horn, C. A. P. T., III; Thy, M. R.


    Most previous studies on the genesis and evolution of bedforms in large rivers have focused on aggradational bedforms within alluvial sediments, with very few investigations that concern either erosive bedform evolution or bedrock channel abrasion processes. Detailed understanding of the processes within bedrock reaches of river channels is vital if an improved understanding of formation and evolution of bedrock scours and bedforms are to be elucidated. The paper presents high-resolution bathymetry and sidescan derived from multibeam sonar (MBES) and detailed flow mapping by acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) to illustrate, in intricate detail, relations between morphology, flow and sediment transport processes through a bedrock reach of the Mekong River (Cambodia) during a large flood event. A 2 by 5 km reach of the Mekong river near Sambor was surveyed with a RESON 7125 MBES system revealing incredible >40 m scour features within the bedrock substrate, with sidescan imagery also revealing the routing of alluvial sediment through the scours. A series of ADCP transects were obtained, both transverse and perpendicular to the primary downstream flow, that map the flows into, around and within these scour features. The paper will conclude by looking at how advances in measurement capability have permitted the detailed processes in such channels to be investigated for the first time at this scale.

  14. Drosophila TRPN(=NOMPC channel localizes to the distal end of mechanosensory cilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A TRPN channel protein is essential for sensory transduction in insect mechanosensory neurons and in vertebrate hair cells. The Drosophila TRPN homolog, NOMPC, is required to generate mechanoreceptor potentials and currents in tactile bristles. NOMPC is also required, together with a TRPV channel, for transduction by chordotonal neurons of the fly's antennal ear, but the TRPN or TRPV channels have distinct roles in transduction and in regulating active antennal mechanics. The evidence suggests that NOMPC is a primary mechanotransducer channel, but its subcellular location-key for understanding its exact role in transduction-has not yet been established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by immunostaining, we locate NOMPC at the tips of mechanosensory cilia in both external and chordotonal sensory neurons, as predicted for a mechanotransducer channel. In chordotonal neurons, the TRPN and TRPV channels are respectively segregated into distal and proximal ciliary zones. This zonal separation is demarcated by and requires the ciliary dilation, an intraciliary assembly of intraflagellar transport (IFT proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a strong evidence for NOMPC as a primary transduction channel in Drosophila mechansensory organs. The data also reveals a structural basis for the model of auditory chordotonal transduction in which the TRPN and TRPV channels play sequential roles in generating and amplifying the receptor potential, but have opposing roles in regulating active ciliary motility.

  15. Screen-based identification and validation of four new ion channels as regulators of renal ciliogenesis. (United States)

    Slaats, Gisela G; Wheway, Gabrielle; Foletto, Veronica; Szymanska, Katarzyna; van Balkom, Bas W M; Logister, Ive; Den Ouden, Krista; Keijzer-Veen, Mandy G; Lilien, Marc R; Knoers, Nine V; Johnson, Colin A; Giles, Rachel H


    To investigate the contribution of ion channels to ciliogenesis, we carried out a small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based reverse genetics screen of all ion channels in the mouse genome in murine inner medullary collecting duct kidney cells. This screen revealed four candidate ion channel genes: Kcnq1, Kcnj10, Kcnf1 and Clcn4. We show that these four ion channels localize to renal tubules, specifically to the base of primary cilia. We report that human KCNQ1 Long QT syndrome disease alleles regulate renal ciliogenesis; KCNQ1-p.R518X, -p.A178T and -p.K362R could not rescue ciliogenesis after Kcnq1-siRNA-mediated depletion in contrast to wild-type KCNQ1 and benign KCNQ1-p.R518Q, suggesting that the ion channel function of KCNQ1 regulates ciliogenesis. In contrast, we demonstrate that the ion channel function of KCNJ10 is independent of its effect on ciliogenesis. Our data suggest that these four ion channels regulate renal ciliogenesis through the periciliary diffusion barrier or the ciliary pocket, with potential implication as genetic contributors to ciliopathy pathophysiology. The new functional roles of a subset of ion channels provide new insights into the disease pathogenesis of channelopathies, which might suggest future therapeutic approaches.

  16. Defective interactions of protein partner with ion channels and transporters as alternative mechanisms of membrane channelopathies. (United States)

    Kline, Crystal F; Mohler, Peter J


    The past twenty years have revealed the existence of numerous ion channel mutations resulting in human pathology. Ion channels provide the basis of diverse cellular functions, ranging from hormone secretion, excitation-contraction coupling, cell signaling, immune response, and trans-epithelial transport. Therefore, the regulation of biophysical properties of channels is vital in human physiology. Only within the last decade has the role of non-ion channel components come to light in regard to ion channel spatial, temporal, and biophysical regulation in physiology. A growing number of auxiliary components have been determined to play elemental roles in excitable cell physiology, with dysfunction resulting in disorders and related manifestations. This review focuses on the broad implications of such dysfunction, focusing on disease-causing mutations that alter interactions between ion channels and auxiliary ion channel components in a diverse set of human excitable cell disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé

  17. UCP3 Regulates Single-Channel Activity of the Cardiac mCa1. (United States)

    Motloch, Lukas J; Gebing, Tina; Reda, Sara; Schwaiger, Astrid; Wolny, Martin; Hoppe, Uta C


    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake (mCa(2+) uptake) is thought to be mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). UCP2 and UCP3 belong to a superfamily of mitochondrial ion transporters. Both proteins are expressed in the inner mitochondrial membrane of the heart. Recently, UCP2 was reported to modulate the function of the cardiac MCU related channel mCa1. However, the possible role of UCP3 in modulating cardiac mCa(2+) uptake via the MCU remains inconclusive. To understand the role of UCP3, we analyzed cardiac mCa1 single-channel activity in mitoplast-attached single-channel recordings from isolated murine cardiac mitoplasts, from adult wild-type controls (WT), and from UCP3 knockout mice (UCP3(-/-)). Single-channel registrations in UCP3(-/-) confirmed a murine voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel, i.e., mCa1, which was inhibited by Ru360. Compared to WT, mCa1 in UCP3(-/-) revealed similar single-channel characteristics. However, in UCP3(-/-) the channel exhibited decreased single-channel activity, which was insensitive to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) inhibition. Our results suggest that beyond UCP2, UCP3 also exhibits regulatory effects on cardiac mCa1/MCU function. Furthermore, we speculate that UCP3 might modulate previously described inhibitory effects of ATP on mCa1/MCU activity as well.

  18. The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff of the symmetric MIMO half-duplex relay channel

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Sanjay


    The diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is obtained for the symmetric MIMO half-duplex (HD) relay channel where the source and the destination have $n$ antennas each and the relay node has $m$ antennas (hereafter, such a channel is referred to as an $(n,m)$-relay channel). The characterization of the DMT requires the joint eigenvalue distribution of three specially correlated central Wishart random matrices, which is derived using a related result in [1], [2]. The explicit characterization of the DMT, besides providing the theoretical benchmark for evaluating performance of practical cooperative protocols on this channel, reveals several interesting facts such as: a) the HD operation of the relay fundamentally limits relay channel performance in the sense that the DMT of the full-duplex (FD) relay channel can be strictly greater than that of the HD relay channel; b) an extra antenna at the relay node on a HD relay channel does not always improve the achievable diversity order, unlike that on an FD relay cha...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangqian WANG; Junqiang XIA


    This paper first describes the phenomenon of channel widening during degradation of alluvial rivers,explains the mechanisms of channel widening, and analyzes the stability of cohesive riverbank. Then a one-dimensional mathematical model is developed to simulate the transport of non-uniform suspended sediments, with a sub-model for the simulation of channel widening, and is used to study the process of channel widening during degradation. The effects of different incident flow and sediment conditions and different riverbank material characteristics on channel widening and bed degradation are compared.Finally, main factors that control the deformation processes are identified.

  20. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K


    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  1. Forgetfulness of continuous Markovian quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano


    The notion of forgetfulness, used in discrete memory quantum channels, is slightly weakened in order to be applied to the case of continuous channels. This is done in the context of quantum memory channels with Markovian noise. As a case study, we apply the notion of weak-forgetfulness to a bosonic memory channel with additive noise. A suitable encoding and decoding unitary transformation allows us to unravel the effects of the memory, hence the channel capacities can be computed using known results from the memoryless setting.

  2. BK channel modulators: a comprehensive overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nardi, Antonio; Olesen, Søren-Peter


    channels as a potentially attractive target, the design and synthesis of potent and selective BK modulators continue based on novel chemical ideas. A comprehensive overview of BK channel modulators is therefore timely and important to the current medicinal chemist for review, summary, and classification...... and blockers 4) Marketed and/or investigational drugs with BK-modulating side properties and structural analogues 5) Naturally-occurring BK channel openers and structural analogues 6) Synthetic BK channel openers. This review is intended to provide readers with current opinion on the BK channel as a drug...

  3. Separation of Particles in Channels Rotary Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyatikov Pavel


    Full Text Available The article considers the separation of particles in channels with different relative length. It is shown that the intensity of turbulence at the inlet section of the channel varies considerably in its length. The dependence of the turbulence damping along the channel expressing by fraction of the distance is shown. The ratio of the particle separation efficiency out the gas flow in the rotor channel is defined. The values of particle separation efficiency in the channel for the angle α=π/4 in turbulent aerosol flow is shows, including without mixing the particles.

  4. Novel asymptotic results on the high-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan


    The exact analysis of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity (i.e., higher-order ergodic capacity) often leads to complicated expressions involving advanced special functions. In this paper, we provide a generic framework for the computation of the higher-order statistics of the channel capacity over generalized fading channels. As such, this novel framework for the higher-order statistics results in simple, closed-form expressions which are shown to be asymptotically tight bounds in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime of a variety of fading environment. In addition, it reveals the existence of differences (i.e., constant capacity gaps in log-domain) among different fading environments. By asymptotically tight bound we mean that the high SNR limit of the difference between the actual higher-order statistics of the channel capacity and its asymptotic bound (i.e., lower bound) tends to zero. The mathematical formalism is illustrated with some selected numerical examples that validate the correctness of our newly derived results. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. The Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland Channel Capacity for a Class of Qudit Unital Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Cortese, J A


    The Holevo-Schumacher-Westmoreland (HSW) classical (entanglement-unassisted) channel capacity for a class of qudit unital channels is shown to be C = log2(d) - Smin, where d is the dimension of the qudit, and Smin is the minimum possible von Neumann entropy at the channel output. The HSW channel capacity for tensor products of this class of unital qudit channels is shown to obey the same formula.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper studies the multiuser diversity with constellation selection based on a virtual representation of realistic Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) correlated channels. To realize multiuser diversity in slow fading channels, random beamforming is adopted. Random beamforming matrix exploiting virtual channel representation is constructed, which can match the channel matrix of the desired user better. Simultaneously, adaptive coded modulation is applied to each sub-channel of the selected user to improve the system performance further.

  7. Dynamic Channel Allocation in Sectored Cellular Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is known that dynamic channel assignment(DCA) strategy outperforms the fixed channel assignment(FCA) strategy in omni-directional antenna cellular systems. One of the most important methods used in DCA was channel borrowing. But with the emergence of cell sectorization and spatial division multiple access(SDMA) which are used to increase the capacity of cellular systems, the channel assignment faces a series of new problems. In this paper, a dynamic channel allocation scheme based on sectored cellular systems is proposed. By introducing intra-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring sectors) and inter-cell channel borrowing (borrowing channels from neighboring cells) methods, previous DCA strategies, including compact pattern based channel borrowing(CPCB) and greedy based dynamic channel assignment(GDCA) schemes proposed by the author, are improved significantly. The computer simulation shows that either intra-cell borrowing scheme or inter-cell borrowing scheme is efficient enough to uniform and non-uniform traffic service distributions.

  8. Quantum channels with a finite memory (United States)

    Bowen, Garry; Mancini, Stefano


    In this paper we study quantum communication channels with correlated noise effects, i.e., quantum channels with memory. We derive a model for correlated noise channels that includes a channel memory state. We examine the case where the memory is finite, and derive bounds on the classical and quantum capacities. For the entanglement-assisted and unassisted classical capacities it is shown that these bounds are attainable for certain classes of channel. Also, we show that the structure of any finite-memory state is unimportant in the asymptotic limit, and specifically, for a perfect finite-memory channel where no information is lost to the environment, achieving the upper bound implies that the channel is asymptotically noiseless.

