WorldWideScience

Sample records for cats claw

  1. Cat's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Cat's Claw Share: On This Page Background How Much ... Foster This fact sheet provides basic information about cat’s claw—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources ...

  2. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  3. Reversible worsening of Parkinson disease motor symptoms after oral intake of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (UT), also known as cat's claw, isa Peruvian Rubiaceae species widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of a wide range of health problems. There is no report about the use, safety, and efficacy of UT in neurological disorders. We describe reversible worsening of motor signs in a patient with Parkinson disease after oral intake of UT, and some possible explanations are discussed.

  4. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw): Chemotype relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Samuel; Carvalho, Ânderson Ramos; Pittol, Vanessa; Dietrich, Fabrícia; Manica, Fabiana; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Oliveira, Luis Flávio Souza; Oliveira Battastini, Ana Maria; Ortega, George González

    2016-08-02

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) or cat's claw is a climber vine from the South American rainforest used in folk medicine for cancer treatment. Its antitumor activity has been mostly ascribed to pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (POA) from stem bark and leaves while the activity of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA) remains unknown. In recent times, the occurrence of three chemotypes based on its oxindole alkaloid profile was noticed in U. tomentosa, namely, chemotype I (POA cis D/E ring junction); chemotype II (POA trans D/E ring junction) or chemotype III (TOA). Consequently, the relationship between the chemotype and cytotoxic and genotoxic activities deserves attention. To evaluate the influence of cat's claw chemotypes on genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against non malignant and malignant human cell line models. Four authentic stem bark cat's claw samples (SI-SIV) and two leaf samples (LII and LIII) were analyzed by HPLC-PDA, properly extracted and fractioned by ion-exchange to obtain oxindole alkaloid purified fractions (OAPFs). The freeze-dried fractions were assayed for genotoxicity and cytotoxicity against human leukocytes (non malignant cell line) by the micronuclei frequency method and the alkaline comet DNA assay, and the trypan blue method, respectively. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of each OAPF was evaluated against a human bladder cancer cell line (T24) and human glioblastoma cell line (U-251-MG) by MTT method (malignant cell lines). Additionally, the isomerization of oxindole alkaloids throughout the course of cell incubation was monitored by HPLC-PDA. Based on HPLC-PDA analyses, sample SI was characterized as chemotype I, while samples SII and LII were characterized as chemotype II, and samples SIII, SIV and LIII as chemotype III. The chemotypes showed comparable cytotoxic activity toward malignant cell lines (T24 and U-251-MG) unlike human leukocytes (non malignant cell line), where this activity was clearly distinct

  5. Antimutagenic and antiherpetic activities of different preparations from Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, Thiago; Kaiser, Samuel; Feltrin, Clarissa; de Carvalho, Annelise; Sincero, Thaís Cristine Marques; Ortega, George González; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Uncaria tomentosa have been used to treat viral diseases such as herpes due to multiple pharmacological effects, but its therapeutic efficacy against this virus have not been reported yet. Thus, in vitro antiherpetic activity of hydroethanolic extract from barks, purified fractions of quinovic acid glycosides and oxindole alkaloids was evaluated by plaque reduction assay, including mechanistic studies (virucidal, attachment and penetration action). Once exposure to physical agents might lead to reactivation of the herpetic infection, antimutagenic effect (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatment protocols) was also evaluated by Comet assay. The antiherpetic activity from the samples under investigation seemed to be associated with the presence of polyphenols or their synergistic effect with oxindole alkaloids or quinovic acid glycosides, once both purified fractions did not present activity when evaluated alone. Inhibition of viral attachment in the host cells was the main mechanism of antiviral activity. Although both purified fractions displayed the lowest antimutagenic activity in pre and simultaneous treatment, they provided a similar effect to that of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract in post-treatment. Given that purified fractions may result in a reduced antiherpetic activity, the use of cat's claw hydroethanolic extract from barks should be prioritized in order to obtain a synergistic effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) improves quality of life in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Larissa Carvalho Lopes; Fonseca, Fernando; Perazzo, Fabio; Cruz, Felipe Melo; Cubero, Daniel; Trufelli, Damila Cristina; Martins, Suelen Patrícia Dos Santos; Santi, Patrícia Xavier; da Silva, Eliana Araújo; Del Giglio, Auro

    2015-01-01

    Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) is a native Amazon plant that exhibits anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. We wanted to assess its activity for symptom management of terminal cancer patients. This prospective phase II study assessed the effects of a 100-mg dose of a dry extract of U. tomentosa three times per day in patients with advanced solid tumors who had no further therapeutic options and a life expectancy of at least 2 months. The European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ C30) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue questionnaires were used to assess the participants' quality of life, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire was used to assess anxiety and depression, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep quality. In addition, several biochemical and inflammatory parameters were analyzed. Fifty-one volunteers were recruited. Their median age was 64 (range, 33-85) years, and 47% of patients were female. More than 65% of patients had scores on the Karnofsky Performance Scale of 80% or less. Treatment improved the patients' overall quality of life (p=0.0411) and social functioning (p=0.0341), as assessed by the EORTC QLQ C-30, and reduced fatigue (p=0.0496) according to the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire. None of the biochemical or inflammatory parameters assessed (interleukin-1 and -6, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and α-1-acid glycoprotein) changed significantly. No tumor response was detected according to the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors; however, the disease stabilized for more than 8 months in four participants. The medication was well tolerated by most patients. Use of cat's claw might be beneficial in patients with advanced cancer by improving their quality of life and reducing fatigue. The mechanism of action does not seem to be related to the anti

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, M; Okuhama, N N; Zhang, X J; Condezo, L A; Lao, J; Angeles', F M; Musah, R A; Bobrowski, P; Miller, M J S

    2002-05-01

    Cat's claw is an herbal medicine from the Amazon that is used widely to treat inflammatory disorders. The purpose of this study was to characterize the antioxidative and antiinflammatory properties of cat's claw, Uncaria tomentosa (UT) and Uncaria guianensis (UG). Alkaloids and flavanols were determined using reversed-phase HPLC; scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation by spectrophotometry; and TNFalpha production by ELISA. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vitro by inhibition of TNFalpha and nitrite production from RAW 264.7 cells exposed to LPS (50 ng/ml) and in vivo using the indomethacin-induced gastritis model. Apoptosis was assessed using the TUNEL technique and TNFalpha mRNA by in situ RT-PCR. In each of the antioxidant assays tested, UG was more potent than UT (P UG. The IC50 value for inhibition of TNFalpha production was significantly (P < 0.01) higher for UT (14.1 ng/ml) vs UG (9.5 ng/ml), yet at concentrations that were considerable lower than that required for antioxidant activity. Non-alkaloid HPLC fractions from UT decreased LPS-induced TNFalpha and nitrite production in RAW 264.7 cells (P < 0.01) at a concentration range comparable to the parent botanical. Oral pretreatment for 3 d with UT protected against indomethacin-induced gastritis, and prevented TNFalpha mRNA expression and apoptosis. These results indicate that while both species of cat's claw provide effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, U. guianensis is more potent. In conclusion, the presence of oxindole or pentacyclic alkaloids did not influence the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cat's claw.

  8. Experimental endometriosis reduction in rats treated with Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Coelho, Tarcísio Mota; Aguiar, Guilherme Carneiro; Carvalho, Laura Rosa; de Araújo, Ana Gisélia Portela; Girão, Manuel João B C; Schor, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the macroscopic and histological changes that occur in experimental endometriosis after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa. Experimental endometriosis was induced in twenty-five female Wistar rats. After three weeks, 24 animals developed grade III experimental endometriosis and were divided into two groups. Group "U" received U. tomentosa extract orally (32 mg/day), and group "C" (control group) received a 0.9% sodium chloride solution orally (1 ml/100g of body weight/day). Both groups were treated with gavage for 14 days. At the surgical intervention and after the animal was euthanized, the implant volume was calculated with the following formula: [4π (length/2)×(width/2)×(height/2)/3]. The autotransplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the independent samples, and the Wilcoxon test analyzed the related samples, with a significance level of 5%. The difference between the initial average volumes of the autotransplants was not significant between the groups (p = 0.18). However, the final average volumes were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) between the initial and final average volumes in the control group, and treatment with the U. tomentosa caused a marked reduction in the growth over time (p = 0.009). Histologically, in the experimental group (n = 10) six rats had a well-preserved epithelial layer, three had mildly preserved epithelium, and one had poorly preserved epithelium. The epithelial layer occasionally presented sporadic epithelial cells. The control group (n = 12) presented seven cases (58.3%) of well-preserved epithelial cells and five cases (41.7%) of mildly preserved epithelial cells. Cat's claw extract appears to be a promising alternative for treating endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  10. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of domestic cats (indoor and outdoor) and in captivity in São Paulo (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiana Saleme; Rossi, Claudio Nazaretian; Fedullo, José Daniel Luzes; Taborda, Carlos Pelleschi; Taborda, João Pelleschi; Larsson, Carlos Eduardo

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis and is also a zoonosis (sapro- and anthropozoonosis). The objective of the present study was to determine the occurrence of sporotrichosis in domestic cats and in wild or exotic felines in captivity through the isolation of Sporothrix spp. from claw impressions in a culture medium. The samples included 132 felines, of which 120 (91.0 %) were domestic cats, 11 (8.3 %) were wild felines, and one (0.7 %) was an exotic felid. Twenty-one (17.5 %) were outdoor cats. Of the total, 89 (67.4 %) had contact with other animals of the same species. It was possible to isolate Sporothrix schenckii from the claws of one (0.7 %) of the felids probed; this animal exhibited generalised sporotrichosis and had infected a female veterinarian. The potential pathogenic agents Microsporum canis and Malassezia pachydermatis were isolated in 12.1 and 5.3 % of the animals, respectively. The following anemophilous fungi, which were considered to be contaminants, were also isolated: Penicillium sp. (28 or 21.2 %), Aspergillus sp. (13 or 9.8 %), Rhodotorula sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Candida sp. (5 or 3.8 %), Trichoderma sp. (1 or 0.7 %), and Acremonium sp. (1 or 0.7 %). Due to the low magnitude of occurrence (0.7 %) of Sporothrix in feline claws, the potential of the cats evaluated in this study to be sources of infection in the city of São Paulo is considerably low.

  11. A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Thomas; Akesson, Christina; Gan, David; Giampapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2006-03-01

    Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) water extracts, essentially free of oxindole alkaloids, have been shown to possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including DNA repair enhancement and antiinflammatory properties. These two biological mechanisms are key molecular targets to develop treatments that protect skin exposed to ultraviolet light from the sun. Because C-Med-100, a Cat's Claw water extract, is the only documented natural source of components that can up-regulate simultaneously both DNA repair and antiinflammation, its ability to modulate DNA repair in human skin organ cultures was undertaken. For this purpose skin cultures were treated with or without 5 mg/mL C-Med-100, irradiated with 0-100 mJ/cm2 UVB, and microscopically analysed for necrosis as well as the level of pyrimidine dimers using immunofluorescent TT-dimer antibody staining. The data clearly demonstrated that co-incubation with C-Med-100 reduced skin cell death from UV exposure, and this protection was accounted for by a concomitant increase in DNA repair. Based on these results, it was concluded that C-Med-100 was a natural plant extract worthy of further consideration as a sunscreen product. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Optimization of the analysis by means of liquid chromatography of metabolites of the Uncaria Tomentosa plant (cat's claw) using the sequential simplex method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Blanco, Eric

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the analysis using liquid chromatography of the metabolites present in extracts of root bark of Uncaria Tomentosa (cat's claw) by applying the simplex sequential technique to determine the magnitude of the chromatographic variables; i.e. flow, temperature and stationary-phase composition, which allowed the optimizing the elusion time and the resolution of the chromatographic separation. The chromatographic analysis was performed in isocratic mode using a C12 (-urea) column of 15 cm in length and 4,6 mm of diameter and a UV detector. The magnitude of the chromatographic variables that optimized the separation turned out to be: flow of 1.80 mL/min, temperature of 27.5 centigrade and a mobile phase composition of 22:78 (Methanol: to butter). (Author) [es

  13. HPLC-PDA method for quinovic acid glycosides assay in Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) associated with UPLC/Q-TOF-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavei, Cabral; Kaiser, Samuel; Verza, Simone Gasparin; Borre, Gustavo Luis; Ortega, George Gonzalez

    2012-03-25

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine due to its wide range of biological activities, many of which are usually ascribed to the two main classes of secondary metabolites, namely, alkaloids and quinovic acid glycosides. In this work, a reversed phase HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the assay of quinovic acid glycosides in crude and dried extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's claw) bark. The validation comprised tests of specificity, accuracy, linearity, intermediate precision, repeatability and limits of detection and of quantification. Alpha-hederin was used as the external standard. High coefficients of determination with lower R.S.D. were achieved for both external standard and crude extract. The structural characterization of the main quinovic acid glycosides presented in the crude extract was carried out through UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. The identities of the compounds were obtained through the comparison of their fragmentation patterns with those reported in the literature. The analytical method was successfully applied for quantifying quinovic acid glycosides in two different dried extracts from U. tomentosa and in one quinovic acid glycosides purified fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  15. Antitumoral and antioxidant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) (Willd. Ex Roem. & Schult) in an in vivo carcinosarcoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreifuss, Arturo Alejandro; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda Leite; Avila, Thiago Vinicius; Soley, Bruna da Silva; Rivero, Armando J; Aguilar, José Luis; Acco, Alexandra

    2010-07-06

    The present work intended to study the antitumoral and antioxidant effects of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) hydroalcoholic extract in the Walker-256 cancer model. Walker-256 cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the pelvic limb of male Wistar rats. Daily gavage with UT extract (10, 50 or 100 mg kg(-1), Groups UT) or saline solution (Control, Group C) was subsequently initiated, until 14 days afterwards. For some parameters, a group of healthy rats (Baseline, Group B) was added. At the end of treatment the following parameters were evaluated: (a) tumor volume and mass; (b) plasmatic concentration of urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); (c) hepatic and tumoral activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the rate of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and gluthatione (GSH); and (d) hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity. The reactivity of UT extract with the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was assessed in parallel. UT hydroalcoholic extract successfully reduced the tumor growth. In addition, treatment with UT reduced the activity of AST, which had been increased as a result of tumor inoculation, thus attempting to return it to normal levels. UT did not reverse the increase of LDH and GGT plasma levels, although all doses were remarkably effective in reducing urea plasma levels. An important in vitro free radical-scavenging activity was detected at various concentrations of UT extract (1-300 microg mL(-1)). Treatment also resulted in increased CAT activity in liver, while decreasing it in tumor tissue. SOD activity was reduced in liver as well as in tumor, compared to Group C. No statistical significance concerning ALT, GST, LPO or GSH were observed. This data represent an in vivo demonstration of both antitumoral and antioxidant effects of UT hydroalcoholic extract. The antineoplastic activity may result, partially at least

  16. The power of the claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Rothschild

    Full Text Available Scratches on bones have routinely been attributed to tooth marks (a predominantly untested speculation, ignoring the effects of claws, perhaps because of the general assumption that claws are too soft to damage bone. However, some pathologies appears to be more compatible with claw rather than tooth impacts. Therefore, it is critical to determine if the claws of any animal are capable of scratching into the surface of any bone--a test and proof of concept. A tiger enrichment program was used to document actual bone damage unequivocally caused by claws, by assuring that the tiger had access to bones only by using its paws (claws. The spectrum of mechanisms causing bone damage was expanded by evidentiary analysis of claw-induced pathology. While static studies suggested that nails/claws could not disrupt bone, specific tiger enrichment activities documented that bones were susceptible to damage from the kinetic energy effect of the striking claw. This documents an expanded differential consideration for scratch marks on bone and evidences the power of the claw.

  17. [Declawing in cats?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, I

    1983-02-15

    Those forms of behaviour in which cats use their claws are reviewed. Forms of undesirable use of the claws and possible solutions to this problem are discussed. An inquiry among veterinary practitioners showed that nearly fifty per cent of these practitioners refused to declaw cats on principle. Approximately seventy-five per cent of the veterinarians taking part in the inquiry advocated that the Royal Netherlands Veterinary Association should state its position with regard to declawing. It is concluded by the present author that declawing is unacceptable for ethical and ethological reasons.

  18. Polymer Claw: Instant Underwater Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    glycerol is a well-known hygroscopic liquid and lubricant. In the Polymer Claw Progress Report -4- 9/24/12 The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics...the Polymer Claw adhesive partially solidified, while commercial adhesives were completely liquid after one hour. However, the curing rate was...is not valid for partial liquid adhesives, we will only test at later times, noting the minimum time for which the glass slides break. The time to

  19. Pioneer identification of fake tiger claws using morphometric and DNA-based analysis in wildlife forensics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipin; Sharma, Vinita; Sharma, Chandra Prakash; Kumar, Ved Prakash; Goyal, Surendra Prakash

    2016-09-01

    The illegal trade in wildlife is a serious threat to the existence of wild animals throughout the world. The short supply and high demand for wildlife articles have caused an influx of many different forms of fake wildlife articles into this trade. The task of identifying the materials used in making such articles poses challenges in wildlife forensics as different approaches are required for species identification. Claws constitute 3.8% of the illegal animal parts (n=2899) received at the Wildlife Institute of India (WII) for species identification. We describe the identification of seized suspected tiger claws (n=18) using a combined approach of morphometric and DNA-based analysis. The differential keratin density, determined using X-ray radiographs, indicated that none of the 18 claws were of any large cat but were fake. We determined three claw measurements, viz. ac (from the external coronary dermo-epidermal interface to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn), bc (from the claw tip to the epidermis of the skin fold connecting the palmar flanges of the coronary horn) and the ratio bc/ac, for all the seized (n=18), tiger (n=23) and leopard (n=49) claws. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. A scatter plot generated using canonical discriminant function analysis revealed that of the 18 seized claws, 14 claws formed a cluster separate from the clusters of the tiger and leopard claws, whereas the remaining four claws were within the leopard cluster. Because a discrepancy was observed between the X-ray images and the measurements of these four claws, one of the claw that clustered with the leopard claws was chosen randomly and DNA analysis carried out using the cyt b (137bp) and 16S rRNA (410bp) genes. A BLAST search and comparison with the reference database at WII indicated that the keratin material of the claw was derived from Bos taurus (cattle). This is a pioneering discovery, and

  20. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward

  1. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION VARIABILITY IN THE Uncaria tomentosa (cat’s claw WILD POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Maribel Condori Peñaloza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw is a vine widely distributed throughout the South-American rainforest. Many studies investigating the chemical composition of cat's claw have focused on the pentacyclic (POA and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (TOA, quinovic acid glycosides (QAG, and polyphenols (PPH. Nevertheless, it is still uncertain how environmental factors affect chemical groups. The aim of this work was to better understand the influence of environmental factors (geographic origin, altitude, and season on cat's claw chemical composition. Stem bark, branches and leaf samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC-PDA. The data obtained were explored by multivariate analysis (HCA and PCA. Higher amounts of oxindole alkaloids and PPH were found in leaves, followed by stem bark and branches. No clear relationship was verified among geographic origin or altitude and chemical composition, which remained unchanged regardless of season (dry or rainy. However, three oxindole alkaloid chemotypes were clearly recognized: chemotype I (POA with cis D/E ring junction; chemotype II (POA with trans D/E ring junction; and chemotype III (TOA. Thus, environmental factors appear to have only a minor influence on the chemical heterogeneity of the cat's claw wild population. Nevertheless, the occurrence of different chemotypes based on alkaloid profiles seems to be clear.

