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Sample records for cats claw

  1. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Introduction What the ... More Information Key References © Steven Foster Common Names: cat’s claw, uña de gato Latin Name: Uncaria tomentosa, ...

  2. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  3. Antimutagenic and antiherpetic activities of different preparations from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Kaiser, Samuel; Feltrin, Clarissa; de Carvalho, Annelise; Sincero, Thaís Cristine Marques; Ortega, George González; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Uncaria tomentosa have been used to treat viral diseases such as herpes due to multiple pharmacological effects, but its therapeutic efficacy against this virus have not been reported yet. Thus, in vitro antiherpetic activity of hydroethanolic extract from barks, purified fractions of quinovic acid glycosides and oxindole alkaloids was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, including mechanistic studies (virucidal, attachment and penetration action). Once exposure to physical agents might lead to reactivation of the herpetic infection, antimutagenic effect (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols) was also evaluated by Comet assay. The antiherpetic activity from the samples under investigation seemed to be associated with the presence of polyphenols or their synergistic effect with oxindole alkaloids or quinovic acid glycosides, once both purified fractions did not present activity when evaluated alone. Inhibition of viral attachment in the host cells was the main mechanism of antiviral activity. Although both purified fractions displayed the lowest antimutagenic activity in pre and simultaneous treatment, they provided a similar effect to that of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract in post-treatment. Given that purified fractions may result in a reduced antiherpetic activity, the use of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract from barks should be prioritized in order to obtain a synergistic effect. PMID:24447975

  4. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  5. Optimization of the analysis by means of liquid chromatography of metabolites of the Uncaria Tomentosa plant (cat's claw) using the sequential simplex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was developed for the analysis using liquid chromatography of the metabolites present in extracts of root bark of Uncaria Tomentosa (cat's claw) by applying the simplex sequential technique to determine the magnitude of the chromatographic variables; i.e. flow, temperature and stationary-phase composition, which allowed the optimizing the elusion time and the resolution of the chromatographic separation. The chromatographic analysis was performed in isocratic mode using a C12 (-urea) column of 15 cm in length and 4,6 mm of diameter and a UV detector. The magnitude of the chromatographic variables that optimized the separation turned out to be: flow of 1.80 mL/min, temperature of 27.5 centigrade and a mobile phase composition of 22:78 (Methanol: to butter). (Author)

  6. Claws Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In its November 2007 issue,U.S.magazine Science published a photo named"flat cat?"and a column titled"Rare-Tiger Photo Flap Makes Fur Fly in China."The article dealt with the claimed discovery of the South China tiger,which had been believed extinct in the wild.The photo as well as the article stirred up the already heated controversy in China as to whether the photo was a fake or not.

  7. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... those experienced by humans. Cats that hunt wild rodents and rabbits in the western, particularly the southwestern, ... caused by a fungus that can infect skin, hair, and nails of both people and animals. Ringworm ...

  8. Lobster claw deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  9. Lobster claw deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form. In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient.

  10. My Experience of Feeding a Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔琳

    2006-01-01

    I liked cat very much. In my old opinion, cat was cute and gentle. One day, my friend asked me to feed the cat for him. So I went to his house in order to take care of his cat. His neighbor was an old woman. When I was doing some cleaning, the old woman asked me if I needed some help. Suddenly, the cat stretched out its sharp claws, and clawed me and bit me with its sharp teeth. WowA It was too abrupt. The old woman got scared. “It goes crazyA” I said and asked her to get out of the room, otherwise she woul...

  11. Lobster claw deformity

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Agrawal; Rahul Agrawal; Rajat Singh; Romi Agrawal; Seema Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-...

  12. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward th

  13. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  14. Diagnosis and management of canine claw diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S

    1999-11-01

    The diagnostic workup for canine claw disease consists of a good history and complete clinical examination which may provide clues for a possible underlying disorder. In dogs with claw disease but no other clinical or historical signs, further recommended diagnostic procedures include cytological evaluation of impression smears or discharge from the claw fold, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, biopsy of the claw matrix, and an elimination diet for 6 to 8 weeks. If no underlying disease can be identified, trial treatment with essential fatty acid supplementation, vitamin E, or a combination of doxycycline hydrochloride and niacinamide may be useful. In some patients, onychectomy of all claws may be considered. PMID:10563005

  15. Germinação, avaliação do ácido giberélico e posição do explante no alongamento in vitro de Uncaria guianensis (AUBLET Gmelin Rubiaceae (UNHA-DE-GATO Germination, avaliation of giberelic acid and position of explants in vitro of Uncaria guianensis (Aublet Gmelin Rubiaceae (cat's claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Alves Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Amazônia existe uma diversidade vegetal, onde se encontram muitas plantas com propriedades medicinais e, que durante milênios são utilizadas pelas comunidades nativas. Uma dessas plantas é a unha-de-gato (Uncaria guianensis, cujo valor medicinal se atribui a efeitos imuno-estimulantes, anti-inflamatório e inibidores de crescimento de células cancerígenas. Atualmente, a espécie vem sendo submetida a uma extração indiscriminada e intensiva, podendo levá-la a sua extinção. A micropropagação permite solucionar problemas dessa natureza. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar um protocolo de propagação in vitro desta espécie. O melhor meio para germinação dos embriões foi ¼ de MS independente da presença ou não de sacarose. A posição de inoculação do explante da espécie Uncaria guianensis demonstrou exercer influência no número médio de brotações/explante original, assim como no número de gemas iniciais. Presença ou ausência de ácido giberélico não exerceu efeito nesta característica, exceto quando explantes com uma única gema foram inoculados na horizontal.In the Amazon Rain Forest there are a great botanical diversity where can be found a lot of plants with medicinal proprieties, and for ages it has been used by the native people. One of those plants is Uncaria guianensis known as Cat's Claw to which is believed to have antinflammatories, immunostimulating and growth inhibitors effects on cancerigenic cells. Nowadays, those species have been under uncontrolled and long extraction that could take to extinction. The micropropagation can solve these problems. The purpose of this work was to identify in vitro propagation protocol from these specie. The best medium for embryo germination was ¼ MS independent from presence or absence of saccarose. The explant inoculation position from Uncaria guianensis specie influenciated the shoots average number/original explant, as well as, the initial buds numbers

  16. What are the consequences of being left-clawed in a predominantly right-clawed fiddler crab?

    OpenAIRE

    Backwell, P.R.Y; Matsumasa, M; Double, M; Roberts, A; Murai, M; Keogh, J.S; Jennions, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Male fiddler crabs (genus Uca) have an enlarged major claw that is used during fights. In most species, 50% of males have a major claw on the left and 50% on the right. In Uca vocans vomeris, however, less than 1.4% of males are left-clawed. Fights between opponents with claws on the same or opposite side result in different physical alignment of claws, which affects fighting tactics. Left-clawed males mainly fight opposite-clawed opponents, so we predicted that they would be better fighters ...

  17. A method to determine integrated steroid levels in wildlife claws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas, Devorah; Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Koren, Lee

    2016-05-01

    Glucocorticoids act throughout life to regulate numerous physiological and behavioral processes. Their levels are therefore highly labile, reacting to varying conditions and stressors. Hence, measuring glucocorticoids (and other steroids) in wildlife is challenging, and devising methods that are unaffected by the stress of capture and handling should be explored. Here we use the tip of free-ranging chameleons' claws that were cut to allow individual identification, and report a steroids extraction and quantification method. Claw steroids present an integrated level representing the period of claw growth. We found that we could measure corticosterone in small amounts of chameleon claw matrix using commercial EIA kits. Using this method, we learned that in wild male chameleons, claw corticosterone levels were associated with body size. We suggest that claw-testing can potentially provide an ideal matrix for wildlife biomonitoring. PMID:26993343

  18. Claw-free circular-perfect graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pecher, Arnaud; Zhu, Xuding

    2007-01-01

    The circular chromatic number of a graph is a well studied refinement of the chromatic number. Circular perfect graphs is a superclass of perfect graphs defined by means of this more general coloring concept. This paper studies claw free circular perfect graphs. A consequence of the strong perfect graph theorem is that minimal circular perfect graphs G. In contrast to this result, it is shown in that minimal circular imperfect graphs G can have arbitrarily large independence number and arbitr...

  19. Morphological and functional diversity in therizinosaur claws and the implications for theropod claw evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Therizinosaurs are a group of herbivorous theropod dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America and Asia, best known for their iconically large and elongate manual claws. However, among Therizinosauria, ungual morphology is highly variable, reflecting a general trend found in derived theropod dinosaurs (Maniraptoriformes). A combined approach of shape analysis to characterize changes in manual ungual morphology across theropods and finite-element analysis to assess the biomechanical properties of different ungual shapes in therizinosaurs reveals a functional diversity related to ungual morphology. While some therizinosaur taxa used their claws in a generalist fashion, other taxa were functionally adapted to use the claws as grasping hooks during foraging. Results further indicate that maniraptoriform dinosaurs deviated from the plesiomorphic theropod ungual morphology resulting in increased functional diversity. This trend parallels modifications of the cranial skeleton in derived theropods in response to dietary adaptation, suggesting that dietary diversification was a major driver for morphological and functional disparity in theropod evolution. PMID:24807260

  20. Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, C K

    1992-12-01

    An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in

  1. Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding. Aim of this thesi

  2. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders bas

  3. Cat Scan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> A man takes his motionless dog to the vet."Doc,I think my dog is dead.”The vet looks the dog over, goes into a backroom,and comes out with a cat.He places the caton the table next to the dog.The cat walks aroundand sniffs at the dog.The dog does not move.The

  4. Effect of different flooring systems on claw conformation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Nilsson, C

    2009-06-01

    The effect of different flooring surfaces in walking and standing areas on claw conformation, claw horn growth, and wear was studied in 2 experiments during 2 consecutive housing seasons in a research dairy herd of 170 cows. In experiment 1, the flooring systems tested were solid rubber mats, mastic asphalt with and without rubber-matted feed-stalls, and aged concrete slats. In experiment 2, slatted concrete flooring was compared with slatted rubber flooring. The cows were introduced to the respective flooring systems in early lactation and their claws were trimmed before the exposure period. Toe length, toe angle, sole concavity, and claw width, as well as claw growth and wear rates were recorded for lateral and medial claws of the left hind limb. Claw asymmetry calculations were based on these claw measurements and on differences in sole protrusion between lateral and medial soles. Asphalt floors caused shorter toe length and steeper toe angle. They also increased wear on rear claws (5.30 +/- 0.31 and 5.95 +/- 0.33 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively; LSM +/- SE) and horn growth rate (5.12 +/- 0.36 and 5.83 +/- 0.31 mm/mo of lateral and medial claws, respectively). Rubber mats instead of asphalt in walking areas reduced wear (1.36 +/- 0.19 and 2.02 +/- 0.20 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively) and claw growth (3.83 +/- 0.23 and 3.94 +/- 0.17 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). Rubber-matted feed-stalls together with asphalt walkways decreased claw wear (3.29 +/- 0.31 and 4.10 +/- 0.32 mm/mo for lateral and medial claw, respectively). The concavity of claw soles was reduced on asphalt, especially in the lateral rear claws. Rubber matting in feed-stalls prevented loss of sole concavity compared with asphalt. Claw asymmetry did not differ between flooring systems. While different access to abrasive flooring affected claw conformation, there was no evidence that flooring system influenced the disproportion between lateral and

  5. Induced Disjoint Paths in Claw-Free Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Golovach, Petr A; van Leeuwen, Erik Jan

    2012-01-01

    Paths P_1, ..., P_k in a graph G=(V, E) are said to be mutually induced if for any 1 <= i < j <= k, P_i and P_j have neither common vertices nor adjacent vertices (except perhaps their end-vertices). The Induced Disjoint Paths problem is to test whether a graph G with k pairs of specified vertices (s_i, t_i) contains k mutually induced paths P_i such that P_i connects s_i and t_i for i=1, ..., k. This problem is known to be NP-complete already for k=2, but for n-vertex claw-free graphs, Fiala et al. gave an n^O(k)-time algorithm. We improve the latter result by showing that the problem is fixed-parameter tractable for claw-free graphs when parameterized by k. Several related problems, such as the k-in-a-Path problem, are shown to be fixed-parameter tractable for claw-free graphs as well. We also show that an improvement of these results in certain directions is unlikely, for example by observing that the Induced Disjoint Paths problem cannot have a polynomial kernel for line graphs (a type of claw-fr...

  6. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Darbas (Aysel); M.M. Jaegle (Martine); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); H. van den Burg (Hans); L.A.M. Broos (Ludo); M. Uyl (Matthijs); P. Visser (Pim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D.N. Meijer (Dies); M.J.F. Driegen (Siska)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation claw paw (clp) are characterized by limb posture abnormalities and congenital hypomyelination, with delayed onset of myelination of the peripheral nervous system but not the central nervous system. Although this combination of limb and

  7. Cat scratch disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious illness associated with cat scratches, bites, or exposure to cat saliva, causing chronic swelling of the lymph nodes. Cat scratch disease is possibly the most common cause of ...

  8. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  9. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  10. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  11. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-09-01

    Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was

  12. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  13. A nonlinear model and force control of a robotic claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago Abraão dos Anjos; Meza, Magno Enrique Mendoza; Fenili, André; Balthazar, José Manoel; da Fonseca Brasil, Reyolando Manoel Lopes Rebello

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain and analyze a simple representative mathematical model for a robotic claw. The claw is represented here through the interaction between two simple pendulums and a sub-system composed of two masses connected by a spring and a damper. The main approach is based on obtaining the constrained mathematical model that represents the configuration of the system including impact and contact dynamics. The governing equations of motion are obtained using the Euler-Lagrange formalism. The numerical integration of the governing equations is realized using the fourth order Runge-Kutta. The explicit force control technique is used in order to maintain the contact force constant during the contact.

  14. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  15. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  16. Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de

    2000-01-01

    We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.

  17. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear. PMID:27320700

  18. High-speed cinematographic evaluation of claw-ground contact pattern of lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tanja; Weishaupt, Michael A; Meyer, Sven W; Waldern, Nina; Peinen, Katja von; Nuss, Karl

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the manner in which a cow's claws make contact with the ground at the walk, the gait, and in particular the claw-ground contact pattern, were studied in 12 healthy, lactating dairy cows, using high-speed cinematography (500frames/s) while the animals were walking on a treadmill. The results showed that the limbs were advanced around the contralateral limbs in a sigmoid curve. The feet contacted the ground with the foot axis and the tips of the claws rotated slightly outwards. In all cows the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial claws in the hindlimbs, and in 10/12 cows in the forelimbs. The heel of the lateral claws was the region of initial contact with the ground in the hindlimbs of all cows and in the forelimbs in 9/12 cows. Lateral 'heel first' contact in the fore and hindlimbs appeared to be the normal gait pattern in these animals. Compared with a previous study of heifers, lactating cows had a larger step width in the hindlimbs and a smaller step width in the forelimbs. These ground contact patterns offer an explanation for the predisposition to claw disorders of the lateral claw of the hindlimb. The results of this study reinforce the suggestion that soft floor surfaces should be provided for cattle to prevent mechanical injury to the claws. PMID:18424198

  19. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-01-01

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest. PMID:26694348

  20. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  1. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vallee, A.A.A.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and ge

  2. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    ,877 Danish Holstein cows in first lactation. Binary health traits were divided into 3 subcategories: claw health, leg health, and absence of all claw and leg disorders. Genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic correlations were estimated using a bivariate linear sire model and REML. Estimated heritabilities were 0...

  3. Effects of claw autotomy on green crab (Carcinus maenas) feeding rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummon Flynn, Paula S.; Mellish, Cassandra L.; Pickering, Tyler R.; Quijón, Pedro A.

    2015-09-01

    The European green crab (Carcinus maenas) is a voracious non-indigenous predator and a threat to Atlantic Canada's shellfish industry. Its foraging ability, however, may be affected by the occurrence of injuries such as the loss of a cheliped (claw). Given that green crab claws are differentiated into a major crusher and a minor cutter, we argue that autotomy (the reflexive loss of a limb) affects feeding rates, and that this effect depends on which particular claw is lost. We examined the incidence of injuries in two green crab populations of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence during July-October, 2012. Then we experimentally assessed the influence of the loss of each type of claw upon crab feeding rates over two size-classes of American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria). Field injury surveys showed that 12.4% of the green crabs collected were missing a claw (the cutter and/or crusher claw). Injury rates increased linearly with crab size, and were found to vary with location. Laboratory experiments showed that, compared to intact crabs, the loss of the crusher claw reduced oyster mortality rates by ~ 93-100%. The loss of the crusher also reduced feeding on small soft-shell clams but only temporarily. The loss of the cutter claw had little impact on green crab feeding rates on oysters and soft-shell clams of either size. Combined, these results suggest that the loss of a claw has an effect on the ability of green crabs to consume commercially important species but this effect depends on which claw is lost and which prey is targeted. It follows that injury rates should be taken into consideration when monitoring and forecasting the potential impacts of green crab populations, particularly on oyster beds.

  4. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites How should I take care of a bite from a cat or a dog? Whether from a family pet or a neighborhood stray, cat and dog bites are common. Here are some things you ...

  5. Geometric distance-regular graphs without 4-claws

    CERN Document Server

    Bang, Sejeong

    2011-01-01

    A non-complete \\drg $\\Gamma$ is called geometric if there exists a set $\\mathcal{C}$ of Delsarte cliques such that each edge of $\\Gamma$ lies in a unique clique in $\\mathcal{C}$. In this paper, we determine the non-complete distance-regular graphs satisfying $\\max \\{3, 8/3}(a_1+1)\\}claws that any non-complete distance-regular graph satisfying $\\max \\{3, \\8/3}(a_1+1)\\}

  6. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  7. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection at some ... Poor appetite For people with weak immune systems, CSD may cause more serious problems. The best way ...

  8. PetClaw: A scalable parallel nonlinear wave propagation solver for Python

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    We present PetClaw, a scalable distributed-memory solver for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. PetClaw unifies two well-known scientific computing packages, Clawpack and PETSc, using Python interfaces into both. We rely on Clawpack to provide the infrastructure and kernels for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. Similarly, we rely on PETSc to manage distributed data arrays and the communication between them.We describe both the implementation and performance of PetClaw as well as our challenges and accomplishments in scaling a Python-based code to tens of thousands of cores on the BlueGene/P architecture. The capabilities of PetClaw are demonstrated through application to a novel problem involving elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Very finely resolved simulations are used to demonstrate the suppression of shock formation in this system.

  9. PHENOBARBITAL AFFECTS THYROID HISTOLOGY AND LARVAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AFRICAN CLAWED FROG XENOPUS LAEVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract highlights our recent study to explore endocrine disrupting effects of phenobarbital in the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. In mammals, this chemical is known to induce the biotransforming enzyme UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) resulting in increased thyroid...

  10. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  11. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  12. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  13. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  14. Balancing tension in transferred slips in some dynamic procedures for claw finger correction

    OpenAIRE

    Malaviya G

    2005-01-01

    The adjustment of tension on the tendon slips which are being inserted to correct finger clawing, is the critical step in claw finger correction procedures. Several methods have been described in literature but ultimately every thing boils down to the experience of the operating surgeon who has to make decisions on the operating table. Attempt is being made to translate this experience (an abstract noun) in to words to help make life easier for the surgeons who are venturing into the field of...

  15. Foot and leg conformation traits have a small effect on genomic predictions of claw disorders in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the predictive correlation of genomic breeding values (GEBV) for claw disorders increased by including genetically correlated traits as additional information in the analyses. Predictive correlations of GEBV for claw disorders were calculated based on claw disorders only and by analyzing claw disorders together with genetically correlated foot and leg conformation traits. The claw disorders analyzed were corkscrew claw (CSC); infectious claw disorder, including dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon; and laminitis-related claw disorder, including sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line. The foot and leg conformation traits included were hoof quality, foot angle, rear leg rear view new, and rear leg rear view old. The data consisted of 183,728 daughters with claw health records and 421,319 daughters with foot and leg conformation scores. A 25K/54K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data set containing 48,249 SNP was available for the analyses. The number of genotyped sires with daughter information in the analyses was 1,093 including claw disorders and 3,111 including claw disorders and foot and leg conformation traits. Predictive correlations of GEBV for CSC, infectious claw disorder, and laminitis-related claw disorder were calculated from a 10-fold cross-validation and from an additional validation set including the youngest sires. Only sires having daughters with claw health records were in the validation sets, thus increasing the reference population when adding foot and leg conformation traits. The results showed marginal improvement in the predictive correlation of GEBV for CSC when including hoof quality and foot angle, both in 10-fold cross-validation (from 0.35 to 0.37) and in the validation including the youngest sires (from 0.38 to 0.49). For infectious claw disorder and laminitis-related claw disorder, including foot and leg conformation traits had no effect

  16. Pulmonary thromboembolism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Thomas; Pembleton-Corbett, Julie R; Kornreich, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is rarely diagnosed in cats, and the clinical features of the disease are not well known. PTE was diagnosed at postmortem examination in 17 cats, a prevalence of 0.06% over a 24-year period. The age of affected cats ranged from 10 months to 18 years, although young (10 years) cats were more commonly affected than were middle-aged cats. Males and females were equally affected. The majority of cats with PTE (n = 16) had concurrent disease, which was often severe. The most common diseases identified in association with PTE were neoplasia, anemia of unidentified cause, and pancreatitis. Cats with glomerulonephritis, encephalitis, pneumonia, heart disease, and hepatic lipidosis were also represented in this study. Most cats with PTE demonstrated dyspnea and respiratory distress before death or euthanasia, but PTE was not recognized ante mortem in any cat studied. In conclusion, PTE can affect cats of any age and is associated with a variety of systemic and inflammatory disorders. It is recommended that the same clinical criteria used to increase the suspicion of PTE in dogs should also be applied to cats. PMID:15320593

  17. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  18. 3-D Finite Element Investigation of Flux Regulation Performance of a Novel Hybrid Excitation Brushless Claw-Pole Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Dongwei; Li Yanhong; Shang Jianhua; Zhong Hui

    2015-01-01

    In consideration of low power density of electric excitation claw-pole synchronous alternator (EECA) and some difficulties in magnetic field regulation of permanent magnet claw-pole synchronous alternator (PMCA), a novel hybrid excitation brushless claw-pole alternator (HEBCA) is proposed in this paper. Its structure and field control principle are described. Three dimensional finite element analysis is used to obtain the no-load magnetic field distributions and field control capability under...

  19. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  20. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  1. Measuring Claw Conformation in Cattle: Assessing the Agreement between Manual and Digital Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Laven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Five measurements of claw conformation (toe angle, claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length taken directly from the hoof were compared with the measurements taken from digital images of the same claws. Concordance correlation coefficients and limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for four of the five measures (claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length, agreement was too poor for digital and manual measures to be used interchangeably. For all four of these measures, Liao’s modified concordance correlation coefficient (mCCC was ≤0.4, indicating poor concordance despite Pearson’s correlation being >0.6 in all cases. The worst concordance was seen for toe length (mCCC = 0.13. Limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for all four measures, there was a large variation in the difference between the manual and digital methods, even when the effect of mean on difference was accounted for, with the 95% limits-of-agreement for the four measures being further away from the mean difference than 10% of the mean in all four cases. The only one of the five measures with an acceptable concordance between digital and manual measurement was toe angle (mCCC = 0.81. Nevertheless, the limits-of-agreement analysis showed that there was a systematic bias with, on average, the manual measure of toe angle, being 2.1° smaller than the digital. The 95% limits-of-agreement for toe angle were ±3.4°, probably at the upper limit of what is acceptable. However, the lack of data on the variability of individual measurements of claw conformation means that it is unclear how this variability compares to measurement of toe angle in the same animal using the same or a different manual technique.

  2. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L.; Evans, Ben J.; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types — click, burst and trill — that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  3. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure. PMID:24723737

  4. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  5. Synthesis and distribution of cytokeratins in healthy and ulcerated bovine claw epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K A; MacCallum, A J; Knight, C H; Wilde, C J

    2001-11-01

    Keratinization of the epidermal cells of the bovine claw generates the horn that gives the tissue its mechanical strength. Disruption of keratinization is likely to have a detrimental effect on the strength and integrity of the horn, and could lead to solar lesions and lameness. As part of a wider investigation of the cell biological causes of lameness in dairy animals, we have compared keratin synthesis and distribution in healthy bovine claw tissue with those in hooves with solar ulcers. Protein synthesis was measured by [35S]-labelled amino acid incorporation in claw tissue explant cultures. [35S]-labelled protein synthesis was higher in tissue from diseased claws than in healthy claws, and highest at the ulcer site. The identity of proteins synthesised in vitro did not differ between healthy and diseased tissue. DNA synthesis indicative of cell proliferation was also elevated in diseased tissue. Immunoblotting after one- or two-dimensional electrophoresis showed cytokeratins (CK) 4, 5/6, 10 and 14 to be amongst those expressed in healthy claw tissue. The relative abundance of these keratins was not altered in healthy regions of ulcerated hooves, nor at the ulcer site, but CK16, not usually found in healthy tissue, was detected in the sole of diseased claws. CK5/6 and CK14 were shown by immunohistochemistry to be present in the basal epidermis of healthy tissue, whereas CK10 was found in supra-basal layers. In healthy tissue from ulcerated claws, this distribution was unaltered, but at the site of solar ulcers, CK5/6 and CK14 were each found in both basal and supra-basal epidermis. The study suggests that solar ulceration of the bovine claw is not associated with gross alteration in the keratin composition of the tissue, but causes abnormal distribution of cytokeratins, perhaps as a result of loss of positional cues from the basement membrane. Ulceration did, however, stimulate cell repair involving epidermal protein synthesis (including keratins), and

  6. Preliminary Validation and Reliability Testing of the Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians, in a Colony of Laboratory Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Klinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtle signs and conflicting physical and radiographic findings make feline osteoarthritis (OA challenging to diagnose. A physical examination-based assessment was developed, consisting of eight items: Interaction, Exploration, Posture, Gait, Body Condition, Coat and Claws, (joint Palpation–Findings, and Palpation–Cat Reaction. Content (experts and face (veterinary students validity were excellent. Construct validity, internal consistency, and intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed via a pilot and main study, using laboratory-housed cats with and without OA. Gait distinguished OA status in the pilot ( p = 0.05 study. In the main study, no scale item achieved statistically significant OA detection. Forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF correlated inversely with Gait (Rho s = −0.38 ( p = 0.03 to −0.41 ( p = 0.02. Body Posture correlated with Gait, and inversely with forelimb PVF at two of three time points (Rho s = −0.38 ( p = 0.03 to −0.43 ( p = 0.01. Palpation (Findings, Cat Reaction did not distinguish OA from non-OA cats. Palpation—Cat Reaction (Forelimbs correlated inversely with forelimb PVF at two time points (Rho s = −0.41 ( p = 0.02 to −0.41 ( p = 0.01, but scores were highly variable, and poorly reliable. Gait and Posture require improved sensitivity, and Palpation should be interpreted cautiously, in diagnosing feline OA.