  9. Analytical Expression for the MIMO Channel Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yifei; ZHAO Ming; XIAO Limin; WANG Jing


    This paper presents analytical expressions for the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel capacity in frequency-flat Rayleigh fading environments. An exact analytical expression is given for the ergodic capacity for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) channels. The analysis shows that the SIMO channel capacity can be approximated by a Gaussian random variable and that the MIMO channel capacity can be approximated as the sum of multiple SIMO capacities. The SIMO channel results are used to derive approximate closed-form expressions for the MIMO channel ergodic capacity and the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the MIMO channel capacity (outage capacity). Simulations show that these theoretical results are good approximations for MIMO systems with an arbitrary number of transmit or receive antennas. Moreover, these analytical expressions are relatively simple which makes them very useful for practical computations.

  10. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra


    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  11. Stochastic resonance in Gaussian quantum channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lupo, Cosmo; Wilde, Mark M


    We determine conditions for the presence of stochastic resonance in a lossy bosonic channel with a nonlinear, threshold decoding. The stochastic resonance noise benefit occurs if and only if the detection threshold is outside of a "forbidden interval." We show how noise benefits can occur in different settings: when transmitting classical messages through a lossy bosonic channel, when transmitting over an entanglement-assisted lossy bosonic channel, and when discriminating channels with different loss parameters. Moreover, we consider a setting in which noise can benefit the faithful transmission of a qubit over a lossy bosonic channel with a particular encoding and decoding. In the latter case, we measure noise benefits in terms of the average channel fidelity and the entanglement preserved between a reference system and the channel output. In all cases, we assume Gaussian noise, allowing us to improve upon the forbidden-interval conditions found in earlier work.

  12. Fundamental channeling questions at ultra relativistic energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab


    TeV-range bent crystal channeling has interesting advantages for several applications at high energy accelerators. Observations of enhanced deflection over the whole arc of a bent crystal at RHIC and recently at the Tevatron may be due to a process called ''volume reflection''. More investigations of volume reflection and of the complimentary process, volume capture, are needed. So-called quasimosaic bending processes also deserve additional study. Negative particle channeling may be relevant to channeling collimation for electron machines. Electron and positron channeling and channeling radiation are interwoven so that the impact of channeling radiation on applications needs to be better understood. Beams in the 0.1 to 1 GeV range may be useful for some of these investigations. Finally there has been little or no study of positive and negative muon channeling. The current understanding of these topics and the desirability of further work is reviewed.

  13. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (United States)


    ...) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater South Light 1. (b) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor Breakwater North Light to Channel Islands Harbor North Jetty Light 5....

  14. Cell volume-regulated cation channels. (United States)

    Wehner, Frank


    Considering the enormous turnover rates of ion channels when compared to carriers it is quite obvious that channel-mediated ion transport may serve as a rapid and efficient mechanism of cell volume regulation. Whenever studied in a quantitative fashion the hypertonic activation of non-selective cation channels is found to be the main mechanism of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Some channels are inhibited by amiloride (and may be related to the ENaC), others are blocked by Gd(3) and flufenamate (and possibly linked to the group of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels). Nevertheless, the actual architecture of hypertonicity-induced cation channels remains to be defined. In some preparations, hypertonic stress decreases K(+) channel activity so reducing the continuous K(+) leak out of the cell; this is equivalent to a net gain of cell osmolytes facilitating RVI. The hypotonic activation of K(+) selective channels appears to be one of the most common principles of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and, in most instances, the actual channels involved could be identified on the molecular level. These are BKCa (or maxi K(+)) channels, IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels (of intermediate and small conductance, respectively), the group of voltage-gated (Kv) channels including their Beta (or Kv ancilliary) subunits, two-pore K(2P) channels, as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels (also contributing to K(ATP) channels). In some cells, hypotonicity activates non-selective cation channels. This is surprising, at first sight, because of the inside negative membrane voltage and the sum of driving forces for Na(+) and K(+) diffusion across the cell membrane rather favouring net cation uptake. Some of these channels, however, exhibit a P(K)/P(Na) significantly higher than 1, whereas others are Ca(++) permeable linking hypotonic stress to the activation of Ca(++) dependent ion channels. In particular, the latter holds for the group of TRPs which are specialised in the

  15. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shilian, E-mail:; Zhang, Zhili [College of Electrical Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, 410073, P R China (China)


    A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  16. Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilian Wang


    Full Text Available A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.

  17. Directed collective motion of bacteria under channel confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Wioland, Hugo; Goldstein, Raymond E


    Dense suspensions of swimming bacteria are known to exhibit collective behaviour arising from the interplay of steric and hydrodynamic interactions. Unconfined suspensions exhibit transient, recurring vortices and jets, whereas those confinedin circular domains may exhibit order in the form of a spiral vortex. Here we show that confinement into a long and narrow macroscopic `racetrack' geometry stabilises bacterial motion to form a steady unidirectional circulation. This motion is reproduced in simulations of discrete swimmers that reveal the crucial role that bacteria-driven fluid flows play in the dynamics. In particular, cells close to the channel wall produce strong flows which advect cells in the bulk against their swimming direction. We examine in detail the transition from a disordered state to persistent directed motion as a function of the channel width,and show that the width at the crossover point is comparable to the typical correlation length of swirls seen in the unbounded system. Our results sh...

  18. Strain in GaN/Si by RBS/Channeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    GaN film grown on Si substrate was characterized by Rutherfordbackscattering/Channeling (RBS/C). The experimental results show that the thick-ness of GaN epilayer is about 2.5μm and the GaN film has a good crystalline quality(Xmin=3.3%). By using channeling angular scanning, the 0.35% of average tetragonaldistortion in GaN layer is observed. In addition, the depth profiles of strain in GaNfilm layer reveal that the strain in GaN film nonlinearly decreases with the increase offilm thickness. The strain-free thickness (above 2.5μm) of GaN film on Si substrate isfar below that (150μm) of GaN film on Sapphire.

  19. Turbulent separation in a channel with a curved wall

    CERN Document Server

    Mollicone, Jean-Paul; Gualtieri, Paolo; Casciola, Carlo Massimo


    Flow separation, in both external and internal flows, is the main source of turbulent fluctuations which ultimately results in drag and inefficiency in applications. The basic issue of turbulence self sustainment is still not exhaustively investigated for even mildly complex geometries able to induce separation. In order to provide insightful information on the origin of form drag and related turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation mechanisms, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent channel flows with a bump at one of the walls are discussed. The shape of the bump is modified to address the effect of the bluffness on the dynamics of the separation bubble behind the bump. Global quantities reveal that most of the drag is due to the form contribution, whilst the friction contribution does not change appreciably with respect to an equivalent planar channel flow. Beside turbulent kinetic energy, the geometrical complexity of the flow requires the explicit analysis of the energy budget for the ...

  20. Precipitation patterns during channel flow (United States)

    Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.


    Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

  1. Current-dependent block of rabbit sino-atrial node I(f) channels by ivabradine. (United States)

    Bucchi, Annalisa; Baruscotti, Mirko; DiFrancesco, Dario


    "Funny" (f-) channels have a key role in generation of spontaneous activity of pacemaker cells and mediate autonomic control of cardiac rate; f-channels and the related neuronal h-channels are composed of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel subunits. We have investigated the block of f-channels of rabbit cardiac sino-atrial node cells by ivabradine, a novel heart rate-reducing agent. Ivabradine is an open-channel blocker; however, block is exerted preferentially when channels deactivate on depolarization, and is relieved by long hyperpolarizing steps. These features give rise to use-dependent behavior. In this, the action of ivabradine on f-channels is similar to that reported of other rate-reducing agents such as UL-FS49 and ZD7288. However, other features of ivabradine-induced block are peculiar and do not comply with the hypothesis that the voltage-dependence of block is entirely attributable to either the sensitivity of ivabradine-charged molecules to the electrical field in the channel pore, or to differential affinity to different channel states, as has been proposed for UL-FS49 (DiFrancesco, D. 1994. Pflugers Arch. 427:64-70) and ZD7288 (Shin, S.K., B.S. Rotheberg, and G. Yellen. 2001. J. Gen. Physiol. 117:91-101), respectively. Experiments where current flows through channels is modified without changing membrane voltage reveal that the ivabradine block depends on the current driving force, rather than voltage alone, a feature typical of block induced in inwardly rectifying K(+) channels by intracellular cations. Bound drug molecules do not detach from the binding site in the absence of inward current through channels, even if channels are open and the drug is therefore not "trapped" by closed gates. Our data suggest that permeation through f-channel pores occurs according to a multiion, single-file mechanism, and that block/unblock by ivabradine is coupled to ionic flow. The use-dependence resulting from specific features of

  2. Ideal Channel Field Effect Transistors (United States)


    transistors and composite channel InAlAs/InGaAs/lnP/InAlAs high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ), which have taken the full advantage of the matched...lattice constant (or pseudomorphic growth). However, for the most popular wide bandgap semiconductor GaN and SiC, the lattice mismatch between GaN ...critical thickness of InN on GaN is about one monolayer. To marry the advantages offered by both narrow bandgap and wide bandgap semiconductors, we

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel corner seal (United States)

    Spurrier, Francis R.


    A corner seal for an MHD duct includes a compressible portion which contacts the duct walls and an insulating portion which contacts the electrodes, sidewall bars and insulators. The compressible portion may be a pneumatic or hydraulic gasket or an open-cell foam rubber. The insulating portion is segmented into a plurality of pieces of the same thickness as the electrodes, insulators and sidewall bars and aligned therewith, the pieces aligned with the insulator being of a different size from the pieces aligned with the electrodes and sidewall bars to create a stepped configuration along the corners of the MHD channel.

  4. Neuronal Ca2+-activated K+ channels limit brain infarction and promote survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliu Liao

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca(2+ ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK(-/-. MCAO was performed in BK(-/- and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK(-/- mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK(-/- vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK(-/- mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK(-/- than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage.

  5. Neuronal Ca2+-activated K+ channels limit brain infarction and promote survival. (United States)

    Liao, Yiliu; Kristiansen, Ase-Marit; Oksvold, Cecilie P; Tuvnes, Frode A; Gu, Ning; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Ruth, Peter; Sausbier, Matthias; Storm, Johan F


    Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca(2+) ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK(-/-)). MCAO was performed in BK(-/-) and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK(-/-) mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK(-/-) vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK(-/-) mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK(-/-) than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage.

  6. Investigation of low flow trip alarm of FARE channel at Wolsong NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. K.; Lee, S. G.; Son, S. M.; Lee, W. R.; Kim, T. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. Y.; Hong, S. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Namgung, I. [KOPEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    At Wolsong site in Korea, four CANDU6 type reactors are operating now. The CANDU type reactors require on power refuelling by the two remotely controlled F/Ms (Fuelling Machines). The refuelling operation is carried out along the coolant direction by the drag force of fuel bundles for most channels; however, for about 30% of channels the coolant flow is not sufficiently high enough to carry fuel bundles to the downstream. Therefore, a device, FARE(Flow Assist Ram Extension) device, is used to create an additional drag force to push the fuel bundles along the coolant flow. The FARE device has been causing the channel flow low phenomena of SDS1 (shut down system 1) channels due to more than excessive blockage of coolant flow. The flow rate change for the SDS1 channels is monitored on line for the coolant flow blockage of the channels. This has initiated the investigation of the FARE device behavior and the cause and remedy for the problem. The analysis revealed that the channel flow low occurs as the insertion of the FARE device into the active core flow and disappears as the removal of the FARE device from it. In order to eliminate the channel flow low phenomena, flow resistance by the FARE device should be reduced. The analysis has revealed that a too much relaxation of flow resistance would make the FARE device unable to push the fuel bundle string, and a too little relaxation would make the FARE device unable to eliminate the channel flow low phenomena. Suggested design changes include more flow holes in the tube.