  2. Invited review: Genetics and claw health: Opportunities to enhance claw health by genetic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine recording of claw health status at claw trimming of dairy cattle have been established in several countries, providing valuable data for genetic evaluation. In this review, issues related to genetic evaluation of claw health are examined, data sources, trait definitions and data validation p...

  3. Effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature in dairy cows measured by infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Luternauer, M; Doherr, M G; Steiner, A

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess the effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature. In total, 648 IRT observations each were collected from 81 cows housed in 6 tiestalls before and 3 wk after claw trimming. The feet were classified as either healthy (nonlesion group, n = 182) or affected with infectious foot disorders (group IFD, n = 142). The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band and skin and the difference of the maximal temperatures (ΔT) between the lateral and medial claws of the respective foot were assessed. Linear mixed models, correcting for the hierarchical structure of the data, ambient temperature, and infectious status of the claws, were developed to evaluate the effect of time in relation to the trimming event (d 0 versus d 21) and claw (medial versus lateral). Front feet and hind feet were analyzed separately. Ambient temperature and infectious foot status were identified as external and internal factors, respectively, that significantly affected claw temperature. Before claw trimming, the lateral claws of the hind feet were significantly warmer compared with the medial claws, whereas such a difference was not evident for the claws of the front feet. At d 21, ΔT of the hind feet was reduced by ≥ 0.25 °C, whereas it was increased by ≤ 0.13 °C in the front feet compared with d 0. Therefore, trimming was associated with a remarkable decrease of ΔT of the hind claws. Equalizing the weight bearing of the hind feet by routine claw trimming is associated with a measurable reduction of ΔT between the paired hind claws. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiographic features of laminitic claws of dairy cows around Nairobi.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the common radiographic features in laminitic claws from dairy cows using abattoir samples. A total of 192 claws were collected from Wangige slaughter slab and 126 claws from Kiserian abattoir. The claws were examined for gross lesions. Dorso-palmar/dorso-plantar and lateral ...

  5. Development, comparative morphology and cornification of reptilian claws in relation to claws evolution in tetrapods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alibardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The development of claws in different reptiles and their cornification are analyzed using histological, ultrastructural and autoradiographic methods. Claws develop at the tip of digits in relation to the growth of the terminal phalanx and appear as modified scales. The apical epidermis of digit

  6. CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF VNCARIA TOMENTOSA (CAT'S CLAW)

    OpenAIRE

    ., E. E. OKTAYOĞLU, A. H. MERİÇLİ

    2013-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa 2000 yıldan beri kanser, astım ve gastrik ülser gibi rahatsızlıklarda kullanıldığı için çok önemli bir bitkidir. Bu derlemede Uncaria tomentosa hakkında genel bilgi verilmiş ve kimyasal içeriği ve kullanılışı özetlenmiştir.

  7. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    Full Text Available Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  8. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times.

  9. Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, C K

    1992-12-01

    An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in

  10. Development of Claw Traits and Claw Lesions in Dairy Cows kept on different floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a

  11. Strengthening the closure concept in claw-free graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Zdenek

    2001-01-01

    We give a strengthening of the closure concept for claw-free graphs introduced by the second author in 1997. The new closure of a claw-free graph G defined here is uniquely determined and preserves the value of the circumference of G. We present an infinite family of graphs with n vertices and

  12. Strengthening the closure concept in claw-free graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.

    2000-01-01

    We give a strengthening of the closure concept for claw-free graphs introduced by the second author in 1997. The new closure of a claw-free graph $G$ defined here is uniquely determined and preserves the value of the circumference of $G$. We present an infinite family of graphs with $n$ vertices and

  13. Claw health and floor type in group housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Vermeij, I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to give an overview of the effect of floor types on claw health in group housed sows. The risk on lameness caused by the pen floor is increasing with group housing becoming more important. Lameness is a major welfare and production problem and often related to claw

  14. Noise generation mechanisms in claw pole alternators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.; Burns, S.; Pekarek, S.; Bai, Hua; Tichenor, J.

    2005-05-01

    Noise of claw pole alternators, generated electromagnetically and structurally radiated, has been the subject of an extensive research program. The goal has been to identify and reduce noise radiation mechanisms in claw pole (Lundell) alternators used in automotive applications. Two approaches have been followed. In the first, electromagnetic sources of noise have been investigated by lumped parameter and magnetically equivalent circuit modeling and simulation, and by related experimentation. This is the subject of separate papers. The second, concurrent study reported here has investigated machine and mount responses to an electromagnetically generated torque ripple. Modeling and experimentation has led to the conclusion that there exists a high correlation between electromagnetic sources, torque ripple, and radiated noise. Experimentation also has led to the conclusion that noise characteristics of a given machine are substantially altered by modification of the mounting configuration. The work reported here involves modeling, simulation, and experiment to isolate machine dynamic characteristics and mounting geometries which contribute to strong coupling between torque ripple and machine/mount dynamic response. A low-order model of the alternator which includes shaft flexibility, gyroscopic effects, shaft bearing asymmetry, mounting lug geometry, and mounting structure dynamics has been created. The model provides a rapid simulation of dynamic response in the form of a transfer function between torque ripple and mounting forces. Generic studies of a simplified mounting structure coupled to the machine model are presented here. Acoustic testing of several machine configurations on a production mount has been carried out to investigate 36th order noise in three phase machines and 72nd order noise in six-phase machines. Electromagnetic modeling and dynamic response simulations suggest that the six-phase machine is inherently quieter. This is supported by

  15. An experimental model for studying claw lesions in growing female pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Anne-Charlotte; Svendsen, Jörgen; Botermans, Jos; Bergsten, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Problems with claw lesions leading to lameness are a growing concern in pig production. However, the causes and development of claw lesions are poorly understood and studies on prevention of claw lesion problems in gifts and sows are limited.This study tested a new experimental model which facilitates evaluation of the impact of different risk factors on pig feet lesions.The model consisted of using young gilts with a well-known background and promoting traumatic claw lesions for study purpos...

  16. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2015-01-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders

  17. Specific Characteristics of Injuries Inflicted by Claw Hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchaillet, Céline; Gaudin, Arnaud; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Jousset, Nathalie

    2016-09-01

    Claw hammers have the specific characteristic of having two distinct ends: one a flat head of variable form, the other bifurcated. So the use of this tool as a blunt instrument will cause varying injuries. The authors present two clinical cases of assault with a claw hammer. Examinations revealed two types of wound. A first injury composed of integumentary lacerations and underlying bone injuries in terms of "shape" suggested the use of a blunt instrument. A second injury made up of damage showing two parallel wounds or two wounds located one in the extension of the other suggested the use of an object with a bifurcated end. The combination of both types of injury should alert examiners to the possibility of the use of a claw hammer in causing the injuries in order to help direct investigators in their investigations and in the search for the weapon used. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Milking performance evaluation and factors affecting milking claw vacuum levels with flow simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokidani, Masafumi; Kawai, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yasunori; Watanabe, Aiko

    2017-08-01

    Milking performance of milking machines that matches the production capability of dairy cows is important in reducing the risk of mastitis, particularly in high-producing cows. This study used a simulated milking device to examine the milking performance of the milking system of 73 dairy farms and to analyze the factors affecting claw vacuum. Mean claw vacuum and range of fluctuation of claw vacuum (claw vacuum range) were measured at three different flow rates: 5.7, 7.6 and 8.7 kg/min. At the highest flow rate, only 16 farms (21.9%) met both standards of mean claw vacuum ≥35 kPa and claw vacuum range ≤ 7 kPa, showing that milking systems currently have poor milking performance. The factors affecting mean claw vacuum were claw type, milk-meter and vacuum shut-off device; the factor affecting claw vacuum range was claw type. Examination of the milking performance of the milking system using a simulated milking device allows an examination of the performance that can cope with high producing cows, indicating the possibility of reducing the risk of mastitis caused by inappropriate claw vacuum. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Biophysics of underwater hearing in the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elepfandt, A

    1995-01-01

    Anesthetized clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) were stimulated with underwater sound and the tympanic disk vibrations were studied using laser vibrometry. The tympanic disk velocities ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 mm/s (at a sound pressure of 2 Pa) in the frequency range of 0.4-4 kHz and were 20-40 dB higher...

  20. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Darbas (Aysel); M.M. Jaegle (Martine); E.T. Walbeehm (Erik); H. van den Burg (Hans); L.A.M. Broos (Ludo); M. Uyl (Matthijs); P. Visser (Pim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); D.N. Meijer (Dies); M.J.F. Driegen (Siska)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation claw paw (clp) are characterized by limb posture abnormalities and congenital hypomyelination, with delayed onset of myelination of the peripheral nervous system but not the central nervous system. Although this combination of limb and

  1. Reconfiguring Independent Sets in Claw-Free Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsma, P.S.; Kamiński, Marcin; Wrochna, Marcin; Ravi, R.; Gørtz, Inge Li

    We present a polynomial-time algorithm that, given two independent sets in a claw-free graph G, decides whether one can be transformed into the other by a sequence of elementary steps. Each elementary step is to remove a vertex v from the current independent set S and to add a new vertex w (not in

  2. Perspectives on the treatment of claw lesions in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shearer JK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jan K Shearer,1 Paul J Plummer,1,2 Jennifer A Schleining11Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA; 2Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USAAbstract: Lameness is a leading cause of welfare and culling issues in cattle, with claw lesions accounting for the majority of these issues. Although the treatment of claw lesions in cattle is a daily activity for hoof trimmers, veterinarians, and livestock producers, there is surprisingly little information in the peer-reviewed literature on which to base strong evidence-based conclusions. As a consequence, many treatment modalities used are empirical and, in some cases, may be counterproductive to rapid lesion healing. Furthermore, many of these empirical treatment modalities fail to fully consider the underlying pathogenesis of the disease process and the implications that it has on lesion healing. For example, sole ulcers are largely a consequence of metabolic disorders and mechanical overloading. Therapeutic interventions that fail to address the weight-bearing issues are unlikely to be successful. Likewise, white line disease is believed to be predisposed by rumen acidosis and laminitis, and interventions need to include in them appropriate measures to prevent further cases through nutritional management. The goal of this review paper is to review the pathogenesis of claw lesions in the context of the published literature and allow the reader to arrive at rational treatment interventions based on the best available information. The use of an orthopedic block applied to the healthy claw of a lame foot, judicious use of bandage or wrap, careful selection of parenteral or topical therapy, and a treatment protocol to manage pain and promote recovery are key components of responsible management of lameness disorders in cattle.Keywords: lameness

  3. Genetic correlations between claw health and feet and leg conformation in Norwegian Red cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, C; Svendsen, M; Heringstad, B

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits in Norwegian Red cows. A total of 188,928 cows with claw health status recorded at claw trimming from 2004 to September 2013 and 210,789 first-lactation cows with feet and leg conformation scores from 2001 to September 2013 were included in the analyses. Traits describing claw health were corkscrew claw, infectious claw disorders (dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital phlegmon), and laminitis-related claw disorders (sole ulcer, white line disorder, and hemorrhage of sole and white line). The feet and leg conformation traits were rear leg rear view (new and old definition), rear leg side view, foot angle, and hoof quality. Feet and leg conformation traits were scored linearly from 1 to 9, with optimum scores depending on the trait. Claw disorders were defined as binary (0/1) traits for each lactation. Threshold sire models were used to model claw disorders, whereas the feet and leg conformation traits were described by linear sire models. Three multivariate analyses were performed, each including the 5 feet and leg conformation traits and 1 of the 3 claw disorders at a time. Posterior means of heritability of liability of claw disorders ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 and heritabilities of feet and leg conformation traits ranged from 0.04 to 0.11. Posterior standard deviation of heritability was ≤0.01 for all traits. Genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits were all low or moderate, except between corkscrew claw and hoof quality (-0.86), which are supposed to measure the same trait. The genetic correlations between rear leg rear view (new) and infectious claw disorders (-0.20) and laminitis-related claw disorders (0.26), and between hoof quality and laminitis-related claw disorders (-0.33) were moderate. Eight of the 15 genetic correlations between claw disorders and feet and leg conformation traits had 0

  4. Use of thermography to monitor sole haemorrhages and temperature distribution over the claws of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K; Wilhelm, J; Fürll, M

    2015-02-07

    Subclinical laminitis, an early pathological event in the development of many claw diseases, is an important factor in the welfare and economics of high-producing dairy cows. However, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this complex claw disease are not well understood. The present study investigated to what extent thermographic examination of claws is able to give information about corium inflammation, and whether the technique may be used as a diagnostic tool for early detection of subclinical laminitis. Moreover, the temperature distribution over the individual main claws was investigated to obtain further knowledge about pressure distribution on the claws. For this purpose the claws of 123 cows were evaluated in the first week after calving as well as after the second month of lactation for presence of sole haemorrhages (a sign of subclinical laminitis). Furthermore, the ground contact area was analysed by thermography. Sole haemorrhages were significantly increased by the second month of lactation. Thermography showed clear differences between the claws of the front limbs and hindlimbs, as well as between lateral and medial claws. Although the distribution of sole haemorrhages was consistent with the pattern of the temperature distribution over the main claws, no clear correlation was found between the claw temperature after calving and the visible laminitis-like changes (sole haemorrhages) eight weeks later. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-09-01

    Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was

  6. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 49-62

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 50 Cat. 51 Cat. 53 Cat. 54 Cat. 55 (a) Cat. 55 (b) Cat. 56 Cat. 57: 1 Cat. 57: 2 Cat. 57: 3 Cat. 57: 4 Cat. 59: 1 Cat. 59: 2 Cat. 59: 3 Cat. 59: 4 Cat. 60 Cat. 61 Cat. 62: 1 (a) Cat. 62: 1 (b) Cat. 62: 2 (a) Cat. 62: 2 (b)

  8. Sexual conflict and the function of genitalic claws in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Lucia; Cheng, Yun Yun; Rodd, F Helen; Rowe, Locke

    2013-10-23

    Poeciliid fish, freshwater fish with internal fertilization, are known for the diversity of structures on the male intromittent organ, the gonopodium. Prominent among these, in some species, is a pair of claws at its tip. We conducted a manipulative study of these claws in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata, to determine if these aid in transferring sperm to resistant females. We compared the sperm transfer rates of clawed versus surgically declawed males attempting to mate with either receptive or unreceptive (i.e. resistant) females. Our analyses demonstrate that the gonopodial claws function to increase sperm transfer to unreceptive females during uncooperative matings but not during receptive matings. Up to threefold more sperm were transferred to unreceptive females by clawed than declawed males. These data suggest that the claw is a sexually antagonistic trait, functioning to aid in transferring sperm to resistant females, and implicate sexual conflict as a selective force in the diversification of the gonopodium in the Poeciliidae.

  9. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  10. The Genome of the Western Clawed Frog Xenopus tropicalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M.; Gilchrist, Michael J.; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L.; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S.; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C.; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M.; Mead, Paul E.; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V.; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K.; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K.; Zimmerman, Lyle B.; Zorn, Aaron M.; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Richardson, Paul M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2009-10-01

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes over 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1,700 human disease genes. Over a million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like other tetrapods, the genome contains gene deserts enriched for conserved non-coding elements. The genome exhibits remarkable shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  11. The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsten, Uffe; Harland, Richard M; Gilchrist, Michael J; Hendrix, David; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Ovcharenko, Ivan; Putnam, Nicholas H; Shu, Shengqiang; Taher, Leila; Blitz, Ira L; Blumberg, Bruce; Dichmann, Darwin S; Dubchak, Inna; Amaya, Enrique; Detter, John C; Fletcher, Russell; Gerhard, Daniela S; Goodstein, David; Graves, Tina; Grigoriev, Igor V; Grimwood, Jane; Kawashima, Takeshi; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan M; Mead, Paul E; Mitros, Therese; Ogino, Hajime; Ohta, Yuko; Poliakov, Alexander V; Pollet, Nicolas; Robert, Jacques; Salamov, Asaf; Sater, Amy K; Schmutz, Jeremy; Terry, Astrid; Vize, Peter D; Warren, Wesley C; Wells, Dan; Wills, Andrea; Wilson, Richard K; Zimmerman, Lyle B; Zorn, Aaron M; Grainger, Robert; Grammer, Timothy; Khokha, Mustafa K; Richardson, Paul M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2010-04-30

    The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.

  12. Development of a superconducting claw-pole motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, E.; Kikukawa, K.; Satoh, Y.; Torii, S.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed and produced a superconducting claw-pole motor for a trial purpose as a method to make the best use of the characteristic of superconductivity without collector rings or rotating superconducting coils that need to be cryocooled, and made some examinations. The unique feature in this motor is to have the mechanism that supports the reaction magnetic force generated in the axial direction

  13. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Darbas, Aysel; Jaegle, Martine; Walbeehm, Erik; van den Burg, Hans; Driegen, Siska; Broos, Ludo; Uyl, Matthijs; Visser, Pim; Grosveld, Frank; Meijer, Dies

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation claw paw (clp) are characterized by limb posture abnormalities and congenital hypomyelination, with delayed onset of myelination of the peripheral nervous system but not the central nervous system. Although this combination of limb and peripheral nerve abnormalities in clp/clp mice might suggest a common neurogenic origin of the syndrome, it is not clear whether the clp gene acts primarily in the neurone, the Schwann cell or bot...

  14. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 26-48

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 26: 1 (a) Cat. 26: 1 (b) Cat. 26: 2 (a) Cat. 26: 2(b) Cat. 27: 1 (a) Cat. 27: 1 (b) Cat. 27: 2 (a) Cat. 27: 2 (b) Cat. 28 Cat. 29: 2 (a) Cat. 29: 2 (b) Cat. 30: 1 Cat. 30: 2 Cat. 30: 3 Cat. 33 Cat. 34: 1 Cat. 34: 2 Cat. 35: 1 Cat. 35: 2 Cat. 35: 3 Cat. 36 Cat. 37 Cat. 38: 1 Cat. 38: 2 Cat. 40 Cat. 42 Cat. 43 Cat. 44 Cat. 45: 1 Cat. 45: 2 Cat. 46 Cat. 47: 1 Cat. 47: 2 Cat. 47: 3 Cat. 48: 1 Cat. 48: 2 Cat. 48: 3

  15. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction: Aromatic Claw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph R. [Biomolecular NMR Core Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Adhikari, Aashish N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Gawlak, Grzegorz [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Hoey, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Liu, Gaohua [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Biological Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Sosnick, Tobin R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Koide, Shohei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York New York

    2016-11-10

    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  16. Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2015-02-01

    Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders based on an independent data set. Data consisted of 20,474 cows with phenotypes for claw disorders and 50,238 cows with phenotypes for trimming status. Recorded claw disorders used in the current study were double sole (DS), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), a combination of infectious claw disorders consisting of (inter-)digital dermatitis and heel erosion, and a combination of laminitis-related claw disorders (DS, SH, SU, and WLS). Of the cows with phenotypes for claw disorders, 1,771 cows were genotyped and these cow data were used for the GWAS on claw disorders. A SNP was considered significant when the false discovery rate≤0.05 and suggestive when the false discovery rate≤0.20. An independent data set of 185 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (6,824 daughters in total) for claw disorders was used to validate significant and suggestive SNP detected based on the cow data. To analyze the trait "trimming status" (i.e., the need for claw trimming), a data set with 327 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (18,525 daughters in total) was used. Based on the cow data, in total 10 significant and 45 suggestive SNP were detected for claw disorders. The 10 significant SNP were associated with SU, and mainly located on BTA8. The suggestive SNP were associated with DS, IH, SU, and laminitis-related claw disorders. Three of the suggestive SNP were validated in the data set of 185 bulls, and were located on BTA13, BTA14, and BTA17. For infectious claw disorders, SH, and WLS, no significant or suggestive SNP associations were detected. For trimming status, 1 significant

  17. Use of stable isotopes to investigate keratin deposition in the claw tips of ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B; Cutting, Kyle A; Warren, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes derived from the claws of birds could be used to determine the migratory origins of birds if the time periods represented in excised sections of claws were known. We investigated new keratin growth in the claws of adult female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) by estimating the equilibration rates of stable isotopes (δ (13)C, δ (15)N, and δ (2)H) from the breeding grounds into 1 mm claw tips. We sampled birds on their breeding ground through time and found that it took approximately 3-3.5 months for isotope values in most claw tips to equilibrate to isotope values that reflected those present in the environment on their breeding grounds. Results from this study suggest that isotopes equilibrate slowly into claw tips of Lesser Scaup, suggesting isotopes could potentially be used to determine the wintering grounds of birds. We suggest using controlled feeding experiments or longitudinal field investigations to understand claw growth and isotopic equilibration in claw tips. Such information would be valuable in ascertaining whether claw tips can be used in future studies to identify the migratory origins of birds.