  7. Preliminary Validation and Reliability Testing of the Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians, in a Colony of Laboratory Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Mary P; Rialland, Pascale; Guillot, Martin; Moreau, Maxim; Frank, Diane; Troncy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Subtle signs and conflicting physical and radiographic findings make feline osteoarthritis (OA) challenging to diagnose. A physical examination-based assessment was developed, consisting of eight items: Interaction, Exploration, Posture, Gait, Body Condition, Coat and Claws, (joint) Palpation-Findings, and Palpation-Cat Reaction. Content (experts) and face (veterinary students) validity were excellent. Construct validity, internal consistency, and intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed via a pilot and main study, using laboratory-housed cats with and without OA. Gait distinguished OA status in the pilot ( p = 0.05) study. In the main study, no scale item achieved statistically significant OA detection. Forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF) correlated inversely with Gait (Rho s = -0.38 ( p = 0.03) to -0.41 ( p = 0.02)). Body Posture correlated with Gait, and inversely with forelimb PVF at two of three time points (Rho s = -0.38 ( p = 0.03) to -0.43 ( p = 0.01)). Palpation (Findings, Cat Reaction) did not distinguish OA from non-OA cats. Palpation-Cat Reaction (Forelimbs) correlated inversely with forelimb PVF at two time points (Rho s = -0.41 ( p = 0.02) to -0.41 ( p = 0.01)), but scores were highly variable, and poorly reliable. Gait and Posture require improved sensitivity, and Palpation should be interpreted cautiously, in diagnosing feline OA. PMID:26633524

  8. GeoClaw-STRICHE: A coupled model for Sediment TRansport In Coastal Hazard Events

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    GeoClaw-STRICHE is designed for simulating the physical impacts of tsunami as it relates to erosion, transport and deposition. GeoClaw-STRICHE comprises of three components: (1) nonlinear shallow water equations; (2) advection-diffusion equation; (3) an equation for morphology updating. Multiple grain sizes and sediment layers are added into GeoClaw-STRICHE to simulate grain-size distribution and add the capability to develop grain-size trends from bottom to the top of a simulated deposit as well as along the inundation. Unlike previous models based on empirical equations or sediment concentration gradient, the standard Van Leer method is applied to calculate sediment flux. We tested and verified GeoClaw-STRICHE with flume experiment by \\citet{johnson2016experimental} and data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Kuala Meurisi as published in \\citet{JGRF:JGRF786}. The comparison with experimental data shows GeoClaw-STRICHE's capability to simulate sediment thickness and grain-size distribution in experimenta...

  9. A Technological Process of the Baiyun Chicken Claw%白云凤爪的生产工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧玲

    2001-01-01

    本文详述了白云凤爪的加工技术、工艺配方及质量要求。%In this paper the technological process of the Baiyun ChickenClaw,formula and quality requirement for Baiyun Chicken claw are detailed.

  10. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  11. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A ...

  12. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de ...

  13. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  14. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3–7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  15. A contribution to the unbalance control of claw poles for automotive alternators

    OpenAIRE

    Boltežar, Miha; Nastran, Miha; Krušič, Vid

    2015-01-01

    The claw pole still represents the largest and the heaviest part of an alternator's rotor: and it is expected that alternators will continue to be used for electric power generation in motor vehicles for at least a decade. Due to the high speeds of the rotor during operation its mass centricity is very important for the service life of the bearings, low noise and smooth running. This paper presents the production of claw poles using cold-forming technology, and a focus on reducing the electri...

  16. Influence of inductance variation on performance of a permanent magnet claw pole soft magnetic composite motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jian Guo; Lin, Zhi Wei; Lu, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jiaxin

    2008-04-01

    Winding inductance is an important parameter in determining the performance of electrical machines, particularly those with large inductance variation. This paper investigates the influence of winding inductance variation on the performance of a three-phase three-stack claw pole permanent magnet motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) stator by using an improved phase variable model. The winding inductances of the machine are computed by using a modified incremental energy method, based on three-dimensional nonlinear time-stepping magnetic field finite element analyses. The inductance computation and performance simulation are verified by the experimental results of an SMC claw pole motor prototype.

  17. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L.) cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Andreza S. Costa; Luis C. Nogueira; Venézio F. dos Santos; Terezinha R. Camara; Vivian Loges; Lilia Willadino

    2011-01-01

    The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C) was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment). Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b*) were determined. The visual quality of the...

  18. 3-D finite element analysis of claw-poled stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments. It is necessary for the optimum design to analyze the magnetic field accurately. The 3-D finite element method with edge elements taking into account the rotation of the rotor has been applied to analyze the magnetic field of a claw-poled stepping motor. (Author)

  19. Sow and piglet skin, claw and nipple lesions on two concrete flooring materials during lactation period

    OpenAIRE

    Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna; Munksgaard, Lene; Saloniemi, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the skin, claw and nipple lesions of sows and their piglets while they were kept on two different flooring materials: concrete cement and concrete covered with polyurethane and graveled with sand (particles 0.5-1.2 mm).

  20. Analysis of factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels using a simulated milking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is typically caused by microbial infection of the udder, but the factors responsible for this condition are varied. One potential cause is the milking system, and although previous studies have investigated various methods for inspecting these devices, most have not assessed methods for evaluating the milking units. With this in mind, we analyzed the factors that affect the vacuum inside the milking claw by using a simulated milking device and by measuring milking claw vacuum when adjusting the flow rate in five stages. The factors analyzed in each milking system were the vacuum pressure settings (high and low line system) , milk tube length (200-328 cm), aperture diameter (14-22.2 mm), constricted aperture diameter (12 mm), tubing configurations, lift formation (0-80 cm), claw type (bottom and top flow) and use or non-use of a milk sampler. The study findings demonstrated that all of these variables had a significant impact on claw vacuum and suggest that a diagnostic method using a simulated milking device should be considered when inspecting modern milking systems. PMID:26336796

  1. PyClaw: Accessible, Extensible, Scalable Tools for Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-08-15

    Development of scientific software involves tradeoffs between ease of use, generality, and performance. We describe the design of a general hyperbolic PDE solver that can be operated with the convenience of MATLAB yet achieves efficiency near that of hand-coded Fortran and scales to the largest supercomputers. This is achieved by using Python for most of the code while employing automatically wrapped Fortran kernels for computationally intensive routines, and using Python bindings to interface with a parallel computing library and other numerical packages. The software described here is PyClaw, a Python-based structured grid solver for general systems of hyperbolic PDEs [K. T. Mandli et al., PyClaw Software, Version 1.0, http://numerics.kaust.edu.sa/pyclaw/ (2011)]. PyClaw provides a powerful and intuitive interface to the algorithms of the existing Fortran codes Clawpack and SharpClaw, simplifying code development and use while providing massive parallelism and scalable solvers via the PETSc library. The package is further augmented by use of PyWENO for generation of efficient high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction code. The simplicity, capability, and performance of this approach are demonstrated through application to example problems in shallow water flow, compressible flow, and elasticity.

  2. CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH EMACIATION AND PROLIFERATIVE GASTRITIS IN A LABORATORY SOUTH AFRICAN CLAWED FROG

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2-year-old emaciated female South African Clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) was euthanized due to chronic weight loss. At postmortem, there was no evidence of bacterial, fungal or viral disease, however, the histological findings indicated a proliferative gastritis and the presence of numerous Cryptosp...

  3. Do culverts impact the movements of the endangered white-clawed crayfish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culverts can impact the migration and dispersal of aquatic animals and result in population fragmentation, increasing the risk of local extinction for endangered species such as the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. This study used radio telemetry and passive integrated transponder (PIT telemetry to determine whether existing and experimental covered culverts affect the upstream and downstream movements of adult white-clawed crayfish. Daily crayfish movement rates did not differ significantly between an unlit 363-m long culvert and open stream channel sections. Crayfish moved into dark, covered sections volitionally. However, limited upstream movement occurred at sudden transitions of bed height or smooth-concrete box culvert sections with fast flow, suggesting partial barrier effects. In the 20-m long experimental in-stream culvert, also dark, but with natural stream bed, 70% of radio-tagged crayfish released downstream entered the culvert, as did 60% of those released upstream. Overall 35% passed through, with similar numbers in each direction. We conclude that dark culverts up to several hundred metres do not inhibit dispersal of white-clawed crayfish, provided stream slope, bed type and water velocity are amenable for movement and refuge. Care is required to ensure that culverts are bioengineered to ensure that average water velocity is sufficiently low and local hydraulic variation high, the bed and/or sidewalls contain refuge structures, and there are no cross-channel steps in bed level. Smooth-bedded box culverts are unlikely to be suitable for white-clawed crayfish.

  4. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  5. Haemobartonellosis in Van Cats

    OpenAIRE

    AKKAN, Hasan Altan; Karaca, Mehmet; TÜTÜNCÜ, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine prevalence of Haemobartonella felis in Van cats. 121 Van cats (82 female, 39 male, aged 1-9 years) were the materials of the study. To determine biochemical and haematological parameters, 2 ml blood with and without anticoagulant were taken according to technique from vena cephalica antebrachii. H. felis was detected in blood smears preparations of 18 (14.88%) by Papenheim staining. Among biochemical parameters aspartate amino transferase (AST), al...

  6. Resolving Schrodinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    Hobson, Art

    2016-01-01

    Schrodinger's famous cat has long been misunderstood. According to quantum theory and experiments with entangled systems, an entangled state such as the Schrodinger's cat state is neither a superposition of states of either subsystem nor a superposition of compound states of the composite system, but rather a nonlocal superposition of correlations between pairs of states of the two subsystems. The entangled post-measurement state that results from an ideal measurement is not paradoxical, but ...

  7. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  8. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, J.K.; Panciera, D L; Abbott, J.A.; Zimmerman, K.C.; Lantis, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT‐proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism. Hypothesis Plasma NT‐proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary myocardial disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats. Animals Twenty‐three hyperthyro...

  9. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  10. 3-D Finite Element Investigation of Flux Regulation Performance of a Novel Hybrid Excitation Brushless Claw-Pole Alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of low power density of electric excitation claw-pole synchronous alternator (EECA and some difficulties in magnetic field regulation of permanent magnet claw-pole synchronous alternator (PMCA, a novel hybrid excitation brushless claw-pole alternator (HEBCA is proposed in this paper. Its structure and field control principle are described. Three dimensional finite element analysis is used to obtain the no-load magnetic field distributions and field control capability under different field currents. The result shows that the flux of the prototype machine can be adjusted over a wide range with a relatively low field current.

  11. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  12. On the Erdős-Gyárfás Conjecture in Claw-Free Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowbandegani Pouria Salehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture states that every graph with minimum degree at least three has a cycle whose length is a power of 2. Since this conjecture has proven to be far from reach, Hobbs asked if the Erdős-Gyárfás conjecture holds in claw-free graphs. In this paper, we obtain some results on this question, in particular for cubic claw-free graphs

  13. Microhabitat use by foraging white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) in stream pools in the NE Iberian Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Clavero, Miguel; Benejam, L.; Seglar, A.

    2009-01-01

    The white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes) is an endangered species across most of its distribution range, and information on its ecological requirements is needed to implement effective conser- vation measures. Its habitat use has been studied in different areas and at various spatial scales. However, being a nocturnal species, there is scarce information on its habitat selection during foraging periods. In this work we analyse nocturnal habitat use of white-clawed crayfish...

  14. Conservation Aspects of the Ecology of Asian Small-Clawed and Smooth Otters on the Malay Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Foster-Turley P.

    1992-01-01

    Between April 1989 and June 1990 I made four six-week study visits to Tanjong Piandang, Perak, Malaysia where I studied otters in collaboration with Mr Burhannudin ("Bond") Mohd of the Department of National parks and Wildlife of Peninsular Malaysia. We mostly studied field signs and collected scats of both smooth (Lutra perspicillata) and small clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) inhabiting the rice fields and fringing mangroves of the study site. With experience, smooth and small-clawed otters si...

  15. Storage of cut Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw flowers at low temperatures Armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai (L. cv. Lobster Claw em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza S. Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest conservation of cut Heliconia flowers is an important factor to the success of commercialization, especially with regard to exportation. In the present study, the maximal storage time of cut inflorescences of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw at two different temperatures (12 and 19 °C was evaluated and compared to laboratory conditions (25 °C, control treatment. Changes in visual quality, fresh weight and bract color (L*, a* and b* were determined. The visual quality of the inflorescences and fresh weight decreased with time in all treatments. Symptoms of chilling injury were observed on the inflorescences stored at 12 °C for six and eight days. Bract color was not affected by temperature, storage time or the senescence process. The results indicate that a temperature of 12 °C is not recommended for a storage time longer than four days, whereas 19 °C can be used for a storage time of up to eight days for cut inflorescences of H. bihai cv. Lobster Claw.A conservação pós-colheita de flores de corte de Heliconia é fator relevante para o sucesso da comercialização, principalmente para a exportação. Neste estudo, o período máximo de armazenamento de hastes florais de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw, foi avaliado em duas diferentes temperaturas (12 e 19 °C e comparado com as condições de laboratório (25 °C, tratamento controle. As variáveis avaliadas foram: qualidade visual, massa de matéria fresca e a coloração das inflorescências (L*, a* e b*. A qualidade visual das inflorescências e a massa de matéria fresca de todos os tratamentos reduziram ao longo do tempo. Sintomas de injúria por frio foram observados nas inflorescências armazenadas a 12 °C, durante seis e oito dias. A coloração das brácteas não foi afetada pela temperatura, período de armazenamento nem pelo processo de senescência. Os resultados indicam que a temperatura de 12 °C não é recomendada para armazenar hastes florais de

  16. The synergy between the insect-inspired claws and adhesive pads increases the attachment ability on various rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Dai, Zhendong; Wang, Zhouyi; Ji, Aihong; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-01-01

    To attach reliably on various inclined rough surfaces, many insects have evolved both claws and adhesive pads on their feet. However, the interaction between these organs still remains unclear. Here we designed an artificial attachment device, which mimics the structure and function of claws and adhesive pads, and tested it on stiff spheres of different dimensions. The results show that the attachment forces of claws decrease with an increase of the sphere radius. The forces may become very strong, when the sphere radius is smaller or comparable to the claw radius, because of the frictional self-lock. On the other hand, adhesive pads generate considerable adhesion on large sphere diameter due to large contact areas. The synergy effect between the claws and adhesive pads leads to much stronger attachment forces, if compared to the action of claw or adhesive pads independently (or even to the sum of both). The results carried out by our insect-inspired artificial attachment device clearly demonstrate why biological evolution employed two attachment organs working in concert. The results may greatly inspire the robot design, to obtain reliable attachment forces on various substrates. PMID:27198650

  17. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  18. ServCat Sensitivity Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This guide covers sensitivity in ServCat. This document provides technical guidance on how sensitivity fields work in ServCat, and provides suggestions on what...

  19. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D.; Prideaux, Gavin J.

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  20. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-01-01

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist. PMID:26876952

  1. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support. This was a retrospective interventional case series. Fifteen eyes underwent PPV with primary posterior iris claw IOL implantation performed by a single vitreoretinal surgeon. The main outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment complications. A total of 15 eyes were included in this study. Eight had nucleus drop, three had IOL drop during cataract surgery and four had traumatic posterior dislocation of lens. The final postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/60 or better in 11 patients. This procedure is a viable option in achieving good functional visual acuity in eyes without capsular support.

  2. Variability of a dynamic visual signal: the fiddler crab claw-waving display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Zeil, Jochen; Hemmi, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    Fiddler crabs use elaborate, species-specific claw-waving displays to communicate with rivals and mates. However, detailed comparative studies of fiddler crab signal structure and structural variations are lacking. This paper provides an analysis of the claw-waving displays of seven Australian species of fiddler crab, Uca mjoebergi, U. perplexa, U. polita, U. seismella, U. signata, U. elegans and U. vomeris. We used digital video to record and analyse the fine-scale spatiotemporal properties of these movement-based visual signals. We found that the structure and timing of the displays is species-specific, exhibiting inter-specific differences that follow phylogenetic relationships. The displays showed intra-specific variation according to individual identity, geographic location and fine-scale behavioural context. The observed differences and variations are discussed in the light of the evolutionary forces that may shape their design. PMID:19002693

  3. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  4. Cat Scratch Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cat Scratch Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Cat Scratch Disease Print A A A Text Size ... Doctor en español Enfermedad por arañazo de gato Cat scratch disease is a bacterial infection that a ...

  5. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  6. Membranous nephropathy in sibling cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G

    1983-08-20

    Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in two sibling cats from the same household. Both cases presented with the nephrotic syndrome but 33 months elapsed before the second cat became ill, by which time the first cat had been in full clinical remission for over a year. PMID:6623883

  7. Development of Alternative Crab Claw Processing Systems to Minimize Environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Benning, Jennifer Lyn

    1997-01-01

    Development of Alternative Crab Claw Processing Systems to Minimize Environmental Impact by Jennifer Lyn Benning Chair: Dr. Gregory Boardman Environemental Engineering (ABSTRACT) In the recent years, environmental regulations enforced by federal,state, and local agencies have increasingly addressed water quality issues through progressively more stringent regulations. These regulations have raised concerns in the blue crab industry because processors are now subject to regulations u...

  8. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus) Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata) in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Jabang; Wilson Novarino; Aadrean

    2011-01-01

    A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus) survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell) in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characterist...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: domestic cat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available domestic cat ... Felis silvestris cat us Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Felis ... _silvestris_cat us_L.png Felis_silvestris_cat us_NL.png Felis_silves ... tris_cat us_S.png Felis_silvestris_cat us_NS.png http://biosc ...

  10. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  11. Chemodectoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10-year-old, spayed female, domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of a thoracic mass. Radiographs demonstrated a 4 by 5-cm mass dorsal to the heart. Cytology of specimens obtained by ultrasound-guided needle aspiration was compatible with a neuroendocrine tumor. Scintigraphy, thoracic exploratory, and histology were used to identify the mass as an aortic body chemodectoma

  12. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  13. Getting a CAT Scan

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System ... Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  14. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  15. Oligopsonistic Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, Dr. Gerda; Leahy, Dr. Dermot

    2005-01-01

    We study the strategic investment behaviour of oligopsonistic rivals in the labour market. Under wage competition, firms play "puppy dog" with productivityaugmenting investment and "fat cat" with supply-enhancing investment. Under employment competition, investing strategically always involves playing "top dog".

  16. Prenatal Diagnosis of EEC Syndrome with "Lobster Claw" Anomaly by 3D Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia T Rios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EEC syndrome is a genetic anomaly characterized by the triad: ectodermal dysplasia (development of anomalies of the structures derived from the embryonic ectodermal layer, ectrodactyly (extremities, hands and feet malformations and cleft lip and/or palate; these malformations can be seen together or in isolation. The prenatal diagnosis can be made by two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS that identifies the facial and/or limb anomalies, most characteristic being the "lobster-claw" hands. The three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS provides a better analysis of the malformations than the 2DUS. A 25-year-old primigravida, had her first transvaginal ultrasonography that showed an unique fetus with crow-rump length of 47 mm with poorly defined hands and feet,. She was suspected of having sporadic form of EEC syndrome. The 2DUS performed at 19 weeks confirmed the EEC syndrome, showing a fetus with lobster-claw hands (absence of the 2 nd and 3 rd fingers, left foot with the absence of the 3rd toe and the right foot with syndactyly, and presence of cleft lip/palate. The 3DUS defined the anomalies much better than 2DUS including the lobster-claw hands.

  17. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  18. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.

  19. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  20. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  1. The Cat nRules

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguously predict the conscious experience of the cat and the observer. Keywords: brain states of observer, stochastic choice, state reduction, wave collapse.

  2. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome. PMID:22546621

  3. The Cheshire Cat revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Vento, V

    1998-01-01

    The concept of effective field theory leads in a natural way to a construction principle for phenomenological sensible models known under the name of the Cheshire Cat Principle. We review its formulation in the chiral bag scenario and discuss its realization for the flavor singlet axial charge. Quantum effects inside the chiral bag induce a color anomaly which requires a compensating surface term to prevent breakdown of color gauge invariance. The presence of this surface term allows one to derive in a gauge-invariant way a chiral-bag version of the Shore-Veneziano two-component formula for the flavor-singlet axial charge of the proton. We show that one can obtain a striking Cheshire-Cat phenomenon with a negligibly small singlet axial charge.

  4. PetClaw: Parallelization and Performance Optimization of a Python-Based Nonlinear Wave Propagation Solver Using PETSc

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    Clawpack, a conservation laws package implemented in Fortran, and its Python-based version, PyClaw, are existing tools providing nonlinear wave propagation solvers that use state of the art finite volume methods. Simulations using those tools can have extensive computational requirements to provide accurate results. Therefore, a number of tools, such as BearClaw and MPIClaw, have been developed based on Clawpack to achieve significant speedup by exploiting parallel architectures. However, none of them has been shown to scale on a large number of cores. Furthermore, these tools, implemented in Fortran, achieve parallelization by inserting parallelization logic and MPI standard routines throughout the serial code in a non modular manner. Our contribution in this thesis research is three-fold. First, we demonstrate an advantageous use case of Python in implementing easy-to-use modular extensible scalable scientific software tools by developing an implementation of a parallelization framework, PetClaw, for PyClaw using the well-known Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, PETSc, through its Python wrapper petsc4py. Second, we demonstrate the possibility of getting acceptable Python code performance when compared to Fortran performance after introducing a number of serial optimizations to the Python code including integrating Clawpack Fortran kernels into PyClaw for low-level computationally intensive parts of the code. As a result of those optimizations, the Python overhead in PetClaw for a shallow water application is only 12 percent when compared to the corresponding Fortran Clawpack application. Third, we provide a demonstration of PetClaw scalability on up to the entirety of Shaheen; a 16-rack Blue Gene/P IBM supercomputer that comprises 65,536 cores and located at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The PetClaw solver achieved above 0.98 weak scaling efficiency for an Euler application on the whole machine excluding the

  5. Parallelization of GeoClaw code for modeling geophysical flows with adaptive mesh refinement on many-core systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Yuen, D.A.; Zhu, A.; Song, S.; George, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We parallelized the GeoClaw code on one-level grid using OpenMP in March, 2011 to meet the urgent need of simulating tsunami waves at near-shore from Tohoku 2011 and achieved over 75% of the potential speed-up on an eight core Dell Precision T7500 workstation [1]. After submitting that work to SC11 - the International Conference for High Performance Computing, we obtained an unreleased OpenMP version of GeoClaw from David George, who developed the GeoClaw code as part of his PH.D thesis. In this paper, we will show the complementary characteristics of the two approaches used in parallelizing GeoClaw and the speed-up obtained by combining the advantage of each of the two individual approaches with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), demonstrating the capabilities of running GeoClaw efficiently on many-core systems. We will also show a novel simulation of the Tohoku 2011 Tsunami waves inundating the Sendai airport and Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants, over which the finest grid distance of 20 meters is achieved through a 4-level AMR. This simulation yields quite good predictions about the wave-heights and travel time of the tsunami waves. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  6. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  7. Environmental Enrichment for Indoor Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Herron, Meghan E.; Buffington, C. A. Tony

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations to cat owners to house their cats indoors confer the responsibility to provide conditions that ensure good health and welfare. Cats maintain their natural behaviors, such as scratching, chewing, and elimination, while living indoors, and they may develop health and behavior problems when deprived of appropriate environmental outlets for these behaviors. This article divides the environment into five basic “systems” to enable identification of features that may benefit from imp...

  8. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Shinobu; Fujino, Yasuhito; Nakajima, Mayumi; Takahashi, Masashi; Nakashima, Ko; Sakai, Yusuke; Uetsuka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2008-10-01

    Two cats showing chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss were found to have leukocytosis with marked eosinophilia. Both cats were diagnosed with hypereosinophilic syndrome by the findings of increased eosinophils and their precursors in the bone marrow, eosinophilic infiltration into multiple organs, and exclusion of other causes for eosinophilia. Although cytoreductive chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide and prednisolone was performed, these two cats died 48 days and 91 days after the initial presentation. PMID:18981665

  9. Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation of the Casting-Forging Complex Near Net Forming of Alternator Claw-pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.L.Song; D.J.Hu; Q.C.Wang; H.Q.Chen; H.G.Guo

    2004-01-01

    As a newly developed precision technology, casting-forging complex near net forming process is utilized to produce complex components with a short lead time, low cost and high precision, thus to accelerate the response speed of the market and enhance the competitive power of products. In this paper, the casting-forging complex near net forming process of alternator claw pole was developed and investigated with a combination of experimental and numerical simulation method. Qualified near net workpiece was manufactured, mechanical parameter and relative field information during the forming process was also obtained. While the alternator claw-pole is processed with this technology, the forming force is small, the process is short and the quality of forgings is perfect. Therefore, the complex casting-forging near net forming process of claw-pole is an energy and material saving technology, which will have a vast developing and application prospect in the future.

  10. Environmental enrichment for indoor cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Meghan E; Buffington, C A Tony

    2010-12-01

    Recommendations to cat owners to house their cats indoors confer the responsibility to provide conditions that ensure good health and welfare. Cats maintain their natural behaviors, such as scratching, chewing, and elimination, while living indoors, and they may develop health and behavior problems when deprived of appropriate environmental outlets for these behaviors. This article divides the environment into five basic "systems" to enable identification of features that may benefit from improvement. It also addresses practical means of meeting cats' needs in each of these systems. PMID:21882164

  11. The Cat nRules

    OpenAIRE

    Mould, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The nRules that are developed in another paper are applied to two versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. In version I the initially conscious cat is made unconscious by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In version II the initially unconscious cat is awakened by a mechanism that is initiated by a radioactive decay. In both cases an observer is permitted to check the statues of the cat at any time during the experiment. In all cases the nRules correctly and unambiguousl...