  7. Docking Studies of Phthalimide Pharmacophore as a Sodium Channel Blocker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Iman


    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Recently, phthalimide derivatives were designed based on ameltolide and thalidomide as they possess a similar degree of anticonvulsant potency due to their phenytoin-like profile. The ability of phthalimide pharmacophore to interact with neuronal voltage-dependent sodium channels was studied in the batrachotoxin affinity assay. Therefore, in the present study, a series of 19 compounds of phthalimide pharmacophore possessing a variety of substituents (NO2, NH2 , Me, Cl, COOH, MeO at 2-, 3-, and 4- position of the N-phenyl ring and N-(3-amino-2-methylphenyl succinimide, were subjected to docking studies in order to inhibit voltage-gated sodium channels.   Materials and Methods : Chemical structures of all compounds were designed using HYPERCHEM program and Conformational studies were performed through semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations method followed by PM3 force field. Total energy gradient calculated as a root mean square (RMS value, until the RMS gradient was 0.01 kcal mol-1. Among all energy minima conformers, the global minimum of compounds was used in docking calculations. Using a model of the open pore of Na channels, docking study was performed by AUTODOCK4.2 program. Results : Docking studies have revealed that these types of ligands interacted mainly with II-S6 residues of NaV1.2 through making hydrogen bonds and have additional hydrophobic interactions with domain I, II, III and IV in the channel's inner pore. Conclusion   : These computational studies have displayed that these compounds are capable of inhibiting Na channel, efficiently.

  8. Nematic liquid crystals on sinusoidal channels: the zigzag instability (United States)

    Silvestre, Nuno M.; Romero-Enrique, Jose M.; Telo da Gama, Margarida M.


    Substrates which are chemically or topographically patterned induce a variety of liquid crystal textures. The response of the liquid crystal to competing surface orientations, typical of patterned substrates, is determined by the anisotropy of the elastic constants and the interplay of the relevant lengths scales, such as the correlation length and the surface geometrical parameters. Transitions between different textures, usually with different symmetries, may occur under a wide range of conditions. We use the Landau-de Gennes free energy to investigate the texture of nematics in sinusoidal channels with parallel anchoring bounded by nematic-air interfaces that favour perpendicular (hometropic) anchoring. In micron size channels 5CB was observed to exhibit a non-trivial texture characterized by a disclination line, within the channel, which is broken into a zigzag pattern. Our calculations reveal that when the elastic anisotropy of the nematic does not favour twist distortions the defect is a straight disclination line that runs along the channel, which breaks into a zigzag pattern with a characteristic period, when the twist elastic constant becomes sufficiently small when compared to the splay and bend constants. The transition occurs through a twist instability that drives the defect line to rotate from its original position. The interplay between the energetically favourable twist distortions that induce the defect rotation and the liquid crystal anchoring at the surfaces leads to the zigzag pattern. We investigate in detail the dependence of the periodicity of the zigzag pattern on the geometrical parameters of the sinusoidal channels, which in line with the experimental results is found to be non-linear.

  9. Modulation of human Nav1.7 channel gating by synthetic α-scorpion toxin OD1 and its analogs. (United States)

    Motin, Leonid; Durek, Thomas; Adams, David J


    Nine different voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms are responsible for inducing and propagating action potentials in the mammalian nervous system. The Nav1.7 channel isoform plays an important role in conducting nociceptive signals. Specific mutations of this isoform may impair gating behavior of the channel resulting in several pain syndromes. In addition to channel mutations, similar or opposite changes in gating may be produced by spider and scorpion toxins binding to different parts of the voltage-gated sodium channel. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of the α-scorpion toxin OD1 and 2 synthetic toxin analogs on the gating properties of the Nav1.7 sodium channel. All toxins potently inhibited channel inactivation, however, both toxin analogs showed substantially increased potency by more than one order of magnitude when compared with that of wild-type OD1. The decay phase of the whole-cell Na(+) current was substantially slower in the presence of toxins than in their absence. Single-channel recordings in the presence of the toxins revealed that Na(+) current inactivation slowed due to prolonged flickering of the channel between open and closed states. Our findings support the voltage-sensor trapping model of α-scorpion toxin action, in which the toxin prevents a conformational change in the domain IV voltage sensor that normally leads to fast channel inactivation.

  10. A Perspective on the MIMO Wiretap Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Oggier, Frederique


    A wiretap channel is a communication channel between a transmitter Alice and a legitimate receiver Bob, in the presence of an eavesdropper Eve. The goal of communication is to achieve reliability between Alice and Bob, but also confidentiality despite Eve’s presence. Wiretap channels are declined in all kinds of flavors, depending on the underlying channels used by the three players: discrete memoryless channels, additive Gaussian noise channels, or fading channels, to name a few. In this survey, we focus on the case where the three players use multiple-antenna channels with Gaussian noise to communicate. After summarizing known results for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) channels, both in terms of achievable reliable data rate (capacity) and code design, we introduce the MIMO wiretap channel. We then state the MIMO wiretap capacity, summarize the idea of the proof(s) behind this result, and comment on the insights given by the proofs on the physical meaning of the secrecy capacity. We finally discuss design criteria for MIMO wiretap codes.

  11. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at

  12. What controls sediment flux in dryland channels? (United States)

    Michaelides, K.; Singer, M. B.


    Theories for the development of longitudinal and grain size profiles in perennial fluvial systems are well developed, allowing for generalization of sediment flux and sorting in these fluvial systems over decadal to millennial time scales under different forcings (e.g., sediment supply, climate changes, etc). However, such theoretical frameworks are inadequate for understanding sediment flux in dryland channels subject to spatially and temporally discontinuous streamflow, where transport capacity is usually much lower than sediment supply. In such fluvial systems, channel beds are poorly sorted with weak vertical layering, poorly defined bar forms, minimal downstream fining, and straight longitudinal profiles. Previous work in dryland channels has documented sediment flux at higher rates than their humid counterparts once significant channel flow develops, pulsations in bed material transport under constant discharge, and oscillations in dryland channel width that govern longitudinal patterns in erosion and deposition. These factors point to less well appreciated controls on sediment flux in dryland valley floors that invite further study. This paper investigates the relative roles of hydrology, bed material grain size, and channel width on sediment flux rates in the Rambla de Nogalte in southeastern Spain. Topographic valley cross sections and hillslope and channel particle sizes were collected from an ephemeral-river reach. Longitudinal grain-size variation on the hillslopes and on the channel bed were analysed in order to determine the relationship between hillslope supply characteristics and channel grain-size distribution and longitudinal changes. Local fractional estimates of bed-material transport in the channel were calculated using a range of channel discharge scenarios in order to examine the effect of channel hydrology on sediment transport. Numerical modelling was conducted to investigate runoff connectivity from hillslopes to channel and to examine the

  13. Characterization of ryanodine receptor type 1 single channel activity using "on-nucleus" patch clamp. (United States)

    Wagner, Larry E; Groom, Linda A; Dirksen, Robert T; Yule, David I


    In this study, we provide the first description of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) expressed in a native membrane using the on-nucleus configuration of the patch clamp technique. A stable cell line expressing rabbit RyR1 was established (HEK-RyR1) using the FLP-in 293 cell system. In contrast to untransfected cells, RyR1 expression was readily demonstrated by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in HEK-RyR1 cells. In addition, the RyR1 agonists 4-CMC and caffeine activated Ca(2+) release that was inhibited by high concentrations of ryanodine. On nucleus patch clamp was performed in nuclei prepared from HEK-RyR1 cells. Raising the [Ca(2+)] in the patch pipette resulted in the appearance of a large conductance cation channel with well resolved kinetics and the absence of prominent subconductance states. Current versus voltage relationships were ohmic and revealed a chord conductance of ∼750pS or 450pS in symmetrical 250mM KCl or CsCl, respectively. The channel activity was markedly enhanced by caffeine and exposure to ryanodine resulted in the appearance of a subconductance state with a conductance ∼40% of the full channel opening with a Po near unity. In total, these properties are entirely consistent with RyR1 channel activity. Exposure of RyR1 channels to cyclic ADP ribose (cADPr), nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) or dantrolene did not alter the single channel activity stimulated by Ca(2+), and thus, it is unlikely these molecules directly modulate RyR1 channel activity. In summary, we describe an experimental platform to monitor the single channel properties of RyR channels. We envision that this system will be influential in characterizing disease-associated RyR mutations and the molecular determinants of RyR channel modulation.

  14. Stochastic ion channel gating in dendritic neurons: morphology dependence and probabilistic synaptic activation of dendritic spikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Cannon

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity is mediated through changes in the probability of stochastic transitions between open and closed states of ion channels. While differences in morphology define neuronal cell types and may underlie neurological disorders, very little is known about influences of stochastic ion channel gating in neurons with complex morphology. We introduce and validate new computational tools that enable efficient generation and simulation of models containing stochastic ion channels distributed across dendritic and axonal membranes. Comparison of five morphologically distinct neuronal cell types reveals that when all simulated neurons contain identical densities of stochastic ion channels, the amplitude of stochastic membrane potential fluctuations differs between cell types and depends on sub-cellular location. For typical neurons, the amplitude of membrane potential fluctuations depends on channel kinetics as well as open probability. Using a detailed model of a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron, we show that when intrinsic ion channels gate stochastically, the probability of initiation of dendritic or somatic spikes by dendritic synaptic input varies continuously between zero and one, whereas when ion channels gate deterministically, the probability is either zero or one. At physiological firing rates, stochastic gating of dendritic ion channels almost completely accounts for probabilistic somatic and dendritic spikes generated by the fully stochastic model. These results suggest that the consequences of stochastic ion channel gating differ globally between neuronal cell-types and locally between neuronal compartments. Whereas dendritic neurons are often assumed to behave deterministically, our simulations suggest that a direct consequence of stochastic gating of intrinsic ion channels is that spike output may instead be a probabilistic function of patterns of synaptic input to dendrites.

  15. K-user Interference Channels: General Outer Bound and Sum-capacity for Certain Gaussian Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Tuninetti, Daniela


    This paper derives an outer bound on the capacity region of a general memoryless interference channel with an arbitrary number of users. The derivation follows from a generalization of the techniques developed by Kramer and by Etkin et al for the Gaussian two-user channel. The derived bound is the first known outer bound valid for any memoryless channel. In Gaussian noise, classes of channels for which the proposed bound gives the sum-rate capacity are identified, including degraded channels and a class of Z-channels.

  16. Statistical-mechanical analysis of multiuser channel capacity with imperfect channel state information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui-Song; Zeng Gui-Hua


    In this paper,the effect of imperfect channel state information at the receiver, which is caused by noise and other interference, on the multi-access channel capacity is analysed through a statistical-mechanical approach. Replica analyses focus on analytically studying how the minimum mean square error (MMSE) channel estimation error appears in a multiuser channel capacity formula. And the relevant mathematical expressions are derived. At the same time,numerical simulation results are demonstrated to validate the Replica analyses. The simulation results show how the system parameters, such as channel estimation error, system load and signal-to-noise ratio, affect the channel capacity.

  17. T-type calcium channel expression in cultured human neuroblastoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjie Wen; Shiyuan Xu; Lingling Wang; Hua Liang; Chengxiang Yang; Hanbing Wang; Hongzhen Liu


    Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) have similar structures and functions as neural cells and have been frequently used for cell culture studies of neural cell functions. Previous studies have revealed Land N-type calcium channels in SH-SY5Y cells. However, the distribution of the low -voltage activated calcium channel (namely called T-type calcium channel, including Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3) in SH-SY5Y cells remains poorly understood. The present study detected mRNA and protein expression of the T-type calcium channel (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3) in cultured SH-SY5Y cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Results revealed mRNA and protein expression from all three T-type calcium channel subtypes in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover,Cav3.1 was the predominant T-type calcium channel subtype in SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Ion conduction and conformational flexibility of a bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel. (United States)

    Boiteux, Céline; Vorobyov, Igor; Allen, Toby W


    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels play an essential role in electrical signaling in the nervous system and are key pharmacological targets for a range of disorders. The recent solution of X-ray structures for the bacterial channel NavAb has provided an opportunity to study functional mechanisms at the atomic level. This channel's selectivity filter exhibits an EEEE ring sequence, characteristic of mammalian Ca(2+), not Na(+), channels. This raises the fundamentally important question: just what makes a Na(+) channel conduct Na(+) ions? Here we explore ion permeation on multimicrosecond timescales using the purpose-built Anton supercomputer. We isolate the likely protonation states of the EEEE ring and observe a striking flexibility of the filter that demonstrates the necessity for extended simulations to study conduction in this channel. We construct free energy maps to reveal complex multi-ion conduction via knock-on and "pass-by" mechanisms, involving concerted ion and glutamate side chain movements. Simulations in mixed ionic solutions reveal relative energetics for Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) within the pore that are consistent with the modest selectivity seen experimentally. We have observed conformational changes in the pore domain leading to asymmetrical collapses of the activation gate, similar to proposed inactivated structures of NavAb, with helix bending involving conserved residues that are critical for slow inactivation. These structural changes are shown to regulate access to fenestrations suggested to be pathways for lipophilic drugs and provide deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms connecting drug activity and slow inactivation.