  18. Phenolic Assesment of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw): Leaves, Stem, Bark and Wood Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Hoyos, Mirtha; Sánchez-Patán, Fernando; Murillo Masis, Renato; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Zamora Ramirez, William; Monagas, Maria J; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2015-12-18

    The phenolic composition of extracts from Uncaria tomentosa L. from different regions of Costa Rica was studied using advanced analytical techniques such as UPLC/TQ-ESI-MS and (13)C-NMR. Samples from leaves, stems, bark and wood (n = 22) were subjected to extraction to obtain phenolic and alkaloid extracts, separately. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content were observed for leaves, stems and bark (225-494 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for wood extracts (40-167 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 32 non-flavonoid and flavonoid compounds were identified in the phenolic extracts: hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, prochatechuic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and isoferulic acids), flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin)], procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B7 and two other of unknown structure) and trimers (C1, T2 and one of unknown structure), flavalignans (four unknown structures pertaining to the cinchonain family) and propelargonidin dimers (four unknown structures, reported for the first time in U. tomentosa). Additionally, alkaloid extracts obtained from the plant residue after phenolic extraction exhibited a content of tetracyclic and pentacyclic alkaloids ranging between 95 and 275 mg/100 g of dry material for bark extracts, and between 30 and 704 mg/100 g for leaves extracts. In addition, a minor alkaloid was isolated and characterized, namely 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinoic acid. Our results confirmed the feasibility of U. tomentosa as a suitable raw material for obtaining phenolic- and alkaloid-rich extracts of potential interest.

  19. Proanthocyanidin Characterization and Bioactivity of Extracts from Different Parts of Uncaria tomentosa L. (Cat's Claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Hoyos, Mirtha; Lebrón-Aguilar, Rosa; Quintanilla-López, Jesús E; Cueva, Carolina; Hevia, David; Quesada, Silvia; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Monagas, María; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2017-02-04

    Apart from alkaloids, bioactive properties of Uncaria tomentosa L. have been attributed to its phenolic constituents. Although there are some reports concerning low-molecular-weight polyphenols in U. tomentosa , its polymeric phenolic composition has been scarcely studied. In this study, phenolic-rich extracts from leaves, stems, bark and wood ( n = 14) of Uncaria tomentosa plants from several regions of Costa Rica were obtained and analysed in respect to their proanthocyanidin profile determined by a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyser (ESI-QTOF MS). Main structural characteristics found for U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins were: (a) monomer composition, including pure procyanidins (only composed of (epi)catechin units) and propelargonidins (only composed of (epi)afzelechin units) as well as mixed proanthocyanidins; and (b) degree of polymerization, from 3 up to 11 units. In addition, U. tomentosa phenolic extracts were found to exhibit reasonable antioxidant capacity (ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) values between 1.5 and 18.8 mmol TE/g) and antimicrobial activity against potential respiratory pathogens (minimum IC 50 of 133 µg/mL). There were also found to be particularly cytotoxic to gastric adenocarcinoma AGS and colon adenocarcinoma SW620 cell lines. The results state the particularities of U. tomentosa proanthocyanidins and suggest the potential value of these extracts with prospective use as functional ingredients.

  20. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) in rats with experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Cavalcante, Frederico Lucas Lima Paiva; Carvalho, Rafael Antonio Freire; Rodrigues, Taciana Gabrielle Pinheiro de Moura; Xavier, Mariana Santana; Furtado, Pablo Gustavo Ribeiro; Schor, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma's epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32 mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1 ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1 ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups); the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. The uncaria group presented nine samples (90%) with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88%) with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10%) and leuprolide (22%) groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90%) samples of the uncaria group, in two (20%) animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8%) rats in the leuprolide group. The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.

  1. An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Francisco J; Jayo, Manuel; Niedziela, Linda

    2005-01-15

    Ozone (O(3)) inhalation has been associated with respiratory tract inflammation and lung functional alterations. To characterize the O(3)-induced lung inflammation in mice, the effective dose and exposure time were determined. Total protein levels of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), cytological smears, and lung histopathology and morphometry were used to assess and measure the degree of pulmonary inflammation in the mouse model. Ozone inhalation caused acute pneumonitis that was characterized by a high number of infiltrating neutrophils (PMNs) immediately after exposure and increased levels of protein in BALF in mice killed 8h after O(3) exposure. The anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) have been documented previously. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of UT, male mice were given an UT extract for 8 days, exposed to O(3), and killed 0 or 8 h after O(3) exposure. When compared to untreated controls, UT-treated mice had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of protein in BALF, lower degree of epithelial necrosis, higher number of intact epithelial cell nuclei in bronchial wall, and decreased number of PMNs in the bronchiolar lumen. Therefore, UT extract appeared to prevent O(3)-induced respiratory inflammation in male mice.

  2. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Vallee, A.A.A.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and

  3. Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaij, van der E.H.; Holzhauer, M.; Ellen, E.D.; Kamphuis, C.; Jong, de G.

    2005-01-01

    Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and

  4. Genetic parameters for claw and leg health, foot and leg conformation, and locomotion in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M. V.; Boelling, D.; Mark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic correlations among claw and leg health and potential indicator traits. Claw health was defined as absence of heel horn erosion, interdigital dermatitis, interdigital phlegmon, interdigital hyperplasia, laminitis, and sole ulcer. Leg health...

  5. The pressure distribution under the bovine claw during square standing on a flat substrate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der P.P.J.; Metz, J.H.M.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Back, W.; Braam, C.R.; Weijs, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    The distribution pattern of pressure over the bovine claw was investigated to test the hypothesis that the ground reaction force is unevenly distributed and makes some regions of the claw more prone to overloading and injury than others. In eight recently trimmed Holstein Friesian cows, the

  6. Claw disorders and disturbed locomotion in dairy cows: the effect of floor systems and implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Joan Gerardus Cornelius Johanna

    2004-01-01

    In modern dairy housing, flooring conditions lead to restricted locomotion and claw disorders. Epidemiological studies showed that housing on concrete floors was positively correlated with the incidence of lameness and claw disorders. Lameness and claw disorders constitute a significant health and

  7. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, Terje; Nafstad, Ola; Fredriksen, Bente; Ringdal, Grethe; Sogstad, Ase M

    2007-09-24

    The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Twenty-six herds with >or=15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02). Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were recorded.

  8. Claw and limb disorders in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringdal Grethe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of claw and limb disorders in Norwegian beef-cow herds. Methods Twenty-six herds with ≥15 cow-years were selected by computerized systematic assignment from the three most beef cattle-dense regions of Norway. The study population consisted of 12 herds with 28 heifers and 334 cows. The animals were trimmed and examined once by claw trimmers during the late winter and spring of 2003. The seven claw trimmers had been taught diagnosing and recording of claw lesions. Environment, feeding and management routines, age and breed, culling and carcass characteristics were also recorded. Results Lameness was recorded in 1.1% of the animals, and only in hind claws. Pericarpal swellings were recorded in one animal and peritarsal lesions in none. In total, claw and limb disorders including lameness were recorded in 29.6% of the animals, 4.1% with front and 28.2% with hind limb disorders, respectively. Most lesions were mild. Laminitis-related claw lesions were recorded in 18.0% of the animals and infectious lesions in 16.6%. The average claw length was 84 mm in front claws and 89 mm in hind claw. Both laminitis-related and infectious claw lesions were more prevalent with increasing age. Carcasses from animals with claw and limb disorders were on average 34 kg heavier than carcasses from animals without such disorders (p = 0.02. Our results also indicate association between some management factors and claw lesions. Conclusion The study shows that the prevalence of lameness was low in 12 Norwegian beef-cow herds compared to beef-cattle herds in other countries and also that there were less claw and limb disorders in these herds compared to foreign dairy-cattle herds. The prevalence of lameness and white-line fissures was approximately the same as in Norwegian dairy herds whereas less dermatitis, heel-horn erosions, haemorrhages of the sole and the white line and sole ulcers were

  9. Laminitis-like changes in the claws of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, P R; Vermunt, J J; McKinnon, J J; Fathy, F A; Berg, P A; Cohen, R D

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe and quantitate changes in the claws of two groups of feedlot cattle (calves and backgrounded yearlings) fed diets that varied in energy (73.5 or 78.5% TDN) and crude protein (11, 13, 15, 16, 17, or 19%) content. At slaughter, the thickness of sole horn and the prevalence of toe and heel hemorrhages were greater in calves than in yearlings (pcattle before they reach 14 months of age has a deleterious effect on digital health.

  10. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  11. Outcomes of Sutureless Iris-Claw Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choragiewicz, Tomasz; Rejdak, Robert; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nowomiejska, Katarzyna; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Ozimek, Małgorzata; Jünemann, Anselm G M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2). The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21). The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27). No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was -0.27 Dsph (-3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28). The mean postoperative astigmatism was -1.82 Dcyl (min -0.25, max -5.5; median -1.25, SD 1.07). Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4). Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction.

  12. Outcomes of Sutureless Iris-Claw Lens Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Choragiewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2. The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21. The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27. No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was −0.27 Dsph (−3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28. The mean postoperative astigmatism was −1.82 Dcyl (min −0.25, max −5.5; median −1.25, SD 1.07. Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4. Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction.

  13. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  14. Genetic parameters for claw disorders in Dutch dairy cattle and correlations with conformation traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waaij, E H; Holzhauer, M; Ellen, E; Kamphuis, C; de Jong, G

    2005-10-01

    Impaired claw health is one of the major problems causing production loss and reduced animal welfare in dairy cattle. In response, the Dutch Animal Health Service (GD) Ltd. initiated this study, in which claws of lactating and near-term cows and heifers in 430 herds were trimmed by hoof trimmers and the health status of the rear claws recorded. Only herds with >75% of the animals having feet trimmed were considered, resulting in records on 21,611 animals. Eight claw disorders were scored: digital dermatitis (DD), interdigital dermatitis/heel horn erosions (IDHE), sole hemorrhage (SH), chronic laminitis (CL), sole ulcer (SU), white line disease (WLD), interdigital hyperplasia (HYP), and interdigital phlegmona (IP). The prevalence varied from 0.6% (IP) to 39.9% (SH). More than 70% of the animals had at least one claw disorder. Conformation traits and locomotion were recorded once during the animal's first lactation by trained classifiers of the Royal Dutch Cattle Syndicate and completely independent of the moment of claw trimming. Heritabilities were estimated using a sire model, and ranged from <0.01 (IP) to 0.10 (DD and HYP). Genetic correlations of incidences of claw disorders with locomotion were variable, ranging from 0.13 (SH) to -0.91 (CL). Genetic correlations with the rear leg conformation traits were lower, ranging from 0.04 (ID with rear leg side view) to -0.69 (IP with rear leg rear view).

  15. Bionic Design for Mars Sampling Scoop Inspired by Himalayan Marmot Claw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are often adapted to digging and life underground, with claw toes similar in structure and function to a sampling scoop. In this paper, the clawed toes of the Himalayan marmot were selected as a biological prototype for bionic research. Based on geometric parameter optimization of the clawed toes, a bionic sampling scoop for use on Mars was designed. Using a 3D laser scanner, the point cloud data of the second front claw toe was acquired. Parametric equations and contour curves for the claw were then built with cubic polynomial fitting. We obtained 18 characteristic curve equations for the internal and external contours of the claw. A bionic sampling scoop was designed according to the structural parameters of Curiosity’s sampling shovel and the contours of the Himalayan marmot’s claw. Verifying test results showed that when the penetration angle was 45° and the sampling speed was 0.33 r/min, the bionic sampling scoops’ resistance torque was 49.6% less than that of the prototype sampling scoop. When the penetration angle was 60° and the sampling speed was 0.22 r/min, the resistance torque of the bionic sampling scoop was 28.8% lower than that of the prototype sampling scoop.

  16. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  18. Performance of claw-poled PM-stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.P.; Jeng, G.R.; Chen, W.C.; Tsai, M.C.; Wu, K.T.; Yao, Y.D.

    2007-01-01

    Present work is to analyze the performance of a permanent-magnetic (PM) stepping motor with claw poles by using the magnetic-circuit simulation technique. In this paper, we calculate the torque characteristics of the motor, such as the detent and the holding torques, and the step-position error by changing the gap between the upper and the lower stators and the staggered angle between the two stators. Through comparison of numerical data with experiment measurements, we found that the detent torque could be effectively reduced by increasing the stator-to-stator gap and further by decreasing the step-position error. Furthermore, the holding torque could be unchanged as the stator assemblage changed; however, it would be degenerated under the condition of low magnetization

  19. Grasping Claws of Bionic Climbing Robot for Rough Wall Surface: Modeling and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quansheng Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the inspection of rough stone and concrete wall surfaces, a grasping module of cross-arranged claw is designed. It can attach onto rough wall surfaces by hooking or grasping walls. First, based on the interaction mechanism of hooks and rough wall surfaces, the hook structures in claw tips are developed. Then, the size of the hook tip is calculated and the failure mode is analyzed. The effectiveness and reliability of the mechanism are verified through simulation and finite element analysis. Afterwards, the prototype of the grasping module of claw is established to carry out grasping experiment on vibrating walls. Finally, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed cross-arranged claw is able to stably grasp static wall surfaces and perform well in grasping vibrating walls, with certain anti-rollover capability. This research lays a foundation for future researches on wall climbing robots with vibrating rough wall surfaces.

  20. A rough concrete wall-climbing robot based on grasping claws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climbing robots have been widely used to inspect smooth walls. However, a good adsorption method has not been found for the inspection of a cliff surface and a dusty high-altitude surface with small vibration, both of which are made of coarse concrete, square brick, or rock. In this article, first, we analyzed the bionic structure of the cockroach legs and observed their morphological characteristics of the spiny claws on these legs. We also studied the interaction theory of the bionic claw with the bulges on the rough wall surfaces and deduced the mechanical criteria of the claws grabbing steadily these bulges. Then, an initial mechanical structure of a wall-climbing robot was proposed based on a grasping claw and a climbing model. Furthermore, a mathematical model was established to reflect the relationship between sharp hooks and bulges on the rough wall. Finally, we performed several laboratory experiments to verify the grasping stability.

  1. PetClaw: A scalable parallel nonlinear wave propagation solver for Python

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    We present PetClaw, a scalable distributed-memory solver for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. PetClaw unifies two well-known scientific computing packages, Clawpack and PETSc, using Python interfaces into both. We rely on Clawpack to provide the infrastructure and kernels for time-dependent nonlinear wave propagation. Similarly, we rely on PETSc to manage distributed data arrays and the communication between them.We describe both the implementation and performance of PetClaw as well as our challenges and accomplishments in scaling a Python-based code to tens of thousands of cores on the BlueGene/P architecture. The capabilities of PetClaw are demonstrated through application to a novel problem involving elastic waves in a heterogeneous medium. Very finely resolved simulations are used to demonstrate the suppression of shock formation in this system.

  2. Models for genetic evaluations of claw health traits in Spanish dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cabal, M A; Charfeddine, N

    2015-11-01

    Genetic parameters of 7 claw health traits from Spanish dairy cattle were estimated and the predictive ability of linear and ordinal threshold models were compared and assessed. This study included data on interdigital and digital dermatitis (DE), sole ulcer (SU), white line disease (WL), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), and chronic laminitis (CL) collected between July 2012 and June 2013 from 834 dairy herds visited by 21 trained trimmers. An overall claw disorder (OCD) was also considered an indicator the absence or the presence of at least 1 of the 6 disorders. Claw health traits were scored as categorical traits with 3 degrees of severity (nonaffected, mild, and severe disorder). Genetic parameters were estimated by fitting both a standard linear model and an ordinal threshold animal model. Around 21% of cows had at least 1 claw disorder, and the most frequent disorders were SU, DE, WL, and CL. Heritabilities of claw disorders estimated with a linear model ranged from 0.01 (IP) to 0.05 (OCD), whereas estimates from the ordinal threshold models ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 (for IP and IH, respectively). Repeatabilities of claw health estimated with the linear model varied from 0.03 to 0.18 and estimates with the ordinal threshold model ranged from 0.33 to 0.69. The global trait OCD was correlated with all disorders, except for IH and IP when the linear model was fitted. Two different genetic backgrounds of claw disorders were found. Digital dermatitis showed positive correlations with IH and IP, whereas SU was positively correlated with WL and CL. The predictive ability of the models was assessed using mean squared error and Pearson correlation between the real observation and the corresponding prediction using cross-validation. Regardless of the claw health status, the linear model led to smaller mean squared error. However, differences in predictive ability were found when predicting nonaffected and affected animals. For most traits

  3. Extraction of Glycosaminoglycans Containing Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate from Chicken Claw Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken cartilage (claw is a waste of chicken cuts which are widely available in Indonesia. Cartilage part of chicken claw becomes a potential source of chondroitin sulfate (CS and glucosamine (GS. This study aims to determine the most optimal extraction methods of CS and GS from cartilage of chicken claw. Various types of extraction methods used in this study are taken from the extraction by using boiling water (2 and 2.5 hours, acetic acid (7 and 17 hours, as well as proteolysis by papain (24 and 48 hours. Parameters observed include chemical characteristics of powdered cartilage of chicken claw as well as CS and GS levels in powdered cartilage of chicken claw extract. The results of this research show that the levels of CS and GS of chicken claw cartilage powder were 2.17% and 13%. Meanwhile, the highest GS level was obtained from the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which was 8.1%. The treatment and duration of extraction will significantly affect the number of GS which was produced. The highest content of CS was obtained from the extraction with the enzyme treatment for 48 hours which was 2.47%. The best treatment is the extraction with water treatment for 2.5 hours which were the extracts with GS levels of 8.1% and 2.03% CS was selected through the analysis of multiple attribute.

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mammals Pet Rodents Wildlife Animal Tales & Features Giant Sharks Help Wounded Warriors Heal Loving Your Special Cat ... bite while they play and learn how to attack prey. How cats and people become infected Kitten ...