  12. Short term effect of treating claw horn lesions in dairy cattle on their locomotion, activity and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Montgomery

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The immediate effect on dairy cow mobility, daily activity and milk yield following treatment for claw horn disease was examined in 306 lame cows located on four Cheshire dairy farms over twelve months. The daily activity and milk yield of all cows in these herds was recorded on computer using pedometers and in-parlour milk flow meters. Lame cows identified by stockmen were assessed subjectively by locomotion score, then restrained and their claws examined to identify the predominant lesion present. Those with locomotion scores > 2.5 that presented with sole ulcer, haemorrhage and bruising, or white line disease were studied. Claws of the affected limb were trimmed by one paraprofessional claw trimmer using the five-step Dutch method and the affected claw unloaded either by trimming or application of a block to the healthy digit: those on the contra-lateral limb were trimmed similarly. The same observer repeated the locomotion score assessment seven days later: trimming reduced the proportion of lame cows (score >3 by 55% and those with poor gait (score <3>2.5 by 49%, and the proportion of all cows not lame after trimming was 51% (χ2 4.94: P≤0.001. Night time activity levels increased from 76 to 81 steps/hour on day 2 after treatment (P<0.05 but this was not maintained: daily milk yields fell by 2%. Using univariate mixed models, year and season, parity and farm all had significant effects on locomotion and activity levels. This treatment for claw horn disease in lame dairy cows improved their immediate health and welfare.

  13. Development of a superconducting claw-pole linear test-rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radyjowski, Patryk; Keysan, Ozan; Burchell, Joseph; Mueller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Superconducting generators can help to reduce the cost of energy for large offshore wind turbines, where the size and mass of the generator have a direct effect on the installation cost. However, existing superconducting generators are not as reliable as the alternative technologies. In this paper, a linear test prototype for a novel superconducting claw-pole topology, which has a stationary superconducting coil that eliminates the cryocooler coupler will be presented. The issues related to mechanical, electromagnetic and thermal aspects of the prototype will be presented.

  14. cats and dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜玉秀

    2003-01-01

    有这样一则英语成语:“To rain cats anddogs.”如果望文生义,则会被译为“下猫下狗”,因而会弄出许多笑话来,这应当是值得引以为戒的。其实这句成语的真正含义是:“下倾盆大雨”。那么下雨为什么会与cats和dogs联系在一起呢?

  15. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  16. Lameness and Claw Lesions of the Norwegian Red Dairy Cattle Housed in Free Stalls in Relation to Environment, Parity and Stage of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogstad ÅM

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 88% of Norwegian dairy cattle are housed in tie stalls. Free stall housing for all dairy cattle will be implemented within 20 years. This means that the majority of existing stalls will be rebuilt in the near future. Fifty-seven free stall herds of the Norwegian Red breed were randomly selected and 1547 cows and 403 heifers were trimmed by 13 claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2002. The claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, management- and feeding routines were also recorded. Fifty-three herds had concrete slatted alleys while 4 had solid concrete. Thirty-five herds had concrete as a stall base, while 17 had rubber mats, 2 had wood and 3 had deep litter straw beds. The prevalence of lameness was 1.6% in hind claws. Models for lameness and claw lesions were designed to estimate the influence of different risk factors and to account for the cluster effects within herd and claw trimmer. Detected risk factors for lameness were: parity three and above and narrow cubicles; for heel horn erosions: lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the white line: lactation stage around 3–5 months after calving and solid concrete alleys; for haemorrhages of the sole: parity one, lactation stage around 5–7 months after calving and short cubicles, for white line fissures: slatted concrete alleys; for asymmetrical claws: parities two and above and for corkscrewed claws: solid concrete alleys. The prevalence of lameness in heifers was low, however 29% had one or more claw lesions. Heifers that were housed in pens or free stalls had more heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and white-line fissures than heifers in tie stalls. As new free stalls are being built, it is important to optimise the conditions for claw health.

  17. EzCatDB: M00143 [EzCatDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available http://ezcatdb.cbrc.jp/EzCatDB/search/get.do?dbcode=M00143 EzCatDB M00143 0) { response = "?" + ... 1995 Volume 34 Pages 955-64 Authors Mimeault M, De Lean ... A, Lafleur M, Bonenfant D, Fournier A Title Evalua ...

  18. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  19. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  20. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  1. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  2. [Glomerulonephritis in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, M; Frese, K

    1991-04-01

    Immunohistology and special staining of plastic sections allow diagnosis and differentiation of subtypes of glomerulonephritis in dogs. Frequency and clinical importance of these forms of glomerulonephritis vary significantly. In cats, glomerulonephritis occurs frequently in FIV-positive cats but is rare in animals suffering from persistent FeLV infection or FIP. PMID:2068715

  3. Analysis of Torque Ripple Caused by Three-Phase Unbalance in Claw Teeth Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takayuki; Nakatsugawa, Junnosuke; Enomoto, Yuji

    A soft magnetic composite (SMC) has some advantages, namely, three-dimensional magnetic isotropy and low eddy current loss. Thus, it can be used to build a new type of motor with a three-dimensional structure, improved space factor of winding improved the power density. A claw teeth motor is one of the motors that have three-dimensional structure, and it is made of an SMC. Due to its structure, the claw teeth motor has an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit, which leads to low-order harmonic components in the torque waveform. For reducing the torque ripple, it is important to estimate the magnetic torque and the cogging torque because the total torque is the sum of these torques. In this study a method for decomposing the total torque under the load condition into the magnetic torque and cogging torque is presented. The proposed method can quantitatively estimate low-order harmonic components of the magnetic torque and cogging torque caused by an unbalanced three-phase magnetic circuit for each phase.

  4. Modelling habitat requirements of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaro L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish’s habitat has been profoundly modified in Piedmont (NW Italy due to environmental changes caused by human impact. Consequently, native populations have decreased markedly. In this research project, support vector machines were tested as possible tools for evaluating the ecological factors that determine the presence of white-clawed crayfish. A system of 175 sites was investigated, 98 of which recorded the presence of Austropotamobius pallipes. At each site 27 physical-chemical, environmental and climatic variables were measured according to their importance to A. pallipes. Various feature selection methods were employed. These yielded three subsets of variables that helped build three different types of models: (1 models with no variable selection; (2 models built by applying Goldberg’s genetic algorithm after variable selection; (3 models built by using a combination of four supervised-filter evaluators after variable selection. These different model types helped us realise how important it was to select the right features if we wanted to build support vector machines that perform as well as possible. In addition, support vector machines have a high potential for predicting indigenous crayfish occurrence, according to our findings. Therefore, they are valuable tools for freshwater management, tools that may prove to be much more promising than traditional and other machine-learning techniques.

  5. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats

  6. Like herding cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  7. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  8. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its ass...

  9. A Record of Small-Clawed Otters (Aonyx cinereus Foraging on an Invasive Pest Species, Golden Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata in a West Sumatra Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus survey in West Sumatran rice fields was conducted from April to September 2010. During this survey, golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata shell remains were found on a rice field bank as suspected prey remains of small-clawed otters. This suspicion was later proved by the occurrence of snail material (pieces of operculum and shell in otter spraints. This is the first evidence of small-clawed otters foraging on this invasive pest species. Characteristics of the shell remains and spraints are described.

  10. Short colon in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old male Japanese domestic cat was referred to the veterinary hospital with a chronic diarrhea and signs of pain and vocalization when defecating. The cat has discharged unformed feces throughout his life. Morphological diagnosis of short colon was made radiographically after barium enema. The ileocolic junction and cecum was located to the left of the midline at the proximal end of the descending colon. Additional endoscopic examination demonstrated the difference in visual structures of the mucosal surface and in histological structures on mucosal biopsy specimens, between the colon and ileum. This is the first report of short colon in a cat in Japan

  11. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  12. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  13. Male and female agonistic and affiliative relationships in a social group of farm cats (Felis catus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, E; Baggio, A; Pontier, D

    2001-03-13

    A dominance hierarchy based on the outcome of agonistic encounters was found among male and female domestic cats. A female dominated over some males. The dominance concept is also discussed in terms of social bonding. The relationships among adult females were amicable, whereas adult males showed reciprocal tolerance. The flow of affiliative behaviour was directed mainly from females to one male of the group. The analysis of marking behaviour showed that this male sprayed urine and rubbed the perioral and cheek regions of the face on the objects of the environment at a higher rate than the other members of the group. Nevertheless, rubbing the perioral and cheek regions of the face on objects was not correlated to dominance rank, possibly because it has some function in social communication other than territorial defence against strangers. No relationships have been found between claw scratching, rolling on the ground and social rank, or between the former and other marking behaviour. It is concluded that claw scratching and rolling were not utilised to mark territory. PMID:11255001

  14. Fundamentals of ServCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This training manual for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog (ServCat) provides detailed instructions on searching for records, creating records, and...

  15. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Centers priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents which include annual narrative reports,...

  16. ‘The phenomenal CAT’: firms clawing the goods of others.

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Di Nino

    2015-01-01

    Using results collected for the first time through interviews with Italian manufacturing firms, this work shows that around a quarter of aggregate manufacturing sales are not sold by the actual producer. This circumstance, known as carry along trade (CAT), means that the comparative advantage of some manufacturing firms lies in activities other than crafting, with important consequences for the interpretation of productivity measures. CAT firms hold a 3% productivity premium compared with the...

  17. Performance Measurements of a Low Specific Speed TurboClaw® Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, J.; Cattell, R.; Etemad, S.; Pullen, K. R.

    2015-08-01

    Low specific speed compressors have been historically based on positive displacement machines. Attempts to bring advantages of turbomachinery such as oil free, low parts counts, low cost of manufacture, and reliability to low flow rate applications have not been sparse, but the principle difficulty has always been that the conventional turbomachine design operates at ultra-high speed to deliver low volume flow rates. This is synonymous with low efficiency due to higher losses (windage, surface finish, and tip clearances). The innovative TurboClaw® design is a low specific speed turbomachinery with forward swept impeller geometry. It owes its high efficiency and operational stability to careful design of its nearly tangential forward swept blading and diffuser geometry.

  18. Social partner discrimination based on sounds and scents in Asian small-clawed otters ( Aonyx cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemasson, A.; Mikus, M.-A.; Blois-Heulin, C.; Lodé, T.

    2013-03-01

    Ability to discriminate familiar conspecifics is an essential competence in any group-living species, ensuring socio-spatial cohesion, but in many animals, such as mustelids, the relative importance of the different communicative modalities for discrimination is poorly understood. In otters, there is evidence of intra-specific variation in physical appearance and in feces chemical profile, but the potential for acoustic identity coding as well as for identity decoding in visual, acoustic and olfactive domains remains unexplored. We investigated the acoustic structure of contact calls in five captive groups of small-clawed otters and found that it is possible to reliably assign one particular call to a given adult male caller. Females discriminated between familiar and unfamiliar adult males based on their sound (playback) and smell (feces) but not based on their picture, suggesting abilities to memorize and use acoustic and olfactive signatures in their daily social life.

  19. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  20. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Marsha J.; George, David L.; LeVeque, Randall J.; Mandli, Kyle T.

    2011-09-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude-longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis and dam-break flooding problems. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw.

  1. The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marsha J; LeVeque, Randall J; Mandli, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Many geophysical flow or wave propagation problems can be modeled with two-dimensional depth-averaged equations, of which the shallow water equations are the simplest example. We describe the GeoClaw software that has been designed to solve problems of this nature, consisting of open source Fortran programs together with Python tools for the user interface and flow visualization. This software uses high-resolution shock-capturing finite volume methods on logically rectangular grids, including latitude--longitude grids on the sphere. Dry states are handled automatically to model inundation. The code incorporates adaptive mesh refinement to allow the efficient solution of large-scale geophysical problems. Examples are given illustrating its use for modeling tsunamis, dam break problems, and storm surge. Documentation and download information is available at www.clawpack.org/geoclaw

  2. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France. PMID:26289719

  3. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  4. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  5. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J A; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  6. Schrodinger's cat: much ado about nothing

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this note I briefly discuss the Schrodinger's cat Gedankenexperiment. By analysing the information flow in the system I show that no entanglement exists between the atom and the cat. The atom and the cat are connected only through a classical information channel (detector clicks $\\rightarrow$ poison is released $\\rightarrow$ cat is dead). No amount of local operations and classical communication can entangle the atom and the cat. Consequently, the paradox disappears.

  7. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  8. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  9. Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea): resting and swimming metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, N; Culik, B M

    1999-03-01

    Open-flow oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry was used in Neumünster Zoo (Germany) to examine the energy requirements of six Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinerea) at rest and swimming voluntarily under water. Our aim was to compare their energy requirements with those of other warm-blooded species to elucidate scale effects and to test whether the least aquatic of the three otter species differs markedly from these and its larger relatives. While at rest on land (16 degrees C, n = 26), otters (n = 6, mean body mass 3.1 +/- 0.4 kg) had a respiratory quotient of 0.77 and a resting metabolic rate of 5.0 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1(SD). This increased to 9.1 +/- 0.8 Wkg-1 during rest in water (11-15 degrees C, n = 4) and to 17.6 +/- 1.4 Wkg-1 during foraging and feeding activities in a channel (12 degrees C, n = 5). While swimming under water (n = 620 measurements) in an 11-m long channel, otters preferred a speed range between 0.7 ms-1 and 1.2 ms-1. Transport costs were minimal at 1 ms-1 and amounted to 1.47 +/- 0.24 JN-1 m-1 (n = 213). Metabolic rates of small-clawed otters in air were similar to those of larger otter species, and about double those of terrestrial mammals of comparable size. In water, metabolic rates during rest and swimming were larger than those extrapolated from larger otter species and submerged swimming homeotherms. This is attributed to high thermoregulatory costs, and high body drag at low Reynolds numbers. PMID:10227184

  10. Primary hypoadrenocorticism in ten cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M E; Greco, D S; Orth, D N

    1989-01-01

    Primary hypoadrenocorticism was diagnosed in ten young to middle-aged cats of mixed breeding. Five of the cats were male, and five were female. Historic signs included lethargy (n = 10), anorexia (n = 10), weight loss (n = 9), vomiting (n = 4), and polyuria (n = 3). Dehydration (n = 9), hypothermia (n = 8), prolonged capillary refill time (n = 5), weak pulse (n = 5), collapse (n = 3), and sinus bradycardia (n = 2) were found on physical examination. Results of initial laboratory tests revealed anemia (n = 3), absolute lymphocytosis (n = 2), absolute eosinophilia (n = 1), and azotemia and hyperphosphatemia (n = 10). Serum electrolyte changes included hyponatremia (n = 10), hyperkalemia (n = 9), hypochloremia (n = 9), and hypercalcemia (n = 1). The diagnosis of primary adrenocortical insufficiency was established on the basis of results of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests (n = 10) and endogenous plasma ACTH determinations (n = 7). Initial therapy for hypoadrenocorticism included intravenous administration of 0.9% saline and dexamethasone and intramuscular administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate in oil. Three cats were euthanatized shortly after diagnosis because of poor clinical response. Results of necropsy examination were unremarkable except for complete destruction of both adrenal cortices. Seven cats were treated chronically with oral prednisone or intramuscular methylprednisolone acetate for glucocorticoid supplementation and with oral fludrocortisone acetate or intramuscular injections of repository desoxycorticosterone pivalate for mineralocorticoid replacement. One cat died after 47 days of therapy from unknown causes; the other six cats are still alive and well after 3 to 70 months of treatment. PMID:2469793

  11. Characterization and Comparison of Injuries Caused by Accidental and Non-accidental Blunt Force Trauma in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; McCobb, Emily C; Reisman, Robert W; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Intarapanich, Pichai P

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) are often difficult to distinguish from non-accidental injury (NAI). This retrospective case-control study compared animals with known MVA trauma against those with known NAI. Medical records of 426 dogs and cats treated after MVA and 50 after NAI were evaluated. Injuries significantly associated with MVA were pelvic fractures, pneumothorax, pulmonary contusion, abrasions, and degloving wounds. Injuries associated with NAI were fractures of the skull, teeth, vertebrae, and ribs, scleral hemorrhage, damage to claws, and evidence of older fractures. Odds ratios are reported for these injuries. MVA rib fractures were found to occur in clusters on one side of the body, with cranial ribs more likely to fracture, while NAI rib fractures were found to occur bilaterally with no cranial-caudal pattern. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury may help clinicians differentiate causes of trauma and may aid in the documentation and prosecution of animal abuse. PMID:27364279

  12. Reported cat bites in Dallas: characteristics of the cats, the victims, and the attack events.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, J C

    1990-01-01

    Associated with the increased popularity of cats as pets in American households has been an increase in the number of cat bites reported to health departments. Bite reports from Dallas, TX, for 1985 were analyzed for different aspects of the cat bite event, including characteristics of the cats, the people bitten, the wounds, and the attack events. Cat bites and scratches constituted 25 percent of the 2,494 reported animal bites. Biting cats were typically stray females. People 21 to 35 years...

  13. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    Full Text Available People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding, revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (p<0.01. All interactions and caretaking behaviours were more likely to be displayed towards cats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (p<0.05 and included association time, attachment, perceived cat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist

  14. Granulocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus can endocytose beads, E. coli and WSSV, but in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hu; Jin, Songjun; Zhang, Yan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-10-01

    The hemocytes of the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus are classified by morphologic observation into the following types: hyalinocytes (H), semi-granulocytes (SG) and granulocytes (G). Density gradient centrifugation with Percoll was developed to separate these three subpopulations of hemocytes. Beads, Escherichia coli, and FITC labeling WSSV were used to investigate the characteristics of granulocytes by using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and laser scan confocal microscope. Results showed that granulocytes could phagocytose beads and E. coli by endocytic pathways. WSSV could rely on caveolae-mediated endocytosis to mainly enter into granulocytes. These results could elucidate the mechanism of the innate immunity function of granulocytes, and it also showed the mechanism by which WSSV invaded granulocytes in the red claw crayfish. PMID:24747430

  15. Clinical canine parvovirus type 2C infection in a group of Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeltema, Jenessa; Murphy, Hayley; Rivera, Sam

    2015-03-01

    Despite the occurrence of clinical disease in a wide range of carnivore hosts, only vague accounts of clinical canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) in any otter species have been reported in the literature. Over the course of 25 days, nine Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea) presented for evaluation of inappetence, lethargy, vomiting, and diarrhea. A diagnosis of canine parvovirus type 2c was made based on electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing of group fecal samples. Supportive care was provided based on individual clinical assessment and included subcutaneous crystalline fluid therapy, antiemetics, antibiotics, appetite stimulants, and a neuraminidase inhibitor. Five of the nine otters exhibited moderate to severe disease requiring treatment, and one case was fatal despite supportive efforts. In light of this case report, CPV-2 should be recognized as a potential cause of gastrointestinal disease in Asian small-clawed otters. PMID:25831584

  16. EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AND ENDOSCOPIC URETERAL STENT PLACEMENT IN AN ASIAN SMALL-CLAWED OTTER (AONYX CINEREA) WITH NEPHROLITHIASIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojick, Kimberlee B; Berent, Allyson C; Weisse, Chick W; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a significant disease concern in Asian small-clawed otters (Aonyx cinerea), with over 60% of captive animals affected. Bilateral ureteral stent placement, using endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were performed as salvage procedures in a 13-yr-old intact female Asian small-clawed otter following a 7-yr history of nephrolithiasis and progressive renal insufficiency. Following the procedure, radiographs revealed a slight shifting of urolith position, although a decrease in urolith mass was not observed. As a result of declining quality of life related to severe osteoarthritis, the otter was euthanized 5 wk after the procedure. While this treatment approach was unsuccessful in this case, the technique was clinically feasible, so ESWL and ureteral stent placement may remain a consideration for other individuals of this species presented earlier in the course of this disease. PMID:26056891

  17. What Is The Proximate Cause Of Begging Behaviour In A Group Of Captive Asian Short-Clawed Otters?

    OpenAIRE

    Gothard Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The study aimed to ascertain the proximate cause of ‘begging’ behaviour in a group of captive Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus). Two alternative hypotheses were tested by manipulating aspects of husbandry in three experimental conditions. Condition 1 served as a baseline for comparison. In Condition 2 meal worms and crickets were provided every hour to stimulate natural foraging and hunting behaviour and alleviate boredom. During Condition 3 the food allowance was increased by 7.5% o...

  18. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  19. Immune Defenses against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a Fungus Linked to Global Amphibian Declines, in the South African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Jeremy P.; Reinert, Laura K.; Harper, Laura K.; Douglas C Woodhams; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a chytrid fungus that causes the lethal skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians. It is regarded as an emerging infectious disease affecting diverse amphibian populations in many parts of the world. Because there are few model amphibian species for immunological studies, little is known about immune defenses against B. dendrobatidis. We show here that the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is a suitable model for investigating immunity to this path...

  20. Assessing The Welfare Of Captive Asian Small-Clawed Otters (Amblonyx cinereus): Can Inductive Methods Play A Part?

    OpenAIRE

    Wright L.C.

    2003-01-01

    A large number of factors need to be taken into account when assessing an animal's welfare under field conditions. Grounded Theory, an inductive method, might be of use in correlating these factors with the results of scientific studies to produce a freely available IT tool that could be used by relatively untrained persons to assess the welfare of animals. This ongoing work is intended to establish whether inductive techniques can contribute to welfare assessment of captive Asian Small-Clawe...

  1. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    CERN Document Server

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we question both these positions and also the assumption that the atom and the cat are entangled and further whether the atom could be considered to be in a state of decay and not decay. We let the cat either out of the bag (chamber) or rest in peace with or without the atom or the observer.

  2. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  3. DNA barcode based wildlife forensics for resolving the origin of claw samples using a novel primer cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedkar, Gulab D; Abhayankar, Shil Bapurao; Nalage, Dinesh; Ahmed, Shaikh Nadeem; Khedkar, Chandraprakash D

    2014-12-10

    Abstract Excessive wildlife hunting for commercial purposes can have negative impacts on biodiversity and may result in species extinction. To ensure compliance with legal statutes, forensic identification approaches relying on molecular markers may be used to identify the species of origin of animal material from hairs, claw, blood, bone, or meat. Using this approach, DNA sequences from the COI "barcoding" gene have been used to identify material from a number of domesticated animal species. However, many wild species of carnivores still present great challenges in generating COI barcodes using standard "universal" primer pairs. In the work presented here, the mitochondrial COI gene was successfully amplified using a novel primer cocktail, and the products were sequenced to determine the species of twenty one unknown samples of claw material collected as part of forensic wildlife case investigations. Sixteen of the unknown samples were recognized to have originated from either Panthera leo or P. pardus individuals. The remaining five samples could be identified only to the family level due to the absence of reference animal sequences. This is the first report on the use of COI sequences for the identification of P. pardus and P. leo from claw samples as part of forensic investigations in India. The study also highlights the need for adequate reference material to aid in the resolution of suspected cases of illegal wildlife harvesting. PMID:25492536

  4. Assigning king eiders to wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable isotopes of feathers and claws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppel, S.; Powell, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of wintering regions for birds sampled during the breeding season is crucial to understanding how events outside the breeding season may affect populations. We assigned king eiders captured on breeding grounds in northern Alaska to 3 broad geographic wintering regions in the Bering Sea using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes obtained from head feathers. Using a discriminant function analysis of feathers obtained from birds tracked with satellite transmitters, we estimated that 88 % of feathers were assigned to the region in which they were grown. We then assigned 84 birds of unknown origin to wintering regions based on their head feather isotope ratios, and tested the utility of claws for geographic assignment. Based on the feather results, we estimated that similar proportions of birds in our study area use each of the 3 wintering regions in the Bering Sea. These results are in close agreement with estimates from satellite telemetry and show the usefulness of stable isotope signatures of feathers in assigning marine birds to geographic regions. The use of claws is currently limited by incomplete understanding of claw growth rates. Data presented here will allow managers of eiders, other marine birds, and marine mammals to assign animals to regions in the Bering Sea based on stable isotope signatures of body tissues. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  5. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC

    CERN Document Server

    Tahara, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg < b < 55 deg) seen in the Mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg < b < -10 deg) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap...

  6. Spatial Stream Segregation by Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Lauren K; McGuire, Elizabeth A; Middlebrooks, John C

    2016-06-01

    Listeners can perceive interleaved sequences of sounds from two or more sources as segregated streams. In humans, physical separation of sound sources is a major factor enabling such stream segregation. Here, we examine spatial stream segregation with a psychophysical measure in domestic cats. Cats depressed a pedal to initiate a target sequence of brief sound bursts in a particular rhythm and then released the pedal when the rhythm changed. The target bursts were interleaved with a competing sequence of bursts that could differ in source location but otherwise were identical to the target bursts. This task was possible only when the sources were heard as segregated streams. When the sound bursts had broad spectra, cats could detect the rhythm change when target and competing sources were separated by as little as 9.4°. Essentially equal levels of performance were observed when frequencies were restricted to a high, 4-to-25-kHz, band in which the principal spatial cues presumably were related to sound levels. When the stimulus band was restricted from 0.4 to 1.6 kHz, leaving interaural time differences as the principal spatial cue, performance was severely degraded. The frequency sensitivity of cats in this task contrasts with that of humans, who show better spatial stream segregation with low- than with high-frequency sounds. Possible explanations for the species difference includes the smaller interaural delays available to cats due to smaller sizes of their heads and the potentially greater sound-level cues available due to the cat's frontally directed pinnae and higher audible frequency range. PMID:26993807

  7. The Nucleon as a Holographic Cheshire Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Zahed, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit.

  8. The nucleon as a holographic Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cheshire cat principle emerges naturally from the holographic approach of the nucleon in terms of a bulk instanton. The cat hides in the holographic direction. I briefly review the one-nucleon problem in the holographic limit

  9. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  10. Osteolysis in cat-scratch fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The osteolysis associated with cat-scratch fever resembles more ominous conditions. The combination of osteolysis and unilateral regional adenopathy in a child or adolescent should suggest cat-scratch disease. Bone scans and CT verified the diagnosis

  11. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if my pet has a tapeworm infection? Although cats and dogs are rarely ill as a result of a ... and outdoor environments. Have your veterinarian treat your dogs and cats promptly if they have tapeworms. Clean up after ...

  12. ServCat Document Selection Guidelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ServCat document selection guidelines were developed for selecting appropriate documents to upload into ServCat. When beginning to upload documents into...

  13. Dirac Cat States in Relativistic Landau Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Solano, E.

    2007-01-01

    We show that a relativistic version of Schrodinger cat states, here called Dirac cat states, can be built in relativistic Landau levels when an external magnetic field couples to a relativistic spin 1/2 charged particle. Under suitable initial conditions, the associated Dirac equation produces unitarily Dirac cat states involving the orbital quanta of the particle in a well defined mesoscopic regime. We demonstrate that the proposed Dirac cat states have a purely relativistic origin and cease...