  19. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology (United States)

    Caterina, Michael J.; Pang, Zixuan


    Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise. These diverse functions, coupled with the fact that many TRP channels possess pharmacologically accessible sites, make this family of proteins appealing therapeutic targets for skin disorders. PMID:27983625

  20. Parameter estimation in channel network flow simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Longxi


    Simulations of water flow in channel networks require estimated values of roughness for all the individual channel segments that make up a network. When the number of individual channel segments is large, the parameter calibration workload is substantial and a high level of uncertainty in estimated roughness cannot be avoided. In this study, all the individual channel segments are graded according to the factors determining the value of roughness. It is assumed that channel segments with the same grade have the same value of roughness. Based on observed hydrological data, an optimal model for roughness estimation is built. The procedure of solving the optimal problem using the optimal model is described. In a test of its efficacy, this estimation method was applied successfully in the simulation of tidal water flow in a large complicated channel network in the lower reach of the Yangtze River in China.

  1. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Caterina


    Full Text Available Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence implicating abnormal TRP channel function, as a product of excessive or deficient channel activity, in pathological skin conditions such as chronic pain and itch, dermatitis, vitiligo, alopecia, wound healing, skin carcinogenesis, and skin barrier compromise. These diverse functions, coupled with the fact that many TRP channels possess pharmacologically accessible sites, make this family of proteins appealing therapeutic targets for skin disorders.

  2. Distinguishing quantum channels via magic squares game

    CERN Document Server

    Ramzan, M


    We study the effect of quantum memory in magic squares game when played in quantum domain. We consider different noisy quantum channels and analyze their influence on the magic squares quantum pseudo-telepathy game. We show that the probability of success can be used to distinguish the quantum channels. It is seen that the mean success probability decreases with increase of quantum noise. Where as the mean success probability increases with increase of quantum memory. It is also seen that the behaviour of amplitude damping and phase damping channels is similar. On the other hand, the behaviour of depolarizing channel is similar to the flipping channels. Therefore, the probability of success of the game can be used to distinguish the quantum channels.

  3. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías


    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  4. Optimum performance characteristics of a conduction channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okulov, N.A.


    Steady laminar flow of an incompressible viscous and electrically conducting fluid is considered in an infinitely long cylindrical conduction channel. A set of permanent magnets outside produces a transverse magnetic field which does not vary over the channel length. An external electric dc generator or load maintains on the channel-fluid boundary a distribution of electric potential which also does not vary over the channel length. The power efficiency of such a channel is calculated and the distribution of electric potential is then optimized to yield the maximum efficiency for a given pressure head and flow rate, with a given scalar magnetic potential. Two mathematical theorems are proved for solving the optimization problem, i.e., the problem of minimizing a functional. An upper estimate of the efficiency is made on the basis of a third theorem. An estimate is also made of the flow rate in a conduction channel with a passive electrical system (load without generator). 3 references.

  5. n-Channel semiconductor materials design for organic complementary circuits. (United States)

    Usta, Hakan; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J


    Organic semiconductors have unique properties compared to traditional inorganic materials such as amorphous or crystalline silicon. Some important advantages include their adaptability to low-temperature processing on flexible substrates, low cost, amenability to high-speed fabrication, and tunable electronic properties. These features are essential for a variety of next-generation electronic products, including low-power flexible displays, inexpensive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, and printable sensors, among many other applications. Accordingly, the preparation of new materials based on π-conjugated organic molecules or polymers has been a central scientific and technological research focus over the past decade. Currently, p-channel (hole-transporting) materials are the leading class of organic semiconductors. In contrast, high-performance n-channel (electron-transporting) semiconductors are relatively rare, but they are of great significance for the development of plastic electronic devices such as organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In this Account, we highlight the advances our team has made toward realizing moderately and highly electron-deficient n-channel oligomers and polymers based on oligothiophene, arylenediimide, and (bis)indenofluorene skeletons. We have synthesized and characterized a "library" of structurally related semiconductors, and we have investigated detailed structure-property relationships through optical, electrochemical, thermal, microstructural (both single-crystal and thin-film), and electrical measurements. Our results reveal highly informative correlations between structural parameters at various length scales and charge transport properties. We first discuss oligothiophenes functionalized with perfluoroalkyl and perfluoroarene substituents, which represent the initial examples of high-performance n-channel semiconductors developed in this project. The OFET characteristics of these compounds are presented with an

  6. TRP Channels in Skin Biology and Pathophysiology



    Ion channels of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family mediate the influx of monovalent and/or divalent cations into cells in response to a host of chemical or physical stimuli. In the skin, TRP channels are expressed in many cell types, including keratinocytes, sensory neurons, melanocytes, and immune/inflammatory cells. Within these diverse cell types, TRP channels participate in physiological processes ranging from sensation to skin homeostasis. In addition, there is a growing body ...

  7. On Linear Operator Channels over Finite Fields


    Yang, Shenghao; Ho, Siu-Wai; Meng, Jin; Yang, En-Hui; Yeung, Raymond W.


    Motivated by linear network coding, communication channels perform linear operation over finite fields, namely linear operator channels (LOCs), are studied in this paper. For such a channel, its output vector is a linear transform of its input vector, and the transformation matrix is randomly and independently generated. The transformation matrix is assumed to remain constant for every T input vectors and to be unknown to both the transmitter and the receiver. There are NO constraints on the ...

  8. Dynamic study of milling low depth channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Dorin Mircea


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of dynamic aspects of the milling cutters used in particular case of low depth channels. A new calculation method was developed, taking into account the high variations of cutting forces during milling small depth channels with peripheral cutting tools. A new formula was established for the minimal value of channel depth that allows cutting process to be performed in conditions of dynamic stability.

  9. Atomic absorption spectroscopy in ion channel screening. (United States)

    Stankovich, Larisa; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong


    This article examines the utility of atomic absorption spectroscopy, in conjunction with cold flux assays, to ion channel screening. The multiplicity of ion channels that can be interrogated using cold flux assays and atomic absorption spectroscopy is summarized. The importance of atomic absorption spectroscopy as a screening tool is further elaborated upon by providing examples of the relevance of ion channels to various physiological processes and targeted diseases.

  10. Chromatic effects in long periodic transport channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko V. N.; Hao, Y.; Jing, Y.


    Long periodic transport channels are frequently used in accelerator complexes and suggested for using in high-energy ERLs for electron-hadron colliders. Without proper chromaticity compensation, such transport channels exhibit high sensitivity to the random orbit errors causing significant emittance growth. Such emittance growth can come from both the correlated and the uncorrelated energy spread. In this paper we present results of our theoretical and numerical studies of such effects and develop a criteria for acceptable chromaticity in such channels.

  11. Export channel pricing management for integrated solutions


    Roine, Henna; Sainio, Liisa-Maija; Saarenketo, Sami


    This article studies systems integrators' export channel pricing management for integrated solutions. We find support from our empirical case study for the notion that a systems integrator's export channel pricing strategy is multidimensional and dependent on international pricing environment and partner characteristics and that export partnerships have unique implications on a systems integrator's pricing process. The results show that giving up pricing control in export channel context may ...

  12. Interaction of hydrogen sulfide with ion channels. (United States)

    Tang, Guanghua; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui


    1. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is a signalling gasotransmitter. It targets different ion channels and receptors, and fulfils its various roles in modulating the functions of different systems. However, the interaction of H(2)S with different types of ion channels and underlying molecular mechanisms has not been reviewed systematically. 2. H(2)S is the first identified endogenous gaseous opener of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Through the activation of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, H(2)S lowers blood pressure, protects the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury, inhibits insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells, and exerts anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and anti-apoptotic effects. 3. H(2)S inhibited L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes but stimulated the same channels in neurons, thus regulating intracellular Ca(2+) levels. H(2)S activated small and medium conductance K(Ca) channels but its effect on BK(Ca) channels has not been consistent. 4. H(2)S-induced hyperalgesia and pro-nociception seems to be related to the sensitization of both T-type Ca(2+) channels and TRPV(1) channels. The activation of TRPV(1) and TRPA(1) by H(2)S is believed to result in contraction of nonvascular smooth muscles and increased colonic mucosal Cl(-) secretion. 5. The activation of Cl(-) channel by H(2)S has been shown as a protective mechanism for neurons from oxytosis. H(2)S also potentiates N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-mediated currents that are involved in regulating synaptic plasticity for learning and memory. 6. Given the important modulatory effects of H(2)S on different ion channels, many cellular functions and disease conditions related to homeostatic control of ion fluxes across cell membrane should be re-evaluated.

  13. A father protocol for quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, F; Dupuis, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Hayden, Patrick


    We present a new protocol for quantum broadcast channels based on the fully quantum Slepian-Wolf protocol. The protocol yields an achievable rate region for entanglement-assisted transmission of quantum information through a quantum broadcast channel that can be considered the quantum analogue of Marton's region for classical broadcast channels. The protocol can be adapted to yield achievable rate regions for unassisted quantum communication and for entanglement-assisted classical communication. Regularized versions of all three rate regions are provably optimal.

  14. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś


    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  15. Variability of erodibility in rock-floored channels produced by differential weathering (United States)

    Sparacino, M. S.; Hancock, G. S.; Small, E. E.; Lamp, L.


    The erosion of bedrock-floored channels is a critical process governing the rate of landscape evolution in many settings. Field and modeling studies suggest that bedrock channels evolve toward equilibrium through adjustment of geometry and slope to the imposed discharge, sediment supply, and substrate erodibility conditions. Recent numerical modeling of rock-floored channel cross-sections suggests that equilibrium channel geometry and slope are sensitive to variation in rock erodibility along the channel perimeter. However, few field studies have focused on systematic measurement of rock erodibility across rock-floored channels. We hypothesize variations in weathering intensity and duration across some channels results in variable erodibility. To determine if erodibility varies in some channels, we used a Type N Schmidt hammer to measure in situ compressive strength in channels floored by sandstone (3 sites, Utah), basalt (2 sites, Hawaii), granite (3 sites, Virginia) and limestone (2 sites, Virginia). Rock compressive strength is assumed to be an adequate proxy for erodibility (Sklar et al., 2001). At each site, we collected compressive strength measurements along transects oriented perpendicular to flow direction. We surveyed the transects to determine the position of measurements within cross-sections and to estimate width/depth ratios. Of 19 transects measured in sandstone channels, 10 show significant decreases in compressive strength (up to 60%) with increasing height above the channel thalweg. Five sandstone transects collected from a rapidly eroding slot canyon show no significant change in compressive strength with height. Transects on basalt and 2 of 3 transects on granite show significant compressive strength decreases with increasing height. Transects on limestone, however, reveal compressive strength increases with height above the thalweg. The width-depth ratios in the granite channels are ~10 times greater than the limestone channels, despite similar

  16. On the ecohydrologic function and disturbance effects of ephemeral desert stream channels (United States)

    Bedford, David; Schwinning, Susan; Newlander, April; Miller, David; Sandquist, Darren


    potentials and stomatal conductance) to the water pulse and persisted for over a month. Up to six months following the water application there was a continued visual effect on vegetation greenness compared to the surrounding area. Spatial analysis of the effects of these stream channels reveals that the ecohydrological area influenced by the channels is much larger than the area covered by channels, thus amplifying the impact footprint of the otherwise small, linear (railroad) disturbance. These results suggest that the spatial distribution of channels and climatic conditions that generate stream flow can have significant implications for understanding landscape responses to future land use and climatic conditions in this sensitive arid ecosystem.