  5. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  6. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Refaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow was considered to have subclinical IMI if it had at least one subclinically infected quarter (=3. Cows were inspected carefully for claw disorders that recorded based on type and site. Locomotion and body condition scores were also recorded for each cow in addition to the limb affected. The association between the CMT and other explanatory variables was tested by Fisher's exact test. Results: The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders was 81.4% (35/43 and 32.6% (14/43, respectively. Digital dermatitis (DD and heel horn erosion were the most prevalent infectious type with 79% (34/43 and 58% (25/43, respectively, while wall fissure was the most identified non-infectious one 11.6% (5/43. The prevalence of claw disorders in hind limbs was 88.4% (38/43 and 11.6% (5/43 in the forelimbs. Infectious claw disorders were significantly associated with the subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT (p<0.05. Non-infectious claw affections, locomotion score, body condition score, and the affected limb had no association with the occurrence of subclinical IMI. Conclusion: DD is the highest prevalent claw disorder observed in dairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw disorders than the forelimbs. Infectious type of claw disorders is significantly associated with subclinical IMI diagnosed by CMT in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions indicating

  7. Measuring Claw Conformation in Cattle: Assessing the Agreement between Manual and Digital Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J. Laven

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Five measurements of claw conformation (toe angle, claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length taken directly from the hoof were compared with the measurements taken from digital images of the same claws. Concordance correlation coefficients and limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for four of the five measures (claw height, claw width, toe length and abaxial groove length, agreement was too poor for digital and manual measures to be used interchangeably. For all four of these measures, Liao’s modified concordance correlation coefficient (mCCC was ≤0.4, indicating poor concordance despite Pearson’s correlation being >0.6 in all cases. The worst concordance was seen for toe length (mCCC = 0.13. Limits-of-agreement analysis showed that, for all four measures, there was a large variation in the difference between the manual and digital methods, even when the effect of mean on difference was accounted for, with the 95% limits-of-agreement for the four measures being further away from the mean difference than 10% of the mean in all four cases. The only one of the five measures with an acceptable concordance between digital and manual measurement was toe angle (mCCC = 0.81. Nevertheless, the limits-of-agreement analysis showed that there was a systematic bias with, on average, the manual measure of toe angle, being 2.1° smaller than the digital. The 95% limits-of-agreement for toe angle were ±3.4°, probably at the upper limit of what is acceptable. However, the lack of data on the variability of individual measurements of claw conformation means that it is unclear how this variability compares to measurement of toe angle in the same animal using the same or a different manual technique.

  8. Definitions of hammer toe and claw toe: an evaluation of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrier, Joost C M; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Louwerens, Jan Willem

    2009-01-01

    Lesser toe surgery is among the most conducted interventions in general orthopedic practice. However, the definitions of hammer toe and claw toe are not uniform. The objective of this literature study is to propose clear definitions for these deformities to establish unambiguous communication. A literature search was performed in the PubMed database (May 2006). Of 81 eligible articles, 42 that stated a clear definition of hammer toe or claw toe were selected. In all 35 articles in which hammer toe was clearly defined, flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint was part of the definition. Seventeen articles (49%) defined hammer toe as a combination of metatarsophalangeal extension and proximal interphalangeal flexion. Thirteen articles showed flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint as the single criterion. Twenty-three articles with a clear definition of claw toe were selected. Twenty-one articles (91%) showed metatarsophalangeal extension as part of the claw toe deformity. Twelve articles (52%) regarded metatarsophalangeal extension and flexion of the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints as the essential characteristics. Seven articles described a claw toe as metatarsophalangeal extension with flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint. There are variations in the definitions of lesser toe deformities in the literature. We propose that extension of the metatarsophalangeal joint is the discriminating factor and essential characteristic for claw toe. Claw toe and hammer toe should be characterized by flexion in the proximal interphalangeal joint, which is the single criterion for a hammer toe. The flexibility of these joints could be a basic factor in discriminating between these deformities. The development of these deformities should be regarded as a continuum in the same pathophysiologic process.

  9. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra V Birn-Jeffery

    Full Text Available Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height. We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. 'Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry.

  10. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Miller, Charlotte E; Naish, Darren; Rayfield, Emily J; Hone, David W E

    2012-01-01

    Pedal claw geometry can be used to predict behaviour in extant tetrapods and has frequently been used as an indicator of lifestyle and ecology in Mesozoic birds and other fossil reptiles, sometimes without acknowledgement of the caveat that data from other aspects of morphology and proportions also need to be considered. Variation in styles of measurement (both inner and outer claw curvature angles) has made it difficult to compare results across studies, as have over-simplified ecological categories. We sought to increase sample size in a new analysis devised to test claw geometry against ecological niche. We found that taxa from different behavioural categories overlapped extensively in claw geometry. Whilst most taxa plotted as predicted, some fossil taxa were recovered in unexpected positions. Inner and outer claw curvatures were statistically correlated, and both correlated with relative claw robusticity (mid-point claw height). We corrected for mass and phylogeny, as both likely influence claw morphology. We conclude that there is no strong mass-specific effect on claw curvature; furthermore, correlations between claw geometry and behaviour are consistent across disparate clades. By using independent contrasts to correct for phylogeny, we found little significant relationship between claw geometry and behaviour. 'Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry.

  11. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 1-10

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 1 Cat. 2 (a) Cat. 2 (b) Cat. 2 (c) Cat. 2 (d) Cat. 2 (e) Cat. 2 (f) Cat. 3: 1 (a) Cat. 3: 1 (b) Cat. 3: 2 (a) Cat. 3: 2 (b) Cat. 4: 1 Cat. 4: 2 Cat. 6: 1 (a) Cat. 6: 1 (b) Cat. 6: 2 (a) Cat. 6: 2 (b) Cat. 7: 1 (a) Cat. 7: 1 (b) Cat. 7: 2 (a) Cat. 7: 2 (b) Cat. 8: 1 Cat. 9: 1 Cat. 9: 2 Cat. 10: 1 Cat. 10: 2

  12. Cell autonomy of the mouse claw paw mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbas, Aysel; Jaegle, Martine; Walbeehm, Erik; van den Burg, Hans; Driegen, Siska; Broos, Ludo; Uyl, Matthijs; Visser, Pim; Grosveld, Frank; Meijer, Dies

    2004-08-15

    Mice homozygous for the autosomal recessive mutation claw paw (clp) are characterized by limb posture abnormalities and congenital hypomyelination, with delayed onset of myelination of the peripheral nervous system but not the central nervous system. Although this combination of limb and peripheral nerve abnormalities in clp/clp mice might suggest a common neurogenic origin of the syndrome, it is not clear whether the clp gene acts primarily in the neurone, the Schwann cell or both. In the work described here, we address this question of cell autonomy of the clp mutation through reciprocal nerve grafting experiments between wild-type and clp/clp animals. Our results demonstrate that the clp mutation affects the Schwann cell compartment and possibly also the neuronal compartment. These data suggest that the clp gene product is expressed in Schwann cells as well as neurones and is likely to be involved in direct axon--Schwann cell interactions. Within the Schwann cell, clp affects a myelin-related signaling pathway that regulates periaxin and Krox-20 expression, but not Oct-6.

  13. A Catalogue of Anatomical Fugitive Sheets: Cat. 11-25

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Images Cat. 11 (a) Cat. 11 (b) Cat. 11 (c) Cat. 11 (d) Cat. 12: 1 (a) Cat. 12: 1 (b) Cat. 12: 2 (a) Cat. 12: 2 (b) Cat. 13 Cat. 14 (a) Cat. 14 (b) Cat. 14 (c) Cat. 15 (a) Cat. 15 (b) Cat. 17: 1 Cat. 17: 2 Cat. 18: 1 Cat. 18: 2 Cat. 19: 1 (a) Cat. 19: 1 (b) Cat. 19: 2 (a) Cat. 19: 2 (b) Cat. 20: 1 Cat. 20: 2 (a) Cat. 20: 2 (b) Cat. 21 (a) Cat. 21 (b) Cat. 21 (c) Cat. 21 (d) Cat. 21 (e) Cat. 22 Cat. 24: 1 and 2 Cat. 25: 1 Cat. 25: 2 Cat. 25: 3 Cat. 25: 4

  14. Morphological correlates of the grooming claw in distal phalanges of platyrrhines and other primates: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Rosenberger, Alfred

    2011-12-01

    Grooming claws are present on the second pedal digits of strepsirhines and on the second and third pedal digits of tarsiers. However, their presence in New World monkeys is often overlooked. As such, the absence of a grooming claw is generally considered an anthropoid synapomorphy. This study utilizes a quantitative multivariate analysis to define grooming claw morphology and document its presence in platyrrhine monkeys. Our results show that owl monkeys possess grooming claws similar to those of strepsirhines, while titi monkeys possess grooming claw-like morphology. Therefore, we conclude that anthropoids are not clearly united by the absence of a grooming claw. Furthermore, due to their presence in three major primate clades, we infer that it is likely that a grooming claw was present on the second pedal digit of the ancestor of living primates. Therefore, we advise the reassessment of fossil adapids in light of the anatomical correlates described here. This should increase resolution on the homology and polarity of grooming claw morphology, and, therefore, will help provide a sharper picture of primate evolution. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  16. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardach, Marcin

    2017-12-01

    This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  17. Hybrid excited claw pole generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardach Marcin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains simulation results of the Hybrid Excited Claw Pole Generator with skewed and non-skewed permanent magnets on rotor. The experimental machine has claw poles on two rotor sections, between which an excitation control coil is located. The novelty of this machine is existence of non-skewed permanent magnets on claws of one part of the rotor and skewed permanent magnets on the second one. The paper presents the construction of the machine and analysis of the influence of the PM skewing on the cogging torque and back-emf. Simulation studies enabled the determination of the cogging torque and the back-emf rms for both: the strengthening and the weakening of magnetic field. The influence of the magnets skewing on the cogging torque and the back-emf rms have also been analyzed.

  18. Preliminary Validation and Reliability Testing of the Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians, in a Colony of Laboratory Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P. Klinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtle signs and conflicting physical and radiographic findings make feline osteoarthritis (OA challenging to diagnose. A physical examination-based assessment was developed, consisting of eight items: Interaction, Exploration, Posture, Gait, Body Condition, Coat and Claws, (joint Palpation–Findings, and Palpation–Cat Reaction. Content (experts and face (veterinary students validity were excellent. Construct validity, internal consistency, and intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed via a pilot and main study, using laboratory-housed cats with and without OA. Gait distinguished OA status in the pilot ( p = 0.05 study. In the main study, no scale item achieved statistically significant OA detection. Forelimb peak vertical ground reaction force (PVF correlated inversely with Gait (Rho s = −0.38 ( p = 0.03 to −0.41 ( p = 0.02. Body Posture correlated with Gait, and inversely with forelimb PVF at two of three time points (Rho s = −0.38 ( p = 0.03 to −0.43 ( p = 0.01. Palpation (Findings, Cat Reaction did not distinguish OA from non-OA cats. Palpation—Cat Reaction (Forelimbs correlated inversely with forelimb PVF at two time points (Rho s = −0.41 ( p = 0.02 to −0.41 ( p = 0.01, but scores were highly variable, and poorly reliable. Gait and Posture require improved sensitivity, and Palpation should be interpreted cautiously, in diagnosing feline OA.

  19. Megaesophagus in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Douglas C.; Leishman, Dyan E.

    1985-01-01

    Megaesophagus in an eight month old Siamese cat is described. Initially, a cause for the vomiting was not discovered and the cat was treated for pyloric spasm. Several months later the same cat, in poor physical condition, was presented with a palpable bulge along its ventral neck. At this time a very dilated and flaccid esophagus was found. An exploratory thoracotomy was done but a cause for the megaesophagus was not discovered.

  20. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  1. Habitat Characteristics of Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus in Ujong Nga, Samatiga,West Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinereus is the smallest among the sub-family Lutrinae, today occurs population decrease of small-clawed otter caused by human activity, depletion of prey species, and exploitation. This research is done to learn physically and biologically of the habitat characteristic of small-clawed otter. Retrieval of data was held on 1-14 in April 2014. The parameters which used are the amount of tracks found in habitat that is used by the small-clawed otter in Ujong Nga village. The data is collected on small-clawed otter habitat in Ujong Nga and sample used are plot with measure of 30x30m and then  divided into 8 plots. The result showed that the small-clawed otter selecting habitat unit with criteria (a the type of habitat are field, swamp, thatch forest, and riverside; (b the availabilty of many feed (1,33 tracks per plot, rare (0,33 tracks per plot, less (0,17 tracks per plot; (c the tracks distance to the nest 0-25 m (1,66 tracks per plot, 25-50 m (1 tracks per plot, > 50 m (0,5 tracks per plot; (d the tracks distance to water source 0-25 m (2,16 tracks per plot, 25-50 m (0,5 tracks per plot, and for distance to > 50 m track is not found; and(e the tracks distance to toilet site0-25 m (1,16 tracks per plot, 25-50 m (0,5 tracks per plot, and> 50 m (0,17 tracks per plot. The conclusion of this research habitat characteristic ofAonyx cinereusare fieldwithavailability of many feed, close to water source, clost to nest, and close to toilet site.

  2. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  3. Association of claw disorders with subclinical intramammary infections in Egyptian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refaal, Walid; Mahmmod, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Bovine mastitis and lameness are the most common production diseases affecting dairy farms worldwide resulting in huge economic impact and impaired animal welfare. The objective of this field study was to investigate the association of infectious and non-infectious claw disorders...... with the occurrence of subclinical intramammary infections (IMIs) diagnosed by California mastitis test (CMT) in dairy cows under Egyptian conditions. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 dairy cows were included in this field study. Subclinical IMI was diagnosed by CMT on all lactating quarters of cows. A cow...... (pdairy cows in Egypt. The hind limbs are more susceptible to claw...

  4. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  5. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  6. 3-D finite element analysis of claw-poled stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Mizuno; Koike, Yoshikazu

    2002-01-01

    Stepping motors are widely used for various electric instruments. It is necessary for the optimum design to analyze the magnetic field accurately. The 3-D finite element method with edge elements taking into account the rotation of the rotor has been applied to analyze the magnetic field of a claw-poled stepping motor. (Author)

  7. Elevated plantar pressures in neuropathic diabetic patients with claw/hammer toe deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Sicco Bus; Dr Marcel Levi; Dr Robert P.J. Michels; Dr. ir. A. de Lange; Dr Mario Maas

    2005-01-01

    Elevated plantar foot pressures during gait in diabetic patients with neuropathy have been suggested to result, among other factors, from the distal displacement of sub-metatarsal head (MTH) fat-pad cushions caused by to claw/hammer toe deformity. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively

  8. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Sune; Larsen, William Brenner; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution...

  9. Phakic iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for correction of high myopia with clear corneal incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of phakic iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for correction of high myopia with clear corneal incision. METHODS: Implantation of phakic iris-claw intraocular lens through clear corneal incision was performed on 28 eyes of 20 high myopic patients under topical anaesthesia. Intraoperative and postoperative complications, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, refractive diopter, corneal endothelium, the stable of intraocular lens and the turbid level of lens were observed. RESULTS: All cases were smoothly implanted iris-claw intraocular lens. No complications were found during the operation. The uncorrected visual acuity of post-operation was better than the best corrected visual acuity of pre-operation. The follow-up time lasted for 6mo, and the intraocular lens in all the eyes were basically in the normal position without tilting and obvious deviation. No serious complications such as cataract, uveitis, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment were seen in all cases. CONCLUSION: On the basis of having adept microsurgery technology, phakic iris-claw intraocular lens implantation is predictable and stable, and post-operation visual acuity is satisfying with few complications. It is a safe and effective way to treat high myopia.

  10. PyClaw: Accessible, Extensible, Scalable Tools for Wave Propagation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2012-08-15

    Development of scientific software involves tradeoffs between ease of use, generality, and performance. We describe the design of a general hyperbolic PDE solver that can be operated with the convenience of MATLAB yet achieves efficiency near that of hand-coded Fortran and scales to the largest supercomputers. This is achieved by using Python for most of the code while employing automatically wrapped Fortran kernels for computationally intensive routines, and using Python bindings to interface with a parallel computing library and other numerical packages. The software described here is PyClaw, a Python-based structured grid solver for general systems of hyperbolic PDEs [K. T. Mandli et al., PyClaw Software, Version 1.0, http://numerics.kaust.edu.sa/pyclaw/ (2011)]. PyClaw provides a powerful and intuitive interface to the algorithms of the existing Fortran codes Clawpack and SharpClaw, simplifying code development and use while providing massive parallelism and scalable solvers via the PETSc library. The package is further augmented by use of PyWENO for generation of efficient high-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory reconstruction code. The simplicity, capability, and performance of this approach are demonstrated through application to example problems in shallow water flow, compressible flow, and elasticity.

  11. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After 15 days, both crayfish and ...

  12. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  13. Cat-scratch neuroretinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, J

    1999-08-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a subacute regional lymphadenitis, usually preceded by a history of a cat scratch or exposure to kittens. The disease is caused by Bartonella henselae, and possibly Bartonella quintana, pleomorphic gram-negative rods formerly known as Rochalimaea henselae and Rochalimaea quintana. Ocular involvement is rare and typically manifests as either Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome or neuroretinitis. Patients with neuroretinitis resulting from cat-scratch disease may be asymptomatic or experience mild-to-severe vision loss. The clinical features, angiographic appearance, differential diagnosis, and management of cat-scratch neuroretinitis are discussed. A 30-year-old white woman reported to the eye clinic with painless, decreased vision in the right eye. A diagnosis of cat scratch neuroretinitis was made on the basis of the history of cat scratch, clinical appearance, and angiographic findings. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin restored vision to normal in 4 weeks. Painless vision loss associated with optic nerve swelling and macular star exudate should alert suspicion of systemic disease. Additional findings--including positive history of a cat scratch, lymphadenopathy, and flu-like symptoms--may indicate Bartonella henselae or Bartonella quintana infection. While treatment remains controversial, appropriate serology testing may aid in the diagnosis and management of the underlying infection.

  14. (13)C, (15)N CPMAS NMR and GIAO DFT calculations of stereoisomeric oxindole alkaloids from Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska, Katarzyna; Wolniak, Michał; Pisklak, Maciej; Gliński, Jan A; Davey, Matthew H; Wawer, Iwona

    2008-11-01

    Oxindole alkaloids, isolated from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa [Willd. ex Schult.] Rubiaceae, are considered to be responsible for the biological activity of this herb. Five pentacyclic and two tetracyclic alkaloids were studied by solid-state NMR and theoretical GIAO DFT methods. The (13)C and (15)N CPMAS NMR spectra were recorded for mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, pteropodine (uncarine C), isopteropodine (uncarine E), speciophylline (uncarine D), rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline. Theoretical GIAO DFT calculations of shielding constants provide arguments for identification of asymmetric centers and proper assignment of NMR spectra. These alkaloids are 7R/7S and 20R/20S stereoisomeric pairs. Based on the (13)C CP MAS chemical shifts the 7S alkaloids (delta C3 70-71ppm) can be easily and conveniently distinguished from 7R (deltaC3 74.5-74.9ppm), also 20R (deltaC20 41.3-41.7ppm) from the 20S (deltaC20 36.3-38.3ppm). The epiallo-type isomer (3R, 20S) of speciophylline is characterized by a larger (15)N MAS chemical shift of N4 (64.6ppm) than the allo-type (3S, 20S) of isopteropodine (deltaN4 53.3ppm). (15)N MAS chemical shifts of N1-H in pentacyclic alkaloids are within 131.9-140.4ppm.

  15. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, uña de gato, or savéntaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, K H

    1999-04-01

    Recently, Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C. has become known as a healing plant with an ethnomedicinal background. There have been several reports on its constituents, in particular, oxindole alkaloids. It was found that 2 chemotypes of Uncaria tomentosa with different alkaloid patterns occur in nature. The roots of one type contain pentacyclic oxindoles and the other contains tetracyclic oxindoles. This difference should be considered when the plant is to be used for medicinal applications. Tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids act on the central nervous system, whereas pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids affect the cellular immune system. Recent studies have shown that the tetracyclic alkaloids exert antagonistic effects on the action of the pentacyclic alkaloids. Mixtures of these 2 types of drugs are therefore unsuitable for medicinal uses.

  16. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  17. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  18. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain. Antibiotics may be needed if your symptoms don’t go away in a month or two. In rare cases, the infection can travel to your bones, liver, or other organs. This requires more intensive treatment. Should cats be ...