  14. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    OpenAIRE

    Amir H.M.S; Razauden Z; Harisun Y; Ida I.M; Mona Z

    2014-01-01

    Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM) is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian governm...

  15. Cats & Dogs%猫狗大战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阿萌

    2003-01-01

    @@ ( Dogs and cats are permanent enemies. A dog named Bubby is catnapped by the cats. The whole cats' world is shocked and alert. ) Dog Chairman: Gentlemen, a few moments ago I received word of the gravest nature. The key agent working the Brody case has been catnapped. Although he is safe, new must replace him as soon as possible.

  16. Genitourinary dysplasia in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine

  17. Lessons from the Cheshire Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinberg, Donna

    2012-01-01

    "If you don't know where you're going, any road will take you there." This oft-cited but not-quite-accurate quote is from the Lewis Carroll's classic children's tale, Alice in Wonderland. In Carroll's altered reality, the conversation between the disoriented Alice and the mysterious Cheshire Cat actually went like this: "Would you tell me, please,…

  18. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  19. Lymphoplasmacytic gingivitis in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old male neutered short haired cat was presented due to difficulty eating and pawing at the face. Examination revealed severe gingivitis and stomatitis throughout the oral cavity. Gingival biopsy provided a diagnosis of lymphoplasmacytic stomatitis. Extraction of all premolars and molars resulted in elimination of all clinical signs.

  20. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  1. Sex differences and endocrine regulation of auditory-evoked, neural responses in African clawed frogs (Xenopus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ian C; Woolley, Sarah M N; Kwong-Brown, Ursula; Kelley, Darcy B

    2016-01-01

    Mating depends on the accurate detection of signals that convey species identity and reproductive state. In African clawed frogs, Xenopus, this information is conveyed by vocal signals that differ in temporal patterns and spectral features between sexes and across species. We characterized spectral sensitivity using auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs), commonly known as the auditory brainstem response, in males and females of four Xenopus species. In female X. amieti, X. petersii, and X. laevis, peripheral auditory sensitivity to their species own dyad-two, species-specific dominant frequencies in the male advertisement call-is enhanced relative to males. Males were most sensitive to lower frequencies including those in the male-directed release calls. Frequency sensitivity was influenced by endocrine state; ovariectomized females had male-like auditory tuning while dihydrotestosterone-treated, ovariectomized females maintained female-like tuning. Thus, adult, female Xenopus demonstrate an endocrine-dependent sensitivity to the spectral features of conspecific male advertisement calls that could facilitate mating. Xenopus AEPs resemble those of other species in stimulus and level dependence, and in sensitivity to anesthetic (MS222). AEPs were correlated with body size and sex within some species. A frequency following response, probably encoded by the amphibian papilla, might facilitate dyad source localization via interaural time differences. PMID:26572136

  2. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8–34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole−1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. (paper)

  3. Function after correction of a clawed great toe by a modified Robert Jones transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breusch, S J; Wenz, W; Döderlein, L

    2000-03-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional study in 51 patients (81 feet) with a clawed hallux in association with a cavus foot after a modified Robert Jones tendon transfer. The mean follow-up was 42 months (9 to 88). In all feet, concomitant procedures had been undertaken, such as extension osteotomy of the first metatarsal and transfer of the tendon of the peroneus longus to peroneus brevis, to correct the underlying foot deformity. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. The overall rate of patient satisfaction was 86%. The deformity of the hallux was corrected in 80 feet. Catching of the big toe when walking barefoot, transfer lesions and metatarsalgia, hallux flexus, hallux limitus and asymptomatic nonunion of the interphalangeal joint were the most frequent complications. Hallux limitus was more likely when elevation of the first ray occurred (p = 0.012). Additional transfer of the tendon of peroneus longus to peroneus brevis was a significant risk factor for elevation of the first metatarsal (p hallux. PMID:10755436

  4. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole(-1). This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. PMID:25078857

  5. Effects of depleted uranium on survival, growth, and metamorphosis in the african clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.E.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gonzales, G.; Gould, W.R.; Arimoto, R.

    2005-01-01

    Embryos (stage 8-47, Nieuwkoop and Faber) of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were subjected to water-borne depleted uranium (DU) concentrations that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/Lusing an acute 96-h frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In a chronic 64-d assay, X. laevis (from embryo through metamorphosis; stages 8-66) were subjected to concentrations of DU that ranged from 6.2 to 54.3 mg/L Our results indicate DU is a non teratogenic metal. No effects on mortality, malformations, or growth were observed in the 96-h FETAX with concentrations of DU that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/L From stage 8 to stage 47, X. laevis tadpoles do not actively feed and the gills are not well developed. Thus, uptake of DU was reduced despite exposure to elevated concentrations. The 64-d assay resulted in no concentration response for either mortality or malformations; however, a delay in metamorphosis was observed in tadpoles subjected to elevated DU concentrations (from 13.1 to 54.3 mg/L) compared to tadpoles in both the well-water control and reference. The delay in metamorphosis was likely due to increasing body burden of DU that ranged from 0.98 to 2.82 mg/kg. Copyright?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  6. Insights into the molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of the white-clawed crayfish (Decapoda, Astacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelić, Mišel; Klobučar, Göran I V; Grandjean, Frédéric; Puillandre, Nicolas; Franjević, Damjan; Futo, Momir; Amouret, Julien; Maguire, Ivana

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the evolutionary history of the white-clawed crayfish (WCC) was evaluated using large-scale datasets comprising >1350 specimens from the entire distribution range. Using species delimitation methods on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences, we propose four primary species hypotheses for WCC. Sequences for several nuclear regions were screened but none showed significant variation within WCC. This result favours a single secondary species hypothesis and indicates the existence of a mito-nuclear discordance in WCC. Therefore, mtDNA groups were considered only as genetic units that carry information about ancient divergences within WCC and not as taxonomic units. The reconstruction of ancestral ranges and divergence time estimates were used to link the current genetic structure with paleogeographic processes. These results showed that the emergence of mtDNA groups in WCC could be related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis, the climate cooling during the Pliocene and Pleistocene, and (paleo)shifting of the Adriatic Sea coastline in the Padanovenezian Plain. The most recent common ancestor of the mtDNA groups most likely originated from Dalmatia (eastern Adriatic coast) as indicated by the reconstruction of ancestral ranges. This ecoregion, along with the Gulf of Venice Drainages, harbours a high genetic diversity and should be emphasised as an area of the highest conservation priority. PMID:27404041

  7. Histological analysis of thelohaniasis in white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglio F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From 2004 to 2006, a parasitological survey aimed at the detection of the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani Henneguy was carried out on 177 wild white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes complex captured in six streams and rivers of the province of Belluno in north-eastern Italy. Microscopical examination of the skeletal muscles, and histological analysis applying different histochemical stains to full transverse and sagittal sections of the cephalothorax and abdomen were carried out. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was also conducted on the parasites recovered during the survey. Out of 177 crayfish examined, Thelohania contejeani (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae was present in only one crayfish from the Vena d’oro creek. The parasite was detected in the skeletal muscles in several developmental stages, including mature spores, which represented the most common stage recovered. Sporophorous vesicles were also present. Histological examination revealed that the fibres of the skeletal, cardiac and intestinal muscles were filled with spores. Melanin infiltrations were focally present in the infected striated muscles. The gill phagocytic nephrocytes were engulfed by small masses of spores. Among the staining techniques applied, Crossman’s trichrome stain represented the most effective method of detecting T. contejeani.

  8. Span programs and quantum algorithms for st-connectivity and claw detection

    CERN Document Server

    Belovs, Aleksandrs

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a span program that decides st-connectivity, and generalize the span program to develop quantum algorithms for several graph problems. First, we give an algorithm for st-connectivity that uses O(n d^{1/2}) quantum queries to the n x n adjacency matrix to decide if vertices s and t are connected, under the promise that they either are connected by a path of length at most d, or are disconnected. We also show that if T is a path, a star with two subdivided legs, or a subdivision of a claw, its presence as a subgraph in the input graph G can be detected with O(n) quantum queries to the adjacency matrix. Under the promise that G either contains T as a subgraph or does not contain T as a minor, we give O(n)-query quantum algorithms for detecting T either a triangle or a subdivision of a star. All these algorithms can be implemented time efficiently and, except for the triangle-detection algorithm, in logarithmic space. One of the main techniques is to modify the st-connectivity span program to drop al...

  9. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L.

    2014-08-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8-34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole-1. This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range.

  10. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  11. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  12. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw in rats with experimental endometriosis Efeito anticoncepcional da Uncaria tomentosa (unha-de-gato em ratas com endometriose experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nogueira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma´s epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. METHODS: 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups; the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The uncaria group presented nine samples (90% with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88% with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10% and leuprolide (22% groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90% samples of the uncaria group, in two (20% animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8% rats in the leuprolide group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliação histológica do útero e parênquima ovariano de ratas com endometriose induzida tratadas com extrato de Uncaria tomentosa. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 29 ratas com endometriose experimental e formados três grupos: O grupo uncaria recebeu extrato de Uncaria tomentosa com 32mg/ml, administrado 1ml ao dia e o grupo placebo recebeu 1ml de solução salina a 0,9%, ambos por 14 dias; o grupo leuprolida recebeu acetato de leuprolida 1mg/kg de peso corporal aplicado via subcutânea dose única. No 15° dia de tratamento realizou-se retirada de corno uterino e ovários para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O grupo uncaria apresentou nove amostras (90% com maturação incompleta dos folículos ovarianos, já o grupo placebo não apresentou nenhum caso e no grupo leuprolida houve oito ratas (88% com a mesma alteração. O grupo placebo apresentou corpo lúteo maduro em todos os animais, acontecendo de forma menos freqüente nos grupos uncaria (10% e leuprolida (22%. O epitélio uterino se mostrou fracamente proliferativo em nove (90% das amostras do grupo unacaria, em dois (20% casos do grupo placebo e sete (77.8% casos no grupo leuprolida. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que a Uncaria tomentosa tem efeito anticoncepcional.

  13. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae) Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP) and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cult...

  14. Experimental cochlear hydrops in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, T L

    1986-11-01

    An experimental model of cochlear hydrops was created in cats. Ten cats underwent surgical procedures to obliterate the saccule, and their temporal bones were studied by light microscopy after sacrifice at 10 weeks. In one group the saccules were destroyed by maceration and aspiration. However, in these ears the saccular lumens were not obliterated and endolymphatic hydrops did not develop. Obliteration of the saccules was achieved in the second group after fascia was introduced into the area of the injured saccules. Cochlear endolymphatic hydrops was a consistent finding in these ears except when a fistula of the membranous labyrinth was present. However, in addition to fibrosis and new bone formation in the vestibules there were also degenerative changes in the hair cells, tectorial membranes, and striae vasculares of these cochleae. The results supported the longitudinal flow theory of endolymph and are consistent with the reported examples of cochlear endolymphatic hydrops in man. PMID:3812642

  15. Ototoxicity in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Naoki; Talaska, Andra E.; Schacht, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    A variety of drugs in veterinary use have side effects that can potentially damage the senses of hearing or balance in animals. A large body of literature exists on the incidence and mechanisms of “ototoxicity” in experimental animals and in humans, but little is documented in domestic dogs and cats. However, the generality of these adverse actions across species allows us to extrapolate and provide the veterinarian with insight into possible complications of chemotherapy.

  16. Cat scratch disease in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P

    1998-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...

  17. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G. John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F. André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species’ native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great

  18. The superoxide dismutase from red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus: molecular cloning and characterization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Chen, Jing; Hou, Libo; Huang, Yanqing; Xia, Siyao; Meng, Qingguo; Wang, Wen

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, an extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD) gene and a mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD) gene were cloned from hemocytes of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. The open reading frame (ORF) of ecCuZnSOD is 498 bp and encodes a 166 amino acids (aa) protein, whereas the ORF of mtMnSOD is 654 bp and encodes a 218 aa protein. The amino acid sequences of C. quadricarinatus ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD showed high similarities with those of ecCuZnSODs and mtMnSODs of other crustaceans, respectively. Both ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD of C. quadricarinatus were highly expressed in hepatopancreas, hemocytes, intestine, and gill; low transcript levels were seen in other tissues (heart, muscle, and nerve). The immune responses of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD were studied following inoculation with Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Aeromonas hydrophila. After S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila challenge, mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD and mtMnSOD in hemocytes and gill was upregulated. mRNA transcription of ecCuZnSOD in the hepatopancreas was also upregulated after S. eriocheiris or A. hydrophila inoculation. mtMnSOD in hepatopancreas was upregulated after A. hydrophila inoculation, whereas this was down-regulated after S. eriocheiris challenge. After S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila challenge, total SOD activity and CuZnSOD activity both increased compared to control group. The results showed that these SODs from C. quadricarinatus likely play an important role in protecting some tissues from reactive oxygen intermediates produced during challenge from S. eriocheiris and A. hydrophila. PMID:25366155

  19. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  20. Transcriptomic Responses During Early Development Following Arsenic Exposure in Western Clawed Frogs, Silurana tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Koch, Iris; Gibson, Laura A; Loughery, Jennifer R; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Button, Mark; Caumette, Guilhem; Reimer, Kenneth J; Cullen, William R; Langlois, Valerie S

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic compounds are widespread environmental contaminants and exposure elicits serious health issues, including early developmental anomalies. Depending on the oxidation state, the intermediates of arsenic metabolism interfere with a range of subcellular events, but the fundamental molecular events that lead to speciation-dependent arsenic toxicity are not fully elucidated. This study therefore assesses the impact of arsenic exposure on early development by measuring speciation and gene expression profiles in the developing Western clawed frog (Silurana tropicalis) larvae following the environmental relevant 0.5 and 1 ppm arsenate exposure. Using HPLC-ICP-MS, arsenate, dimethylarsenic acid, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, and tetramethylarsonium ion were detected. Microarray and pathway analyses were utilized to characterize the comprehensive transcriptomic responses to arsenic exposure. Clustering analysis of expression data showed distinct gene expression patterns in arsenate treated groups when compared with the control. Pathway enrichment revealed common biological themes enriched in both treatments, including cell signal transduction, cell survival, and developmental pathways. Moreover, the 0.5 ppm exposure led to the enrichment of pathways and biological processes involved in arsenic intake or efflux, as well as histone remodeling. These compensatory responses are hypothesized to be responsible for maintaining an in-body arsenic level comparable to control animals. With no appreciable changes observed in malformation and mortality between control and exposed larvae, this is the first study to suggest that the underlying transcriptomic regulations related to signal transduction, cell survival, developmental pathways, and histone remodeling may contribute to maintaining ongoing development while coping with the potential arsenic toxicity in S. tropicalis during early development. PMID:26427749

  1. Iris Claw versus Scleral Fixation Intraocular Lens Implantation during Pars Plana Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereydoun Farrahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes of iris claw anterior chamber intraocular lens (ICACIOL with that of scleral fixation posterior chamber intraocular lens (SF-PCIOL implantation during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV as initial surgery to correct aphakia. Methods: Twelve patients with complicated cataract surgery or trauma who had suffered nucleus, whole crystalline lens or intraocular lens (IOL drop into the vitreous cavity, and undergone PPV with IC-ACIOL implantation over a period of one year were evaluated for the purpose of this study. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central corneal thickness (CCT, spherical equivalent (SE refractive error, astigmatism and complications were recorded. The results were compared to outcomes of another group of 13 patients who had previously undergone PPV with SF-PCIOL implantation. Results: Mean improvement of UCVA was greater in IC-ACIOL eyes as compared to the SF-PCIOL group (-1.17±0.28 versus -0.89±0.21 logMAR, P=0.01, corresponding values for postoperative BCVA were 0.24±0.17 and 0.44±0.22 logMAR (P=0.041, respectively. Average postoperative SE was comparable in the IC-ACIOL and SFPCIOL groups at 0.6±1.03 and 0.56±1.23 diopters, respectively (P=0.290. However, 10 (83.3% IC-ACIOL eyes versus 6 (46.1% SF-PCIOL eyes had SE within 1 diopter of emmetropia (P=0.048. Mean postoperative increase in CCT was comaparble between the study groups (P=0.126. Conclusion: In the absence of sufficient capsular support, the use of an IC-ACIOL for correction of aphakia during PPV can be a good alternative and seems to entail better visual outcomes as compared to SF-PCIOL.

  2. Temporomandibular ankylosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in the cat is an unusual complication of traumatic lesions involving articular (true ankylosis) or periarticular structures (false ankylosis). Seven cats with true ankylosis of the TMJ (four cases unilateral and three cases bilateral), of which previous trauma had been documented in five cases, were referred to the authors' clinic between September 1991 and October 1996. Radiographic assessment was performed in all cases, using dorsoventral and oblique projections. Five subjects underwent arthroplastic excision of the TMJ and, in the remaining two cases, stretching of the jaws was performed under general anaesthesia. The surgical outcome was satisfactory in all but one case, where partially decreased joint mobility was observed (follow-up time one to five years), but in the two cases where non-surgical treatment was carried out, recurrence of TMJ ankylosis was observed (follow-up time two to five months). In the authors' experience, surgery represents the treatment of choice for TMJ ankylosis in cats. Additional mandibular symphysiotomy can confirm the radiological findings in unilateral cases

  3. Schroedinger's Cat is not Alone

    CERN Document Server

    Gato, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the `Complete Wave Function' and deduce that all living beings, not just Schroedinger's cat, are actually described by a superposition of `alive' and `dead' quantum states; otherwise they would never die. Therefore this proposal provides a quantum mechanical explanation to the world-wide observation that we all pass away. Next we consider the Measurement problem in the framework of M-theory. For this purpose, together with Schroedinger's cat we also place inside the box Rasputin's cat, which is unaffected by poisson. We analyse the system identifying its excitations (catons and catinos) and we discuss its evolution: either to a classical fight or to a quantum entanglement. We also propose the $BSV\\Psi$ scenario, which implements the Complete Wave Function as well as the Big Bang and the String Landscape in a very (super)natural way. Then we test the gravitational decoherence of the entangled system applying an experimental setting due to Galileo. We also discuss the Information Loss paradox. For ...

  4. Direct transmission of the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) between cats exhibiting social behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Franc, Michel; Bouhsira, Émilie; Beugnet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    A study design was created to assess the potential for fleas to infest cats directly from other cats. In the first experiment, six cats were infested with 100 fleas each and then immediately put in contact with six flea-free cats for 24 h. After removal of all fleas the study was repeated and the contact between cats lasted 48 h. The total numbers of fleas recovered out of the 600 fleas deposited on the 6 donor cats after each infestation were 499 and 486 at 24 h and 48 h respectively. At 1 h...

  5. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (131I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  6. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-03-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of /sup 131/I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of /sup 131/I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that /sup 131/I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined.

  7. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  8. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact. PMID:19744306

  9. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. PMID:24726694

  10. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Director. (e) Additional requirements for the importation of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats shall be subject... all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a... persons except for contact necessary for its care or, if the dog or cat is allowed out of the...

  11. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  12. Minimal change glomerulopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backlund, Brianna; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Cook, Audrey K; Clubb, Fred J; Lees, George E

    2011-04-01

    A 6-year-old domestic shorthair male castrated cat was evaluated for sudden onset of vomiting and anorexia. A diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) was made, and the cat was treated with imatinib mesylate. The cat had an initial clinical improvement with the normalization of the peripheral eosinophil count. After approximately 8 weeks of treatment, lethargy and anorexia recurred despite the normal eosinophil count and a significant proteinuric nephropathy was identified. Treatment with imatinib was discontinued. Ultrasound guided renal biopsies exhibited histologic, ultrastructural, and immunostaining changes indicative of a minimal change glomerulopathy (MCG) which has not previously been reported in the literature in a cat. The proteinuria and HES initially improved while the cat was treated with more traditional medications; however, both the problems persisted for 30 months that the cat was followed subsequently. Previous studies demonstrating the safety and efficacy of imatinib in cats do not report any glomerular injury or significant adverse drug reactions, and the exact cause of this cat's proteinuric nephropathy is uncertain. Nonetheless, the possibility of an adverse drug reaction causing proteinuria should be considered when initiating treatment with imatinib in a cat. PMID:21414552

  13. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao;

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web at...... http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT and...

  14. The first record of translocated white-clawed crayfish from the Austropotamobius pallipes complex in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Amouret

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex is native to Europe, being present in 18 European countries, Italy included. However, the number and abundance of its populations are today restricted and it has been recently classified as “endangered” by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature. Here, we report the first record of this freshwater crayfish in Sardinia Island (Italy. Using a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA gene, we identified three haplotypes that correspond to the A. italicus meridionalis subclade. We provide information about the sampling area, population density and finally discuss hypotheses about the occurrence of this population in Sardinia, comparing it with other Mediterranean populations. Our results improve the existing knowledge about the phylogeography of the taxon across Italy, confirming its complex pattern of distribution. In addition to the non-native status of the Sardinian A. i. meridionalis crayfish, we showed that the most proximal Mediterranean population of white-clawed crayfish existing in Corsica belongs to A. pallipes from Southern France.

  15. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  16. Dehydration mediated microRNA response in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2013-10-25

    Exposure to various environmental stresses induces metabolic rate depression in many animal species, an adaptation that conserves energy until the environment is again conducive to normal life. The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, is periodically subjected to arid summers in South Africa, and utilizes entry into the hypometabolic state of estivation as a mechanism of long term survival. During estivation, frogs must typically deal with substantial dehydration as their ponds dry out and X. laevis can endure >30% loss of its body water. We hypothesize that microRNAs play a vital role in establishing a reversible hypometabolic state and responding to dehydration stress that is associated with amphibian estivation. The present study analyzes the effects of whole body dehydration on microRNA expression in three tissues of X. laevis. Compared to controls, levels of miR-1, miR-125b, and miR-16-1 decreased to 37±6, 64±8, and 80±4% of control levels during dehydration in liver. By contrast, miR-210, miR-34a and miR-21 were significantly elevated by 3.05±0.45, 2.11±0.08, and 1.36±0.05-fold, respectively, in the liver. In kidney tissue, miR-29b, miR-21, and miR-203 were elevated by 1.40±0.09, 1.31±0.05, and 2.17±0.31-fold, respectively, in response to dehydration whereas miR-203 and miR-34a were elevated in ventral skin by 1.35±0.05 and 1.74±0.12-fold, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially expressed microRNAs suggests that these are mainly involved in two processes: (1) expression of solute carrier proteins, and (2) regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. This study is the first report that shows a tissue specific mode of microRNA expression during amphibian dehydration, providing evidence for microRNAs as crucial regulators of metabolic depression. PMID:23958654

  17. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-07-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats' impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on "predation awareness" campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  18. Experimental proliferative glomerulonephritis in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, S A; Stokes, C R; Lucke, V M

    1992-01-01

    A model of chronic serum sickness was used to induce immune-complex glomerulonephritis in seven experimental cats, by daily intravenous inoculation of an increasing dose (5 to 35 mg) of human serum albumin (HSA). At week four, two of the seven animals developed anterior uveitis. At week 23, two different animals developed the subcutaneous oedema characteristic of the nephrotic syndrome (NS), whilst the other five cats appeared clinically normal. The kidneys were examined at necropsy by light microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy. The glomeruli of four animals (three with both proteinuria and uraemia, and one with proteinuria only) showed morphological changes under light microscopy. The abnormalities suggested that a diffuse mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN) had been induced in three cats and diffuse membranoproliferative GN induced in another. Ultrastructural studies revealed electron-dense deposits (immune-complexes) in six of the seven cats. Two cats without glomerular abnormalities by light microscopy had mesangial deposits and three cats with mesangial proliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial and/or subepithelial sites. The single cat with membranoproliferative GN had deposits at mesangial, subendothelial, subepithelial and intramembranous sites. Immunohistological examination (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique) showed that HSA and immunoglobulin (IgG and IgM) were deposited in the glomeruli of these cats. Deposits were the most dense in cats with more severe renal lesions. Deposits of IgM were most abundant. An extensive cellular infiltrate, comprising macrophages, neutrophils and plasma cells, was observed only in the four animals which showed abnormalities in glomerular ultrastructure. The disease induced in these cats thus appears to differ from the membranous nephropathy previously described in the cat and bears a close resemblance to immune complex (IC) disease in man. In view of the relatively few specific

  19. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European countri

  20. Probing a Gravitational Cat State

    CERN Document Server

    Anastopoulos, Charis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially-separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit, quantum fluctuations of the stress energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle system...

  1. Renal leiomyosarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Dawn; Fowlkes, Natalie

    2016-05-01

    Renal leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed in a 10-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat with a 3-year history of clinically managed, chronic renal disease. Sudden death was preceded by a brief episode of mental dullness and confusion. At postmortem examination, the gross appearance of the left kidney was suggestive of hydronephrosis, and a nephrolith was present in the contralateral kidney. However, histology revealed an infiltrative, poorly differentiated, spindle cell sarcoma bordering the grossly cavitated area. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for vimentin and smooth muscle actin, which led to a diagnosis of renal leiomyosarcoma; neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for desmin. Leiomyosarcoma arising in the kidney is a rare occurrence in humans and an even rarer occurrence in veterinary medicine with no prior cases being reported in cats in the English literature. The macroscopic appearance of the tumor at postmortem examination was misleadingly suggestive of hydronephrosis as a result of the large cavitation and may be similar to particularly unusual cases of renal leiomyosarcomas in humans that have a cystic or cavitated appearance. PMID:26975352

  2. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Reproductive patterns of pedigree cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, I

    1987-07-01

    A survey of Brisbane catteries was carried out to investigate reproductive patterns of pedigree cats. Eighteen breeders supplied data on 751 litters with a total of 3171 kittens covering the Persian, Chinchilla, Siamese, Burmese and Abyssinian breeds. The overall sex ratio at birth was 100 males to 92 females. There was a significant seasonal effect on sex ratio with litters conceived during the wet season (September to February) producing more males than expected and litters conceived during the dry season producing more females than expected. Litter size and breed had no significant effect on the sex ratio. The average litter size varied with the breed with the most prolific being the Burmese (5.0) then the Siamese (4.5), Persian (3.9), Abyssinian (3.5) and Chinchilla (2.8). The average litter size was smaller for the first litter than for the subsequent 3 litters. The maximum average litter size was reached at 6 years with only a moderate decline thereafter. There was a seasonal fluctuation in births with the greatest numbers being born in spring and the least in late autumn. Longhair cats showed a more marked seasonal distribution of births than the shorthairs which reproduced for most of the year, particularly the Burmese breed. PMID:3675409

  4. Ectopic ureter in a male cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A male cat with persistent urinary incontinence is described. Definitive diagnosis of unilateral ectopic ureter was obtained by intravenous urography, after which surgical re-implantation of the ureter into the bladder was performed. The literature on ureteral ectopia in cats is discussed

  5. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of feline oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma are described. In both cases, diagnosis was achieved by radiography, endoscopy and cytology, and later confirmed by histology. One cat underwent oesophagectomy followed by end-to-end anastomosis, but died three days postsurgery; the second cat was euthanased after diagnosis

  6. Management of hypertension in a geriatric cat

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and chronic renal disease occur commonly in geriatric cats, often in association with potentially life-threatening primary or secondary hypertension. Early treatment of hypertension minimizes damage to vital organs. This case illustrates the complexity of managing hypertension in a geriatric cat with both hyperthyroidism and renal disease.