  17. Characterization of single voltage-gated Na+ and Ca2+ channels in apical dendrites of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons. (United States)

    Magee, J C; Johnston, D


    1. We have used dendrite-attached patch-clamp techniques to record single Na+ and Ca2+ channel activity from the apical dendrites (up to 350 microns away from soma) of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices (ages: 2-8 weeks). 2. Na+ channels were found in every patch examined (range: 2 to > 20 channels per patch). Channel openings, which had a slope conductance of 15 +/- 0.3 pS (mean +/- S.E.M.), began with test commands to around -50 mV and consisted of both early transient channel activity and also later occurring prolonged openings of 5-15 ms. All Na+ channel activity was suppressed by inclusion of TTX (1 microM) in the recording pipette. 3. Ca2+ channel activity was recorded in about 80% of the patches examined (range: 1 to > 10 channels per patch). Several types of channel behaviour were observed in these patches. Single channel recordings in 110 mM BaCl2, revealed an approximately 10 pS channel of small unitary current amplitude (-0.5 pA at -20 mV). These channels began activating at relatively hyperpolarized potentials (-50 mV) and ensemble averages of this low voltage-activated (LVA) channel activity showed rapid inactivation. 4. A somewhat heterogeneous population of high voltage-activated, moderate conductance (HVAm; approximately 17 pS), Ca2+ channel activity was also encountered. These channels exhibited a relatively large unitary amplitude (-0.8 pA at 0 mV) and ensemble averages demonstrated moderate inactivation. The HVAm population of channels could be tentatively subdivided into two separate groups based upon mean channel open times. 5. Less frequently, HVA, large conductance (27 pS) Ca2+ channel activity (HVA1) was also observed. This large unitary amplitude (-1.5 pA at 0 mV) channel activity began with steps to approximately 0 mV and ensemble averages did not show any time-dependent inactivation. The dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (0.5 or 1 microM) was found to characteristically prolong these channel openings. 6. omega

  18. [Synopsis about the hypothesis of "information channel" of channel-collateral system]. (United States)

    Chang, Xi-Lang


    The author of the present paper founded a theorem about the "incompleteness of single channel structure" (nerve, blood vessel, lymphatic, interspace, aperture, etc.) through quantitative and qualitative analysis about the economic information channel in the human body, which eliminates the probability of single channel structure in the information channel of channel (meridian)-collateral system. After comprehensive analysis on the current researches, the author puts forward a neodoxy, i.e., the body "information channel" structure of the channel-collateral system, mainly follows the distribution regularity of systemic statistics, and is not a single specific entity; various layers of the information channel in the main stems of the channel-collaterals are composed of optimized structure tissues. Hence, the structure of this information channel of channel-collateral system is an overall-optimized, sequential and compatible systemic structure. From this neodoxy, the author brings forward a working principle of channel-collaterals, which is supported theoretically by bio-auxology. The longitudinal distribution of the main stems of meridian-collaterals is considered to result from that in the process of the animal evolution, in the animals moving forward, the microscopic complicated movement of intracorporeal information and energy molecules is related to the forward macroscopic and non-uniform movement of organism in trans-measure. Its impulse and kinetic momentum forms a main vector in the longitudinal direction of the body (the direction of the main stem of channel-collaterals). In order to adapt to and utilize natural regularities, the main stems of the channel-collaterals gradually differentiate and evolve in the living organism, forming a whole system. The "hypothesis of biological origin of channel-collateral system" and "that of information channel of the channel-collaterals in the body" constitute a relatively complete theoretical system framework.

  19. Misfolded amyloid ion channels present mobile beta-sheet subunits in contrast to conventional ion channels. (United States)

    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth


    In Alzheimer's disease, calcium permeability through cellular membranes appears to underlie neuronal cell death. It is increasingly accepted that calcium permeability involves toxic ion channels. We modeled Alzheimer's disease ion channels of different sizes (12-mer to 36-mer) in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. Our Abeta channels consist of the solid-state NMR-based U-shaped beta-strand-turn-beta-strand motif. In the simulations we obtain ion-permeable channels whose subunit morphologies and shapes are consistent with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy. In agreement with imaged channels, the simulations indicate that beta-sheet channels break into loosely associated mobile beta-sheet subunits. The preferred channel sizes (16- to 24-mer) are compatible with electron microscopy/atomic force microscopy-derived dimensions. Mobile subunits were also observed for beta-sheet channels formed by cytolytic PG-1 beta-hairpins. The emerging picture from our large-scale simulations is that toxic ion channels formed by beta-sheets spontaneously break into loosely interacting dynamic units that associate and dissociate leading to toxic ionic flux. This sharply contrasts intact conventional gated ion channels that consist of tightly interacting alpha-helices that robustly prevent ion leakage, rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands. The simulations suggest why conventional gated channels evolved to consist of interacting alpha-helices rather than hydrogen-bonded beta-strands that tend to break in fluidic bilayers. Nature designs folded channels but not misfolded toxic channels.

  20. Numerical study of cell performance and local transport phenomena in PEM fuel cells with various flow channel area ratios (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Yuan-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Mon

    Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell.

  1. Numerical study of cell performance and local transport phenomena in PEM fuel cells with various flow channel area ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong [Department of Thermal Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Duan, Yuan-Yuan [Key Laboratory of Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Wei-Mon [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Shih-Ting 22305 (China)


    Three-dimensional models of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with parallel and interdigitated flow channel designs were developed including the effects of liquid water formation on the reactant gas transport. The models were used to investigate the effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on the cell performance and local transport characteristics. The results reveal that at high operating voltages, the cell performance is independent of the flow channel designs and operating parameters, while at low operating voltages, both significantly affect cell performance. For the parallel flow channel design, as the flow channel area ratio increases the cell performance improves because fuel is transported into the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer mainly by diffusion. A larger flow channel area ratio increases the contact area between the fuel and the diffusion layer, which allows more fuel to directly diffuse into the porous layers to participate in the electrochemical reaction which enhances the reaction rates. For the interdigitated flow channel design, the baffle forces more fuel to enter the cell and participate in the electrochemical reaction, so the flow channel area ratio has less effect. Forced convection not only increases the fuel transport rates but also enhances the liquid water removal, thus interdigitated flow channel design has higher performance than the parallel flow channel design. The optimal performance for the interdigitated flow channel design occurs for a flow channel area ratio of 0.4. The cell performance also improves as the cathode flow rate increases. The effects of the flow channel area ratio and the cathode flow rate on cell performance are analyzed based on the local current densities, oxygen flow rates and liquid water concentrations inside the cell. (author)

  2. Brownian transport in corrugated channels with inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, P K; Marchesoni, F; Nori, F; Schmid, G; 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.021112


    The transport of suspended Brownian particles dc-driven along corrugated narrow channels is numerically investigated in the regime of finite damping. We show that inertial corrections cannot be neglected as long as the width of the channel bottlenecks is smaller than an appropriate particle diffusion length, which depends on the the channel corrugation and the drive intensity. Being such a diffusion length inversely proportional to the damping constant, transport through sufficiently narrow obstructions turns out to be always sensitive to the viscosity of the suspension fluid. The inertia corrections to the transport quantifiers, mobility and diffusivity, markedly differ for smoothly and sharply corrugated channels.

  3. Capacity of Discrete Molecular Diffusion Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Einolghozati, Arash; Beirami, Ahmad; Fekri, Faramarz


    In diffusion-based molecular communications, messages can be conveyed via the variation in the concentration of molecules in the medium. In this paper, we intend to analyze the achievable capacity in transmission of information from one node to another in a diffusion channel. We observe that because of the molecular diffusion in the medium, the channel possesses memory. We then model the memory of the channel by a two-step Markov chain and obtain the equations describing the capacity of the diffusion channel. By performing a numerical analysis, we obtain the maximum achievable rate for different levels of the transmitter power, i.e., the molecule production rate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Qingkuan; Chen Yuan; Xiao Guozhen


    Two types of new subliminal channels are constructed respectively based on provable secure public key cryptosystems and identity recognition in some network applications. Research shows that there are some new characteristics which are in favor of covert communication in our constructions. It is hard to make the subliminal channels free, and the channels have large capacity and high transmission efficiency. We also point out that the hardness to make the channels free is disadvantageous to the warden who tries to thwart the covert communication.

  5. Secrecy Capacity over Correlated Ergodic Fading Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Minki; Lee, Hyuckjae; Ha, Jeongseok


    We investigate the secrecy capacity of an ergodic fading wiretap channel in which the main channel is correlated with the eavesdropper channel. In this study, the full Channel State Information (CSI) is assumed, and thus the transmitter knows the channel gains of the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. By analyzing the resulting secrecy capacity we quantify the loss of the secrecy capacity due to the correlation. In addition, we study the asymptotic behavior of the secrecy capacity as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) tends to infinity. The capacity of an ordinary fading channel logarithmically increases with SNR. On the contrary, the secrecy capacity converges into a limit which can be an upper bound on the secrecy capacity over the fading wiretap channel. We find a closed form of the upper bound for the correlated Rayleigh wiretap channel which also includes the independent case as a special one. Our work shows that the upper bound is determined by only two channel parameters; the correlation coefficient an...

  6. Customer Engagement Tool (Multi Channel Communication) (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Add new infrastructure within SSA's Enterprise Architecture to allow interactions over multiple, yet to be defined, channels. Possibilities include: Provide a portal...

  7. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.


    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  8. Spin chains and channels with memory


    Plenio, M. B.; Virmani, S.


    In most studies of the channel capacity of quantum channels, it is assumed that the errors in each use of the channel are independent. However, recent work has begun to investigate the effects of memory or correlations in the error. This work has led to speculation that interesting non-analytic behaviour may occur in the capacity. Motivated by these observations, we connect the study of channel capacities under correlated error to the study of critical behaviour in many-body physics. This con...

  9. Analysis and Realization on MIMO Channel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hui


    Full Text Available In order to build the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output channel model based on IEEE 802.16, the way and analysis on how to build good MIMO channel model are described in this study. By exploiting the spatial freedom of wireless channels, MIMO systems have the potential to achieve high bandwidth efficiency, promoting MIMO to be a key technique in the next generation communication systems. As a basic researching field of MIMO technologies, MIMO channel modeling significantly serve to the performance evaluation of space-time encoding algorithms as well as system level calibration and simulation. Having the superiorities of low inner-antenna correlation and small array size, multi-polarization tends to be a promising technique in future MIMO systems. However, polarization characteristics have not yet been modeled well in current MIMO channel models, so establishing meaningful multi-polarized MIMO channel models has become a hot spot in recent channel modeling investigation. In this study, I have mainly made further research on the related theories in the channel models and channel estimation and implementation algorithms on the others’ research work.

  10. Channeling collimation studies at the Fermilab Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, Richard A.; Drozhdin, Alexandr I.; Fliller, Raymond P., III; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Shiltsev, Vladimir D.; Still, Dean A.; /Fermilab


    Bent crystal channeling has promising advantages for accelerator beam collimation at high energy hadron facilities such as the LHC. This significance has been amplified by several surprising developments including multi-pass channeling and the observation of enhanced deflections over the entire arc of a bent crystal. The second effect has been observed both at RHIC and recently at the Tevatron. Results are reported showing channeling collimation of the circulating proton beam halo at the Tevatron. Parenthetically, this study is the highest energy proton channeling experiment ever carried out. The study is continuing.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Guanding; Zhang Zhaoyang; Qiu Peiliang


    A novel Automatic repeat ReQuest (ARQ) protocol called cooperative ARQ is presented in this letter, where a relay terminal is requested to retransmit an erroneously received packet, instead of the source terminal. The data link layer Packet Error Rate (PER) performance of cooperative ARQ is derived in correlated wireless channel. The results show that even though the relay-destination channel is worse than the sourcedestination channel, the new protocol outperforms the traditional one as long as the average SNR of the relaydestination channel is better than a certain threshold. It is also demonstrated that a second order diversity gain can be achieved with the cooperative ARQ protocol.

  12. Classical codes for quantum broadcast channels

    CERN Document Server

    Savov, Ivan


    We discuss two techniques for transmitting classical information over quantum broadcast channels. The first technique is a quantum generalization of the superposition coding scheme for the classical broadcast channel. We use a quantum simultaneous nonunique decoder and obtain a simpler proof of the rate region recently published by Yard et al. in independent work. Our second result is a quantum Marton coding scheme, which gives the best known achievable rate region for quantum broadcast channels. Both results exploit recent advances in quantum simultaneous decoding developed in the context of quantum interference channels.