  19. Use of the modified Stainsby procedure in correcting severe claw toe deformity in the rheumatoid foot: a retrospective review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Queally, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    In claw toe deformity, the plantar plate of the metarsophalangeal joint becomes displaced onto the dorsal aspect of the metatarsal head. The Stainsby procedure replaces the displaced plantar plate to its correct position beneath the metatarsal head.

  20. Claw health and prevalence of lameness in cows from compost bedded and cubicle freestall dairy barns in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, J; Raith, J; Kuchling, S; Mandl, V; Hund, A; Kofler, J

    2016-10-01

    Claw health and lameness data from five dairies with compost bedded barns (n = 201 data sets) were evaluated and compared with data from five dairy herds housed in freestall cubicle barns (n = 297 data sets). They were matched for having the same cow numbers, flooring type and similar milk yield. The prevalence of lameness, claw lesions and their severity grades were analysed. Two claw health indicators, the cow claw score (CCS) and the farm claw score (FCS), were calculated using a computerised claw trimming database programme; there was no significant difference in overall lameness prevalence in cows from five compost bedded barns (18.7%) compared to cows from five freestall cubicle herds (14.9%). A cumulative link mixed model (CLMM) did not show significant differences in locomotion between different types of bedding material, flooring system, breed, visit number, observer and time since last trimming, but locomotion was significantly influenced by CCS. Another CLMM tested the impact of parameters mentioned on CCS and showed significant influence of flooring type, visit number and cattle breed. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of claw disorders between compost bedded and freestall cubicle barns were found for white line disease (WLD; 20.4% and 46.6%, respectively), heel horn erosion (HHE; 26.9% and 59.9%, respectively), concave dorsal wall as a result of chronic laminitis (6.5% and 15.9%, respectively) and for interdigital hyperplasia (0.2% and 3.1%, respectively). The results of this study indicate that compost dairy barns are a good alternative to common cubicle housing systems in terms of lameness, claw health and animal welfare. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-02-15

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  2. Pars plana vitrectomy with posterior iris claw implantation for posteriorly dislocated nucleus and intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor B Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the safety and efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with primary posterior iris claw intraocular lens (IOL implantation in cases of posterior dislocation of nucleus and IOL without capsular support. This was a retrospective interventional case series. Fifteen eyes underwent PPV with primary posterior iris claw IOL implantation performed by a single vitreoretinal surgeon. The main outcome measures were changes in best corrected visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment complications. A total of 15 eyes were included in this study. Eight had nucleus drop, three had IOL drop during cataract surgery and four had traumatic posterior dislocation of lens. The final postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 20/60 or better in 11 patients. This procedure is a viable option in achieving good functional visual acuity in eyes without capsular support.

  3. Role of calcium-dependent proteinase in molt-induced claw muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab Gecarcinus lateralis undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each intermolt cycle. Muscle protein decreases 40% during proecdysis and is restored following ecdysis. Amino acid incorporation into protein of postecdysial muscle is five times greater than that in anecdysial muscle. Since the rates of protein synthesis in anecdysial and proecdysial muscle are the same it appears that proecdysial muscle atrophy is caused primarily by an increase in protein degradation. A calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) active at neutral pH has been implicated in the nonlysosomal hydrolysis of myofibrillar proteins. We have examined the role of a CDP in atrophy of the claw closer muscle. The many similarities between crustacean and vertebrate CDPs have established this crustacean system as a simple and convenient model for the role of Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent proteolysis in myofibrillar protein turnover and its manifestation in the structure of the sarcomere. 16 references, 8 figures. (ACR)

  4. Devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens in a Brahman's preputial sheath : a case report from Botswana : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.W. Isa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Failure of penile protrusion during attempted service of a cow on heat was investigated in a 3-year-old Brahman bull at Kwakwadi cattle-post in the Kgalahadi sandveld, Kweneng District, Botswana. The investigation revealed that penile protrusion was obstructed by a devil's claw (grapple thorn, a dry fruit of the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, which had lodged in the cavum preputiale. The thorn, which was removed almost completely manually with minimal tissue dissection, had also caused minor lacerations and puncture wounds on the lamina interna pars parietalis. The wounds healed well following treatment with antiseptics and antibiotics and subsequently the bull regained full penile protrusion and served the cows well. This report describes the first case of lodgement of a devil's claw fruit in, and its extraction from, the cavum preputiale of a Brahman.

  5. ManyClaw: Implementation and Comparison of Intra-Node Parallelism of Clawpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrel, A. R.; Mandli, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    Computational methods for geophysical phenomena have in the past seen tremendous increases in ability due to increased hardware capability and advances in the computational methods being used. In the past two decades these avenues for increasing computational power have become intertwined as the most advanced computational methods must be written specifically for the hardware it will run on. This has become a growing concern for many scientists as the effort needed to produce efficient codes on the state-of-the-art machines has become increasingly difficult. Next generation computer architectures will include an order of magnitude more intra-node parallelism. In this context, we have created ManyClaw, a project intended to explore the exploitation of intra-node parallelism in hyperbolic PDE solvers from the Clawpack software package. Clawpack uses a finite volume wave-propagation approach to solving linear and non-linear hyperbolic conservation and balance laws. The basic computational units of Clawpack include the Riemann solver, limiters, and the cell update. The goal of ManyClaw then is to implement each of these components in a number of different ways exploring the best way to exploit as much intra-node parallelism as possible. One result of this effort is that a number of design decisions in ManyClaw differ significantly from Clawpack. Although this was not unexpected, insuring compatibility with the original code through PyClaw, a Python version of Clawpack, has also been undertaken. In this presentation we will focus on a discussion of the scalability of various threading approaches in each of the basic computational units described above. We implemented a number of different Riemann problems with different levels of arithmetic intensity via vectorized Fortran, OpenMP, TBB, and ISPC. The code was factored to allow any threading model to call any of the Riemann problems, limiters, and update routines. Results from Intel MIC and NVidia GPU implementations

  6. Iris-claw intraocular lenses to correct aphakia in the absence of capsule support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Samantha R; Arun, Kikkeri; Anandan, Maghizh; Glover, Nicholas; Patel, Chetan K; Rosen, Paul

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the indications, postoperative visual efficacy, and complication rate after intraocular implantation of an iris-claw aphakic intraocular lens (IOL). Oxford Eye Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. Case series. This chart review comprised eyes with no capsule support that had anterior iris-fixation IOL implantation for aphakia between 2001 and 2009. The study comprised 116 eyes (104 patients). Iris-claw IOLs were inserted during primary lens surgery in 18 eyes (15.5%), during an IOL exchange procedure for dislocated posterior chamber IOLs in 19 eyes (16.4%), and as a secondary procedure in 79 eyes (68.1%). The mean follow-up was 22.4 months (range 3 to 79 months). The final corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 6/12 or better in 68.9% of all eyes and in 47 of 53 eyes (88.7%) with no preoperative comorbidity. Complications included wound leak requiring resuturing in 2.6% of eyes, postoperative intraocular pressure rise in 9.5% of eyes (glaucoma escalation 0.8%), and cystoid macular edema in 7.7% of eyes (0.8% chronic). Iris-claw IOL subluxation occurred in 6.0% of eyes from 5 days to 60 months postoperatively; all the IOLs were repositioned. Corneal decompensation occurred in 1.7% of eyes; 0.8% had retinal detachments. Iris-claw IOL implantation for aphakia gave a good visual outcome and can be used for a wide range of indications. Postoperative complication rates were comparable to, if not better than, those with conventional anterior chamber IOLs. Correct implantation technique is critical in avoiding postoperative IOL subluxation. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coexistence of lupus vulgaris with pure neuritic leprosy with incomplete claw hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angoori Gnaneshwar Rao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of two chronic granulomatous diseases in an individual is rare. Here, we present coexistence of lupus vulgaris (LV and pure neuritic leprosy with incomplete claw hand deformity in an 11-year-old immunocompetent girl, who presented with deformity and ulcer involving right upper limb. Characteristic clinical features and histopathology of biopsy from the ulcer assisted in establishing the diagnosis of LV and leprosy.

  8. Pancreatitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, P Jane; Williams, David A

    2012-08-01

    Pancreatitis was considered a rare disease in the cat until a couple of decades ago when several retrospective studies of severe acute pancreatitis were published. It was apparent that few of the diagnostic tests of value in the dog were helpful in cats. With increasing clinical suspicion, availability of abdominal ultrasonography, and introduction of pancreas-specific blood tests of increasing utility, it is now accepted that acute pancreatitis is probably almost as common in cats as it is in dogs, although the etiology(s) remain more obscure. Pancreatitis in cats often co-exists with inflammatory bowel disease, less commonly with cholangitis, and sometimes with both. Additionally, pancreatitis may trigger hepatic lipidosis, while other diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may be complicated by pancreatitis. Therapy is similar to that used in dogs, with added emphasis on early nutritional support to prevent hepatic lipidosis. Less is known about chronic pancreatitis than the acute form, but chronic pancreatitis is more common in cats than it is in dogs and may respond positively to treatment with corticosteroids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Short communication: Pilot study on hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral stress response to treatment of claw horn lesions in acutely lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, S; Wunderlich, C; Heppelmann, M; Palme, R; Starke, A; Kehler, W; Steiner, A; Rizk, A; Meyer, U; Daenicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-09-01

    Short-term effects of therapeutic claw trimming in acutely lame cows (n=21) with nonadvanced claw horn lesions on the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral stress responses were investigated in comparison to regular claw trimming in nonlame control cows (n=21). Controls were matched to lame cows by parity and stage of lactation. Lame cows suffering from typical sole ulcers or white line disease were blinded and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, receiving 15 min before interventions either ketoprofen (n=11; 3mg/kg of BW intramuscularly; Romefen, Merial, Lyon, France) or placebo (n=10; saline in equivalent amount and route of administration). All cows underwent functional claw trimming in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping table, and claw horn lesions in lame cows were conventionally treated (removal of loose horn, block on opposing claw, bandaging of affected claw). Blood samples collected 15 min before, at the end, and 24h after claw trimming were analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, lactate, and glucose, and fecal samples (collected before treatment and after 24 h) for cortisol metabolites. Behavioral stress responses during functional and therapeutic claw trimming were recorded. Concentrations of blood cortisol, fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites were higher in lame than in nonlame cows after treatment. During claw treatment, more leg movements were recorded for lame cows than nonlame cows. Pre-emptive administration of ketoprofen had no obvious effects on stress responses to therapeutic claw trimming. Treatments of claw horn lesions caused a significant stress and pain reaction in acutely lame cows, demonstrating the necessity of adequate pain management protocols for such interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens for the surgical correction of aphakia in cases with microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mosaad Fouda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL; Verisyse polymethyl methacrylate IOL, Abbott Medical Optics [AMO], Netherlands for the surgical correction of aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. Design: This was a prospective, interventional, noncomparative case series. Methods: This interventional case series comprised 17 eyes of 9 microspherophakic patients. Retropupillary fixation of the Verisyse iris-claw IOL (AMO was performed in all cases. The surgical time was measured. Corrected distance visual acuity, astigmatism, intraocular pressure (IOP, tissue reaction, pigment dispersion, and stability of the IOL were studied 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: Eight patients had familial microspherophakia and one patient had Marfan's syndrome. Eighty-two percent of the cases achieved a visual acuity of 0.3 or better. There was no significant postoperative inflammatory reaction. Transient elevation of IOP was recorded in two cases in the 1st week only. One IOL developed disengagement of one of the haptics from the iris and was successfully re-engaged. All the other IOLs were well centered and stable. The mean surgical time was 18.0 ± 4.5 min. Conclusions: Retropupillary fixation of an iris-claw IOL is a safe and effective procedure that provides early visual recovery. It is also a time-saving method for correcting aphakia in microspherophakic eyes without sufficient capsular support.

  11. Sand Floor for Farmed Blue Foxes: Effects on Claws, Adrenal Cortex Function, Growth and Fur Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Ahola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmed blue foxes (Vulpes lagopus are traditionally housed on mesh floors where they are unable to perform certain species-specific behaviours, such as digging, which may compromise the animals' welfare. This study describes how a possibility to use in-cage sand floor affects welfare-related variables like growth of the claws, adrenal cortex function, and fur properties in juvenile blue foxes. The foxes (N=32 were housed in male-female sibling pairs in an outdoor fur animal shed in cage systems consisting of two traditional fox cages. For the eight male-female sibling pairs of the Control group, there was a mesh floor in both cages of each cage system, whereas for the eight pairs of the Sand group there was a mesh floor in one cage and a 30–40 cm deep earth floor in the other cage. The results show that sand floor is beneficial for the wearing of the claws of foxes. Furthermore, an early experience of sand floor may have positive effects on the foxes' fur development. The results, however, also suggest that there might appear welfare problems observed as disturbed claw growth and increased adrenal cortex activation if foxes that are once provided with clean and unfrozen sand floor are not allowed to enjoy this floor all the time.

  12. A novel claw pole memory machine for wide-speed-range applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Linni; Gong, Yu; Wei, Jin; Shi, Yujun; Shao, Ziyun; Ching, T. W.

    2015-05-01

    Memory machines with both high-power-density and wide-speed-range are becoming very attractive most recently. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel type of memory machine, namely, claw pole memory machine. It engages an axially magnetized AlNiCo PM ring on the claw pole rotor to build the main magnetic flux in air-gap which is responsible for the electromechanical energy conversion. A magnetizing coil is equipped to online regulate the magnetization level of the permanent magnet ring, so as to achieve wide-speed-range operation. The operating principle is analyzed. The Preisach hysteresis model is combined with 3D finite element method to conduct performance assessment of the proposed claw pole memory machine. Calculation results demonstrate that the air-gap flux density can be readily adjusted by injecting DC pulse into the magnetizing coil, and the speed-range of the proposed machine can be extended as wide as six times of its base speed.

  13. STUDIES ON THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES ASSOCIATED WITH MUDDY HABITATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOLDICH D. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, is usually found associated with stony habitats containing obvious refuges in the form of gaps between and under rocks, macrophytes and marginal tree roots, particularly in streams and lakes with clear water and little marginal mud. If the banks are composed of suitable material, then they may also construct and live in burrows. However, the white-clawed crayfish is also found to be abundant in streams, rivers, canals and millraces with deep, anoxic mud and with very little aquatic vegetation. Foraging on the surface of mud may be the only way they can obtain sufficient food in the form of macroinvertebrates and decaying plant matter. Where do crayfish live in this restricted habitat? Dewatering such waterways for essential engineering works, such as desilting, bridge and weir repairs, bank reinforcements, and maintenance of outfalls can provide an excellent opportunity to study the available habitat and the crayfish populations, in addition good estimates of population size and age class distribution can be obtained, although, as with other methods, juveniles tend to be underrepresented. A number of case studies will be given to illustrate the fact that white-clawed crayfish are able to colonize muddy habitats in some numbers. The value of retaining trees with their roots hanging into waterways as a refuge for both crayfish and small fish is highlighted.

  14. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Martina; Thaler-Saliba, Sarah; Plainer, Sophie; Vidic, Bertram; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf; Ardjomand, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population. Design Retrospective study. Patients and Methods Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes) underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed. Results Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate. PMID:26110864

  15. Retropupillary Fixation of Iris-Claw Intraocular Lens for Aphakic Eyes in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Brandner

    Full Text Available To report outcome, complications and safety of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses in a pediatric population.Retrospective study.Ten consecutive pediatric patients (15 eyes underwent placement of retropupillary fixated iris-claw intraocular lenses between October 2007 and July 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University Graz and General Hospital Klagenfurt, Austria. Postoperative visual acuity and complications were analyzed.Median final best-corrected visual acuity improved by 0.12 logMAR from preoperative baseline. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent was -0.05 ± 1.76 D. No serious complications were observed intra- or postoperatively during the entire follow-up period of up to 40 months. One patient experienced a haptic disenclavation with IOL subluxation immediately after a car accident.Our study demonstrates that iris-claw intraocular lens implantation behind the iris is safe in children with lack of capsular support and yields excellent visual outcome with low complication rate.

  16. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a PM Brushless Rotor Claw Pole Motor with FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyang Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of permanent magnet (PM brushless claw pole motor (CPM with soft magnetic composite (SMC core is designed and analyzed in this paper. The PMs are mounted on the claw pole surface, and the three-phase stator windings are fed by variable-frequency three-phase AC currents. The advantages of the proposed CPM are that the slip rings on the rotor are cast off and it can achieve the efficiency improvement and higher power density. The effects of the claw-pole structure parameters, the air-gap length, and the PM thinner parameter of the proposed CPM on the output torque are investigated by using three-dimensional time-stepping finite element method (3D TS-FEM. The optimal rotor structure of the proposed CPM is obtained by using the response surface methodology (RSM and the particle swarm optimization (PSO method and the comparison of full-load performances of the proposed CPM with different material cores (SMC and silicon steel is analyzed.

  17. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3-7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  18. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  19. Genetic evaluation of claw health traits accounting for potential preselection of cows to be trimmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croué, Iola; Fikse, Freddy; Johansson, Kjell; Carlén, Emma; Thomas, Gilles; Leclerc, Hélène; Ducrocq, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Claw lesions are one of the most important health issues in dairy cattle. Although the frequency of claw lesions depends greatly on herd management, the frequency can be lowered through genetic selection. A genetic evaluation could be developed based on trimming records collected by claw trimmers; however, not all cows present in a herd are usually selected by the breeder to be trimmed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the importance of the preselection of cows for trimming, to account for this preselection, and to estimate genetic parameters of claw health traits. The final data set contained 25,511 trimming records of French Holstein cows. Analyzed claw lesion traits were digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, interdigital hyperplasia, sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure. All traits were analyzed as binary traits in a multitrait linear animal model. Three scenarios were considered: including only trimmed cows in a 7-trait model (scenario 1); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering that nontrimmed cows were healthy) in a 7-trait model (scenario 2); or trimmed cows and contemporary cows not trimmed but present at the time of a visit (considering lesion records for trimmed cows only), in an 8-trait model, including a 0/1 trimming status trait (scenario 3). For scenario 3, heritability estimates ranged from 0.02 to 0.09 on the observed scale. Genetic correlations clearly revealed 2 groups of traits (digital dermatitis, heel horn erosion, and interdigital hyperplasia on the one hand, and sole hemorrhage circumscribed, sole hemorrhage diffused, sole ulcer, and white line fissure on the other hand). Heritabilities on the underlying scale did not vary much depending on the scenario: the effect of the preselection of cows for trimming on the estimation of heritabilities appeared to be negligible. However, including untrimmed cows as healthy

  20. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  1. PetClaw: Parallelization and Performance Optimization of a Python-Based Nonlinear Wave Propagation Solver Using PETSc

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Amal Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    Clawpack, a conservation laws package implemented in Fortran, and its Python-based version, PyClaw, are existing tools providing nonlinear wave propagation solvers that use state of the art finite volume methods. Simulations using those tools can have extensive computational requirements to provide accurate results. Therefore, a number of tools, such as BearClaw and MPIClaw, have been developed based on Clawpack to achieve significant speedup by exploiting parallel architectures. However, none of them has been shown to scale on a large number of cores. Furthermore, these tools, implemented in Fortran, achieve parallelization by inserting parallelization logic and MPI standard routines throughout the serial code in a non modular manner. Our contribution in this thesis research is three-fold. First, we demonstrate an advantageous use case of Python in implementing easy-to-use modular extensible scalable scientific software tools by developing an implementation of a parallelization framework, PetClaw, for PyClaw using the well-known Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation, PETSc, through its Python wrapper petsc4py. Second, we demonstrate the possibility of getting acceptable Python code performance when compared to Fortran performance after introducing a number of serial optimizations to the Python code including integrating Clawpack Fortran kernels into PyClaw for low-level computationally intensive parts of the code. As a result of those optimizations, the Python overhead in PetClaw for a shallow water application is only 12 percent when compared to the corresponding Fortran Clawpack application. Third, we provide a demonstration of PetClaw scalability on up to the entirety of Shaheen; a 16-rack Blue Gene/P IBM supercomputer that comprises 65,536 cores and located at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). The PetClaw solver achieved above 0.98 weak scaling efficiency for an Euler application on the whole machine excluding the

  2. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  3. Age, Segment, and Horn Disease Affect Expression of Cytokines, Growth Factors and Receptors in the Epidermis and Dermis of the Bovine Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in amounts of RNA expression for growth factors, cytokines and receptors in epidermal-dermal tissues of the bovine claw relative to host age, claw region and disease state of the horn. Epidermal-dermal tissues were collected from the coronette, wall, sole...