  7. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of cats on Mars, the…

  8. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  9. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  10. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  11. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species. PMID:26081135

  12. Differential gene expression profile from haematopoietic tissue stem cells of red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in response to WSSV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Peng, Hui; Wang, Ke-jian

    2011-07-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in crustaceans. During WSSV infection, multiple cell signaling cascades are activated, leading to the generation of antiviral molecules and initiation of programmed cell death of the virus infected cells. To gain novel insight into cell signaling mechanisms employed in WSSV infection, we have used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to elucidate the cellular response to WSSV challenge at the gene level in red claw crayfish haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) stem cell cultures. Red claw crayfish Hpt cells were infected with WSSV for 1h (L1 library) and 12h (L12 library), respectively, after which the cell RNA was prepared for SSH using uninfected cells as drivers. By screening the L1 and L12 forward libraries, we have isolated the differentially expressed genes of crayfish Hpt cells upon WSSV infection. Among these genes, the level of many key molecules showed clearly up-regulated expression, including the genes involved in immune responses, cytoskeletal system, signal transduction molecules, stress, metabolism and homestasis related genes, and unknown genes in both L1 and L12 libraries. Importantly, of the 2123 clones screened, 176 novel genes were found the first time to be up-regulated in WSSV infection in crustaceans. To further confirm the up-regulation of differentially expressed genes, the semi-quantitative RT-PCR were performed to test twenty randomly selected genes, in which eight of the selected genes exhibited clear up-regulation upon WSSV infection in red claw crayfish Hpt cells, including DNA helicase B-like, multiprotein bridging factor 1, apoptosis-linked gene 2 and an unknown gene-L1635 from L1 library; coatomer gamma subunit, gabarap protein gene, tripartite motif-containing 32 and an unknown gene-L12-254 from L2 library, respectively. Taken together, as well as in immune and stress responses are regulated during WSSV infection of crayfish Hpt cells, our results also

  13. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  14. Subarachnoid cyst in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-year-old domestic longhair was presented with hind-limb ataxia and some degree of incontinence of two weeks' duration. An enlarged spinal canal from the twelfth thoracic (T-12) vertebra to the third lumbar (L(3)) vertebra was identified on survey radiographs. An intradural-extramedullary cavity at the twelfth (T-12) and thirteenth (T-13) thoracic vertebrae, filled with contrast material, was demonstrated on myelography. A left-sided hemilaminectomy was performed over this region, and a subarachnoid cavitation or cyst was found to be the cause of the severe spinal-cord compression. The cyst was drained. The cat showed improvement in the neurological signs during the first three weeks postoperatively. Six months later no neurological deficits were identified on follow-up examination

  15. The Mice and the Cat

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī, Niẓām al-Dīn; Muhaddis, Ali; Utas, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This work consists of an edition of a hitherto unknown manuscript of the Persian poem Mūš u gurbah (The Cat and the Mice), ascribed to ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī (d. 771–772 A.H.q. [corresponding to Aug. 1369 – July 1371 A.D.]), a facsimile of this manuscript which is preserved in the National Library of Tunis, and translations into English and Swedish of the poem. ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī’s authorship of the poem Mūš u gurbah is discussed and refuted in favour of a more likely theory, namely that Mūš u gurbah w...

  16. Chronic methylmercurialism in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, T A; Costigan, P; Wilkinson, G T; Seawright, A A

    1978-04-01

    The mercury levels in 69 muscle samples from fish weighing from 0.3 to 200 kg caught in Moreton Bay, Queensland, in the latter half of 1976 ranged from less than 10 to 2,030 ng/g. Mercury levels in blood samples from 53 humans and 100 dogs in Brisbane almost all contained less than 10 ng/ml while the level in 162 cats sampled ranged from less than 10 to 329 ng/ml. Chronic methylmercurialism developed in 2 cats dosed daily with methylmercury, bound to cysteine, at the rate of 0.6 mg/kg body weight for 74 and 77 days respectively. Terminal clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, knuckling over at the carpus and tarsus, hypermetria initially involving the forelegs and later the hindlegs, sluggish reflexes, paresis involving all limbs, persistent crying, apparent blindness, tonic and clonic convulsions and salivation. Pathological changes were confined to the nervous system and included degeneration of neurones and perivascular cuffing in the cerebrocortical grey matter, focal atrophy of the granular layer, focal spongiosus of the molecular layer and degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum and demyelination in the fibre tracts of the dorsal funiculus, mainly the fasciculus cuneatus and in the lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts. Terminal blood methylmercury levels were in excess of 18 microgram/ml, while brain methylmercury levels ranged from 21.0 to 28.4 microgram/g. The liver and kidney contained the highest total levels of mercury of 50 to 80 microgram/g, of which 23 to 37% was inorganic. PMID:687273

  17. Albendazole therapy for experimentally induced Paragonimus kellicotti infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Hoover, E A; Stromberg, P C; Toussant, M J

    1978-06-01

    The effect of albendazole therapy was studied in 6 cats with pulmonary paragonimiasis induced by experimental inoculation of metacercariae (25/cat) of Paragonimus kellicotti. At 76 to 101 days after they were inoculated, 5 cats were administered an oral aqueous suspension of albendazole in 2 divided doses totaling 20 mg (2 cats), 50 mg (1 cat), or 100 mg (2 cats)/kg of body weight each day for 14 to 21 days. The 6th cat (control) was not administered albendazole. Nine days after cats were given the 50- and 100-mg/kg dosages, Paragonimus ova were not seen in the feces of 3 cats. There was marked reduction in ova production in the feces of the 2 cats administered 20 mg/kg of albendazole. Live flukes were not recovered from the lungs of 3 cats necropsied 4 or 5 weeks after dosing with 50 or 100 mg/kg, but the lungs of the 2 cats administered 20 mg of albendazole/kg yielded 9 and 7 apparently viable flukes. Seventeen live flukes were recovered from the control cat not treated with albendazole. In 4 noninoculated normal cats administered 20 mg (1 cat), 100 mg (1 cat), and 200 mg (2 cats) of albendazole/kg of body weight each day for 14 days, there were no gross or microscopic lesions attributable to the drug. PMID:666077

  18. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  19. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  20. Characteristics of Cyclin B and its potential role in regulating oogenesis in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Lv, W W; Zuo, D; Dong, Z J; Zhao, Y L

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin B is a regulatory subunit of maturation-promoting factor (MPF), which has a key role in the induction of meiotic maturation of oocytes. MPF has been studied in a wide variety of animal species; however, its expression in crustaceans is poorly characterized. In this study, the complete cDNA sequence of Cyclin B was cloned from the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, and its spatiotemporal expression profiles were analyzed. Cyclin B cDNA (1779 bp) encoded a 401 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 45.1 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Cyclin B mRNA was expressed mainly in the ovarian tissue and that the expression decreased as the ovaries developed. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the Cyclin B protein relocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during oogenesis. These findings suggest that Cyclin B plays an important role in gametogenesis and gonad development in C. quadricarinatus. PMID:26400307

  1. Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity in crab claw muscle: effects of inhibitors and specificity for myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. The role of Ca2+-dependent proteinases in the turn-over of myofibrillar protein in normal anecdysial (intermolt) claw muscle is described. Crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase degrades the myofibrillar proteins actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, and troponin-T and -I. Ca2+-dependent proteinase activity in whole homogenates and 90,000 x g supernatant fractions from muscle homogenates has been characterized with respect to Ca2+ requirement, substrate specificity, and effects of proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme is inhibited by antipain, leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide; it is insensitive to pepstatin A. The specificity of crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase was examined with native myosin with normal ATPase activity as well as with radioiodinated myosin and radioiodinated hemolymph proteins. Hydrolysis of 125I-myosin occurs in two phases, both Ca2+-dependent: (1) heavy chain (M/sub r/ = 200,000) is cleaved into four large fragments (M/sub r/ = 160,000, 110,000, 73,000, 60,000) and numerous smaller fragments; light chain (M/sub r/ = 18,000) is cleaved to a 15,000-Da fragment; (2) the fragments produced in the first phase are hydrolyzed to acid-soluble material. Although radioiodinated native hemolymph proteins are not susceptible to the Ca2+-dependent proteinase, those denatured by carboxymethylation are degraded. These data suggest that crab Ca2+-dependent proteinase is involved in turnover of myofibrillar protein in normal muscle and muscle undergoing proecdysial atrophy

  2. Monitoring of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes population during a crayfish plague outbreak followed by rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collas M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mass mortality was detected in the downstream section of one of the most extensive French populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, on June 26, 2013. This population occupied a 12 km stretch of the La Lucelle brook, with an estimated size of around 150 000 individuals. The presence of the crayfish plague pathogen was quickly diagnosed as the cause of the mortality, and monitoring was carried out to follow the spread of the disease from 15 July 2013 for one year. Results showed that after a fast spread between 15 and 25 July 2013 (upstream progression of mortality for about 4 km, the mortality front was limited to a stretch of a few hundred meters from August until December 2013. During winter, mortality was always observed, confirming that disease remained active. In April 2014, the mortality front was halted by a large dam in the brook (2 m high, 0.56 km from brook source. Two months later, 30 live crayfish were observed above the dam. On the 30 August 2014, no crayfish were found above the dam. Infected individuals analysed for microsatellite markers confirmed the Pacifastacus leniusculus strain of Aphanomyces astaci at the origin of this outbreak. Before the crayfish plague spread upstream of the large dam, a sample of 576 individuals was collected from upstream of the dam and translocated to another stream in the same French department. In July 2014, observations by night confirmed the presence of translocated white-clawed crayfish in the receiving brook.

  3. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  4. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor sa

  5. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the...

  6. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. PMID:24698667

  7. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A; Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California - Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies' mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  8. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  9. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  10. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  11. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  12. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various...... scientific and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of...

  13. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, Maria; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Nielsen, Dorte Hald;

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...... severely affected cat, postmortem examination revealed changes consistent with nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism and fibrous osteodystrophy, such as cortical thinning, massive connective tissue invasion in the diaphysis of long bones, and hypertrophy of the chief cells in both parathyroid glands....... After introducing a balanced commercial diet to the surviving cat, bone mineralisation improved from the baseline value, and at subsequent examinations at three, six and 22 weeks later, as indicated by bone mineral density measurements obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compute tomography....

  14. Cats and the law: research report

    OpenAIRE

    Nurse, Angus; Ryland, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This research examines the legal status of cats, within the UK’s legal system (primarily in England and Wales) but also in an international context. It considers a range of different areas of law and conflicting perspectives within the UK’s animal welfare, contract, criminal and environmental law and also addresses issues of ownership and liability. In particular, the research examines how both domestic and wild cats are subject to different protection under the law and the manner in wh...

  15. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; Williams, June H.; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  16. Dermoscopic evaluation of skin in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zanna, G.; Auriemma, E; Arrighi, S.; Attanasi, A.; Zini, E.; Scarampella, F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy is a diagnostic tool that can reveal morphological structures not visible upon clinical examination. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To assess the usefulness and applicability of dermoscopy for the examination of healthy cat skin. ANIMALS: Twenty-one domestic short-haired cats from a feline rescue association. METHODS: Four regions (head, dorsal neck, sacral and abdominal regions) were examined with both a contact hand-held nonpolarized light dermoscope at 10-fold magni...

  17. Sonographic pleural fluid volume estimation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimali, Jerry; Cripps, Peter J; Newitt, Anna L M

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether a recently published study used to objectively monitor pleural fluid volumes in dogs could be successfully employed in cats and secondly to assess its accuracy. Eleven feline cadavers were selected. Using the trans-sternal view employed in dogs, linear measurements from the pleural surface of the midline of the sternebra at the centre of the heart to the furthest ventro-lateral point of both right and left lung edges were recorded. Isotonic saline was injected using ultrasound guidance into both right and left pleural spaces and the measurements were repeated using standard increments until 400 ml total volume was reached. The mean measurement increased in a linear relationship with the cube root of fluid volume for all cats individually. An equation was produced to predict the volume of fluid from the mean linear measurement for all cats combined: Volume=[-3.75+2.41(mean)](3)(P<0.001) but variability in the slope of the curve for individual cats limited the accuracy of the combined equation. Equations were derived to predict the constant and slope of the curve for individual cats using the thoracic measurements made, but the residual diagnostic graphs demonstrated considerable variability. As in dogs, good correlation was found between the ultrasonographic measurement and fluid volume within individual cats. An accurate equation to predict absolute pleural fluid volume was not identified. Further analysis with reference to thoracic measurements did not increase accuracy. In conclusion, this study does provide a method of estimating absolute pleural fluid volume in cats, which may be clinical useful for pleural fluid volume monitoring but this is yet to be validated in live cats. PMID:19744872

  18. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Andrade; M. SAKATE; C.B. Laposy; S.F. Valente; V.M. Bettanim; L.T. Rodrigues; J. Marcicano

    2007-01-01

    This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz....

  19. Cat scratch disease: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is an infectious lymphadenitis frequently occurring in children and adolescents. We present the magnetic resonance imaging findings of two patients with this disease. In both cases, lymphadenopathy was characterized by extensive stranding of the surrounding soft tissues, consistent with the inflammatory nature of this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging can be diagnostic and may obviate the need for invasive means of evaluation in patients suspected of having cat scratch disease. (orig.)

  20. Impact of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis on blue mussel Mytilus edulis trossulus – laboratory studies of claw strength, handling behavior, consumption rate, and size selective predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wójcik

    2015-07-01

    E. sinensis can also harm blue mussel shells by crushing them without further consumption. The mean daily damage, and not consumption, by a single crab was 0.9 ± 1.4 of 11–40 mm mussels. The claw strength of E. sinensis ranged from 1.50 to 20.43 N (mean 8.51 ± 5.93 N and was significantly correlated (P < 0.05 with sex and both claw size and carapace size. The study showed that E. sinensis may be able to impact the native M. edulis trossulus population abundance in the coastal Baltic waters either through direct predation or indirect mortality by damaging (crushing the shell.

  1. Water chemistry and endangered white-clawed Crayfish: a literature review and field study of water chemistry association in Austropotamobius pallipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the endangered white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes have rapidly declined in distribution and density in recent decades as a result of invasive crayfish, disease and habitat degradation. The species is thought to be particularly sensitive to water chemistry, and has been proposed as a bio-indicator of water quality. Here we detail the results of a systematic review of the literature regarding the chemistry of waterbodies inhabited by white-clawed crayfish, along with a wide-scale field study of the chemistry of crayfish-inhabited waterbodies in the UK. We use these data to examine potentially significant variables influencing crayfish distribution. Several variables appear to have thresholds that affect crayfish distribution; crayfish presence was associated with high dissolved oxygen, low conductivity, ammonium, sodium, and phosphate, and to a lesser extent low sulphate, nitrate, and total suspended solids. Some variables (magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulphate, nitrate, and total suspended solids may be tolerated at moderate to high concentrations in isolation (indicated by the presence of some populations in high levels of these variables, but suites of chemical conditions may act synergistically in situ and must be considered together. Recent efforts to conserve white-clawed crayfish have included relocations to Ark Sites; novel protected habitats with reduced risk of the introduction of disease, invasive crayfish and habitat degradation. We use our findings to propose the first detailed guidelines for common water chemistry variables of potential Ark Sites for the conservation of the species throughout its European range.

  2. [The "necktie lasso": a new technique for the simultaneous treatment of Wartenberg's sign and claw deformities in the hand due to ulnar nerve palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmahi, A M; Gharib, N E; El Mazouz, S

    2004-08-01

    The "necktie lasso" is a new technique that allows the simultaneous active treatment, of both Wartenberg's sign and claw deformity of the fifth and the fourth digits in the hand with ulnar nerve palsy. The flexor sublimis of the fourth digit is taken by a palmar approach. It is then divided into two strips up to the proximal part of the palm; The radial strip is used as a classical "direct lasso" to treat the claw deformity of the fourth digit; The ulnar strip is wound around the base of the fifth digit by a palmar and dorsal approaches at the level of the proximal phalanx, like a necktie, being medial to its radial pedicle, dorsal and superficial to its extensor apparatus, then lateral to its ulnar pedicle; It is then recovered in the palm and sutured to itself. From September 1998 to April 2003, this technique has been used in eight patients aged between 21 and 35 years old and suffering from post traumatic low ulnar nerve palsy. It was always very effective in dealing with Wartenberg's sign: the active adduction of the fifth digit appearing at the start of flexion. The claw deformity of the fourth and fifth digits was equally actively corrected. No complications are reported in this series. With a mean follow-up of 3 years there was no recurrence of any of the deformities. PMID:15484679

  3. EFFECTS OF SOYBEAN MEAL BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND HEMOLYMPH BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NARROW-CLAWED CRAYFISH (ASTACUS LEPTODACYLUS ESCHSCHOLTZ, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like other crustaceans, narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodacylus Eschscholtz, 1823 can change its diet to the available food during varied life cycles. Diet alteration can affect different biological indices of this species, therefore this study aims at studying changes in growth indices, hemolymph biochemical parameters and biochemical quality of its carcasses, which might occur during diet change of crayfish. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of fish meal with soybean meal on growth performance, carcass quality and hemolymph biochemical parameters of narrow-clawed crayfish. 90 healthy adult narrow-clawed crayfish (W=35.50±4.05 g; TL=16.96±1.92 cm were randomly distributed into 9 fiberglass tanks (200 L and were fed for 45 days with three varied diets including: commercial shrimp diet, fishmeal-based diet (A and soybean meal-based diet (B. The results show that changing the diet from animal protein to plant protein caused a significant decrease in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels in hemolymph, as well as carcass fat of the crayfish nourished with B diet when compared with the crayfish fed with A diet. No significant changes of hemolymph levels of glucose, AST and ALT were found between different treatments during this experimental period. In conclusion, it was found that though growth performance reduced, the increased rate of soybean meal in diet from 0.0% to 76% had no adverse effects on biochemical parameters.

  4. Videotutoriales Biblioteca: El Cat??logo ULE WordCat Local

    OpenAIRE

    S??inz-Ezquerra Foces, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    La Biblioteca de la ULE ofrece algunas utilidades que ayudar??n al usuario en sus visitas al OPAC, a aumentar sus funcionalidades. Estas utilidades se las ofrece la Biblioteca a sus usuarios en formato video. Utilidad: El Cat??logo ULE WordCat Local

  5. Computed tomographic appearance of inflammatory polyps in three cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the inner ear, tympanic bullae, nasopharyngeal area, and external ear canals of three cats. All cats presented for evaluation of upper respiratory signs or chronic ear infection. Nasopharyngeal masses were present in two cats, and a mass in the external ear canal was present in the third cat. In all three cats, CT was able to define the extent of osseous bulla involvement, which was confirmed at surgery. Computed tomography also defined the extent of the polyp in the nasopharyngeal area in two cats, and in the external ear canal in one cat. Surgical removal of the polyps was accomplished with a combined oral approach and ventral bulla osteotomy in cats 1 and 2. The polyp was removed from cat 3 using a combination of ventral bulla osteotomy and excision of the mass through the external ear canal. Microscopic examination confirmed all masses as nasopharyngeal (inflammatory) polyps

  6. Serological survey of paracoccidioidomycosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gabriela Gonçalves de; Belitardo, Donizeti Rodrigues; Balarin, Mara Regina Stipp; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Ono, Mario Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate infection of cats by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Serum samples of 136 cats from rural (n = 86) and urban areas (n = 50) were analyzed by indirect ELISA and immunodiffusion test using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively, and an overall reactivity of 31.6 % was observed by ELISA although no reactivity was detected by immunodiffusion. The positivity observed in animals living in rural areas (48.8 %) with free access to soil was significantly higher (P urban animals (2 %) with limited access to soil, although no significant difference was observed in relation to age or sex. The high rates of positivity observed in cats from rural areas suggest that not diagnosed cases of this mycosis may be occurring in cats living in endemic areas for human paracoccidioidomycosis. This is the first report showing serological evidence of P. brasiliensis infection in cats. PMID:23912468

  7. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2013-01-01

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets worldwide, but little is known about their domestication. This study of cats living 5,300 y ago at the agricultural village of Quanhucun, China provides the earliest known evidence for mutualistic relationships between people and cats. Isotopic data demonstrate that humans, rodents, and the cats ate substantial amounts of millet-based foods, with cats preying on grain-eating animals. One cat was old and one ate less meat and more millet than othe...

  8. Are cats (Felis catus) from multi-cat households more stressed? Evidence from assessment of fecal glucocorticoid metabolite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, D; Reche-Junior, A; Fragoso, P L; Palme, R; Yanasse, N K; Gouvêa, V R; Beck, A; Mills, D S

    2013-10-01

    Given the social and territorial features described in feral cats, it is commonly assumed that life in multi-cat households is stressful for domestic cats and suggested that cats kept as single pets are likely to have better welfare. On the other hand, it has been hypothesized that under high densities cats can organize themselves socially thus preventing stress when spatial dispersion is unavailable. This study was aimed at comparing the general arousal underpinning emotional distress in single housed cats and in cats from multi-cat households (2 and 3-4 cats) on the basis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) measured via enzyme immunoassay (EIA). GCM did not significantly vary as a function of living style (single, double or group-housing); highly stressed individuals were equally likely in the three groups. Young cats in multi-cat households had lower GCM, and overall cats that tolerate (as opposed to dislike) petting by the owners tended to have higher GCM levels. Other environmental aspects within cat houses (e.g. relationship with humans, resource availability) may play a more important role in day to day feline arousal levels than the number of cats per se. PMID:24021924

  9. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  10. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. PMID:26603046

  11. [Passive immunization in dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michèle; Friedl, Yvonne; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-08-17

    Antibodies play an important role in the defense against infectious diseases. Passive immunization provides immediate protection through transfer of exogenous antibodies to a recipient. It is mainly used for prophylaxis in dogs and cats that failed to receive maternal antibodies through the colostrum or when there is an acute risk to acquire infectious diseases. Only a small number of placebo-controlled studies have been published regarding the therapeutic use of passive immunization in small animals. While positive effects were reported in cats with acute virus infections of the upper respiratory tract and in dogs with distemper, no statistically significant influence could be demonstrated in the treatment of canine parvovirosis. Prospective, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled studies using adequate numbers of patients are warranted for a definitive statement regarding the therapeutic and prophylactic use of passive immunization in dogs and cats. PMID:27410719

  12. Characterization of heat shock protein 70 in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus): evidence for its role in regulating spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di-An; Wang, Qun; He, Lin; Wang, Juan; Wang, Yang

    2012-01-15

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a member of molecular chaperones and is important for reproductive biological processes in eukaryotes. In this regard, a full length HSP70 comprised of 2366 nucleotides from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (CqHSP70) was characterized, which with an open-reading frame of 1959 bp encoded 652 amino acid residues. Its mRNA transcript expression in the testes was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. CqHSP70 mRNA transcripts were detected in all organs especially high in the testes. Furthermore, the greatest transcript levels were found during the spermatogonial preparation phase, while the lowest levels were found during the resting stage of the reproductive cycle. In addition, its distribution in the testes was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Western blot results revealed a single immunoreactive band with an estimated molecular mass of 70 kDa in different phases of testes development. The strongest immunolabeling positive signal was found in spermatogonia, with lower positive staining in secondary spermatocytes, and weak or absent level in the mature sperm. Interestingly, CqHSP70 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of sperm cells. Thus, our results indicate that CqHSP70 is an essential protein in spermatogenesis, with a crucial reproductive function during sperm maturation in invertebrates. PMID:22037606

  13. Characterization of Cdc2 kinase in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus): evidence for its role in regulating oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan-Mei; Zuo, Di; Lv, Wei-Wei; Wang, Dan-Li; Liu, A-Jing; Zhao, Yunlong

    2013-02-25

    Cdc2 kinase is a catalytic subunit of the maturation-promoting factor (MPF), a central factor for inducing the meiotic maturation of oocytes. MPF has been studied in a wide variety of animal species; however, its expression in crustaceans is poorly characterized. In this study, a complete cDNA sequence of Cdc2 kinase was cloned from the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, and its spatiotemporal expression profiles were analyzed. The Cdc2 cDNA (1,769 bp) encodes for a 299 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 34.7 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Cdc2 mRNA was expressed mainly in the ovary tissue and the expression decreased as the ovaries developed. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that the Cdc2 protein relocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus during oogenesis. These findings suggest that Cdc2 kinase may play an important role in the gametogenesis and gonad development in C. quadricarinatus. PMID:23266620

  14. The hymenochirins: a family of host-defense peptides from the Congo dwarf clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechkarska, Milena; Prajeep, Manju; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; King, Jay D; Conlon, J Michael

    2012-06-01

    Skin secretions of frogs from the subfamily Xenopodinae (Xenopus+Silurana) within the family Pipidae are a rich source of antimicrobial peptides with therapeutic potential but species from the sister taxon Hymenochirus in the subfamily Pipinae (Hymenochirus+Pseudhymenochirus+Pipa) have not been investigated. Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from two distinct populations of the Congo dwarf clawed frog Hymenochirus boettgeri (Tornier, 1896) has led to identification of five structurally related peptides with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Hymenochirin-1B (IKLSPETKDNLKKVLKGAIKGAIAVAKMV.NH(2)) is C-terminally α-amidated whereas hymenochirins-2B-5B have the general structure XKIPX(2)VKDTLKKVAKGX(2)SX(2)AGAX(3).COOH. Hymenochirin-3B (IKIPAVVKDTLKKVAKGVLSAVAGALTQ) was the most abundant peptide in the secretions. The hymenochirins show very low structural similarity with the antimicrobial peptides isolated from skin secretions of Silurana tropicalis and Xenopus laevis consistent with the proposed ancient divergence of the Pipinae and Xenopodinae. Synthetic replicates of hymenochirin-1B-4B inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC in the range 10-40 μM) and Candida albicans (MIC=80 μM). The peptides display relatively weak hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes (LC(50) in the range 160 to >300 μM). PMID:22497805

  15. What Is The Proximate Cause Of Begging Behaviour In A Group Of Captive Asian Short-Clawed Otters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gothard Nicola

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to ascertain the proximate cause of ‘begging’ behaviour in a group of captive Asian short-clawed otters (Aonyx cinereus. Two alternative hypotheses were tested by manipulating aspects of husbandry in three experimental conditions. Condition 1 served as a baseline for comparison. In Condition 2 meal worms and crickets were provided every hour to stimulate natural foraging and hunting behaviour and alleviate boredom. During Condition 3 the food allowance was increased by 7.5% of the otters’ body weight and they were fed every hour to more accurately represent their natural foraging ecology. The results show that both Condition 2 and Condition 3 reduced ‘begging’ behaviour, however the reduction was significantly greater in Condition 3. Thus indicating that the main cause of ‘begging’ behaviour was hunger, however lack of stimulation is also likely to be a contributing factor. Inconsistency in feeding times might have contributed to the ‘begging’ problem as well, although a further long-term study is needed to determine the extent to which this is a factor. Some recommendations for changing aspects of husbandry and diet are provided

  16. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  17. Efficacy of indoxacarb applied to cats against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, flea eggs and adult flea emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A; Smith, Vicki; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2013-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of indoxacarb applied to cats on adult cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, flea egg production and adult flea emergence. Methods Sixteen cats were selected for the study and allocated to two treatment groups. Eight cats were treated with a 19.5% w/v topical spot-on solution of indoxacarb on day 0 and eight cats served as untreated controls. Each cat was infested with 50 fleas on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. On Days 1, 2, and 3, and a...