  13. OFDM System Channel Estimation with Hidden Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; LIN Cheng-yu; ZHANG Wen-jun


    Channel estimation using pilot is common used in OFDM system. The pilot is usually time division multiplexed with the informative sequence. One of the main drawbacks is bandwidth losing. In this paper, a new method was proposed to perform channel estimation in OFDM system. The pilot is arithmetically added to the output of OFDM modulator. Receiver uses the hidden pilot to get an accurate estimation of the channel. Then pilot is removed after channel estimation. The Cramer-Rao lower bound for this method was deprived. The performance of the algorithm is then shown. Compared with traditional methods, the proposed algorithm increases the bandwidth efficiency dramatically.

  14. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  15. Performance Evaluation of Closed-Loop Spatial Multiplexing Codebook Based on Indoor MIMO Channel Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjun Gao


    Full Text Available Closed-loop MIMO technique standardized in LTE can support different layer transmissions through precoding operation to match the channel multiplexing capability. However, the performance of the limited size codebook still needs to be evaluated in real channel environment for further insights. Based on the wideband MIMO channel measurement in a typical indoor scenario, capacity loss (CL of the limited size codebook relative to perfect precoding is studied first in two extreme channel conditions. The results show that current codebook design for single layer transmission is nearly capacity lossless, and the CL will increase with the number of transmitted layers. Furthermore, the capacity improvement of better codebook selection criterions is very limited compared to CL. Then we define the maximum capacity boost achieved by frequency domain layer adaption (FDLA and investigate its sensitivity to SNR and channel condition. To survey the effect of frequency domain channel variation on MIMO-OFDM system, we define a function to measure the fluctuation levels of the key channel metrics within a subband and reveal the inherent relationship between them. Finally, a capacity floor resulted as the feedback interval increases in frequency domain.

  16. Molecular mechanism of ATP binding and ion channel activation in P2X receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Motoyuki; Gouaux, Eric (Oregon HSU)


    P2X receptors are trimeric ATP-activated ion channels permeable to Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}. The seven P2X receptor subtypes are implicated in physiological processes that include modulation of synaptic transmission, contraction of smooth muscle, secretion of chemical transmitters and regulation of immune responses. Despite the importance of P2X receptors in cellular physiology, the three-dimensional composition of the ATP-binding site, the structural mechanism of ATP-dependent ion channel gating and the architecture of the open ion channel pore are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in complex with ATP and a new structure of the apo receptor. The agonist-bound structure reveals a previously unseen ATP-binding motif and an open ion channel pore. ATP binding induces cleft closure of the nucleotide-binding pocket, flexing of the lower body {beta}-sheet and a radial expansion of the extracellular vestibule. The structural widening of the extracellular vestibule is directly coupled to the opening of the ion channel pore by way of an iris-like expansion of the transmembrane helices. The structural delineation of the ATP-binding site and the ion channel pore, together with the conformational changes associated with ion channel gating, will stimulate development of new pharmacological agents.

  17. The formate channel FocA exports the products of mixed-acid fermentation. (United States)

    Lü, Wei; Du, Juan; Schwarzer, Nikola J; Gerbig-Smentek, Elke; Einsle, Oliver; Andrade, Susana L A


    Formate is a major metabolite in the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by many enterobacteria. It is translocated across cellular membranes by the pentameric ion channel/transporter FocA that, together with the nitrite channel NirC, forms the formate/nitrite transporter (FNT) family of membrane transport proteins. Here we have carried out an electrophysiological analysis of FocA from Salmonella typhimurium to characterize the channel properties and assess its specificity toward formate and other possible permeating ions. Single-channel currents for formate, hypophosphite and nitrite revealed two mechanistically distinct modes of gating that reflect different types of structural rearrangements in the transport channel of each FocA protomer. Moreover, FocA did not conduct cations or divalent anions, but the chloride anion was identified as further transported species, along with acetate, lactate and pyruvate. Formate, acetate and lactate are major end products of anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation, the pathway where FocA is predominantly required, so that this channel is ideally adapted to act as a multifunctional export protein to prevent their intracellular accumulation. Because of the high degree of conservation in the residues forming the transport channel among FNT family members, the flexibility in conducting multiple molecules is most likely a general feature of these proteins.

  18. Maximum-Likelihood Semiblind Equalization of Doubly Selective Channels Using the EM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Kutz


    Full Text Available Maximum-likelihood semi-blind joint channel estimation and equalization for doubly selective channels and single-carrier systems is proposed. We model the doubly selective channel as an FIR filter where each filter tap is modeled as a linear combination of basis functions. This channel description is then integrated in an iterative scheme based on the expectation-maximization (EM principle that converges to the channel description vector estimation. We discuss the selection of the basis functions and compare various functions sets. To alleviate the problem of convergence to a local maximum, we propose an initialization scheme to the EM iterations based on a small number of pilot symbols. We further derive a pilot positioning scheme targeted to reduce the probability of convergence to a local maximum. Our pilot positioning analysis reveals that for high Doppler rates it is better to spread the pilots evenly throughout the data block (and not to group them even for frequency-selective channels. The resulting equalization algorithm is shown to be superior over previously proposed equalization schemes and to perform in many cases close to the maximum-likelihood equalizer with perfect channel knowledge. Our proposed method is also suitable for coded systems and as a building block for Turbo equalization algorithms.

  19. Definition of two agonist types at the mammalian cold-activated channel TRPM8 (United States)

    Janssens, Annelies; Gees, Maarten; Toth, Balazs Istvan; Ghosh, Debapriya; Mulier, Marie; Vennekens, Rudi; Vriens, Joris; Talavera, Karel; Voets, Thomas


    Various TRP channels act as polymodal sensors of thermal and chemical stimuli, but the mechanisms whereby chemical ligands impact on TRP channel gating are poorly understood. Here we show that AITC (allyl isothiocyanate; mustard oil) and menthol represent two distinct types of ligands at the mammalian cold sensor TRPM8. Kinetic analysis of channel gating revealed that AITC acts by destabilizing the closed channel, whereas menthol stabilizes the open channel, relative to the transition state. Based on these differences, we classify agonists as either type I (menthol-like) or type II (AITC-like), and provide a kinetic model that faithfully reproduces their differential effects. We further demonstrate that type I and type II agonists have a distinct impact on TRPM8 currents and TRPM8-mediated calcium signals in excitable cells. These findings provide a theoretical framework for understanding the differential actions of TRP channel ligands, with important ramifications for TRP channel structure-function analysis and pharmacology. DOI: PMID:27449282

  20. Carbenoxolone inhibits Pannexin1 channels through interactions in the first extracellular loop. (United States)

    Michalski, Kevin; Kawate, Toshimitsu


    Pannexin1 (Panx1) is an ATP release channel important for controlling immune responses and synaptic strength. Various stimuli including C-terminal cleavage, a high concentration of extracellular potassium, and voltage have been demonstrated to activate Panx1. However, it remains unclear how Panx1 senses and integrates such diverse stimuli to form an open channel. To provide a clue on the mechanism underlying Panx1 channel gating, we investigated the action mechanism of carbenoxolone (CBX), the most commonly used small molecule for attenuating Panx1 function triggered by a wide range of stimuli. Using a chimeric approach, we discovered that CBX reverses its action polarity and potentiates the voltage-gated channel activity of Panx1 when W74 in the first extracellular loop is mutated to a nonaromatic residue. A systematic mutagenesis study revealed that conserved residues in this loop also play important roles in CBX function, potentially by mediating CBX binding. We extended our experiments to other Panx1 inhibitors such as probenecid and ATP, which also potentiate the voltage-gated channel activity of a Panx1 mutant at position 74. Notably, probenecid alone can activate this mutant at a resting membrane potential. These data suggest that CBX and other inhibitors, including probenecid, attenuate Panx1 channel activity through modulation of the first extracellular loop. Our experiments are the first step toward identifying a previously unknown mode of CBX action, which provide insight into the role of the first extracellular loop in Panx1 channel gating.

  1. Classification of 2-pore domain potassium channels based on rectification under quasi-physiological ionic conditions. (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Zuo, Dongchuan; Zhang, Jianing; Zhou, Min; Ma, Liqun


    It is generally expected that 2-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels are open or outward rectifiers in asymmetric physiological K(+) gradients, following the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) current equation. Although cloned K2P channels have been extensively studied, their current-voltage (I-V) relationships are not precisely characterized and previous definitions are contradictory. Here we study all the functional channels from 6 mammalian K2P subfamilies in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells with patch-clamp technique, and examine whether their I-V relationships are described by the GHK current equation. K2P channels display 2 distinct types of I-V curves in asymmetric physiological K(+) gradients. Two K2P isoforms in the TWIK subfamily conduct large inward K(+) currents and have a nearly linear I-V curve. Ten isoforms from 5 other K2P subfamilies conduct small inward K(+) currents and exhibit open rectification, but fits with the GHK current equation cannot precisely reveal the differences in rectification among K2P channels. The Rectification Index, a ratio of limiting I-V slopes for outward and inward currents, is used to quantitatively describe open rectification of each K2P isoform, which is previously qualitatively defined as strong or weak open rectification. These results systematically and precisely classify K2P channels and suggest that TWIK K(+) channels have a unique feature in regulating cellular function.

  2. Interactions of drugs and toxins with permeant ions in potassium, sodium, and calcium channels. (United States)

    Zhorov, B S


    Ion channels in cell membranes are targets for a multitude of ligands including naturally occurring toxins, illicit drugs, and medications used to manage pain and treat cardiovascular, neurological, autoimmune, and other health disorders. In the past decade, the x-ray crystallography revealed 3D structures of several ion channels in their open, closed, and inactivated states, shedding light on mechanisms of channel gating, ion permeation and selectivity. However, atomistic mechanisms of the channel modulation by ligands are poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggest that cationophilic groups in ion channels and in some ligands may simultaneously coordinate permeant cations, which form indispensible (but underappreciated) components of respective receptors. This review describes ternary ligand-metal-channel complexes predicted by means of computer-based molecular modeling. The models rationalize a large body of experimental data including paradoxes in structure-activity relationships, effects of mutations on the ligand action, sensitivity of the ligand action to the nature of current-carrying cations, and action of ligands that bind in the ion-permeation pathway but increase rather than decrease the current. Recent mutational and ligand-binding experiments designed to test the models have confirmed the ternary-complex concept providing new knowledge on physiological roles of metal ions and atomistic mechanisms of action of ion channel ligands.

  3. Regulation of Voltage-Activated K(+) Channel Gating by Transmembrane β Subunits. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaohui; Zaydman, Mark A; Cui, Jianmin


    Voltage-activated K(+) (K(V)) channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. K(V) channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD) surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSDs). The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many K(V) channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the K(V) β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM) segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of K(V) α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening, and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into K(V) channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  4. Regulation of KV channel voltage-dependent activation by transmembrane β subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui eSun


    Full Text Available Voltage-activated K+ (KV channels are important for shaping action potentials and maintaining resting membrane potential in excitable cells. KV channels contain a central pore-gate domain (PGD surrounded by four voltage-sensing domains (VSD. The VSDs will change conformation in response to alterations of the membrane potential thereby inducing the opening of the PGD. Many KV channels are heteromeric protein complexes containing auxiliary β subunits. These β subunits modulate channel expression and activity to increase functional diversity and render tissue specific phenotypes. This review focuses on the KV β subunits that contain transmembrane (TM segments including the KCNE family and the β subunits of large conductance, Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK channels. These TM β subunits affect the voltage-dependent activation of KV α subunits. Experimental and computational studies have described the structural location of these β subunits in the channel complexes and the biophysical effects on VSD activation, PGD opening and VSD-PGD coupling. These results reveal some common characteristics and mechanistic insights into KV channel modulation by TM β subunits.

  5. The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels (United States)

    Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu


    Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process.