  4. Effects of rubber flooring and solid concrete floors on claw horn quality, horn growth and wear, net growth, lameness and claw health in free-stall housed dairy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Guhl, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    A cohort study was performed on 150 HF X Black Pied crossbred dairy cattle in order to compare the effects of rubber flooring and solid concrete floors on claw horn quality, horn growth and wear, net growth, lameness and claw health. To this end on a dairy farm with 628 dairy cattle one of two identical buildings was established with rubber flooring (KURA P®, Gummiwerk Kraiburg Elastik GmbH, Tittmoning/ Obb.). After calving the animals were either assigned to the group housed in the building ...

  5. Effect of biotin supplementation on claw horn growth in young, clinically healthy cattle

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco; Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Atayde, Ingrid Bueno; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; de Moura, Maria Ivete; Goulart, Daniel Silva

    2010-01-01

    The effects of orally administered biotin supplementation on the growth of claw horn in young, clinically healthy cattle were analyzed. Twelve, 1-year-old Girolando cattle were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5 mg of diluted powdered biotin (GI) or a control treatment (GII) for 40 consecutive days. Cattle in the GI group showed an average hoof growth of 11.3 ± 0.72 mm, while those in GII had an average hoof growth of 7.2 ± 0.78 mm. The results confirmed the positive effect of biotin su...

  6. Off-host observations of mating and postmating behaviors in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M H; Wu, W J

    2001-05-01

    A blood meal was necessary for a male cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), to display the mating attempts to an unfed or fed female. More mating pairs resulted when both sexes were fed. Copulation occurred when fed fleas were placed on surfaces with temperatures from 34 to 42 degrees C. This article not only describes the mating and postmating behaviors of cat fleas, but also compares them with those of other fleas. The sequence of mating behavior began when a male approached a female ventrally, and the male's antennae and claspers became erect to attach to the abdomen of the female. Clasper attachment lasted until copulation ended, whereas the male retrieved his antennae immediately after genitalia linkage. The male generally grasped the female's tarsi with his claws during mating. The length of the mating interval terminated by the male ranged from 25 to 110 min and was significantly longer than that terminated by the female (averaging 12.11 min). After the mating pair separated, the male displayed a series of postmating behaviors discussed herein. This article documents grasping and postmating behaviors of the male cat flea.

  7. Isolation of dermatophytes from 50 asymptomatic domestic cats treated at the Federal University of Mato Grosso Veterinary – Hospital in Cuiabá, MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Rosolem Lima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm, is a zoonotic disease caused by complex fungi that grow as hyphae and attach to the skin, hair and nails or claws. About 40 species of fungi of the genera Microsporum spp., Trichophyton spp. and Epidermophyton spp. are considered dermatophytes, and Microsporum canis is the genus most commonly isolated from cats. This study investigated the occurrence of dermatophytes in cats without clinical signs of skin diseases. The study involved the physical examination of 50 clinically healthy cats and the collection of samples for direct examination and fungal culture at a university veterinary hospital. The resulting data were evaluated by the chi-square association test. Of the 50 cats, 11 (22% presented dermatophytes, with a predominance of Microsporum spp. The other 39 animals were diagnosed for non-dermatophytic fungi. Sex, breed and the presence of contactants showed no statistical difference, although there was a predominance of adult animals. The high dermatophyte infection rate confirms that cats without clinical signs can harbor these fungi, acting as asymptomatic carriers, contaminating the environment and increasing the infection rate. This study confirms that cats without clinical signs can be carriers of ringworm, which underscores the importance of the adoption of control methods even for clinically healthy animals.

  8. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Brain Computer Interface System for Controlling a Robotic Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, D.; Zoumis, S.; Asvestas, P.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the design and implementation of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system that can control a robotic claw. The system is based on the Emotiv Epoc headset, which provides the capability of simultaneous recording of 14 EEG channels, as well as wireless connectivity by means of the Bluetooth protocol. The system is initially trained to decode what user thinks to properly formatted data. The headset communicates with a personal computer, which runs a dedicated software application, implemented under the Processing integrated development environment. The application acquires the data from the headset and invokes suitable commands to an Arduino Uno board. The board decodes the received commands and produces corresponding signals to a servo motor that controls the position of the robotic claw. The system was tested successfully on a healthy, male subject, aged 28 years. The results are promising, taking into account that no specialized hardware was used. However, tests on a larger number of users is necessary in order to draw solid conclusions regarding the performance of the proposed system.

  10. The influence of the environment on dairy cow behavior, claw health and herd lameness dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel B; Nordlund, Kenneth V

    2009-03-01

    Free stall housing increases the exposure of dairy cows' claws to concrete walk-ways and to manure between periods of rest, and generally shows the highest rate of lameness compared with other dairy management systems. However, there is great variation within a system, and the rate of new cases of lameness can be reduced to very low levels provided time spent resting per day is maximized through good stall design, access to stalls through stocking density control and comfortable transition cow facilities, limiting the time spent milking, provision of adequate heat abatement, and good leg hygiene. Sand bedded stalls are useful as they also permit lame cows to maintain adequate daily rest. Rubberized alley flooring surfaces benefit the cow by reducing claw wear and trauma compared to concrete, making them ideal for parlor holding areas and long transfer lanes and walk ways. However, caution is required when using rubber floors in pens with uncomfortable stalls due to apparent adverse effects on cow time budgets, which may in turn have a detrimental effect on lameness.

  11. Observations of crayfish plague infections in commercially important narrow-clawed crayfish populations in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokko Harri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the presence of possible Aphanomyces astaci infections in eight Turkish narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus populations by analyzing the prevalence and genotypes of the disease agent A. astaci. The qPCR analyses revealed A. astaci infection in seven of the studied eight populations, with the agent level A2 or higher. The agent levels among the infected populations varied from A0 to A5, i.e., from negative to high level of infection, based on qPCR ranking. Based on the sequencing of the chitinase gene and the mitochondrial ribosomal rnnS and rnnL subunits, we detected both A (As and B (PsI haplogroups of A. astaci in our samples, with each of the studied populations being carriers of only one haplotype. The results confirm previous detections of A. astaci in Turkish narrow-clawed crayfish populations and reveal, that both A and B haplogroup A. astaci carriers exist widely in A. leptodactylus populations of Turkey.

  12. Modelling habitat requirements of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes using support vector machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favaro L.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish’s habitat has been profoundly modified in Piedmont (NW Italy due to environmental changes caused by human impact. Consequently, native populations have decreased markedly. In this research project, support vector machines were tested as possible tools for evaluating the ecological factors that determine the presence of white-clawed crayfish. A system of 175 sites was investigated, 98 of which recorded the presence of Austropotamobius pallipes. At each site 27 physical-chemical, environmental and climatic variables were measured according to their importance to A. pallipes. Various feature selection methods were employed. These yielded three subsets of variables that helped build three different types of models: (1 models with no variable selection; (2 models built by applying Goldberg’s genetic algorithm after variable selection; (3 models built by using a combination of four supervised-filter evaluators after variable selection. These different model types helped us realise how important it was to select the right features if we wanted to build support vector machines that perform as well as possible. In addition, support vector machines have a high potential for predicting indigenous crayfish occurrence, according to our findings. Therefore, they are valuable tools for freshwater management, tools that may prove to be much more promising than traditional and other machine-learning techniques.

  13. Cystinuria in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBartola, S P; Chew, D J; Horton, M L

    1991-01-01

    A 10-month-old male Siamese cat with dysuria was determined to have cystine crystalluria. Many small calculi composed entirely of cystine were found in the urinary bladder. Measurement of serum and urine amino acids and calculation of fractional reabsorption of amino acids indicated reabsorption defects for cystine, ornithine, lysine, and arginine. Urinary acidification, fractional reabsorption of glucose, and fractional reabsorption of electrolytes were normal. Diagnoses of cystinuria and cystine urolithiasis were made on the basis of low fractional reabsorption of cystine and dibasic amino acids and the detection of cystine calculi in the urinary bladder.

  14. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  15. Effects of perforated rubber mats in the lying and walking area of pregnant sows on claws and joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Jais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a group pen for pregnant sows the floor was covered with perforated rubber mats in the lying and in the walking area. In a reference pen the lying area had hole-perforated concrete elements and the walking area conventional concrete slatted floor. The experiment lasted from November 2011 to June 2014 and included 6 trial runs. To detect the effects of the rubber mats, claws and joints of the sows were evaluated regularly. The sows were stabled in their second pregnancy and passed, depending on their lifespan and their entry into the trial, up to six pregnancies in the experiment. For evaluation of the recorded traits of claws, joints and lameness of the sows, data of 630 pregnancies of 199 sows could be used. The results of the evaluation of the claws showed that the claws of the sows on rubber floor were significantly longer than those of the sows on concrete floor. The traits wall horn abrasion and horn wall cracks were rated significantly worse on concrete floor. No differences were found in the evaluation of lameness.

  16. Inverse Effects on Growth and Development Rates by Means of Endocrine Disruptors in African Clawed Frog Tadpoles ("Xenopus Laevis")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Zachary Carl

    2007-01-01

    Previous work on fish, frogs, and salamanders, showed the ability for estrogen (EE2) and anthropogenic endocrine disruptors to skew sex ratios and cause hermaphrodism. This study addressed the effects of estrogens on growth and development rates of African clawed frog tadpoles ("Xenopus laevis") during their gender determination stages. The…

  17. The potential for using red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish as biological control agents for Schistosoma host snails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monde, C.; Syampungani, S.; Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The potential of red claw crayfish and hybrid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Clarias ngamensis) as predators for Schistosoma host snails was evaluated in 2014 by monitoring the consumption of snails by crayfish and catfish in experimental tanks over time under laboratory conditions. After

  18. FEED BUNK HEIGHT IMPACT ON DAIRY COW‘S FRONT CLAWS / IMPACTO DA ALTURA DO COMEDOURO NAS PATAS DIANTEIRAS DE VACAS LEITEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR CIACO DE CARVALHO

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTClaw horn lesions are believed to develop from increased pedal bone mobility induced by changes in the corium tissue. During the planning of barns herd owners are faced with choices of materials and dimensions, as well as feed bunk heights. Among the causes that may lead to front claw injuries there is the height of the feed bunk, as the cow changes its postural behavior in order to reach the food. This research aimed to study the dairy cows’ front claws force exerted during eating for determiningthe lesion risk factor of the feed bunk height. Eight dairy cows were placed in front of the feed bunk, their front claws stepped on the pressure assessment system, and the forces exerted on front claws due to the eating postural change were recorded. The mean pressure, the maximum pressure, the floor contact area, and the mean force per region were calculated. While the cow was eating, the highest mean pressure shifted slightly towards the sole. In the lateral claw the maximum pressurewas also shifted slightly towards the toe. No difference was found in the variables analyzed for both lateral and medial sides, as well for the force distribution in the left and right claws. Results of this experiment were not conclusive, not allowing explaining either laminitis or the corkscrew deformity as a result of the force exerted in the claws by means of height of the feed bunk being a risk factor.Keywords: lameness, animal welfare, feed bunk design.

  19. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  20. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle C Hybki; Lisa A Murphy; Joseph P Marchi; Jeffrey E Patlogar; Jennifer O Brisson; Reid K Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  1. Rebound hyperglycaemia in diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomp, Kirsten; Rand, Jacquie

    2016-08-01

    Rebound hyperglycaemia (also termed Somogyi effect) is defined as hyperglycaemia caused by the release of counter-regulatory hormones in response to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, and is widely believed to be common in diabetic cats. However, studies in human diabetic patients over the past quarter century have rejected the common occurrence of this phenomenon. Therefore, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of rebound hyperglycaemia in diabetic cats. In a retrospective study, 10,767 blood glucose curves of 55 cats treated with glargine using an intensive blood glucose regulation protocol with a median of five blood glucose measurements per day were evaluated for evidence of rebound hyperglycaemic events, defined in two different ways (with and without an insulin resistance component). While biochemical hypoglycaemia occurred frequently, blood glucose curves consistent with rebound hyperglycaemia with insulin resistance was confined to four single events in four different cats. In 14/55 cats (25%), a median of 1.5% (range 0.32-7.7%) of blood glucose curves were consistent with rebound hyperglycaemia without an insulin resistance component; this represented 0.42% of blood glucose curves in both affected and unaffected cats. We conclude that despite the frequent occurrence of biochemical hypoglycaemia, rebound hyperglycaemia is rare in cats treated with glargine on a protocol aimed at tight glycaemic control. For glargine-treated cats, insulin dose should not be reduced when there is hyperglycaemia in the absence of biochemical or clinical evidence of hypoglycaemia. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  2. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  3. Local cloning of CAT states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-06-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case.

  4. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  5. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  6. Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiger, R.

    1996-01-01

    Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia in a cat is often an incidental finding on a routine thoracic or abdominal radiograph. Clinical signs are nonspecific-usually respiratory (dyspnea) or gastrointestinal(vomiting or diarrhea). Some of the cats with this anomaly are asymptomatic. The physical examination may be normal: muffled heart sounds are the most common abnormality noted during a physical examination. Cats of many breeds are affected, although 26% of reported cases were inPersians. Age of the cat at diagnosis ranged from 6 days to 14 years. Thirty of the 52 reported cases were in females. Diagnostic studies used to confirm the diagnosis included echocardiography, upper gastrointestinal study, ultrasonography, angiography, positive-contrast peritoneography, and laparotomy. Surgical correction was reportedly successful in 22 of 25 cats

  7. An algorithmic decomposition of claw-free graphs leading to an O(n^3) algorithm for the weighted stable set problem

    OpenAIRE

    Faenza, Y.; Oriolo, G.; Stauffer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for solving the maximum weighted stable set problem on claw-free graphs that runs in O(n^3)-time, drastically improving the previous best known complexity bound. This algorithm is based on a novel decomposition theorem for claw-free graphs, which is also intioduced in the present paper. Despite being weaker than the well-known structure result for claw-free graphs given by Chudnovsky and Seymour, our decomposition theorem is, on the other hand, algorithmic, i.e. it is ...

  8. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  9. Aphakia correction with retropupillary fixated iris-claw lens (Artisan – long-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schallenberg M

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurice Schallenberg,1,2 Dirk Dekowski,1 Angela Hahn,1 Thomas Laube,1,3 Klaus-Peter Steuhl,1 Daniel Meller11Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 2HELIOS Klinikum Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany; 3Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, GermanyPurpose: To evaluate the technique, safety, and efficacy of the retropupillary implantation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in a long-term follow-up study.Patients and methods: This retrospective study included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent an Artisan aphakic intraocular lens implantation between January 2006 and February 2011 at the University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany and at the Zentrum für Augenheilkunde PD Dr Laube, Düsseldorf, Germany. Preoperative data collected included demographics, etiology of aphakia, previous surgeries, preoperative eye pathology, intraocular pressure, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and best corrected visual acuity. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included the best corrected visual acuity, lens position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, development of macular edema, and other complications.Results: Thirty-one patients were included. The mean follow-up was 25.2 months (range: 4–48 months. The mean best corrected visual acuity postoperatively was 0.64 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR and varied from 0 logMAR to 3 logMAR. Some patients had a low visual acuity preoperatively because of preoperative eye pathologies. In 22 patients the visual acuity improved, in two patients the visual acuity remained unchanged, and seven patients showed a decreased visual acuity. Complications were peaked pupils (n=10 and retinal detachment in one case. Four patients showed an iris atrophy and high intraocular pressure was observed only in one patient. Subluxation of the intraocular lens, endothelial cell loss, and

  10. Devil's Claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is covered with hooks meant to attach onto animals in order to spread the seeds. The roots ... the liver include diclofenac (Cataflam, Voltaren), ibuprofen (Motrin), meloxicam (Mobic), and piroxicam (Feldene); celecoxib (Celebrex); amitriptyline (Elavil); ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  12. Effect of biotin supplementation on claw horn growth in young, clinically healthy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Antônio Franco; Franco, Leandro Guimarães; Atayde, Ingrid Bueno; da Cunha, Paulo Henrique Jorge; de Moura, Maria Ivete; Goulart, Daniel Silva

    2010-06-01

    The effects of orally administered biotin supplementation on the growth of claw horn in young, clinically healthy cattle were analyzed. Twelve, 1-year-old Girolando cattle were randomly assigned to receive either 12.5 mg of diluted powdered biotin (GI) or a control treatment (GII) for 40 consecutive days. Cattle in the GI group showed an average hoof growth of 11.3 +/- 0.72 mm, while those in GII had an average hoof growth of 7.2 +/- 0.78 mm. The results confirmed the positive effect of biotin supplementation on the growth of angle and length of the dorsal hoof wall, hoof sole length, and on resistance to wearing, in young cattle extensively managed.

  13. Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens for aphakia in Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kheirkhah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lens (IOL is a surgical option for correction of aphakia; however, these IOLs have not been used in eyes with uveitis including Fuchs′ heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI due to possible risk of severe postoperative intraocular inflammation. In the case reported here, we secondarily implanted an Artisan IOL in a 28-year-old man with FHI who had aphakia with no capsular support due to a previous complicated cataract surgery. Enclavation was easily performed and no intraoperative complication was noted. Postoperative course was uneventful with no significant anterior chamber inflammation during 12 months of follow-up. Although there were few deposits on the IOL surface, the patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20 without developing glaucoma or other complications. Therefore, Artisan IOL may be considered for correction of aphakia in patients with FHI. However, studies on large number of patients are required to evaluate safety of the procedure.

  14. ‘The phenomenal CAT’: firms clawing the goods of others.

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Di Nino

    2015-01-01

    Using results collected for the first time through interviews with Italian manufacturing firms, this work shows that around a quarter of aggregate manufacturing sales are not sold by the actual producer. This circumstance, known as carry along trade (CAT), means that the comparative advantage of some manufacturing firms lies in activities other than crafting, with important consequences for the interpretation of productivity measures. CAT firms hold a 3% productivity premium compared with the...

  15. The morphology and attachment of Protopolystoma xenopodis (Monogenea: Polystomatidae infecting the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theunissen Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The African clawed frog Xenopus laevis (Anura: Pipidae is host to more than 25 parasite genera encompassing most of the parasitic invertebrate groups. Protopolystoma xenopodis Price, 1943 (Monogenea: Polystomatidae is one of two monogeneans infecting X. laevis. This study focussed on the external morphology of different developmental stages using scanning electron microscopy, histology and light microscopy. Eggs are released continuously and are washed out when the frog urinates. After successful development, an active swimming oncomiracidium leaves the egg capsule and locates a potential post-metamorphic clawed frog. The oncomiracidium migrates to the kidney where it attaches and starts to feed on blood. The parasite then migrates to the urinary bladder where it reaches maturity. Eggs are fusiform, about 300 μm long, with a smooth surface and are operculated. Oncomiracidia are elongated and cylindrical in shape, with an oval posterior cup-shaped haptor that bears a total of 20 sclerites; 16 marginal hooklets used for attachment to the kidney of the host and two pairs of hamulus primordia. Cilia from the 64 ciliated cells enable the oncomiracidium to swim for up to 24 h when the cilia subsequently curl up, become non-functional and are shed from the body. The tegument between the ciliated cells bears a series of sensory papillae. The body of the mature parasite is elongated and pyriform and possesses an opisthaptor armed with three pairs of suckers and two pairs of falciform hooks to ensure a firm grip on the flexible internal surface of the urinary bladder.