  18. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  19. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  20. Halal Cat Food for the World Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H.M.S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, University Technology Malaysia (UTM is engaged with a well-known private company in Malaysia to develop halal cat food for the world. A team of scientists from UTM was formed for the development of cat food from preparing palatants to producing canned cat and kibbled cat food formulation on a commercial scale to fulfil the vast market demand, as well as to act as contract manufacturer for this private company. Financial aid is made available by the university and Malaysian government. The promising market potential of cat food is estimated to be over USD27 billion with over 7 million tonnes produced in 2013 (35% of the pet food market. It is expected to grow at 5.5% in value and 2% in volume; and this had driven the project to be initiated by UTM. The idea of halal, itself is a selling point to the Muslim consumers and the world at large.  The world’s Muslim population is estimated to be around 1.6 billion, while the world population is estimated to be at 4.6 billion. The demand for halal products is ever growing with emerging markets in India & China.  In addition, the purchasing power of the Muslims is growing, where between 1990 and 2010, the Growth Domestic Product (GDP per capita for Muslims globally had risen from a Cumulative Annual Growth Rate (CAGR of 6.8% in comparison to global GDP per capita which is only at CAGR of 5.0%. Cat food will come in human contact during feeding, handling, cleaning of feeding utensils under the same washing basin and dishwasher. Many times cat food will engage with human food storage facilities such as in the refrigerator and May to some extent affect the human food chain if it is not halal. Most of the available cat feed produce worldwide is non halal and majority are known to contain residues of porcine, dog materials and blood meal, deem unhealthy and unclean by the Muslims community.

  1. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Massimino Stefan; Hayek Michael G; Mathison Bridget D; Kim Hong; Park Jean; Reinhart Gregory A; Chew Boon P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW) were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment). Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body wei...

  2. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. PMID:24268331

  3. Clinical management of pregnancy in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root Kustritz, Margaret V

    2006-07-01

    Average gestation length in domestic cats is 65.6 days, with a range of 52-74 days. Average reported litter size is 4.0 kittens per litter; litter size is not correlated with number of matings in a given estrus. Superfecundation is common in domestic cats; superfetation never has been definitively proven to occur. Eclampsia may occur during pregnancy in queens, with non-specific clinical signs. Ectopic pregnancy and uterine torsion have been reported. Pregnancy loss may be due to infectious causes, including bacteria, viruses or protozoa, or non-infectious causes, such as hypoluteoidism and chromosome errors. PMID:16620942

  4. Tits boundary of CAT(0) 2-complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the Tits boundary of locally compact CAT(0) 2-complexes. In particular we show that away from the endpoints, a geodesic segment in the Tits boundary is the ideal boundary of an isometrically embedded Euclidean sector. As applications, we provide sufficient conditions for two points in the Tits boundary to be the endpoints of a geodesic in the 2-complex and for a group generated by two hyperbolic isometries to contain a free group. We also show that if two CAT(0) 2-complexes are...

  5. Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M

    2006-10-01

    This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings. PMID:16651017

  6. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  7. Computed Tomographic Findings in Cats with Mycobacterial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Major, Alison; Holmes, Andrea; Warren-Smith, Christopher; Lalor, Stephanie; Littler, Rebecca; Schwarz, Tobias; Gunn-Moore, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe the CT imaging findings associated with confirmed mycobacterial infection in cats.Methods: CT images from 20 cats with confirmed mycobacterial disease were retrospectively reviewed. Five cats underwent conscious full-body CT in a VetMouseTrapTM device. All other cats had thoracic CT performed under general anaesthesia, with the addition of CT investigation of the head/neck, abdomen and limbs in some cases.Results: Mycobacterial infection...

  8. Remission of diabetes mellitus in cats with diabetic ketoacidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Kley, S; Tschuor, F; Zini, E.; Ohlerth, S; Boretti, F.S.; Reusch, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been considered a key clinical feature of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans although. An increasing number of cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in people with type-2 DM. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Cats initially diagnosed with DKA can achieve remission from diabetes. Cats with DKA and diabetic remission are more likely to have been administered glucocorticoids before diagnosis. ANIMALS: Twelve cats with DKA and 7 cats with uncomplicate...

  9. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, whi...

  10. Prevention of hypothermia in cats during routine oral hygiene procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, F A; Anthony, J M

    1997-01-01

    While thermally supported cats experienced a drop in body temperature during dental procedures, the drop was significantly greater in cats without thermal support. As cats are at risk of developing clinical hypothermia during dental procedures, steps should be taken to minimize the loss of body heat.

  11. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E

    2005-03-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646

  12. Bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy in 2 cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H.; Soiderer, Emily E.

    2005-01-01

    Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.

  13. Erythromycin induces expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cat-86.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1990-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. This gene, like the erythromycin-inducible erm genes, is regulated by translational attenuation. Here we show that cat-86 is also inducibly regulated by erythromycin. cat-86 does not confer resistance to erythromycin.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  15. Cats and the law: aspects of the co-authored research undertaken for International CatCare

    OpenAIRE

    Ryland, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This research was initially commissioned by the Feline Advisory Bureau, now International CatCare, and has resulted in both a Research Report and Plain English Guide on Cats and the Law, co-author Dr Angus Nurse, Middlesex University.

  16. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  17. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  18. Song Prompts: I Had a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses song prompts as a way to encourage children to sing during exploratory play. A song prompt for "I Had a Cat" is included for educators to try in their own classrooms or preschools. Educators are invited to share ideas they have used that encourage children to sing during free play.

  19. Mammary carcinosarcoma in cat: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    J.D.G. Paniago; A.L.S. Vieira; N.M. Ocarino; S.A. França; C. Malm; Cassali, G.D.; R. Serakides

    2010-01-01

    A case of mammary carcinosarcoma is reported in a 13-year-old, mixed breed female cat, which was not spayed and had not received contraceptives. The patient presented extensive and coalescent nodules in all mammary glands. Based on the histological and immunohistochemical findings, the diagnosis of mammary carcinosarcoma was confirmed.

  20. Halpern's Iteration in CAT(0 Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satit Saejung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by Halpern's result, we prove strong convergence theorem of an iterative sequence in CAT(0 spaces. We apply our result to find a common fixed point of a family of nonexpansive mappings. A convergence theorem for nonself mappings is also discussed.

  1. Diet and breeding performance in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olovson, S G

    1986-07-01

    A conventional cat breeding colony with 70 queens (female cats) was studied during a 4 year period 1979-1982. During that time the fat content in the diet was increased from 15% to 27% of dry matter. An increase in the number of kittens per litter (from 4.5 to 5.5) and in the annual number of litters per queen (from 1.4 to 2.3) was found. In addition, the mortality decreased from over 20% to 9%. Bodyweight gain under the new diet was such that the males reached 2500 g in 4 months while the females showed this same weight at 5 months of age. Litter size and sex distribution as a function of queen age, litter interval and time of year are presented. It is concluded that husbandry and diet are factors which are of great importance in a cat breeding unit. It is shown that under our conditions it is possible to breed conventional cats with good results. PMID:3795859

  2. Mammary Hypertrophy in an Ovariohysterectomized Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Pukay, B.P.; Stevenson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    A four year old ovariohysterectomized domestic short-haired cat under treatment for behavioral urine spraying and idiopathic alopecia developed mammary gland hypertrophy following treatment with megestrol acetate. Withdrawal of the progestin and treatment with androgen failed to cause regression of the hypertrophy. The affected mammary gland was surgically excised and recovery was uneventful.

  3. Vaccine-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Melanie

    2003-01-01

    An 8-year-old, spayed, female domestic shorthair was diagnosed with a vaccine- associated fibrosarcoma and treated with full course radiation therapy, aggressive surgery, and postoperative chemotherapy. Histopathologic examination confirmed that excision of the tumor was complete. The cat was doing well 278 days after initial presentation.

  4. Release of opioid peptides in anaesthetized cats?

    OpenAIRE

    Dashwood, M. R.; Feldberg, W.

    1980-01-01

    1 The effect on arterial blood pressure of intravenous injections of naloxone (200 μg) was examined in cats anaesthetized with chloralose. Usually these injections have no effect on blood pressure unless morphine or opioid peptides have been injected, when they produce a pressor response with tachycardia.

  5. Proximal minimization in CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Espínola, Rafa; Nicolae, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we provide convergence results for the proximal point algorithm and a splitting variant thereof in the setting of CAT$(\\kappa)$ spaces with $\\kappa > 0$ using a recent definition for the resolvent of a convex, lower semi-continuous function due to Kimura and Kohsaka (J. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 18 (2016), 93-115).

  6. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, P G

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. PMID:25586803

  7. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  8. Head movement during walking in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Humza N; Beloozerova, Irina N; Sun, Hai; Marlinski, Vladimir

    2016-09-22

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20-90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40-90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ∼1.5cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ∼3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ∼1cm and 1.5-3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10-30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5-1m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ∼0.05 and ∼0.1m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ∼0.05m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20-50°/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3-0.5cm taller and held their head 0.5-2cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25-100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ∼20°/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  9. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  10. Characterisation of a novel Type I crustin involved in antibacterial and antifungal responses in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ai-Qing; Shi, Yong-Hai; Wang, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are important immune effectors involved in mediating innate immune responses against intruding pathogens. Here, we successfully isolated and characterized a novel Type I crustin from the red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. The full-length cDNA encoded by this gene, designated CqCrs, comprised 608 bp, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, a 3'-UTR of 229 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 324 bp encoding a polypeptide of 107 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of CqCrs exhibited a configuration typical of other crustacean Type I crustin orthologs, including one signal peptide region at the N-terminus between residues 1 and 16 and a long whey acidic protein (WAP) domain at the C-terminus between residues 60 and 107, along with a WAP-type "four-disulfide core" motif. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CqCrs was clustered first with other crustacean Type I crustins, then with other crustacean Type II crustins, and finally with other crustacean Type III crustins. Transcription of CqCrs was detected in all tissues, especially in immune tissues and was differentially induced in hemocytes post-stimulation with β-1, 3-glucan, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and peptidoglycans (PG) at selected time-points. To clarify the biological activity of CqCrs, the recombinant CqCrs protein (rCqCrs) was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Purified rCqCrs bound to diverse bacteria and inhibited the growth of different microbes to varying degrees. These findings suggest that CqCrs is involved in a specific innate immune recognition and defense mechanisms against bacterial and fungal in C. quadricarinatus. PMID:26584757

  11. 可分离式髌骨爪治疗髌骨下极骨折%Treatment of splintered anus perineum patella fractures with the separability patella claw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许安平

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨可分离式髌骨爪治疗髌骨下极粉碎性骨折的临床应用和效果.方法 采用可分离式髌骨爪固定治疗髌骨粉碎性骨折45例,前正中切口、复位用可分离式髌骨爪固定及膝关节加压包扎3 d后行膝关节被动屈伸锻练.结果 随访10~37月平均20月,骨折愈合时间8~12周临床疗效优40例,良4例,中1例,功能恢复优良率97.8%疗效满意.结论 可分离式髌骨爪是治疗髌骨下极粉碎性骨折一种良好的固定方法.%Aim To observe the clinical curative effec:t of separability patella claw in treatment of splintered anus perineum patella fractures. Methods 45 cases of splintered anus perineuru patella fracture patients werer treated with median incision , reset, separability patella claw ,pressure dressing and passive flexion and extension ac:tivity after 3 days. Results 45 cases were followed up, of which 40 patients were excellent, better in 4 cases,medium in lcase , with the total effective rate of 97% . Conclusion It is a good way in treatment of splintered anus perineum patella fractures with separability patella claw.

  12. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  13. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  14. Molecular basis for the CAT-2 null phenotype in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous reports have described several maize lines whose developmental patterns of catalase gene expression vary from the typical maize line, W64A. Among these variants are the lines A16 and A338, both found to be null for the CAT-2 protein. Identification of a third CAT-2 null line, designated A340, is described. RNA blots and S1 nuclease protection analysis, using [32P]-labeled dCTP, indicate that all three CAT-2 null lines produce a similarly shortened Cat2 transcript. The molecular basis for this aberrant Cat2 transcript is discussed

  15. 烧伤后爪形手畸形的整复%Repair of claw hand deformity after burn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丕红; 黄晓元; 范鹏举; 任利成; 龙剑虹

    2008-01-01

    Objective To summarize methods for repair of claw hand deformity after burn. Methods Ninety-seven patients with 136 claw hands after burn hospitalized from May 1992 to May 2007 were repaired with skin grafting( 104 hands) and transposition of skin flap (32 hands) ,among which 21 hands were minor- grade,92 hands moderate,23 hands severe. The metacarpophalangeal joint was repaired after scar release in dorsum of hand with manual extraction reduction, release of collateral ligament and joint capsula, separation of adhesion in joint, tendon lengthening for obvious contracture. Restitution of finger flexion deformity, lysis of adhesion and grafting among first web and finger webs, repair of central slip extensor tendon or phalangeal arthrodesis were performed according to the abnormal condition after lysis of dorsal scar of hand. The meta- carpophalangeal joint from 31 patients were not repaired with above methods for severe finger flexion deformi- ty ,their palmar scar were loosened and transplanted firstly, then scar in dorsum of hand were loosened, metacarpophalangeal joint were repaired, flap or skin were transferred or transplanted. General rehabilitation were performed routinely after operation. Results The ending of flaps(4 hands) due to the scar were nec- rosis after transposition and healed through dressing change, other skins or flaps all survived. Most articular deformities were corrected completely or basically. Functions including palmar opposition , grasp were also recovered with satisfactory results. Conclusion Skin transplantation and transfering of skin flap with over- all planning and individual isation are the key points for repair of claw hand after burn.%目的 探讨烧伤后爪形手畸形的整复方法. 方法 1992年5月-2007年5月,笔者对97例(136只患手)烧伤后爪形手畸形患者进行手术整复,患手中,轻度畸形21只、中度92只、重度23只;手背创面植皮修复104只患手,皮瓣转移修复32只患手.掌

  16. Cloning of Interleukin-10 from African Clawed Frog (Xenopus tropicalis), with the Finding of IL-19/20 Homologue in the IL-10 Locus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhitao Qi; Qihuan Zhang; Zisheng Wang; Weihong Zhao; Qian Gao

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in immune system. In the present study, the IL-10 gene of African clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis) was first cloned, and its expression pattern and 3D structure were also analyzed. The frog IL-10 mRNA encoded 172 amino acids which possessed several conserved features found in IL-10s from other species, including five-exon/four-intron genomic structure, conserved four cysteine residues, IL-10 family motif, and six α-...

  17. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  18. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  19. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  20. Ocular manifestation of lymphoma in newly diagnosed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerschbach, V; Eule, J C; Eberle, N; Höinghaus, R; Betz, D

    2016-03-01

    Ocular manifestations of lymphoma are described in humans and dogs but rarely in cats. In this prospective study, cats with newly diagnosed and treatment-naïve lymphoma were evaluated concerning clinical stage and ophthalmologic findings. Twenty-six cats were included. In 12 cats (48%), ocular changes were documented. Uveitis anterior and posterior were predominant findings, being present in 58% of affected individuals. Other findings included exophthalmos, corneal surface lesions and chemosis. Eight cats received chemotherapy, two of which had ocular involvement. In these two cats, a complete remission of an anterior and a partial remission of a posterior uveitis were documented. Due to the detection of ocular involvement, a stage migration from stage IV to V occurred in four patients. In the light of these findings, an opthalmological examination may be considered as an important part of staging in feline lymphoma as well as of follow-up examination in affected cats. PMID:24102737

  1. Cats as a Risk for Transmission of Antimicrobial Drug-resistant Salmonella

    OpenAIRE

    Van Immerseel, Filip; Pasmans, Frank; De Buck, Jeroen; Rychlik, Ivan; Hradecka, Helena; Collard, Jean-Marc; Wildemauwe, Christa; Heyndrickx, Marc; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether cats were a risk for transmission of Salmonella to humans, we evaluated the excretion of Salmonella by pet cats. Rectal-swab specimens were taken from 278 healthy house cats, from 58 cats that died of disease, and from 35 group-housed cats. Group-housed cats were kept in one room with three cat trays and a common water and feed tray. Eighteen (51.4%) of 35 group-housed cats, 5 (8.6%) of 58 diseased cats (5/58), and 1 (0.36%) of 278 healthy house cats excreted Salmonella. ...

  2. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  3. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  4. Vasopressin and motion sickness in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. A.; Keil, L. C.; Daunton, N. G.; Crampton, G. H.; Lucot, J.

    1987-01-01

    Levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in cats under several motion-sickness-inducing conditions. Plasma AVP increased significantly in both susceptible and resistant animals exposed to motion. When vomiting occurred, levels of plasma AVP were drmatically elevated (up to 27 times resting levels). There was no difference in resting levels of AVP of susceptible and resistant cats. Levels of CSF-AVP were not elevated immediately after vomiting, but the testing levels of CSF-AVP were lower in animals that vomited during motion than in those animals which did not vomit during motion. The results of these experiments show that changes in systemic AVP are directly related to vomiting induced by motion, however, CSF-AVP apparently does not change in association with vomiting. CSF-AVP does appear to be lower in animals that reach frank vomiting during motion stimulation than in animals which do not vomit.

  5. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  6. [Blood group typing in the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarer, M; Grünbaum, E G

    1993-08-01

    Blood group serological diagnosis in cats is clinically relevant for the prophylaxis of blood group incompatibility reactions. In permanent blood donors, cats used for breeding and recipients with a history of prior blood transfusions, testing should consist of blood typing and antibody detection. As test sera and test cells are not commercially available and since parallel tests for various antibody qualities are necessary, they are usually performed in specialized laboratories. Incompatibility testing has a practical clinical relevance in finding a serological diagnosis before each blood transfusion and in cases of kitten mortality. In emergency situations, cross matching can be performed on slides as a screening test. Negative slide test results then should be verified using the more sensitive test tube or microtiter plate tests. PMID:8211961

  7. Habituation of motion sickness in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, George H.; Lucot, James B.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty femal cats were subjected to a motion sickness stimulus in three series of tests. A series consisted of five tests given biweekly, weekly, or daily. Each test consisted of 30 min of stimulation followed by 1 min of rest, and series were separated by a period of not less than 14 d. Retching was the dependent variable. No habituation (reduction in the incidence of retching) was found with biweekly testing but pronounced habituation was observed with weekly and daily testing. The 30 cats were divided evenly into high and low susceptibility groups based on the results of the biweekly tests. The rate of habituation was the same for the two susceptibility groups in both the weekly and daily series.

  8. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  9. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  10. Dissipative Quantum Metrology with Spin Cat States

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jiahao; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong

    2014-01-01

    We present a robust high-precision phase estimation scheme via spin cat states in the presence of particle losses. The input Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, which may achieve the Heisenberg-limited measurement in the absence of particle losses, becomes fragile against particle losses and its achieved precision becomes even worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). However, the input spin cat states, a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two spin coherent states, are of excellent robustness against particle losses and the achieved precision may still beat the SQL. For realistic measurements based upon our scheme, comparing with the population measurement, the parity measurement is more suitable for yielding higher precisions. In phase measurement with realistic dissipative systems of bosonic particles, our scheme provides a robust and realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements beyond the SQL.

  11. Noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Capucchio, M T; Bovero, A; Ripanti, D; Catalano, D; Scaglione, F E; Miller, J; Blunden, T; Farca, A M

    2008-05-01

    This report describes an uncommon case of nonamyloidotic fibrillary glomerulonephritis. A 5-year-old female European cat was presented with nephrotic syndrome. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed a mild increase in cholesterol, low total protein, severe hypoalbuminemia, and high proteinuria with a high protein-to-creatinine ratio. An histologic examination revealed an interstitial nephritis and a diffuse glomerulonephritis, with multifocal thickening of the Bowman's capsule. Transmission electron microscopy showed widespread fibrillary deposits in the glomerular basement membrane and in the mesangium. These fibrils ranged between 18 and 26 nm in diameter and were Congo red negative, which allowed their differentiation from amyloid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated expression for immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) within the mesangium. Renal deposits of Congo red-negative amyloid-like fibrils have been described in humans, horses, monkeys, and dogs. This is the first report of noncongophilic fibrillary glomerulopathy in a cat. PMID:18487491

  12. Atypical membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Kami-ie, J; Ohtake, S; Wakui, S; Machida, S; Shirota, K

    2001-07-01

    Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was observed in a 2-year-old male Japanese domestic cat with clinical renal failure. In the glomeruli, moderate mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls were prominent. In addition, frequent duplication of the capillary walls, splitting, and spike formation were observed in the glomerular basement membrane. Granular cat IgG and complement component deposition were detected globally along the glomerular capillary walls and in the mesangium. Transmission electron microscopy revealed dense deposits in the subendothelial and subepithelial regions and the mesangium. Mesangial interposition was also observed. These glomerular lesions are also found in humans with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type III, which has not been reported in animals. PMID:11467485

  13. [Bacteriological and virological status in upper respiratory tract infections of cats (cat common cold complex)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Kerstin; Radeloff, Isabel; Stephan, Bernd; Greife, Heinrich; Hellmann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2005,460 bacteriological samples from cats with an acute upper respiratory tract infection were analysed in clinical field studies in two accredited laboratories in Germany. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from these cats and sent to the laboratories for routine diagnostics. In the swab samples of 460 cats 382 bacteria strains were isolated. The following bacteria were isolated most frequently: Pasteurella spp. (32.5 %), Staphylococcus spp. (18.5 %), Escherichia coli (17.0 %), Streptococcus spp. (9.1 %), Pseudomonas spp. (6.9 %) and Klebsiella spp. (3.0 %). Bordetella bronchiseptica was found in 0.4 % of the animals To evaluate possible regional and time influences, the animals were split into three populations: 1: Germany, laboratory A; 2: Germany, laboratory B; 3: France and Belgium, laboratory B. In population 1 an 2 Pasteurella spp. were found most frequently with 42.2 % and 36.5 %, respectively. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species were Staphylococcus spp. with 14.1 % and 21.4 % and E. coli with 13.6 % and 17.5 % respectively. In population 3 Staphylococcus spp., E. coli (20 % each) and Pasteurella spp. (18.5 %) were isolated at almost the same frequency. Virological parameter were additionally analysed in 328 cats (population 2 and 3). Serum samples were analysed for antibodies specific for Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and for Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV) antigen. Oropharyngeal swabs were analysed for Feline Herpesvirus (FHV) by using PCR. Calicivirus-specific antibodies were found in 99.6 % of the cats of population 2 and in 100 % of the animals in population 3. Herpesvirus was detected in 15.3 % and 23.3 % of the cats, respectively. FeLV-Antigen was found in 0.4 % of the animals in population 2 and in 10.1 % of the cats in population 3, while FIV-antibodies were identified in 8.7 % of the animals of population 2 and in 6.1 % of the cats of population 3. In total FHV was

  14. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  15. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described. PMID:23718784

  16. The vomeronasal organ of the cat.

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, I.; Sanchez Quinteiro, P; Cifuentes, J M; Garcia Caballero, T

    1996-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ of the cat was studied macroscopically, by light microscopy and by immunohistochemical techniques. Special attention was paid to the general distribution of the various soft tissue components of this organ (duct, glands, connective tissue, blood vessels and nerves.) Examination of series of transverse sections showed that the wall of the vomeronasal duct bears 44 different types of epithelium: simple columnar in the caudal part of the duct, respiratory and receptor respe...

  17. Study of Giardia Infection in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Zarebavani, M; A Pezeshki; Sh. Jamshidi; M Rezaeian

    2006-01-01

    Giardiasis caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis. It is postulated that animals may be a reservoir for human infection and vice versa, thus, giardiasis classified as a zooanthroponotic disease. Therefore, accurate information about the Giardia infection in animals can help the control and prevention of disease in human. With respect to considerable population of cats in Iran and close relation to human, in the current study we tried to determine the infection rate of Giardia ...

  18. Insulin therapy for dogs and cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Dowling, P M

    1995-01-01

    Management of diabetic dogs and cats requires a tremendous cooperative effort between the practitioner and the client. Consistency in the handling, availability, and formulations of the different insulins will improve client compliance. In addition to insulin therapy, successful management of the diabetic animal includes the client's perceptions of the animal's health, maintenance of the animal's body weight, consistency in water consumption, and monitoring serial blood glucose concentrations...

  19. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  20. Orofacial Cat Bite: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna, Preetika; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar; Prabhakar, Manisha; Julka, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    The article describes an unusual case of a 7 years old male child presenting with orofacial cat bite injury that occurred in infancy. This resulted in loss of deciduous and permanent tooth buds and consequently hampered alveolar growth. The patient was given a removable partial denture to restore function and aesthetics. The article highlights the importance of complete history, diagnosis and management of such injuries in children.