  6. A reduced mechanical model for cAMP-modulated gating in HCN channels (United States)

    Weißgraeber, Stephanie; Saponaro, Andrea; Thiel, Gerhard; Hamacher, Kay


    We developed an in silico mechanical model to analyze the process of cAMP-induced conformational modulations in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which conduct cations across the membrane of mammalian heart and brain cells. The structural analysis reveals a quaternary twist in the cytosolic parts of the four subunits in the channel tetramer. This motion augments the intrinsic dynamics of the very same protein structure. The pronounced differences between the cAMP bound and unbound form include a mutual interaction between the C-linker of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) and the linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domain of the channel. This allows a mechanistic annotation of the twisting motion in relation to the allosteric modulation of voltage-dependent gating of this channel by cAMP. PMID:28074902

  7. MHD mixed convection flow through a diverging channel with heated circular obstacle (United States)

    Alam, Md. S.; Shaha, J.; Khan, M. A. H.; Nasrin, R.


    A numerical study of steady MHD mixed convection heat transfer and fluid flow through a diverging channel with heated circular obstacle is carried out in this paper. The circular obstacle placed at the centre of the channel is hot with temperature Th. The top and bottom walls are non-adiabatic. The basic nonlinear governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. These equations have been solved numerically for different values of the governing parameters, namely Reynolds number (Re), Hartmann number (Ha), Richardson number (Ri) and Prandtl number (Pr) using finite element method. The streamlines, isotherms, average Nusselt number and average temperature of the fluid for various relevant dimensionless parameters are displayed graphically. The study revealed that the flow and thermal fields in the diverging channel depend significantly on the heated body. In addition, it is observed that the magnetic field acts to increase the rate of heat transfer within the channel.

  8. Weighted-Sum-Rate-Maximizing Linear Transceiver Filters for the K-User MIMO Interference Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Joonwoo


    This letter is concerned with transmit and receive filter optimization for the K-user MIMO interference channel. Specifically, linear transmit and receive filter sets are designed which maximize the weighted sum rate while allowing each transmitter to utilize only the local channel state information. Our approach is based on extending the existing method of minimizing the weighted mean squared error (MSE) for the MIMO broadcast channel to the K-user interference channel at hand. For the case of the individual transmitter power constraint, however, a straightforward generalization of the existing method does not reveal a viable solution. It is in fact shown that there exists no closed-form solution for the transmit filter but simple one-dimensional parameter search yields the desired solution. Compared to the direct filter optimization using gradient-based search, our solution requires considerably less computational complexity and a smaller amount of feedback resources while achieving essentially the same lev...

  9. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy. (United States)

    Kole, Maarten H P; Letzkus, Johannes J; Stuart, Greg J


    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma. Cell-attached recordings revealed a 10-fold increase in Kv1 channel density over the first 50 microm of the AIS. Inactivation of AIS and proximal axonal Kv1 channels, as occurs during slow subthreshold somatodendritic depolarizations, led to a distance-dependent broadening of axonal action potentials, as well as an increase in synaptic strength at proximal axonal terminals. Thus, Kv1 channels are strategically positioned to integrate slow subthreshold signals, providing control of the presynaptic action potential waveform and synaptic coupling in local cortical circuits.

  10. Nature and characteristics of the flows that carved the Simud and Tiu outflow channels, Mars (United States)

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Sasaki, S.


    Geomorphic and topographic relations of higher and lower levels of dissection within the Simud and Tiu Valles outflow channels on Mars reveal new insights into their formational histories. We find that the water floods that carved the higher channel floors were primarily sourced from Hydaspis Chaos. The floods apparently branched into distributaries downstream that promoted rapid freezing and sublimation of water and limited discharge into the lowlands. In contrast, we suggest that the lower outflow channels were carved by debris flows from Hydraotes Chaos. Surges within individual debris flows possessed variable volatile contents and led to the deposition of smooth deposits marked by low relief longitudinal ridges. Lower outflow channel discharges resulted in widespread deposition within the Simud/Tiu Valles as well as within the northern plains of Mars. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Effect of Multimodal Pore Channels on Cargo Release from Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushilkumar A. Jadhav


    Full Text Available Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs with multimodal pore channels were fully characterized by TEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and DLS analyses. MSNs with average diameter of 200 nm with dual pore channel zones with pore diameters of 1.3–2.6 and 4 nm were tested for their use in drug delivery application. Important role of the multimodal pore systems present on MSNs on the quantitative release of model drug ibuprofen was investigated. The results obtained revealed that the release profile for ibuprofen clearly shows distinct zones which can be attributed to the respective porous channel zones present on the particles. The fluctuations in the concentration of ibuprofen during the prolonged release from MSNs were caused by the multimodal pore channel systems.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Dual-Channel Communication of Column Plasma Antenna Excited by a Surface Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUANMU Gang; ZHAO Changming; LIANG Chao; XU Yuemin


    This paper focuses on the application of plasma as wireless antenna.In order to reveal the radiation characteristics of column plasma antenna,we chose the finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) numerical analysis method to simulate radiation impedance and efficiencies of each channel for a few sets of plasma densities and plasma collision frequencies.Simulation results demonstrate that a plasma antenna shares similar characteristics with a metallic antenna in radiation impedance and efficiency of each channel when an appropriate setting is adopted.Unlike a metallic antenna,a plasma antenna is capable of realizing such functions as dynamic reconfiguration,digital control and dual-channel communication.Thus it is possible to carry out dual-channel communication by plasma antenna,indicating a new path for modern intelligent communication.

  13. A reduced mechanical model for cAMP-modulated gating in HCN channels (United States)

    Weißgraeber, Stephanie; Saponaro, Andrea; Thiel, Gerhard; Hamacher, Kay


    We developed an in silico mechanical model to analyze the process of cAMP-induced conformational modulations in hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, which conduct cations across the membrane of mammalian heart and brain cells. The structural analysis reveals a quaternary twist in the cytosolic parts of the four subunits in the channel tetramer. This motion augments the intrinsic dynamics of the very same protein structure. The pronounced differences between the cAMP bound and unbound form include a mutual interaction between the C-linker of the cyclic nucleotide binding domain (CNBD) and the linker between the S4 and S5 transmembrane domain of the channel. This allows a mechanistic annotation of the twisting motion in relation to the allosteric modulation of voltage-dependent gating of this channel by cAMP.

  14. Cooper Lake and Channels, Texas. (United States)


    Chalk :. 0 Lower IM Ozan Gober Tongue 5 ~~Aus tin - P I !!rewns town Marl , Austin Chalk f • I Blossom Sand I I ’I I Bonham Marl Tokio Sand -ctor...0.80 5.4 0.45 Carp 11 0.80 17.4 1.44 Golden s~iiner 9 0.65 1.6 0.13 Channel catfish 31 2.25 36.8 3.04 Blue catfish 2 0.15 1.4 0.12 Black bullhead the basin but also nests there. Other waterfowl which winter in the area include the northern pintail, green-winged teal, cinnamon teal, blue

  15. On one-qubit channels

    CERN Document Server

    Verstraete, F; Verstraete, Frank; Verschelde, Henri


    We use the duality between completely positive linear maps and states to characterize all possible 1-qubit channels. This leads to a transparent way of characterizing all extreme points of the set of completely positive trace preserving maps. We show that these extremal maps arise in a natural way in problems such as to optimally enhance fidelity and optimal cloning. Next we use normal forms, previously derived for mixed states of two qubits, to derive interesting representations of CP-maps. It follows that a generic CP-map on 1 qubit can be interpreted as being a composition of a (reversible) filtering operation, followed by a unital map, followed by filtering again. It is furthermore shown that a map is entanglement breaking iff the dual state associated to it is separable, and how this implies that the Kraus operators can be chosen to be all of rank one.

  16. Amoeboid swimming in a channel

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Hao; Hu, W -F; Thiébaud, M; Rafaï, S; Peyla, P; Lai, M -C; Misbah, C


    Several micro-organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or spermatozoa, use flagellum or cilium activity to swim in a fluid. Many other organisms use rather ample shape deformation, described as amoeboid, to propel themselves, either crawling on a substrate or swimming. Many eukaryotic cells were believed to require an underlying substratum to migrate (crawl) by using ample membrane deformation (like blebbing). There is now an increasing evidence that a large variety of cells (including those of the immune system) can migrate without the assistance of focal adhesion, and can perform swimming as efficiently as crawling. This paper deals with a detailed analysis of amoeboid swimming in a confined fluid, by modeling the swimmer as an inextensible membrane deploying local active forces. The swimmer exhibits a rich behavior: it can settle into a straight trajectory in the channel, or can navigate from one wall to the other, depending on confinement. Furthermore, the nature of the swimmer is found to be affected by the c...

  17. Study of Dispersion Coefficient Channel (United States)

    Akiyama, K. R.; Bressan, C. K.; Pires, M. S. G.; Canno, L. M.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.


    The issue of water pollution has worsened in recent times due to releases, intentional or not, of pollutants in natural water bodies. This causes several studies about the distribution of pollutants are carried out. The water quality models have been developed and widely used today as a preventative tool, ie to try to predict what will be the concentration distribution of constituent along a body of water in spatial and temporal scale. To understand and use such models, it is necessary to know some concepts of hydraulic high on their application, including the longitudinal dispersion coefficient. This study aims to conduct a theoretical and experimental study of the channel dispersion coefficient, yielding more information about their direct determination in the literature.

  18. Broadband channel measurement and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming; ZHANG Jian-hua; JIANG Jun; ZHANG Ping; WU Yu-fei


    An outdoor propagation measurement campaign for beyond 3G (B3G) as well as a wide-band indoor measurement campaign have been performed recently in Beijing, China, in which the sounding signals are transmitted by an one-antenna base station and received by a two-antenna mobile receiver operated at 3.49~3.51 GHz bandwidth. Different scenarios:stationary line-of-sight (LoS), stationary non-LoS (NLoS)scenarios, and dynamic NLoS are deliberately chosen in a classic urban environment and office environment. The initial results are presented in this article. Parameters including vector channel impulse response, path loss, rays number, excess delay spread etc. are extracted, analyzed, and briefly reported here.

  19. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.


    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...... on the antenna performance. The optimized antenna demonstrates S11 below -10 dB and a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern robust against the cable effect over the frequency band 1.5-41 GHz despite its compactness (the maximum electrical dimension is of 0.29max, where max is the free space wavelength...... at the lowest frequency of operation). A prototype of the antenna is fabricated and tested. The simulated and measured S11 are in a good agreement. Measured radiation patterns confirm the pattern stability in terms of the direction of maximum radiation and 3 dB beamwidth....

  20. Channel characteristics and coordination in three-echelon dual-channel supply chain (United States)

    Saha, Subrata


    We explore the impact of channel structure on the manufacturer, the distributer, the retailer and the entire supply chain by considering three different channel structures in radiance of with and without coordination. These structures include a traditional retail channel and two manufacturer direct channels with and without consistent pricing. By comparing the performance of the manufacturer, the distributer and the retailer, and the entire supply chain in three different supply chain structures, it is established analytically that, under some conditions, a dual channel can outperform a single retail channel; as a consequence, a coordination mechanism is developed that not only coordinates the dual channel but also outperforms the non-cooperative single retail channel. All the analytical results are further analysed through numerical examples.

  1. An information-guided channel-hopping scheme for block-fading channels with estimation errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuli


    Information-guided channel-hopping technique employing multiple transmit antennas was previously proposed for supporting high data rate transmission over fading channels. This scheme achieves higher data rates than some mature schemes, such as the well-known cyclic transmit antenna selection and space-time block coding, by exploiting the independence character of multiple channels, which effectively results in having an additional information transmitting channel. Moreover, maximum likelihood decoding may be performed by simply decoupling the signals conveyed by the different mapping methods. In this paper, we investigate the achievable spectral efficiency of this scheme in the case of having channel estimation errors, with optimum pilot overhead for minimum meansquare error channel estimation, when transmitting over blockfading channels. Our numerical results further substantiate the robustness of the presented scheme, even with imperfect channel state information. ©2010 IEEE.

  2. The gating mechanism of the human aquaporin 5 revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorant Janosi

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are protein channels located across the cell membrane with the role of conducting water or other small sugar alcohol molecules (aquaglyceroporins. The high-resolution X-ray structure of the human aquaporin 5 (HsAQP5 shows that HsAQP5, as all the other known aquaporins, exhibits tetrameric structure. By means of molecular dynamics simulations we analyzed the role of spontaneous fluctuations on the structural behavior of the human AQP5. We found that different conformations within the tetramer lead to a distribution of monomeric channel structures, which can be characterized as open or closed. The switch between the two states of a channel is a tap-like mechanism at the cytoplasmic end which regulates the water passage through the pore. The channel is closed by a translation of the His67 residue inside the pore. Moreover, water permeation rate calculations revealed that the selectivity filter, located at the other end of the channel, regulates the flow rate of water molecules when the channel is open, by locally modifying the orientation of His173. Furthermore, the calculated permeation rates of a fully open channel are in good agreement with the reported experimental value.