  16. WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH IN MUDDY HABITATS: MONITORING THE POPULATION IN THE RIVER IVEL, BEDFORDSHIRE, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEAY S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available White-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes are usually associated with stony substrates, tree roots, or refuges in submerged banks. The River Ivel has the last known population of white-clawed crayfish in Bedfordshire. Prior to 2005, much of the bed comprised uniform silt, plus leaf-litter. Stands of reedmace Typha latifolia and other emergent vegetation were localised in less shaded areas. Initial survey results suggested a population at low abundance. A low-cost monitoring strategy was started in 2001 and continued three times a year to 2005, using engineering bricks, which offer artificial refuges. Crayfish are counted when bricks are lifted periodically. De-silting of c. 430 m river was carried out in February 2005, to improve habitat and to maintain the flood capacity in the channel upstream of a mill weir. Additional bricks were deployed a few weeks in advance of de-silting, then bricks and crayfish were lifted prior to dredging and were returned the next day. Starting upstream, soft, wet mud was dredged out, placed on the bank and searched manually for crayfish. Banks, tree roots and shallow margins were left undisturbed. In all, 4,142 crayfish were found in dredgings from a 430 m length of the mid channel. Crayfish were strongly associated with emergent vegetation, but many were present below the surface of the silt. Crayfish released in the dredged channel immediately burrowed into the silt retained on the channel margins. Monitoring after dredging showed no change in abundance in the main area with in-bank refuges and lots of bricks, but there was an increase in occupancy of bricks in an area where most crayfish had been in emergent vegetation.

  17. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  18. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  19. Locomotion and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows housed in freestalls with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O

    2011-03-01

    This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than

  20. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  1. Fructosamine concentrations in hyperglycemic cats.

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S; Ryan, E

    1995-01-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to establish a reference range for fructosamine in cats using a commercial fructosamine kit; 2) to demonstrate that the fructosamine concentration is not increased by transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration, simulating hyperglycemia of acute stress; and 3) to determine what percentage of blood samples submitted to a commercial laboratory from 95 sick cats had evidence of persistent hyperglycemia based on an elevated fructosamine concentration. Reference inter...

  2. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  3. Echocardiographic Findings in 11 Cats with Acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, J.A.; Lunn, K.F.; Bright, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Information regarding cardiac changes in domestic cats with acromegaly is limited. Hypothesis/Objectives The objective of this study was to describe the echocardiographic findings in cats with acromegaly. Animals Eighteen cats diagnosed with acromegaly at Colorado State University between 2008 and 2012. Of these 18 cats, 11 had echocardiography performed. Methods A retrospective review of medical records was made to identify cats with acromegaly that also had echocardiography perfo...

  4. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  5. Fructosamine concentrations in hyperglycemic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S; Ryan, E

    1995-03-01

    The aims of this study were 1) to establish a reference range for fructosamine in cats using a commercial fructosamine kit; 2) to demonstrate that the fructosamine concentration is not increased by transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration, simulating hyperglycemia of acute stress; and 3) to determine what percentage of blood samples submitted to a commercial laboratory from 95 sick cats had evidence of persistent hyperglycemia based on an elevated fructosamine concentration. Reference intervals for the serum fructosamine concentration were established in healthy, normoglycemic cats using a second generation kit designed for the measurement of the fructosamine concentration in humans. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration was induced by IV glucose injection in healthy cats. Multisourced blood samples that were submitted to a commercial veterinary laboratory either as fluoride oxalated plasma or serum were used to determine the percentage of hyperglycemic cats having persistent hyperglycemia. The reference interval for the serum fructosamine concentration was 249 to 406 mumol/L. Transient hyperglycemia of 90 min duration did not increase the fructosamine concentration and there was no correlation between fructosamine and blood glucose. In contrast, the fructosamine concentration was correlated with the glucose concentration in sick hyper- and normoglycemic cats. It is concluded that the fructosamine concentration is a useful marker for the detection of persistent hyperglycemia and its differentiation from transient stress hyperglycemia. Fructosamine determinations should be considered when blood glucose is 12 to 20 mmol/L and only a single blood sample is available for analysis.

  6. Cat eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Murki, Srinivas; Pratap, Tejo; Vasikarla, Madhavi

    2014-05-19

    A full-term female baby, a product of non-consanguineous marriage, was born at 37 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 2.08 kg. Antenatal scan at 31 weeks revealed complex congenital heart disease with a hypoplastic right ventricle, pulmonary atresia and an intact septum. Immediately after birth, the infant was shifted to the nursery and was started on intravenous fluids and infusion prostaglandin E1 (Alprostidil). On examination, she had microcephaly, periorbital puffiness, a long philtrum, a broad nasal bridge and retrognathia, up slanting palpebral fissures, widely spaced nipples, a sacral dimple and right upper limb postaxial polydactyly. Postnatal echocardiography confirmed a large ostium secundum atrial septal defect with left to right shunt, right ventricle hypoplasia, pulmonary atresia with an intact septum and a large vertical patent ductus arteriosus. Ophthalmological examination showed a bilateral chorioretinal coloboma sparing disc and fovea. Karyotyping showed an extra small marker chromosome suggestive of the Cat eye syndrome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Dog and cat bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  8. Evolution of vertebrate transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 channels: opposite temperature sensitivity between mammals and western clawed frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Saito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve as temperature receptors in a wide variety of animals and must have played crucial roles in thermal adaptation. The TRP vanilloid (TRPV subfamily contains several temperature receptors with different temperature sensitivities. The TRPV3 channel is known to be highly expressed in skin, where it is activated by warm temperatures and serves as a sensor to detect ambient temperatures near the body temperature of homeothermic animals such as mammals. Here we performed comprehensive comparative analyses of the TRPV subfamily in order to understand the evolutionary process; we identified novel TRPV genes and also characterized the evolutionary flexibility of TRPV3 during vertebrate evolution. We cloned the TRPV3 channel from the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis to understand the functional evolution of the TRPV3 channel. The amino acid sequences of the N- and C-terminal regions of the TRPV3 channel were highly diversified from those of other terrestrial vertebrate TRPV3 channels, although central portions were well conserved. In a heterologous expression system, several mammalian TRPV3 agonists did not activate the TRPV3 channel of the western clawed frog. Moreover, the frog TRPV3 channel did not respond to heat stimuli, instead it was activated by cold temperatures. Temperature thresholds for activation were about 16 °C, slightly below the lower temperature limit for the western clawed frog. Given that the TRPV3 channel is expressed in skin, its likely role is to detect noxious cold temperatures. Thus, the western clawed frog and mammals acquired opposite temperature sensitivity of the TRPV3 channel in order to detect environmental temperatures suitable for their respective species, indicating that temperature receptors can dynamically change properties to adapt to different thermal environments during evolution.

  9. Identification of a 7-phase claw-pole starter-alternator for a micro-hybrid automotive application

    OpenAIRE

    Bruyère, Antoine; Henneron, Thomas; SEMAIL, Eric; LOCMENT, Fabrice; Bouscayrol, Alain; Dubus,, J.M; MIPO, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the identification of a new high power starter-alternator system, using both: a Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling and an experimental vector control. The drive is composed of a synchronous 7-phase claw-pole machine supplied with a low voltage / high current Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). This structure needs specific approaches to plan its electrical and mechanical behaviors and to identify the parameters needed for control purpose. At first, a...

  10. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria MY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mun Yueh Faria,1 Nuno Ferreira,2 Eliana Neto,1 1Vitreo Retinal Department, 2Ophthalmology Department, Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal Objective: To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS. Design: Retrospective study. Methods: Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years. Results: The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months. Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was –0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg, respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm, as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion: Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that

  11. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria MY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mun Yueh Faria,1–3 Nuno Pinto Ferreira,1–3 Joana Medeiros Pinto,1–3 David Cordeiro Sousa,1–3 Ines Leal,1–3 Eliana Neto,1–3 Carlos Marques-Neves1–3 1Centro de Estudos da Visão, Universidade de Lisboa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Santa Maria, 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal Background: Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL.Methods: This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth.Results: The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months. The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1 retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2 corneal edema was found in three patients, 3 high intraocular pressure was observed in

  12. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature-independent energy expenditure in early development of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Yatsuhisa; Ode, Koji L

    2014-01-01

    The thermal dissipation of activated eggs and embryos undergoing development from cleavage to the tailbud stage of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis was measured as a function of incubation time at temperatures ranging from T = 288.2 K to 295.2 K, using a high-precision isothermal calorimeter. A23187-mediated activation of mature eggs induced stable periodic thermal oscillations lasting for 8–34 h. The frequency agreed well with the cell cycle frequency of initial cleavages at the identical temperature. In the developing embryo, energy metabolism switches from embryonic to adult features during gastrulation. The thermal dissipation after gastrulation fit well with a single modified Avrami equation, which has been used for modeling crystal-growth. Both the oscillation frequency of the activated egg and the growth rate of the embryo strongly depend on temperature with the same apparent activation energy of approximately 87 kJ mole −1 . This result suggests that early development proceeds as a single biological time, attributable to a single metabolic rate. A temperature-independent growth curve was derived by scaling the thermogram to the biological time, indicating that the amount of energy expenditure during each developmental stage is constant over the optimal temperature range. (paper)

  14. Histological analysis of thelohaniasis in white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglio F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From 2004 to 2006, a parasitological survey aimed at the detection of the microsporidian parasite Thelohania contejeani Henneguy was carried out on 177 wild white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes complex captured in six streams and rivers of the province of Belluno in north-eastern Italy. Microscopical examination of the skeletal muscles, and histological analysis applying different histochemical stains to full transverse and sagittal sections of the cephalothorax and abdomen were carried out. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was also conducted on the parasites recovered during the survey. Out of 177 crayfish examined, Thelohania contejeani (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae was present in only one crayfish from the Vena d’oro creek. The parasite was detected in the skeletal muscles in several developmental stages, including mature spores, which represented the most common stage recovered. Sporophorous vesicles were also present. Histological examination revealed that the fibres of the skeletal, cardiac and intestinal muscles were filled with spores. Melanin infiltrations were focally present in the infected striated muscles. The gill phagocytic nephrocytes were engulfed by small masses of spores. Among the staining techniques applied, Crossman’s trichrome stain represented the most effective method of detecting T. contejeani.

  15. Effects of depleted uranium on survival, growth, and metamorphosis in the african clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S.E.; Caldwell, C.A.; Gonzales, G.; Gould, W.R.; Arimoto, R.

    2005-01-01

    Embryos (stage 8-47, Nieuwkoop and Faber) of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were subjected to water-borne depleted uranium (DU) concentrations that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/Lusing an acute 96-h frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). In a chronic 64-d assay, X. laevis (from embryo through metamorphosis; stages 8-66) were subjected to concentrations of DU that ranged from 6.2 to 54.3 mg/L Our results indicate DU is a non teratogenic metal. No effects on mortality, malformations, or growth were observed in the 96-h FETAX with concentrations of DU that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg/L From stage 8 to stage 47, X. laevis tadpoles do not actively feed and the gills are not well developed. Thus, uptake of DU was reduced despite exposure to elevated concentrations. The 64-d assay resulted in no concentration response for either mortality or malformations; however, a delay in metamorphosis was observed in tadpoles subjected to elevated DU concentrations (from 13.1 to 54.3 mg/L) compared to tadpoles in both the well-water control and reference. The delay in metamorphosis was likely due to increasing body burden of DU that ranged from 0.98 to 2.82 mg/kg. Copyright?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  16. Alteration of Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Extracts of Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbaki Muzila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Harpagophytum, Devil’s Claw, is a genus of tuberiferous xerophytic plants native to southern Africa. Some of the taxa are appreciated for their medicinal effects and have been traditionally used to relieve symptoms of inflammation. The objectives of this pilot study were to investigate the antioxidant capacity and the content of total phenols, verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and selected iridoids, as well as to investigate the capacity of various Harpagophytum taxa in suppressing respiratory burst in terms of reactive oxygen species produced by human neutrophils challenged with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, opsonised Staphylococcus aureus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Harpagophytum plants were classified into different taxa according to morphology, and DNA analysis was used to confirm the classification. A putative new variety of H. procumbens showed the highest degree of antioxidative capacity. Using PMA, three Harpagophytum taxa showed anti-inflammatory effects with regard to the PBS control. A putative hybrid between H. procumbens and H. zeyheri in contrast showed proinflammatory effect on the response of neutrophils to F. nucleatum in comparison with treatment with vehicle control. Harpagophytum taxa were biochemically very variable and the response in suppressing respiratory burst differed. Further studies with larger number of subjects are needed to corroborate anti-inflammatory effects of different taxa of Harpagophytum.

  17. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  18. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne; Bennett, Pauleen; Paterson, Mandy; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people's perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner "gatekeepers" could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats.

  19. Grooming and control of fleas in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein; Hart

    2000-05-10

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars) which prevented grooming were fitted on nine cats in a flea-infested household and 3 weeks later, flea numbers on these cats were compared with nine control cats in the same household. Flea numbers dropped in the control cats reflecting an apparent drop in adult fleas in the environment, but in the E-collar cats, flea numbers did not drop, and were about twice as numerous as in control cats. The significantly greater number of fleas on the E-collar cats was attributed to their inability to groom off fleas. In Experiment 2, videotaping of nine different cats from the flea-infested household revealed that these cats groomed at about twice the rate of 10 similarly videotaped control cats from a flea-free colony. These results reveal that flea exposure can increase grooming rate in cats and that grooming is effective in removing fleas.

  20. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats. PMID:10203525

  1. Isolation of Malassezia furfur from a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, M. J.; Abarca, M. L.; Cabañes, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    During a survey of the occurrence of Malassezia species in the external ear canals of cats without otitis externa, Malassezia furfur was isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of M. furfur from cats.

  2. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  4. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  5. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  6. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    ). CONCLUSIONS: Medication exposure data in the EUROmediCAT central database can be analyzed systematically to determine a manageable set of associations for validation and then testing in independent datasets. Detection of teratogens depends on frequency of exposure, level of risk and teratogenic specificity....

  7. Genitourinary dysplasia in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baines, S.J.; Speakman, A.J.; Williams, J.M.; Cheeseman, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    A six-month-old kitten had congenital urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence due to urethral hypoplasia and associated uterine hypoplasia and vaginal aplasia. Diagnosis was based on radiographic examination, surgical exploration and histological examination of the lower urinary tract. Surgical correction resulted in a marked clinical improvement. The cat became fully continent following treatment with phenylpropanolamine

  8. Contraceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw in rats with experimental endometriosis Efeito anticoncepcional da Uncaria tomentosa (unha-de-gato em ratas com endometriose experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nogueira Neto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate the histological changes in parenchyma´s epithelial layer of the uterus and ovarian of rats with induced endometriosis, treated with Uncaria tomentosa extract. METHODS: 29 rats with experimental endometriosis, were selected and divided in three groups: The uncaria group received 32mg/ml of Uncaria tomentosa extract, 1ml administered daily and the placebo group received 1ml of saline 0.9% per day, during for 14 days (both groups; the leuprolide group received leuprolide acetate 1mg/kg body weight applied single subcutaneous dose. In the 15th day of treatment the uterine horn and ovaries were removed for histopathological analysis. RESULTS: The uncaria group presented nine samples (90% with immature ovarian follicles, whereas the placebo group did not present any case and in the leuprolide group there were eight rats (88% with the same change. The placebo group showed mature corpus luteum in all animals, occurring less frequent in uncaria (10% and leuprolide (22% groups. The uterine epithelium showed weak proliferative in nine (90% samples of the uncaria group, in two (20% animals in the placebo group and seven (77.8% rats in the leuprolide group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that Uncaria tomentosa has contraceptive effect.OBJETIVO: Avaliação histológica do útero e parênquima ovariano de ratas com endometriose induzida tratadas com extrato de Uncaria tomentosa. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 29 ratas com endometriose experimental e formados três grupos: O grupo uncaria recebeu extrato de Uncaria tomentosa com 32mg/ml, administrado 1ml ao dia e o grupo placebo recebeu 1ml de solução salina a 0,9%, ambos por 14 dias; o grupo leuprolida recebeu acetato de leuprolida 1mg/kg de peso corporal aplicado via subcutânea dose única. No 15° dia de tratamento realizou-se retirada de corno uterino e ovários para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: O grupo uncaria apresentou nove amostras (90% com maturação incompleta dos folículos ovarianos, já o grupo placebo não apresentou nenhum caso e no grupo leuprolida houve oito ratas (88% com a mesma alteração. O grupo placebo apresentou corpo lúteo maduro em todos os animais, acontecendo de forma menos freqüente nos grupos uncaria (10% e leuprolida (22%. O epitélio uterino se mostrou fracamente proliferativo em nove (90% das amostras do grupo unacaria, em dois (20% casos do grupo placebo e sete (77.8% casos no grupo leuprolida. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que a Uncaria tomentosa tem efeito anticoncepcional.

  9. Visual outcomes after lensectomy and iris claw artisan intraocular lens implantation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Hossein Mohammad; Malekifar, Parviz; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Roshandel, Danial; Esfandiari, Hamed

    2017-08-01

    To review our experience with crystalline lens extraction and iris claw Artisan IOL implantation in patients with lens subluxation secondary to Marfan syndrome. A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes of 9 patients with lens subluxation due to Marfan syndrome who underwent crystalline lens removal and Artisan IOL (Ophtec, Groningen, Netherlands) implantation. A questionnaire of pre- and post-operative data, including demographics, pre- and postoperative comorbidities and complications was completed. Patients were evaluated for visual outcome and occurrence of complications. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and spherical equivalents (SE) were compared before and after lens extraction and IOL insertion. The mean age of the participants was 30.03 ± 15.02 years, and mean post-operative follow-up time was 44.5 ± 16.4 months. Mean BCVA also showed a significant improvement from 0.5 ± 0.3 at the baseline to 0.2 ± 0.2 post-operatively (P = 0.006). SE changed significantly from -11.38 ± 1.99 preoperatively to -0.45 ± 1.65 post-operatively (P = 0.003). All eyes had the IOL implanted at desired position. Post-operative complications were retinal detachment in one case and IOL dislocation in another patient. No other complication such as ocular hypertension, angle abnormalities, clinical cystoids macular edema, and corneal decompensation was observed during the follow-up period. Artisan IOL implantation after lens extraction appears to be an attractive alternative for optical correction in cases of Marfan syndrome with ectopia lentis. It confers a significant improvement in visual acuity with reasonable risk profile.