  1. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  2. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  3. Feasibility of radial and circumferential strain analysis using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Hiroshi; ISOGAI, Tomomi; Aoki, Takuma; WAKAO, Yoshito; Fujii, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the feasibility of strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in cats and to evaluate STE variables in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Sixteen clinically healthy cats and 17 cats with HCM were used. Radial and circumferential strain and strain rate variables in healthy cats were measured using STE to assess the feasibility. Comparisons of global strain and strain variables between healthy cats and cats with HCM...

  4. Folliculogenesis in the domestic cat (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol-Gould, Sarah; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2006-07-01

    The dynamic regulation of mammalian folliculogenesis is a key component of the reproductive process. Traditionally, the rodent had been used as a model to study ovarian function and reproductive physiology due to the availability of animals, their relatively short cycle length, high rate of fecundity and short generation interval. We maintain that much basic information can be determined using domestic cat ovaries retrieved from local veterinary clinics following routine spaying, without having the expense of maintaining a colony of laboratory cats. Studies of normal feline reproductive physiology and advances in reproductive technology may be extrapolated for use in endangered non-domestic felids. Increased understanding of feline reproduction will be beneficial to veterinary medicine, and to groups working to control feral cat populations. It is important to examine reproductive mechanisms in alternative animal models as there are a vast number of threatened and endangered species in which we lack the critical reproductive information needed to assist in preserving their long-term survival. PMID:16620931

  5. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (<3.5kg) mammals. We analyzed the population structure of 830 cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  6. Computed tomography of nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Krystina; O'Brien, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening problem in cats and for which a noninvasive, sensitive method rapid diagnosis is needed. The purposes of this prospective study were to describe a computed tomography (CT) technique for nonanesthetized cats with upper airway obstruction, CT characteristics of obstructive diseases, and comparisons between CT findings and findings from other diagnostic tests. Ten cats with clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited for the study. Four cats with no clinical signs of upper airway obstruction were recruited as controls. All cats underwent computed tomography imaging without sedation or anesthesia, using a 16-slice helical CT scanner and a previously described transparent positional device. Three-dimensional (3D) internal volume rendering was performed on all CT image sets and 3D external volume rendering was also performed on cats with evidence of mass lesions. Confirmation of upper airway obstruction was based on visual laryngeal examination, endoscopy, fine-needle aspirate, biopsy, or necropsy. Seven cats were diagnosed with intramural upper airway masses, two with laryngotracheitis, and one with laryngeal paralysis. The CT and 3D volume-rendered images identified lesions consistent with upper airway disease in all cats. In cats with mass lesions, CT accurately identified the mass and location. Findings from this study supported the use of CT imaging as an effective technique for diagnosing upper airway obstruction in nonanesthetized cats. PMID:23441677

  7. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  8. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  9. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  10. Hypereosinophilic syndrome in cats: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, S A; Valli, V E; Hulland, T J

    1985-07-01

    The clinical, clinicopathological and pathological findings in three cats with hypereosinophilic syndrome are described. The cats chosen for the study had marked eosinophilia and evidence of tissue infiltration by eosinophils. Necropsies were performed on two cats, biopsy and blood samples were provided for the third cat. At necropsy, there was diffuse reddening of femoral bone marrow with ulceration and thickening of the duodenum. The livers had an enhanced lobular pattern with multiple, white, 1-3 mm nodules throughout the parenchyma. One cat had splenomegaly and the other had several enlarged, white, firm lymph nodes. Histopathologically, there was eosinophil infiltration of intestine, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, adrenal medulla and beneath the endocardium. Ultrastructurally, the eosinophils from lymph node and bone marrow of cat II were morphologically normal. The rigid criteria for eosinophilic leukemia were not fulfilled by these cases and the etiology of the eosinophilia in each case is not known. Possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed. PMID:4041970

  11. Membranous nephropathy in the cat: a clinical and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A S; Wright, N G; Spencer, A J; Thompson, H; Fisher, E W

    1979-07-28

    A series of 13 cases of feline membranous nephropathy is presented. Two groups were distinguished clinically; eight cats had the nephrotic syndrome and five others were in renal failure but not nephrotic. The definitive diagnosis was based on histological, immunofluorescence and ultrastructural examinations of renal tissue obtained at renal biopsy or necropsy. Glomerular lesions were classified according to the degree of glomerular change into three distinct groups; mild, moderately severe and advanced. A relationship was established between the mild and moderately severe groups and cats with the nephrotic syndrome, and the advanced group and cats in renal failure. Diuretic therapy was satisfactory in initial control of oedema in the nephrotic cases. Monitoring of previously nephrotic cats for up to three years indicated that the disease is progressive, although in some cases it is sufficiently slow for a cat to live a relatively normal life without continuing treatment. The prognosis for cats presented in renal failure is hopeless. PMID:552741

  12. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted of...... seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  13. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  14. Limited sampling pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats, cats with chronic kidney disease, and cats with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, R L; Wittenburg, L A; Hansen, R J; Gustafson, D L; Quimby, J M

    2016-08-01

    Ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to compare pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous (SQ) ondansetron in healthy geriatric cats to cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or liver disease using a limited sampling strategy. 60 cats participated; 20 per group. Blood was drawn 30 and 120 min following one 2 mg (mean 0.49 mg/kg, range 0.27-1.05 mg/kg) SQ dose of ondansetron. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Drug exposure represented as area under the curve (AUC) was predicted using a limited sampling approach based on multiple linear regression analysis from previous full sampling studies, and clearance (CL/F) estimated using noncompartmental methods. Kruskal-Wallis anova was used to compare parameters between groups. Mean AUC (ng/mL·h) of subcutaneous ondansetron was 301.4 (geriatric), 415.2 (CKD), and 587.0 (liver). CL/F (L/h/kg) of SQ ondansetron was 1.157 (geriatric), 0.967 (CKD), and 0.795 (liver). AUC was significantly higher in liver and CKD cats when compared to geriatric cats (P < 0.05). CL/F in liver cats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to geriatric cats. In age-matched subset analysis, AUC and CL/F in liver cats remained significantly different from geriatric cats. PMID:26667224

  15. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems. (paper)

  16. Case report:Calcaneal fractures in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, Mark J; Hannes, Bergmann,; Langley-Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    A one year four month old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for sudden onset, left pelvic limb lameness. Upon clinical examination, pain was localised to the hock region and the cat was found to have persistent deciduous teeth. No evidence of trauma was apparent. Radiographs revealed a transverse fracture at the base of the calcaneus. The fracture was stabilised with a Steinmann pin and tension band wire. Eleven weeks after fixation of the fracture, the cat presented with lam...

  17. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  18. Concurrent Diseases and Conditions in Cats with Renal Infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Hickey, M.C.; Jandrey, K.; Farrell, K.S.; Carlson‐Bremer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal infarcts identified without definitive association with any specific disease process. Objective Determine diseases associated with diagnosis of renal infarcts in cats diagnosed by sonography or necropsy. Animals 600 cats underwent abdominal ultrasonography, necropsy, or both at a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Methods Information obtained from electronic medical records. Cats classified as having renal infarct present based on results of sonographic evaluation or necro...

  19. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  20. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  1. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats – clarification regarding genetic testing

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, L.A.; Grahn, R. A.; Genova, F; M. Beccaglia; Hopwood, J J; M. Longeri

    2016-01-01

    The release of new DNA-based diagnostic tools has increased tremendously in companion animals. Over 70 different DNA variants are now known for the cat, including DNA variants in disease-associated genes and genes causing aesthetically interesting traits. The impact genetic tests have on animal breeding and health management is significant because of the ability to control the breeding of domestic cats, especially breed cats. If used properly, genetic testing can prevent the production of dis...

  2. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  3. HyperCat:an IoT interoperability specification

    OpenAIRE

    Lea, Rodger

    2013-01-01

    HyperCat is an open, lightweight JSON-based hypermedia catalogue format for exposing collections of URIs. Each HyperCat catalogue may expose any number of URIs, each with any number of RDF-like triple statements about it. HyperCat is simple to work with and allows developers to publish linked-data descriptions of resources. HyperCat is designed for exposing information about IoT assets over the web. It allows a server to provide a set of resources to a client, each with a set of semantic anno...

  4. Handling manual of computer aided tracing system 'CATS' (version I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an application of computer graphics, we have developed a code named as ''CATS'' which stands for computer aided tracing system. With CATS, many kinds of graphs and tables can be fed into the host computer as graphic data by a digitizing tablet. After editing figures on the graphic display terminal, one can obtain color pictures by hard copy unit or fair monocromatic copies by a laser printer through host computer. We employ an interactive graphical input in Japanese, so that users of ''CATS'' can easily edit figures without any knowledge on the complicated FORTRAN utility package for graphic display. The usage of ''CATS'' is summarized in this report. (author)

  5. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  6. Model category structures \\`a la Thomason on 2-Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    In his paper "Th\\'eories homotopiques des 2-cat\\'egories", Jonathan Chiche studies homotopy theories on 2-Cat, the category of small strict 2-categories, given by classes of weak equivalences which he calls basic localizers of 2-Cat. These basic localizers of 2-Cat are a 2-categorical generalization of the notion of a basic localizer introduced by Grothendieck in "Pursuing stacks". In this paper, we deduce from the results of Jonathan Chiche and results we have obtained with Georges Maltsinio...

  7. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT-S): Normative Values for 220 Swedish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannisson, Tove B.; Wennerfeldt, Susanna; Havstam, Christina; Naeslund, Maria; Jacobson, Kajsa; Lohmander, Anette

    2009-01-01

    Background: The risk of developing a negative attitude to communication as a consequence of having a speech disorder has been in focus for decades in research concerning fluency disorders in relation to both children and adults. The Communication Attitude Test (CAT), which was created to measure children's attitudes towards their own…

  8. Distinguishing Schroedinger cats in a lossy environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical Schroedinger cat states-that is, even and odd coherent states-are considered as possible candidates for forming a computational basis for a coherent state qubit. The distinguishability of the two originally orthogonal states after experiencing loss is quantified in terms of quantum relative entropy. This is a physically instructive quantity related to probabilities of faults in identifying the state. This distinguishability is important for classical communication and for the problem of reading out the result of a quantum computation by a lossy device. It is shown that the distinguishability can significantly increase if the environment is prepared in an appropriately chosen squeezed state

  9. From Pedigree Cats to Fluffy-Bunnies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunningham, Jacob; Rau, Alexander; Burnett, Keith

    2005-02-01

    We consider two distinct classes of quantum mechanical entanglement. The first ``pedigree'' class consists of delicate highly entangled states, which hold great potential for use in future quantum technologies. By focusing on Schrödinger cat states, we demonstrate not only the possibilities these states hold but also the difficulties they present. The second ``fluffy-bunny'' class is made up of robust states that arise naturally as a result of measurements and interactions between particles. This class of entanglement may be responsible for the classical-like world we see around us.

  10. Halpern Iteration in CAT(κ) Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo(z)ena PI(A)TEK

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that an iterative sequence generated by the Halpern algorithm converges to a fixed point in the case of complete CAT(κ) spaces. Similar results for Hadamard manifolds were obtained in[Li,C.,López, G., Martín-Márquez, V.:Iterative algorithms for nonexpansive mappings on Hadamard manifolds. Taiwanese J. Math., 14, 541-559 (2010)], but we study a much more general case. Moreover, we discuss the Halpern iteration procedure for set-valued mappings.

  11. Schrodinger's cat The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper we examined the role of a conscious observer in a typical quantum mechanical measurement. Four rules were given that were found to govern the stochastic choice and state reduction in several cases of continuous and intermittent observation. It was shown that consciousness always accompanies a state reduction leading to observation, but its presence is not sufficient to 'cause' a reduction. The distinction is clarified and codified by the rules that are repeated below. In this paper, these rules are successfully applied to two different versions of the Schrodinger cat experiment. Key Words: brain states, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann

  12. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipar, A; Köhler, K; Leukert, W; Reinacher, M

    2001-01-01

    Lymphatic tissues (spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, thymus) from 24 cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry for cellularity, cellular composition, and degree of cellular turnover. Additionally, the formation of granulomatous lesions in lymphatic tissues in cats with FIP was examined. For comparison, tissues from 14 specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats and seven cats infected with FIP virus (FIPV; as the result of long-term exposure) but free from FIP were examined. In cats with FIP, the precardial mediastinum (including site of the thymus) and mesenteric lymph node parenchyma were often affected by granulomatous-necrotizing processes. In general, lymphoid tissues showed T- and B-cell depletion, often including massive to complete thymic involution or atrophy. In some cases, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes was increased in lymphoid follicles as well as in T-cell zones. The number of macrophages was increased in the splenic red pulp. In contrast, the FIPV-exposed cats without FIP generally showed a distinct lymphoid hyperplasia. The findings indicated that the major difference in lymphatic tissues between FIPV-infected cats with FIP and those without FIP was the development of lymphocyte depletion in the first group and lymphocyte proliferation in the second. PMID:11578135

  13. Electroencephalographic features of familial spontaneous epileptic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Mizoguchi, Shunta; Kuwabara, Takayuki; Hamamoto, Yuji; Ogawa, Fukie; Matsuki, Naoaki; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Fujita, Michio

    2014-08-01

    A feline strain of familial spontaneous epileptic cats (FSECs) with typical limbic seizures was identified in 2010, and have been maintained as a novel animal model of genetic epilepsy. In this study, we characterized the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of FSECs. On scalp EEG under sedation, FSECs showed sporadic, but comparatively frequent interictal discharges dominantly in the uni- or bilateral temporal region. Bemegride activation was performed in order to evaluate the predisposition of epileptogenicity of FSECs. The threshold doses of the first paroxysmal discharge, clinical myoclonus and generalized convulsion in FSECs were significantly lower than those in control cats. Chronic video-intracranial EEG monitoring revealed subclinical or clinical focal seizures with secondarily generalization onset from the unilateral amygdala and/or hippocampus. Clinical generalized seizures were also recorded, but we were unable to detect the onset site. The results of the present study show that FSECs resemble not only feline kindling or the kainic acid model and El mouse, but also human familial or sporadic mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, our results indicate that FSECs are a natural and valuable model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:24893833

  14. Sarcocystis sp. encephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisby, Tricia M; Holman, Patricia J; Pitoc, George A; Packer, Rebecca A; Thompson, Craig A; Raskin, Rose E

    2010-03-01

    A 5-month-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for spinal pain, ataxia, and anisocoria. Neuroanatomic localization indicated diffuse or multifocal central nervous system disease. On cerebrospinal fluid analysis, neutrophilic pleocytosis and intracellular protozoal merozoites were observed. The merozoites were oval, 2-4 microm in width and 4-6 microm in length, and had linear arrays of nuclear material concentrated at one pole. Serum was positive for Sarcocystis sp. antibodies and negative for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The organism was determined to be either Sarcocystis neurona or Sarcocystis dasypi based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 ribosomal RNA genomic region. Clinical disease resolved following treatment with 3 different protocols for protozoal infection. This case is the first to demonstrate the antemortem diagnosis and survival of a domestic cat with Sarcocystis sp.-associated encephalomyelitis. Clinicians and cytopathologists should include Sarcocystis sp. as a differential for feline inflammatory central nervous system disease characterized by neutrophilic pleocytosis. PMID:19548967

  15. Systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Kirby, Kerry D; Sanchez, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Our study describes a case of systemic Trichosporon loubieri infection in a cat with acute dyspnea, anorexia, and aggressiveness. Physical examination revealed multiple ulcerative cutaneous lesions on the abdomen, neck, and thorax. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound showed multiple mediastinal nodules and marked pleural effusion, respectively. A cutaneous biopsy from the ulcerated wounds revealed necrogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal culture on fresh swab samples from the cutaneous lesions yielded growth of a fungal organism that was further identified as Trichosporon loubieri by PCR and DNA sequencing. The cat was subsequently euthanized and submitted to autopsy. Gross pathology changes consisted of multifocal to coalescing white nodules ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter that expanded the mediastinal fat, intrathoracic lymph nodes, lungs, and costal pleura. These lesions consisted of areas of necrogranulomatous inflammation with numerous intralesional fungal hyphae morphologically similar to those observed in the cutaneous biopsy sample. Gross and histologic changes were consistent with a systemic fungal infection, and the etiologic diagnosis was supported by fungal culture. Fungal identity was confirmed by DNA sequencing of D1-D2 and TS1 regions. PMID:27016724

  16. Effects of stressors on the behavior and physiology of domestic cats

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judi; Croney, Candace; Buffington, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed with FIC after exposure to a five day stressor. Ten healthy cats and 18 cats with FIC were housed at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center (OSUVMC) vivarium...

  17. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty‐eight client‐owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...

  18. DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH, AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES, IN A STREAM FROM THE PAYS DE LOIRE REGION, FRANCE: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROQUET T.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes was studied from January to October 2000 in a stream from the Pays de Loire region (Western France. An experimental modification of habitat was performed in four stream sections by providing refuges for crayfish, followed by a regular survey of population dynamics in these areas. The crayfish distribution along the brook was studied in relation to several parameters, including water quality, current speed, brook depth and presence of refuges for crayfish. Presence of hiding places was the only habitat parameter correlated with crayfish distribution along the stream whereas colonization process in modified sections was determined by sun exposure and current speed conditions. Despite a presumably high growth rate and its ability to reach locally important densities, the population appeared to be fragmented.

  19. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  20. Delayed physeal closure associated with castration in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographs of 152 cats under four years of age were examined for evidence of physeal closure. Radiographic closure was compared between entire male, castrated male, and female (neutered and entire] cats. Physeal closure in castrated males was delayed when compared to that of entire males

  1. Gastric emptying in the normal cat: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-phase gastric emptying times of cats have been documented, but not solid-phase gastric emptying times. Gastric transit times, gastric emptying times, and small intestine transit times were determined in eight normal cats. The mean values +/- SD were 42.5 +/- 15.6 min, 11.6 +/- 0.9 hrs, and 4.1 +/- 3.0 hrs respectively

  2. Toxoplasmosis and other intestinal coccidial infections in cats and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much needs to be learned concerning the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis in dogs. Why does coccidiosis occurs after shipping, and nothing is known of biologic differences among isolates of Isospora species of dogs and cats. Transmission of Isospora felis in cats in breeding colonies despite of s...

  3. Stallings folds for CAT(0) cube complexes and quasiconvex subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Beeker, Benjamin; Lazarovich, Nir

    2016-01-01

    We describe a higher dimensional analogue of the Stallings folding sequence for group actions on CAT(0) cube complexes. We use it to give a characterization of quasiconvex subgroups of hyperbolic groups which act properly co-compactly on CAT(0) cube complexes via finiteness properties of their hyperplane stabilizers.

  4. Maintenance energy requirement determination of cats after spaying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Yuka; Chamberlin, Amy J; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2011-10-01

    Neutering is often associated with obesity in companion animals. However, the maintenance energy requirement (MER) for these animals has not been clearly defined. The present study investigated the MER for spayed cats whose body weights (BW) began to increase shortly after ovariohysterectomy. A total of twenty-two shorthair adult female cats were fed complete and balanced diets in amounts to maintain their BW and body condition score (BCS) before the present study. All cats were spayed and the diet was fed for 11 weeks using the same MER as previously. During these weeks, all cats gained weight. Beginning with week 12, a weight-loss regimen was initiated until each cat achieved a BCS of 5 out of 9. After each cat obtained a BCS of 5, an appropriate amount of diet was fed to maintain its BW for at least 4 weeks to determine a modified MER. Daily food consumption, weekly BW and BCS were monitored. Blood was collected before and after weight loss for plasma biochemistry profiles. BW and BCS increased by 16 % and one point (P spaying significantly increased BW when using MER values for intact cats. Thus, 313.6 × ideal BW(0.67) kJ is proposed for the MER of spayed adult cats. PMID:22005410

  5. Chronic progressive polyarthritis in a domestic shorthair cat

    OpenAIRE

    Inkpen, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered male, domestic shorthair cat was presented with shifting leg lameness and palpable effusion of the carpal and tarsal joints. Blood work, arthrocentesis, and radiographs identified an immune-mediated erosive polyarthritis. The cat was positive for feline syncytia-forming virus, and with his signalment, was diagnosed with feline chronic progressive polyarthritis.

  6. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of...

  7. Local Dependence in an Operational CAT: Diagnosis and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerich, Mary; Segall, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of CAT scores can be negatively affected by local dependence if the CAT utilizes parameters that are misspecified due to the presence of local dependence and/or fails to control for local dependence in responses during the administration stage. This article evaluates the existence and effect of local dependence in a test of…

  8. SEROPREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII ANTIBODIES IN CATS FROM PENNSLYVANIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in sera from 122 domestic cats from Bensalem, Pennsylvania. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to this parasite were found in 25 (20.4%) of the 122 cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 4, 1:100 in 6, 1:200 in 3, 1:400...

  9. Prevalence of enterococci from dogs and cats in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The contribution of dogs and cats as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant enterococci remains largely undefined. This is increasingly important considering the possibility of transfer of bacteria from companion animals to the human host. In this study, dogs and cats from veterinary clinics were s...

  10. Cats: their history and our evolving relationship with them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cats have had a long relationship with people, and their history as a domesticated animal can be traced back as far as 2000 BC. Delegates at a recent conference titled 'People, cats and vets through history' delved a little deeper into the changing nature of this relationship. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27389749

  11. Visual discrimination learning under switching procedure in visually deprived cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B

    1999-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that fine visual discrimination learning is severely impaired in cats binocularly deprived in the early period of life (BD cats) and also somewhat in control cats reared with open eyes in the limited laboratory environment (C cats) compared with cats reared in a normal rural environment (N cats). It was concluded that visual deprivation impairs perceptual learning. In the present study discriminative stimuli were dissimilar and so the task was perceptually easy, but using a switching procedure made it associatively difficult. In regular trials a gate with a grating pattern was positive and a blank gate negative, whereas in switching trials the meaning of the gates was reversed. The switching stimulus was intermittent light in some stages of training and intermittent tone in others. Learning was severely impaired in BD cats and somewhat in C cats and the deficit was similar under visual and auditory switching. Thus, early visual deprivation impairs associative learning. The impairment probably includes associations between switching stimulus and instrumental responses and configural associations between switching stimulus and discriminative stimuli. PMID:10212071

  12. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  13. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.; Kragh, Christian; Tipsmark, Anders; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2013-01-01

    pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...

  14. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2003-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our findi

  15. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  16. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  17. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P), originall

  18. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  19. Eliot's "Cats" and a CATalog of Language Arts Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeberl, Susan M.

    Inspired by the Broadway musical "Cats" and by T. S. Eliot's collection of poems, "Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats," this language arts teaching unit for seventh grade includes a variety of activities using the poems and musical as focal points. Activity types include the following: (1) reading, listening, and singing activities in which…

  20. Immunofluorescent Detection of Intraerythrocytic Bartonella henselae in Naturally Infected Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Rolain, J. M.; La Scola, B; Liang, Z.; B. Davoust; D. Raoult

    2001-01-01

    To determine the presence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in six cats, we compared isolation using blood culture with direct immunofluorescence on blood smears. Three cats that were positive by blood culture were also positive by direct immunofluorescence, and laser confocal microscopy confirmed the intraerythrocytic location of B. henselae.

  1. Zoonotic diseases associated with free-roaming cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, R W; Jessup, D A

    2013-05-01

    Free-roaming cat populations have been identified as a significant public health threat and are a source for several zoonotic diseases including rabies, toxoplasmosis, cutaneous larval migrans because of various nematode parasites, plague, tularemia and murine typhus. Several of these diseases are reported to cause mortality in humans and can cause other important health issues including abortion, blindness, pruritic skin rashes and other various symptoms. A recent case of rabies in a young girl from California that likely was transmitted by a free-roaming cat underscores that free-roaming cats can be a source of zoonotic diseases. Increased attention has been placed on trap-neuter-release (TNR) programmes as a viable tool to manage cat populations. However, some studies have shown that TNR leads to increased immigration of unneutered cats into neutered populations as well as increased kitten survival in neutered groups. These compensatory mechanisms in neutered groups leading to increased kitten survival and immigration would confound rabies vaccination campaigns and produce naïve populations of cats that can serve as source of zoonotic disease agents owing to lack of immunity. This manuscript is a review of the various diseases of free-roaming cats and the public health implications associated with the cat populations. PMID:22830565

  2. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beusekom, C.D. van; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Russel, F.G.; Schrickx, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the f

  3. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Nov 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  4. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Jul 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  5. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Feb 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  6. Abdominal (liver, spleen) and bone manifestations of cat scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.)

  7. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian;

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  8. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Fahey, A G; Kilbride, A L; Green, L E; Boyle, L A

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare with particular focus on lameness, claw lesions (CL), and injuries. The study used 164 gilts housed in groups of 8 from AI to 110 d of pregnancy in pens with concrete (n = 84) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10-mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through 2 parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions, and manure on the body (MOB; score 0 to 2) were recorded at AI, 24 to 72 h postmixing, between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy, and 2 wk before farrowing. Claw lesions (score 0 = normal to 3 = severe) were recorded at AI and between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy. The dirtiness and wetness of the floors was scored weekly (score 0 = clean to 4 = >75% of the pen soiled/wet). Data from the first and second parities were analyzed separately. Sows were categorized as nonlame (score ≤ 1) or lame (score ≥ 2). Median (M(e)) scores were calculated for CL and body and limb lesions and were classified as less than or equal to the median or greater than the median lesion scores. Sows on rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of lameness during both parities (P crack (HSC; M(e) = 3) during both parities (P cracks in the wall (CW; M(e) = 4) and white line damage (WL; M(e) = 4; P rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of scores greater than the median for swellings (M(e) = 4) and wounds (P rubber slat mats were dirtier than uncovered pens (P rubber slat mats were associated with an increased risk of CL, they improved the welfare of group housed sows by reducing the risk of lameness and limb lesions. PMID:23881683

  9. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT MENGGUNAKAN METODE POHON SEGITIGA KEPUTUSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan CAT menggunakan metode pohon segitiga keputusan dalam prosedur pemilihan item dan mengetahui kemampuan CAT dalam mengestimasi kemampuan peserta tes dengan tepat. Penelitian ini menggunakan Research and Development (R&D. Peng-ambilan data dengan observasi, dokumentasi, dan angket. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis deskriptif evaluatif dan teknik analisis deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 CAT yang dikembangkan berdasar kebutuhan pemakai yaitu: berbasis internet, memiliki sistem ke-amanan, dan mudah diakses, (2 CAT dapat mengenali tiga pengguna, yaitu: administrator, guru, dan siswa, (3 CAT mampu memberikan butir-butir yang bersifat adaptif berdasarkan respon jawaban peserta tes. Secara keseluruhan kinerja CAT mampu melaksanakan tugas dengan baik untuk memilih butir tes dan mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dengan akurat dan tepat dilihat dari nilai korelasi antara hasil estimasi kemampuan (θ dengan nilai ulangan murni (NUM di sekolah siswa cukup tinggi yakni 0,67. Kata kunci: metode pohon segitiga keputusan, metode maximum likelihood ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT BY USING THE TRIANGLE DECISION TREE METHOD Abstract This research aims at producing a CAT software that uses the tri-angle decision tree method in the test item selection procedure and detecting the CAT ability in estimating the test-takers’ ability accurately and correctly. This research used the research and development approach (R&D. The data were collected through observation, documentation, inquiry, and the data were analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. The findings are as follows. (1 The CAT developed is:based on users’ need, web-based, user-friendly, interactive, highly secured, and easily accessible. (2 The CAT can recognize three different users: school administrators, teachers, and students. (3 The CAT software is able

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Olsen, C. S.; Thamsborg, S. M.; Enemark, Heidi

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...... and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82...