  3. Misfolded Amyloid Ion Channels Present Mobile β-Sheet Subunits in Contrast to Conventional Ion Channels


    Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth


    In Alzheimer's disease, calcium permeability through cellular membranes appears to underlie neuronal cell death. It is increasingly accepted that calcium permeability involves toxic ion channels. We modeled Alzheimer's disease ion channels of different sizes (12-mer to 36-mer) in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations. Our Aβ channels consist of the solid-state NMR-based U-shaped β-strand-turn-β-strand motif. In the simulations we obtain ion-permeable channels whose subunit mo...

  4. XPM-induced degradation of multilevel phase modulated channel caused by neighboring NRZ modulated channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Schiellerup, G.; Peucheret, Christophe


    The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty.......The impact of XPM from NRZ modulated channels on an 8-level phase modulated channel in a WDM system was investigated. Requirements on launch power are found. 400 km transmission was achieved with negligible penalty....

  5. Hysteresis in voltage-gated channels. (United States)

    Villalba-Galea, Carlos A


    Ion channels constitute a superfamily of membrane proteins found in all living creatures. Their activity allows fast translocation of ions across the plasma membrane down the ion's transmembrane electrochemical gradient, resulting in a difference in electrical potential across the plasma membrane, known as the membrane potential. A group within this superfamily, namely voltage-gated channels, displays activity that is sensitive to the membrane potential. The activity of voltage-gated channels is controlled by the membrane potential, while the membrane potential is changed by these channels' activity. This interplay produces variations in the membrane potential that have evolved into electrical signals in many organisms. These signals are essential for numerous biological processes, including neuronal activity, insulin release, muscle contraction, fertilization and many others. In recent years, the activity of the voltage-gated channels has been observed not to follow a simple relationship with the membrane potential. Instead, it has been shown that the activity of voltage-gated channel displays hysteresis. In fact, a growing number of evidence have demonstrated that the voltage dependence of channel activity is dynamically modulated by activity itself. In spite of the great impact that this property can have on electrical signaling, hysteresis in voltage-gated channels is often overlooked. Addressing this issue, this review provides examples of voltage-gated ion channels displaying hysteretic behavior. Further, this review will discuss how Dynamic Voltage Dependence in voltage-gated channels can have a physiological role in electrical signaling. Furthermore, this review will elaborate on the current thoughts on the mechanism underlying hysteresis in voltage-gated channels.

  6. The Molecular Mechanism by which PIP2 Opens the Intracellular G-Loop Gate of a Kir3.1 Channel


    Meng, Xuan-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Logothetis, Diomedes E.; Cui, Meng


    Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels are characterized by a long pore comprised of continuous transmembrane and cytosolic portions. A high-resolution structure of a Kir3.1 chimera revealed the presence of the cytosolic (G-loop) gate captured in the closed or open conformations. Here, we conducted molecular-dynamics simulations of these two channel states in the presence and absence of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is known to gate Kir channels. Simulati...

  7. Channel-Mediated Lactate Release by K+-Stimulated Astrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Sotelo-Hitschfeld, T.


    Excitatory synaptic transmission is accompanied by a local surge in interstitial lactate that occurs despite adequate oxygen availability, a puzzling phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. In addition to its role as an energy substrate, recent studies have shown that lactate modulates neuronal excitability acting through various targets, including NMDA receptors and G-protein-coupled receptors specific for lactate, but little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the increase in interstitial lactate. Using a panel of genetically encoded fluorescence nanosensors for energy metabolites, we show here that mouse astrocytes in culture, in cortical slices, and in vivo maintain a steady-state reservoir of lactate. The reservoir was released to the extracellular space immediately after exposure of astrocytes to a physiological rise in extracellular K+ or cell depolarization. Cell-attached patch-clamp analysis of cultured astrocytes revealed a 37 pS lactate-permeable ion channel activated by cell depolarization. The channel was modulated by lactate itself, resulting in a positive feedback loop for lactate release. A rapid fall in intracellular lactate levels was also observed in cortical astrocytes of anesthetized mice in response to local field stimulation. The existence of an astrocytic lactate reservoir and its quick mobilization via an ion channel in response to a neuronal cue provides fresh support to lactate roles in neuronal fueling and in gliotransmission.

  8. Regulation of lysosomal ion homeostasis by channels and transporters. (United States)

    Xiong, Jian; Zhu, Michael X


    Lysosomes are the major organelles that carry out degradation functions. They integrate and digest materials compartmentalized by endocytosis, phagocytosis or autophagy. In addition to more than 60 hydrolases residing in the lysosomes, there are also ion channels and transporters that mediate the flux or transport of H(+), Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) across the lysosomal membranes. Defects in ionic exchange can lead to abnormal lysosome morphology, defective vesicle trafficking, impaired autophagy, and diseases such as neurodegeneration and lysosomal storage disorders. The latter are characterized by incomplete lysosomal digestion and accumulation of toxic materials inside enlarged intracellular vacuoles. In addition to degradation, recent studies have revealed the roles of lysosomes in metabolic pathways through kinases such as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcriptional regulation through calcium signaling molecules such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and calcineurin. Owing to the development of new approaches including genetically encoded fluorescence probes and whole endolysosomal patch clamp recording techniques, studies on lysosomal ion channels have made remarkable progress in recent years. In this review, we will focus on the current knowledge of lysosome-resident ion channels and transporters, discuss their roles in maintaining lysosomal function, and evaluate how their dysfunction can result in disease.

  9. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B


    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed...... was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction....... Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin...

  10. Optimising the Quality of Experience during Channel Zapping: The Impact of Advertisements during Channel Zapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, R.E.; Klos, V.B.; Godana, B.E.; Nicolai, F.P.; Ahmed, O.K.


    Nowadays various digital television services are available. However, the user of these services experiences longer delays than the traditional analog TV while switching from channel to channel. The digital TV operator usually displays a black screen with the channel number during zapping. However, i

  11. The aquaporin-2 water channel in autosomal dominant primary nocturnal enuresis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, P.M.T.; Dahl, N.; Caplan, M.J.


    PURPOSE: Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most common diagnoses in a pediatric clinic. Recently, linkage analysis revealed a 2-point lod score of 4.2 in 6 families with dominant primary nocturnal enuresis around the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel locus. Since primary nocturnal enuresis is ameliora

  12. G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type calcium channels by regulators of G protein signalling proteins. (United States)

    Mark, M D; Wittemann, S; Herlitze, S


    1. Fast synaptic transmission is triggered by the activation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels which can be inhibited by Gbetagamma subunits via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs), which are responsible for >100-fold increases in the GTPase activity of G proteins and might be involved in the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels. In this study we investigated the effects of RGS2 on G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type channels expressed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line using whole-cell recordings. 2. RGS2 markedly accelerates transmitter-mediated inhibition and recovery from inhibition of Ba2+ currents (IBa) through P/Q-type channels heterologously expressed with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (mAChR M2). 3. Both RGS2 and RGS4 modulate the prepulse facilitation properties of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. G protein reinhibition is accelerated, while release from inhibition is slowed. These kinetics depend on the availability of G protein alpha and betagamma subunits which is altered by RGS proteins. 4. RGS proteins unmask the Ca2+ channel beta subunit modulation of Ca2+ channel G protein inhibition. In the presence of RGS2, P/Q-type channels containing the beta2a and beta3 subunits reveal significantly altered kinetics of G protein modulation and increased facilitation compared to Ca2+ channels coexpressed with the beta1b or beta4 subunit.

  13. Differential gating and recruitment of P/Q-, N-, and R-type Ca2+ channels in hippocampal mossy fiber boutons. (United States)

    Li, Liyi; Bischofberger, Josef; Jonas, Peter


    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in presynaptic terminals initiate the Ca2+ inflow necessary for transmitter release. At a variety of synapses, multiple Ca2+ channel subtypes are involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is unknown whether presynaptic Ca2+ channels differ in gating properties and whether they are differentially activated by action potentials or subthreshold voltage signals. We examined Ca2+ channels in hippocampal mossy fiber boutons (MFBs) by presynaptic recording, using the selective blockers omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and SNX-482 to separate P/Q-, N-, and R-type components. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis combined with blocker application revealed a single MFB contained on average approximately 2000 channels, with 66% P/Q-, 26% N-, and 8% R-type channels. Whereas both P/Q-type and N-type Ca2+ channels showed high activation threshold and rapid activation and deactivation, R-type Ca2+ channels had a lower activation threshold and slower gating kinetics. To determine the efficacy of activation of different Ca2+ channel subtypes by physiologically relevant voltage waveforms, a six-state gating model reproducing the experimental observations was developed. Action potentials activated P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with high efficacy, whereas N- and R-type channels were activated less efficiently. Action potential broadening selectively recruited N- and R-type channels, leading to an equalization of the efficacy of channel activation. In contrast, subthreshold presynaptic events activated R-type channels more efficiently than P/Q- or N-type channels. In conclusion, single MFBs coexpress multiple types of Ca2+ channels, which are activated differentially by subthreshold and suprathreshold presynaptic voltage signals.

  14. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel


    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  15. Clinical Application of the Du Channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淑娅; 王世杰


    @@ The authors have, in recent years, obtained quite good therapeutic results in their acupuncture treatment of mental diseases, heat syndromes and cerebrovascular diseases through treating mainly the Du Channel with the methods of resuscitating and regulating the mind, and clearing and activating the channels and collaterals. The illustrative cases are reported below.

  16. Study on resistance coefficient in compound channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejun Yang; Shuyou Cao; Xingnian Liu; Ron Marshall


    This paper presents a further study of the Manning and Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficients, as they play a significant role in assessing the cross-sectional mean velocity, conveyance capacity and determining the lateral distribution of depth mean velocity and local boundary shear stress in compound channels. The relationships between the local, zonal and overall resistance coefficients, and a wide range of geometries and different roughness between the main channel and the flood plain are established by analyzing a vast amount of experimental data from a British Science and Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF). And the experimental results also show that the overall Darcy-Weisbach resistance coefficient for a compound channel is the function of Reynolds number, but the function relationship is different from that for a single channel. By comparing and analyzing the conventional methods with the experimental data to predict composite roughness in compound channels, it is found that these methods are not suitable for compound channels. Moreover, the reason why the conventional methods cannot assess correctly the conveyance capacity of com pound channels is also analyzed in this paper.

  17. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer


    Synthetic lipid membranes can display channel-like ion conduction events even in the absence of proteins. We show here that these events are voltage-gated with a quadratic voltage dependence as expected from electrostatic theory of capacitors. To this end, we recorded channel traces and current...

  18. BK channel activators and their therapeutic perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars C B;


    The large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated K(+) channel (KCa1.1, BK, MaxiK) is ubiquitously expressed in the body, and holds the ability to integrate changes in intracellular calcium and membrane potential. This makes the BK channel an important negative feedback system linking increases...

  19. Calmodulin modulation of ion channels and receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ion channels and receptors are the structural basis for neural signaling and transmission. Recently, the function of ion channels and receptors has been demonstrated to be modulated by many intracellular and extracellular chemicals and signaling molecules. Increasing evidence indicates that the complexity and plasticity of the function of central nervous system is determined by the modulation of ion channels and receptors. Among various mechanisms, Ca 2+ signaling pathways play important roles in neuronal activity and some pathological changes. Ca 2+ influx through ion channels and receptors can modulate its further influx in a feedback way or modulate other ion channels and receptors. The common feature of the modulation is that Ca 2+ /calmodulin (CaM) is the universal mediator. CaM maintains the coordination among ion channels/receptors and intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis by feedback modulation of ion channels/receptors activity. This review focuses on the modulating processes of ion channels and receptors mediated by CaM, and further elucidates the mechanisms of Ca 2+ signaling.

  20. 47 CFR 101.1405 - Channeling plan. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channeling plan. 101.1405 Section 101.1405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... Channeling plan. Each license shall have one spectrum block of 500 megahertz per geographic area that can...