  11. Diagnosis of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Deborah S

    2006-02-01

    Whereas hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder in the cat, hypothyroidism is the least common feline endocrine disorder. This is a the result of several factors including low index of suspicion, rarity of the naturally occurring hypothyroidism in cats, and a lack of species specific tests for endogenous TSH and antithyroglobulin antibodies. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism does occur in cats, especially in kittens and after radioactive treatment for hyperthyroidism. The clinician should become familiar with the common presentations of congenital and adult-onset hypothyroidism in cats. In addition, some of the tests specific to dogs (such as endogenous canine TSH) may be utilized to diagnose subclinical hypothyroidism in cats. Fortunately, the treatment of feline hypothyroidism with synthetic levothyroxine is both straightforward and effective. PMID:16584030

  12. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E; Johnson, Christopher N

    2016-01-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia's tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes. PMID:26932268

  13. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  14. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  15. Community attitudes and practices of urban residents regarding predation by pet cats on wildlife: an international comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, C M; Adams, N. A.; Bradley, J.S.; Bryant, K.A.; Davis, A A; Dickman, C.R.; Fujita, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lepczyk, C.A.; McBride, E. A.; Pollock, K.H.; Styles, I.M.; van Heezik, Y.; Wang, F.; Calver, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    International differences in practices and attitudes regarding pet cats' interactions with wildlife were assessed by surveying citizens from at least two cities in Australia, New Zealand, the UK, the USA, China and Japan. Predictions tested were: (i) cat owners would agree less than non-cat owners that cats might threaten wildlife, (ii) cat owners value wildlife less than non-cat owners, (iii) cat owners are less accepting of cat legislation/restrictions than non-owners, and (iv) respondents ...

  16. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered. PMID:27045191

  17. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    2015-01-01

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  18. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  19. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions. PMID:26154131

  20. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato) sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) gel on oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva; Rodrigo Alves Ribeiro; Jozinete Vieira Pereira; Neuza Maria Cavalcante Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomento...

  1. Avaliação clínica e laboratorial do gel da Uncaria tomentosa (Unha de Gato sobre candidose oral Clinical and laboratorial evaluation of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw gel on oral candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Costa de Almeida Paiva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Na odontologia, a fitoterapia já vem sendo utilizada com sucesso há vários anos. Trata-se de um meio terapêutico que apresenta como vantagem sobre as medicações alopáticas o fato de apresentar reações adversas mínimas. A Uncaria tomentosa é uma planta indígena da floresta Amazônica e de outras áreas tropicais da América do Sul e Central. Tem aplicação no tratamento de diversas patologias, entre elas a candidose. Este trabalho avalia clínico e laboratorialmente a ação do gel da Uncaria tomentosa em pacientes portadores de candidose na cavidade oral. Foram selecionados 20 pacientes que apresentaram clínico e laboratorialmente infecção pelo Candida. Os mesmos foram divididos em 2 grupos. O grupo-teste (Uncaria tomentosa/Imuno-Max Gel, composto por 10 pacientes, foi orientado a utilizar o gel da Uncaria tomentosa, sobre as lesões na cavidade oral, 3x ao dia por um período de 14 dias. O grupo-controle (Miconazol/Daktarin Gel utilizou a medicação da mesma forma prescrita para o grupo-teste. Após o período de tratamento, os pacientes retornaram para nova avaliação clínica e laboratorial. A Uncaria tomentosa mostrou ser um fitofármaco promissor na odontologia, apresentando vantagem sobre o miconazol de não ter provocado reações adversas nos pacientes, uma vez que, 40% dos pacientes do grupo-controle, apresentaram reações indesejáveis.In dentistry, the phytotherapy is already being used successfully for some years now. It is about a promising therapeutical way in the pharmaceutical field, having as advantage on pharmacotherapy medications the fact to present minimum adverse reactions. The Uncaria tomentosa is an aboriginal plant of the Amazonian forest and other tropical areas of the South and Central America. It has application in the treatment of several pathologies, including candidiasis. This work evaluates, clinical and laboratorial, the action of the Uncaria tomentosa gel in the oral cavity candidiasis patients. Twenty patients which presented clinical and laboratorial signs of Candida infection were selected. They were divided in 2 groups. The test-group (Uncaria tomentosa/IMUNO-MAX Gel, with 10 patients, was told to use the Uncaria tomentosa gel, on the oral cavity injuries, 3 times a day for a period of 14 days. The control-group (Miconazol/DAKTARIN Gel used the prescribed medication in the same way of the test-group. After the treatment period, the patients returned for a new clinical and laboratorial evaluation. The Uncaria tomentosa showed to be a promising phytotherapeutical medication in dentistry, in the field of the anti-fungi treatment, presenting as advantage on the Miconazol not causing adverse reactions in the patients, once 40% of the control-group patients showed undesirable reactions.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  3. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  4. Schroedinger cat states and multilevel atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the generalization of the two-level Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) to an N-level atom leads to the creation of up to N macroscopically distinct field states. These field states are Schmidt-orthogonalized superpositions of Fock states. They correspond to macroscopic states of the field, attainable with large mean photon numbers. Unlike the situation with a two-level atom and a coherent-state field, which evolves into a macroscopic coherent superposition state (a Schrodinger cat), we find that when the additional levels participate strongly in the excitation (e.g all transitions are resonant with equal dipole moments) then the system does not evolve into a pure state. We will present some examples of special cases, giving insight into the behavior of three-level atoms and the two-level two-photon JCM

  5. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life.

  6. AAHA anesthesia guidelines for dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, Richard; Grimm, Kurt; Harvey, Ralph; Lukasik, Victoria M; Penn, W Sean; Sargent, Brett; Spelts, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Safe and effective anesthesia of dogs and cats rely on preanesthetic patient assessment and preparation. Patients should be premedicated with drugs that provide sedation and analgesia prior to anesthetic induction with drugs that allow endotracheal intubation. Maintenance is typically with a volatile anesthetic such as isoflurane or sevoflurane delivered via an endotracheal tube. In addition, local anesthetic nerve blocks; epidural administration of opioids; and constant rate infusions of lidocaine, ketamine, and opioids are useful to enhance analgesia. Cardiovascular, respiratory, and central nervous system functions are continuously monitored so that anesthetic depth can be modified as needed. Emergency drugs and equipment, as well as an action plan for their use, should be available throughout the perianesthetic period. Additionally, intravenous access and crystalloid or colloids are administered to maintain circulating blood volume. Someone trained in the detection of recovery abnormalities should monitor patients throughout recovery. Postoperatively attention is given to body temperature, level of sedation, and appropriate analgesia. PMID:22058343

  7. EPSP depression following neocortical seizures in cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Dragos A; Cissé, Youssouf; Timofeev, Igor

    2008-04-01

    To study the possible mechanism(s) underlying unresponsiveness following neocortical seizures, we recorded excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) of cortical neurons evoked by ipsilateral cortical stimulation before and after spontaneous or elicited seizures. Regular-spiking neurons (n = 32) were intracellularly recorded in association area five of cats under ketamine-xylazine or barbiturate anesthesia. Compared with control responses, cortically evoked EPSPs were characterized by decreased amplitude after electrographic seizures. Synaptic responses and intrinsic properties were measured by applying extracellular electrical stimuli followed by intracellular hyperpolarizing current pulses. The input resistance decreased during seizures but quickly recovered to control level after the paroxysms, whereas the amplitude of evoked EPSPs remained lower following seizures, generally for 2-12 min, suggesting that the decreased EPSPs were not due to an alteration of intrinsic response. Data demonstrate a long-lasting decreased synaptic responsiveness following generalized spike-wave seizures slowly recovering in time. PMID:18031546

  8. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  9. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a young cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tomoko; Tsukamoto, Atsushi; Ohno, Koichi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2008-12-01

    A 9-month-old male Japanese domestic cat showed pleural effusion, ascites, azotemia, hypoproteinemia and severe proteinuria. Histopathology of the percutaneous renal biopsy specimen revealed that all glomeruli showed intense mesangial hypercellularity with an increased mesangial matrix and thickening of the capillary walls, resulting in lobular accentuation of the glomerular tufts. Frequent duplication of the capillary walls was also observed. Immunostaining for alpha-smooth muscle actin distinctly revealed mesangial interposition. Diffuse global and linear deposition of C3 and IgG was observed mostly along the peripheral capillary loops. Electron microscopy confirmed frequent circumferential mesangial interposition and subendothelial dense-deposits in the glomerulus. The glomerular lesion was consistent with human membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type I, and might be a rare case that developed at young age. PMID:19122409

  10. Radiographic anatomy of Japanese domestic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 51 Japanese domestic cats the number of vertebrae, the distance between the occipital bone and the 1st cervical vertebra (C1), and that between C1 and the 2nd cervical vertebra (C2), as well as the sizes of the cardiac and local great vessels and kidneys were measured radiographically. The proportion of the C1 vertebral canal to the distance between the caudal margin of the occipital bone and C1 was 1 0.61, and that of the C1 diameter to the minimum distance between C1 and C2 was 1 0.19. The diameters of the trachea, thoracic aorta and caudal vena cave were almost similar and the diameters of the both pulmonary trank and pulmonary vein were almost equivalent to the smallest diameters of the 8th and 10th ribs, respectively. The depth of the thorax was greater in Japanese domestic cats than in the American mixed breed (Hamlin et al., 1963). The V-D view of the abdominal region showed that the proportions of L2 to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1: 2.49 and 1: 2.38, respectively. The ratio of L2 to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 3.05 and 1 3.03, respectively. On the lateral view, the proportions of L 2 length to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 2.39, while those to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 5.25 and 1 5.20, respectively

  11. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  12. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  13. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. PMID:23619280

  14. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  15. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation. PMID:26535453

  16. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiographyin cats.Sample Population-115 cats referred for dental treatment without a previous full-mouth radiographic series available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of cats referred for dental treatment, full-mouth radiography was done prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, the clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from radiography and unexpected radiographic findings. Importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all cats. Odontoclastic resorption lesions, missed on clinical examination, were diagnosed in 8.7% of cats. Analysis of selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 4.8 and 41.7% of cats, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 53.6%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 13.9% of cats, but yielded additional or clinically essential information in 53.9 and 32.2%, respectively. Clinical Relevance-The diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new feline patients referred for dental treatment is high, and routine use of full-mouth radiography is justifiable

  17. Adiponectin mRNA Expression in the Cat (Felis domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L. Lusby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Adiponectin is a hormone expressed from adipose tissue in people, rodents and dogs. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory action with beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity. With increasing fat mass, adiponectin concentrations paradoxically decrease. Adiponectin’s role in metabolism and diabetes mellitus is of interest in feline medicine because cats are susceptible to developing type II diabetes with weight gain. This study determined relative amounts of adiponectin mRNA expression from various body tissues and organs in domestic cats. Approach: Two intact male cats and one intact female cat were evaluated post-mortem. All cats were estimated to be young adults and had lean body conditions. Tissues samples from inguinal subcutaneous adipose, visceral mesenteric adipose, liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, aorta, stomach fundus, duodenum, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal gland (cortex and medulla and renal cortex were collected and frozen. Following RNA extraction, adiponectin mRNA expression of each tissue was detected using Reverse Transcriptase (RT real-time (Q PCR. Results: Visceral adipose tissue had the highest level of expression, averaging 12% higher than subcutaneous adipose. All other tissues had negligible levels of expression compared to adipose samples. Conclusion: This study provided a valuable step for adiponectin research in cats by determining which tissues express this hormone. Cats differ from human beings by expressing higher levels of adiponectin in visceral compared to subcutaneous fat. The metabolic impact of this expression pattern is not known and provides a basis for future research.

  18. Feline leukaemia virus and its clinical effects in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, L

    1975-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection is common among cats where contact is high. The virus can be transmitted readily between cats. It causes a variety of haemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms; the most common types are alimentary, multicentric and thymic lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia. The virus is involved in the aetiology of certain other diseases including anaemia, glomerulonephritis and an immunosuppressive syndrome which predisposes cats to intercurrent infections. Many infected cats mount an immune response and do not suffer from any of these. The immune status is shown by serum antibody levels to feline leukaemia virus associated cell membrane antigens. Cats with a titre of 32 or more are most unlikely to suffer any ill effects and may eliminate the virus infection. The outcome of infection in an individual cat depends on the immunological competence of the cat, the dose of virus received and its ability to induce immunosuppression. FeLV infection can be detected by examination of tissues by electron microscopy, and by culture of virus from plasma and other tissues. In the United States, a method is now in use for the detection of leukaemia virus antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes; this is carried out on ordinary blood films. Successful prototype vaccines have been developed against FeLV. This paper describes the natural history of the virus, the diseases in which it is implicated and discusses recently developed diagnostic methods. PMID:163515

  19. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  20. The Use of Refuges by Communally Housed Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuto de Oliveira, Adriana; Terçariol, César Augusto Sangaletti; Genaro, Gelson

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Captive domestic cats frequently suffer from the lack of physical space and opportunities to perform species-typical behaviors, such as climbing or hiding. Environmental enrichment is a technique that helps transform the space available to animals into a more appropriate habitat. In this study, we tested horizontal and vertical refuge boxes as environmental enrichment for cats living communally in a cat rescue shelter. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. Abstract The increase of domestic animals kept in shelters highlights the need to ensure animal welfare. Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare in many ways, such as encouraging captive animals to use all the space available to them. The effects of physical environmental enrichment on the spatial distribution and behavioral repertoire of 35 neutered domestic cats housed communally were analyzed. The provision of boxes in the environment increases the use of available space by the cats. We suggest this improves the cats’ welfare while in communally-housed rescue shelters. The frequencies of active and especially inactive behaviors also increased in the enriched condition. In a test with vertical environmental enrichment, the animals showed an increased length of stay in refuges located at a height of 0.5 m compared to those on the ground (0.0 m). However, the entry frequency was higher in refuges at 0.0 m. Both horizontal and vertical environmental enrichment increased the use of available space, demonstrating that box refuges as enrichment are effective in providing a refuge when at a height, or a place to explore at ground level. We suggest it enhances the welfare of cats in communally housed shelters. This information adds to the body of evidence relating to cat enrichment and can be useful in designing cat housing in veterinary clinics

  1. Extraskeletal osteochondroma on a cat´s elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Kirberger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A solitary extraskeletal osteochondroma was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, castrated male Burmese cat, positive for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV. The cat presented with a rapidly growing, solid, non-painful mass on the craniolateral aspect of the left elbow. Radiographs revealed an oval, well circumscribed 2.0 cm × 1.5 cm × 1.5 cm mineralised mass separated from the underlying bone. Surgical excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Feline extraskeletal osteochondromas are benign tumours frequently seen in FeLV-positive cats which can transform into osteosarcomas or chondrosarcomas. Radiographically, they cannot be distinguished from a parosteal or an extraskeletal osteosarcoma.

  2. Hip dysplasia in the cat: a report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hip dysplasia was diagnosed in three cats. Two were presented with a history of hindlimb lameness and the other had a history of constipation. All were confined for two weeks and showed considerable clinical improvement. At follow-up examination the cats were free of clinical signs despite the deterioration in the radiological appearance of their hips. Luxation or subluxation of the hips, insufficient development of the craniolateral acetabular edges, loss of the arched shape of the cranial subchondral acetabular bones, shallow acetabula and secondary degenerative changes on the femoral heads and necks were the main radiological findings in the affected cats

  3. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  4. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  5. Uniform exponential growth for CAT(0) square complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kar, Aditi; Sageev, Michah

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we start the inquiry into proving uniform exponential growth in the context of groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes. We address free group actions on CAT(0) square complexes and prove the more general statement that if $F$ is a finite collection of hyperbolic automorphisms of a CAT(0) square complex $X$, then either there exists a pair of elements in $a,b\\in F$ and a pair words of length at most 7 in $a$ and $b$ which freely generate a free semigroup, or there exists a flat (o...

  6. Lymph Drainage of the Mammary Glands in Female Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raharison, Fidiniaina; Sautet, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The mammary gland is a common site of neoplasms in the female cat. All the malignant tumors metastasize to a lesser or a greater extent through the lymphatic system. However, the anatomical knowledge of this system is not sufficiently well known in cats to develop a reasoned model for the extirpation of these glands in case of malignant tumors. A study of the lymph drainage in 50 female cats was done by indirect injection in vivo of India ink inside the mammary parenchyma. After a waiting inte...

  7. Congenital factor XI deficiency in a domestic shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Mark T; Brooks, Marjory B; Esterline, Meredith L

    2002-01-01

    A 6-month-old, female, domestic shorthair cat was examined after onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy because of bleeding from the paws. Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time was discovered, Coagulation factor analyses revealed deficiency of factor XI coagulant activity. Plasma mixing studies indicated factor deficiency or dysfunction rather than factor inhibition. Feline factor XI deficiency in one adult cat has been previously reported but was attributed to factor XI inhibitors. The signalment, lack of primary disease, and the finding of persistent factor XI deficiency in the absence of coagulation inhibitors were considered compatible with congenital factor XI deficiency in the cat of this report. PMID:12428887

  8. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive

  9. Oral, subcutaneous, and intravenous pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Quimby, J. M.; Lake, R. C.; Hansen, R J; Lunghofer, P. J.; Gustafson, D. L.

    2013-01-01

    Ondansetron is a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist that is an effective anti-emetic in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron in healthy cats. Six cats with normal complete blood count, serum biochemistry, and urinalysis received 2 mg oral (mean 0.43 mg/kg), subcutaneous (mean 0.4 mg/kg), and intravenous (mean 0.4 mg/kg) ondansetron in a cross-over manner with a 5-day wash out. Serum was collected prior to, and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h af...

  10. Carpal arthrodesis in cats. Long-term functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, I; Farrell, M; Chase, D; Aisa, J; Rayward, R; Carmichael, S

    2009-01-01

    Pancarpal and partial carpal arthrodesis were performed in 22 carpi (20 cats) using various surgical methods. Short and long-term outcomes were assessed using a retrospective review of the case notes and via owner questionnaires. Carpal arthrodesis was associated with complications that did not affect the functional outcome, and in most cases, did not necessitate major revision surgery. Following arthrodesis, the cats did not jump as high, and showed a reduction in their willingness to jump and climb. Based on our results, carpal arthrodesis is a suitable salvage surgery to treat severe carpal injuries in the cat. PMID:19876518

  11. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  12. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  13. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    CERN Document Server

    Serafini, A; Illuminati, F; Paris, M G A

    2004-01-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed-coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  14. Laser Acupuncture for Postoperative Pain Management in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Virgínia I. Marques; Cassu, Renata N.; Nascimento, Felipe F.; Tavares, Rafaela C. P.; Crociolli, Giulliane C.; Guilhen, Rafael C.; Gabriel M. Nicácio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate laser acupuncture as an adjuvant for postoperative pain management in cats. Twenty cats, undergoing ovariohysterectomy, were sedated with intramuscular (IM) ketamine (5 mg kg−1), midazolam (0.5 mg kg−1), and tramadol (2 mg kg−1). Prior to induction of anaesthesia, the subjects were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 cats: Laser: bilateral stomach 36 and spleen 6 acupoints were stimulated with infrared laser; Control: no acupuncture was applied. An...

  15. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  16. Erosive polyarthritis associated with Mycoplasma gateae in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeugswetter, Florian; Hittmair, Katharina M; de Arespacochaga, Abigail G; Shibly, Sarina; Spergser, Joachim

    2007-06-01

    Erosive polyarthritis was diagnosed in an 11-month-old neutered male Egyptian Mau-cross cat with concurrent glucocorticoid-responsive dermatitis. Clinical signs, synovial fluid analysis, serological tests and radiographic appearance could not differentiate between immune-mediated and infective arthritis. Mycoplasma gateae was isolated by strictly anaerobic culture of the synovial fluid. Treatment with Enrofloxacin led to a rapid improvement of the cat's condition. Two months later the cat was euthanased because of severe glomerulonephritis and direct Coombs' test positive anaemia, possibly caused by mycoplasma infection. M gateae could not be isolated at post-mortem examination. PMID:17175189

  17. VISTA Captures Celestial Cat's Hidden Secrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Cat's Paw Nebula, NGC 6334, is a huge stellar nursery, the birthplace of hundreds of massive stars. In a magnificent new ESO image taken with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, the glowing gas and dust clouds obscuring the view are penetrated by infrared light and some of the Cat's hidden young stars are revealed. Towards the heart of the Milky Way, 5500 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Scorpius (the Scorpion), the Cat's Paw Nebula stretches across 50 light-years. In visible light, gas and dust are illuminated by hot young stars, creating strange reddish shapes that give the object its nickname. A recent image by ESO's Wide Field Imager (WFI) at the La Silla Observatory (eso1003) captured this visible light view in great detail. NGC 6334 is one of the most active nurseries of massive stars in our galaxy. VISTA, the latest addition to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama Desert, is the world's largest survey telescope (eso0949). It works at infrared wavelengths, seeing right through much of the dust that is such a beautiful but distracting aspect of the nebula, and revealing objects hidden from the sight of visible light telescopes. Visible light tends to be scattered and absorbed by interstellar dust, but the dust is nearly transparent to infrared light. VISTA has a main mirror that is 4.1 metres across and it is equipped with the largest infrared camera on any telescope. It shares the spectacular viewing conditions with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which is located on the nearby summit. With this powerful instrument at their command, astronomers were keen to see the birth pains of the big young stars in the Cat's Paw Nebula, some nearly ten times the mass of the Sun. The view in the infrared is strikingly different from that in visible light. With the dust obscuring the view far less, they can learn much more about how these stars form and develop in their first

  18. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug,...

  19. Observations on the use of cyproheptadine hydrochloride as an antipruritic agent in allergic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, D W; Rothstein, E; Beningo, K E; Miller, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Cyproheptadine hydrochloride was administered to 20 presumed or proven allergic cats to determine its efficacy in controlling pruritus. Each cat received 2 mg, orally, every 12 h. The pruritus was satisfactorily controlled in 9 cats. Side effects were seen in 8 cats, and included polyphagia, sedation, vocalization, affectionate behavior, and vomiting.

  20. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (ii) How, where, from whom, and when the dog or cat was obtained; (iii) How long the dog or cat was held by the pound or shelter before being transferred to the dealer; and (iv) The date the dog or cat was transferred to the dealer. (3) Any dealer who obtains or acquires a live dog or cat from a...

  1. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (P<0.001). Both kitten and parturition-related complaints showed a prominent seasonal pattern, peaking in April and May, respectively, and declining gradually until November. 'Kittens' or 'parturition' were explicitly mentioned in 38%, 39% and 19%, respectively, of the complaints regarding cat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of

  2. Molecular Characterization of a Catalase Null Allele at the Cat3 Locus in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Wadsworth, G. J.; Scandalios, J G

    1990-01-01

    Previous analysis has identified line IDS28 of maize (Zea mays L.) as being homozygous for a Catalase-3 (Cat3) null allele. Catalase-3 (CAT-3) protein-specific antibodies could not detect CAT-3 in extracts of several tissues of IDS28, which in a typical maize line possess CAT-3. The absence of CAT-3 resulted in a significant decrease in total catalase activity in those tissues where CAT-3 is the predominant catalase isozyme. RNA blot analysis indicated that IDS28 does not accumulate Cat3 tran...

  3. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. PMID:25143047

  4. Multimode cat-state entanglement and network teleportation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ba An; Kim, Jaewan

    2003-01-01

    Schemes for generation and protocols for network teleportation of multimode entangled cat-states are proposed. Explicit expressions for probability of successful teleportation are derived for both symmetric and asymmetric networks.

  5. A rare case of uterine adenomyosis in a Siamese cat

    OpenAIRE

    Bulman-Fleming, Julie

    2008-01-01

    A 12-year-old, female Siamese cat with a long-term history of megestrol acetate treatment for suppression of estrus was presented with vomiting and abdominal pain. Uterine adenomyosis was diagnosed after an ovariohysterectomy.

  6. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. PMID:21885310

  7. Access database that calls ServCat REST Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Microsoft Access database that calls the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Catalog ServCat Representational State Transfer REST Services to display the title and...

  8. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2002. This dataset represents all data...

  9. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2001 through 12/31/2001. This dataset represents all data...

  10. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2008 through 12/31/2008. This dataset represents all data...

  11. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2004 through 12/31/2004. This dataset represents all data...

  12. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2005 through 12/31/2005. This dataset represents all data...

  13. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2010 through 12/31/2010. This dataset represents all data...

  14. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2009 through 12/31/2009. This dataset represents all data...

  15. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2007 through 12/31/2007. This dataset represents all data...

  16. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2003 through 12/31/2003. This dataset represents all data...

  17. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2011 through 12/31/2011. This dataset represents all data...

  18. A star in the eye: cat scratch neuroretinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gajula, Viswanath; Kamepalli, Ravi; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Neuroretinitis is one of the atypical presentations of Cat scratch disease (CSD). Fundoscopy showed star pattern macular exudates. CSD should be considered in patients who present with blurry vision and typical fundoscopic findings.

  19. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  20. OCLC, WorldCat und die Metadaten-Kontroverse

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The article gives an overview over the background, genesis, content and critic of OCLC's proposed metadata policy for WorldCat records. In the end it poses questions for an approach on licensing bibliographic data in germany.