  10. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Agersnap

    Full Text Available For several hundred years freshwater crayfish (Crustacea-Decapoda-Astacidea have played an important ecological, cultural and culinary role in Scandinavia. However, many native populations of noble crayfish Astacus astacus have faced major declines during the last century, largely resulting from human assisted expansion of non-indigenous signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus that carry and transmit the crayfish plague pathogen. In Denmark, also the non-indigenous narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus has expanded due to anthropogenic activities. Knowledge about crayfish distribution and early detection of non-indigenous and invasive species are crucial elements in successful conservation of indigenous crayfish. The use of environmental DNA (eDNA extracted from water samples is a promising new tool for early and non-invasive detection of species in aquatic environments. In the present study, we have developed and tested quantitative PCR (qPCR assays for species-specific detection and quantification of the three above mentioned crayfish species on the basis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtDNA-CO1, including separate assays for two clades of A. leptodactylus. The limit of detection (LOD was experimentally established as 5 copies/PCR with two different approaches, and the limit of quantification (LOQ were determined to 5 and 10 copies/PCR, respectively, depending on chosen approach. The assays detected crayfish in natural freshwater ecosystems with known populations of all three species, and show promising potentials for future monitoring of A. astacus, P. leniusculus and A. leptodactylus. However, the assays need further validation with data 1 comparing traditional and eDNA based estimates of abundance, and 2 representing a broader geographical range for the involved crayfish species.

  11. Impacts of Climate Change on the Global Invasion Potential of the African Clawed Frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlow, Flora; Courant, Julien; Secondi, Jean; Herrel, Anthony; Rebelo, Rui; Measey, G John; Lillo, Francesco; De Villiers, F André; Vogt, Solveig; De Busschere, Charlotte; Backeljau, Thierry; Rödder, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By altering or eliminating delicate ecological relationships, non-indigenous species are considered a major threat to biodiversity, as well as a driver of environmental change. Global climate change affects ecosystems and ecological communities, leading to changes in the phenology, geographic ranges, or population abundance of several species. Thus, predicting the impacts of global climate change on the current and future distribution of invasive species is an important subject in macroecological studies. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), native to South Africa, possesses a strong invasion potential and populations have become established in numerous countries across four continents. The global invasion potential of X. laevis was assessed using correlative species distribution models (SDMs). SDMs were computed based on a comprehensive set of occurrence records covering South Africa, North America, South America and Europe and a set of nine environmental predictors. Models were built using both a maximum entropy model and an ensemble approach integrating eight algorithms. The future occurrence probabilities for X. laevis were subsequently computed using bioclimatic variables for 2070 following four different IPCC scenarios. Despite minor differences between the statistical approaches, both SDMs predict the future potential distribution of X. laevis, on a global scale, to decrease across all climate change scenarios. On a continental scale, both SDMs predict decreasing potential distributions in the species' native range in South Africa, as well as in the invaded areas in North and South America, and in Australia where the species has not been introduced. In contrast, both SDMs predict the potential range size to expand in Europe. Our results suggest that all probability classes will be equally affected by climate change. New regional conditions may promote new invasions or the spread of established invasive populations, especially in France and Great Britain.

  12. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  13. Tracking animal movement by comparing trace element signatures in claws to spatial variability of elements in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Danielle M; Kyle, Christopher J; Nocera, Joseph J

    2014-01-15

    Biogeochemical markers in ecology have provided a useful means for indicating geographic origin and movement patterns of species on various temporal and spatial scales. We used trace element analysis to resolve spatial and habitat-specific environmental gradients in elemental distributions that could be used to infer geographic origin and habitat association in a model terrestrial carnivore: American badger (Taxidea taxus jacksoni). To accomplish this, we generated element base-maps using spatial principal component analysis, and assessed habitat-specific signatures using multivariate statistics from soil element concentrations in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA) we also test whether element variability in the claw keratin of a terrestrial carnivore could be explained by the chemical variability in the soils of the local environment. Results demonstrated that trace element signatures in soils vary locally with land use practices and soil texture type and broadly with the underlying geology. CCA results suggest that chemical profiles in claws can be linked to the surrounding chemical environment, providing evidence that geographic patterns in mammalian movement can be discerned on the basis of claw chemistry. From this, we conclude that geographic assignment of individuals based on element profiles in their tissues and referenced against soil elemental distributions would be coarse (at a spatial scale of 100-1000 km, depending on the chemical heterogeneity of the landscape), but could be used to assess origin of highly mobile animals or habitat association of individuals. Compared to stable isotope analysis, the assessment of trace elements can provide a much greater level of detail in backcasting animal movement pathways. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  15. Sebaceous Adenocarcinoma in a Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Terim Kapakin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma was presented in the external auditory canal of a 10-year-old female tabby cat. There were three tumoural masses located macroscopically in the external auditory canal in the dimensions of 0.2 × 0.5, 0.3 × 0.5, and 0.1 × 0.1 cm, and they were of hard consistency. The cut sections of these tumoural masses were of multilobular appearance and ranged from white to yellow colour. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of oval or round shaped tumour cells with hyperchromatic nuclei and cytoplasmic lipid vacuoles that were divided by fibrous tissue into lobules. Atypism and mitosis were not significant. Irregular necrotic areas and mononuclear cell infiltrations composed of lymphocytes and histiocytes were also observed. In conclusion, our laboratory service confirms that the sebaceous gland adenocarcinoma is a rarely occurring tumour in cats with specific histopathological lesions.

  16. Minilaparoscopic ovariohysterectomy in healthy cats

    OpenAIRE

    Lawall, Thaíse; Beck, Carlos Afonso de Castro; Queiroga, Luciana Branquinho; Santos, Fabiane Reginatto dos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of minilaparoscopic (MINI) ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in healthy cats using three portals, one of 5 millimeters (mm) in diameter and two of 3mm diameter, along with bipolar diathermy. Technical difficulty, feasibility of MINI access, use of bipolar diathermy, surgery time, need for enlargement of incisions, trans- and post-operative complications and rate of conversion to open surgery were assessed. One out of 15 animals req...

  17. Microanatomy of Passerine hard-cornified tissues: beak and claw structure of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Handel, Colleen M.; Blake, J.; Swor, Rhonda; O'Hara, Todd M.

    2012-01-01

    The microanatomy of healthy beaks and claws in passerine birds has not been well described in the literature, despite the importance of these structures in avian life. Histological processing of hard-cornified tissues is notoriously challenging and only a few reports on effective techniques have been published. An emerging epizootic of beak deformities among wild birds in Alaska and the Pacific Northwest region of North America recently highlighted the need for additional baseline information about avian hard-cornified structures. In this study, we examine the beak and claw of the Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), a common North American passerine that is affected by what has been described as “avian keratin disorder.” We use light and scanning electron microscopy and high-magnification radiography to document the healthy microanatomy of these tissues and identify features of functional importance. We also describe detailed methods for histological processing of avian hard-cornified structures and discuss the utility of special stains. Results from this study will assist in future research on the functional anatomy and pathology of hard-cornified structures and will provide a necessary reference for ongoing investigations of avian keratin disorder in Black-capped Chickadees and other wild passerine species.

  18. Calculation of iris-claw IOL power for correction of late in-the-bag IOL complex dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerva, Valentín; Ascaso, Francisco J; Caral, Isabel; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2017-07-11

    To assess the constants and formula for aphakia correction with iris-claw IOLs to achieve the best refractive status in cases of late in-the-bag IOL complex dislocation. A literature search was performed. The following data were obtained: Iris-claw IOL model, Iridal or retroiridal enclavation, A-constant, ultrasound or optical biometry, formula employed and refractive outcomes. Acceptable emmetropia was considered if the resulting spherical equivalent (SE) was within ±1.00 D. The majority of the studies used SRK/T formula (66.6%). The 88.9% of the reports obtained a SE within ±1.00 D. Using A-115 for ultrasound biometry and A-115.7 for optical biometry and SRK/T formula, the emmetropia (±1.00 D) of SE, was able to get near 100% of reported cases over the pupil implantation. However, the emmetropia decreased to 80% when the enclavation is retropupilar using the same formula. The A-constant can vary from 116.7 to 117.5 for retropupilar enclavation. Using A-115 for ultrasound biometry and A-115.7 for optical biometry and SRK/T formula, ±1.00 D of SE, is able to get near 100% of cases. Nevertheless, ±1.00 D of SE decreased to 80% of the cases when the enclavation is retropupilar.

  19. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  20. Cat fertilization by mouse sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.

  1. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  2. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-11-15

    The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat's health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  3. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno Pinto; Pinto, Joana Medeiros; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Leal, Ines; Neto, Eliana; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL) are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL. This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth. The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6-48 months). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1) retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2) corneal edema was found in three patients, 3) high intraocular pressure was observed in twelve patients, 4) subluxation of the IOL was observed in one patient, and 5) macular edema was found in three eyes. The results demonstrate that retropupillary ICIOL is an easy and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients not receiving capsule support. The safety of this procedure must be interpreted in the context of a surgery usually indicated in

  4. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  5. Structure-related effects of pyrethroid insecticides on the lateral-line sense organ and on peripheral nerves of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, H.P.M.; Ruigt, GeS. F.; Bercken, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    The effects of seven different pyrethroid insecticides on the lateral-line sense organ and on peripheral nerves of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, were investigated by means of electrophysiological methods. The results show that two classes of pyrethroid can be clearly distinguished. (i)

  6. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF DIURON ON SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF PACIFIC TREEFROG, BULLFROG, RED-LEGGED FROG, AND AFRICAN CLAWED FROG EMBRYOS AND TADPOLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and growth of Pacific treefrog (Pseudacris regilla),bullfrog(Rana catesbeiana), red-legged frog(Rana aurora),and African clawed frog(Xenopus laevis)embryos and tadpoles were determined in static-renewal tests. P.regilla and X.laevis...

  7. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  8. Axial pattern skin flaps in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, A M; Bauer, M S; Bowen, C V; Fowler, J D

    1991-01-01

    The major direct cutaneous vessels identified in the cat include the omocervical, thoracodorsal, deep circumflex iliac, and caudal superficial epigastric arteries. Axial pattern skin flaps based on the thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric arteries have been developed in cats. Rotation of these flaps as islands allows skin coverage to the carpus and metatarsus, respectively. The thoracodorsal and caudal superficial epigastric flaps provide a practical, one-step option in the reconstruction of large skin defects involving the distal extremities of cats.

  9. Cats and Toxoplasma: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabritz, H A; Conrad, P A

    2010-02-01

    Cats are popular as pets worldwide because they are easy to care for and provide companionship that enriches the lives of human beings. Little attention has been focused on their potential to contaminate the environment with zoonotic pathogens. One such pathogen, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, rarely causes clinical manifestations in cats or immunocompetent humans; however, it can have serious adverse effects on human foetuses and immunocompromised patients. Many human infections are believed to be acquired from eating undercooked or raw meat, such as pork and lamb (Tenter et al. Int. J. Parasitol., 30, 2000, 1217; Dubey et al. J. Parasitol. 91, 2005, 1082). However, the prevalence of T. gondii infection in human populations that do not consume meat or eat it well-cooked suggests that the acquisition of infection from the environment, via oocysts in soil, water or on uncooked vegetables, is also important (Rawal. Trans. Royal Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 53, 1959, 61; Roghmann et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 60, 1999, 790; Chacin-Bonilla et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 65, 2001, 131). In the past 20 years, two changes occurred that significantly increased the size of the cat population in the USA. Pet cat ownership grew from 50 million to 90 million animals, and animal welfare activists created feeding stations for abandoned and free-roaming cats. As many cat owners allow their cats to deposit faeces outside and cats maintained in colonies always defecate outside, ample opportunity exists for T. gondii oocysts to enter the environment and be transmitted to humans. Prevention efforts should focus on educating cat owners about the importance of collecting cat faeces in litter boxes, spaying owned cats to reduce overpopulation, reducing the numbers of feral cats and promoting rigorous hand hygiene after gardening or soil contact.

  10. Isolation of Dermatophilus congolensis from a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, O; Kirkan, S; Unal, B

    2000-03-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated from a cat with dermatitis. The isolate was sensitive to oxytetracyclin, streptomycin and penicillin but resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamycin and cefoperazone.

  11. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  12. Sublumbar abscess and diskospondylitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Rebecca A; Coates, Joan R; Cook, Cristi R; Lattimer, Jimmy C; O'Brien, Dennis P

    2005-01-01

    Diskospondylitis is uncommon in cats. We describe a cat with diskospondylitis of the L7-S1 intervertebral disk, and a concurrent sublumbar abscess. Radiographic, computed tomographic and ultrasonographic findings are presented. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures of blood and spinal fluid yielded no growth. Aerobic and anaerobic urine cultures resulted in growth of an Enterococcus sp. and Clostridium perfringens, respectively. The cat was successfully treated with enrofloxacin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Clinical signs resolved completely, and based on follow-up ultrasonography there was no remaining evidence of the sublumbar abscess. Etiologic agents and outcome from other cats with diskospondylitis are reviewed.

  13. Polycystic kidney and liver disease in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosje, J T; van den Ingh, T S; van der Linde-Sipman, J S

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews 27 cases of polycystic disease of the kidneys and/or liver in cats. The multiple cysts in the kidneys were rounded in all but one case, as described in adult polycystic kidney disease in humans. In 68% of the cats presented with polycystic kidneys, there were also cystic changes of the liver (uni- or multilocular cysts and/or congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF)). In 1 cat polycystic changes of kidneys and liver were accompanied by cysts in the pancreas. In 5 cases there was severe pancreas fibrosis. Twenty-one of the 27 cats were Persian or Persian-crossbred.

  14. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...... persisted after data validation, a literature review was conducted for prior evidence of human teratogenicity. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 27 CA-medication exposure signals, based on 389 exposed cases, passed data validation. There was some prior evidence in the literature to support six signals (gastroschisis...

  15. Somaclonal variation in micropropagated Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I plantlets (Heliconiaceae Variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Helicônia, Heliconia Bihai cv. Lobster Claw I (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of somaclonal variation is described in various cultures of agronomic interest. Such variation can be of benefit in the development of new flower varieties. In this study, the occurrence of somaclonal variation in micropropagated changes of Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I was investigated. Stem apexes were introduced in MS culture media with the addition of 2.5 mg L-1 of benzylaminopure (BAP and 500 mg L-1 of sodium cefotaxime. After selecting the apex stem, it was sub-cultivated in MS media and supplemented with 4.0 mg L-1 of BAP to induce side buds. To conduct the trial, 2,000 plants were selected and compared with plants originated from rhizomes. To calculate the percentage of the variants, the plant stature, the form and color of leaves and pseudostem were evaluated. The plants with buds presenting the same type of variation were considered as variants. The occurrence of three types of somaclonal variants was observed: Variation of the Chlorophyll in the Leaf, Low Stature Variant and Pseudostem and Petiole Color Variant, the latter with ornamental potential. The somaclonal variation rate for Heliconia bihai cv Lobster Claw I, under the proposed conditions, was 61.40%.A ocorrência de variação somaclonal é descrita em diversas culturas de interesse agronômico. A floricultura pode beneficiar-se dessa variabilidade, com a obtenção de novas variedades. Nesse trabalho, estudou-se a ocorrência de variação somaclonal em mudas micropropagadas de Heliconia bihai cv. Lobster Claw I. Ápices caulinares foram introduzidos em meio de cultivo MS com adição de 2,5 mg L-1 de benzilaminopurina (BAP e 500 mg L-1 de cefotaxima sódica. Após a seleção do ápice caulinar, o explante foi subcultivado em meio MS suplementado com 4,0 mg L-1 de BAP para indução de brotações. Foram selecionadas, ao acaso, 2.000 mudas e comparadas com mudas originadas de rizomas, para compor o ensaio. No cálculo da porcentagem dos variantes

  16. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views.

  17. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  18. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  19. Status of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, in Spain : distribution and legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALONSO F.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, is the only native species of freshwater crayfish in Spain. This species sustained a first-magnitude inland fishery up to the end of 1970's, when the crayfish plague struck the Spanish waters. It is detected an overall loss of distribution area of populations inhabiting the medium and lower reaches of the main river catchments, especially in Southern and Central Spain. The number of surviving populations can be estimated in ca. 700. Remaining native crayfish populations currently inhabit marginal areas. The populations are very fragmented, occupy short stretches, and are frequently isolated from the main river system. The current distribution is the result of a sum of different factors, i.e. crayfish plague, habitat alterations, extreme climatic drought, etc. The incidence and relative importance of each one varied during the last 15 years, with crayfish plague being a predominant negative factor in the seventies and eighties, and climatic drought in the nineties. The current trend of disappearance is a sufficient reason to consider the native crayfish as at risk of extinction. However neither the national legislation nor most of the regional government legislations have listed this species as endangered. An analysis of the legislation dealing with freshwater crayfish in Spain shows : (a an uneven and generally low level of protection given to the native species and (b a very complex fishing and commercialization regulations for crayfish that show significant changes from one region to another. This complex legislation, complemented with a general lack of data on crayfish populations, low levels of management and public involvement, and different strategies in regional governments regarding restocking programs with exotic species, makes a confusing situation. In order to decrease the general tendency of regression of A. pallipes a conservation program for this species needs to be implemented

  20. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment in 4-6 weeks. More MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) Staphylococcus aureus is a common type of bacteria ... on the skin of people and animals. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the same bacterium that has become ...

  1. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  2. Integration of FULLSWOF2D and PeanoClaw: Adaptivity and Local Time-Stepping for Complex Overland Flows

    KAUST Repository

    Unterweger, K.

    2015-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. We propose to couple our adaptive mesh refinement software PeanoClaw with existing solvers for complex overland flows that are tailored to regular Cartesian meshes. This allows us to augment them with spatial adaptivity and local time-stepping without altering the computational kernels. FullSWOF2D—Full Shallow Water Overland Flows—here is our software of choice though all paradigms hold for other solvers as well.We validate our hybrid simulation software in an artificial test scenario before we provide results for a large-scale flooding scenario of the Mecca region. The latter demonstrates that our coupling approach enables the simulation of complex “real-world” scenarios.

  3. Cool Cats: Feline Fun with Abstract Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2002-01-01

    Presents a lesson that teaches students about abstract art in a fun way. Explains that students draw cats, learn about the work of Pablo Picasso, and, in the style of Picasso, combine the parts of the cats (tail, legs, head, body) together in unconventional ways. (CMK)

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT ...

  5. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  6. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  7. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  8. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  9. Cats in Czech Rural and Urban Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baranyiová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of rural and urban environments on the coexistence of humans and their cats. From the obtained questionnaire data we selected the rural cats (R, n = 54 and compared them with urban cats (U, n = 144. The R group cats lived predominantly in family houses, U cats in urban apartments. The pressures of physical and social factors in the small niches of urban apartments (dwellings in Czech urban high-density living settings, though comfortable, are smaller than in numerous European countries; they prevailed in our U group resulted in statistically significant differences in only 31 (51.7% out of 60 traits under study. Among them, 15 (68.2% out of 22 concerned the conduct of household members, and 16 (42.1% out of 38 concerned the behaviour of their cats. Thus the conduct of people in U households showed relatively higher proportion of changes than the behaviour of their cats. U onwers more frequently purchased their cats (R = 24.1%, U = 48.6%, chi-square = 10.648, df = 4, p < 0.05, they kept the cat pedigrees (R = 37.0%, U = 75.4%, chisquare = 24.661, df = 1, p < 0.001, paid more attention to their cats ((R = 93.0%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 8.950, df = 1, p < 0.005, talked to them daily (R = 87.0%, U = 98.6%, chi-square = 12.024, df = 1, p < 0.001, allowed them to use furniture (R = 77.8%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 33.839, df = 1, p < 0.001, sleep in beds of family members (R = 61.1%, U = 95.1%, chi-square = 37.149, df = 1, p < 0.001, and celebrated their birthdays (R = 25.9%, U = 100.0%, chi-square = 7.014, df = 2, p < 0.05. Their cats were more destructive than R cats, hunted less and were less aggressive when stroked. However, they showed a slightly larger scope of aggressive behaviours and were more frequently described as nervous and restless. The nature of the significant differences found in this study indicates that the co-existence of cats with people in the urbanized world is becoming more

  10. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  11. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  12. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  13. Polycystic kidney disease in a Chartreux cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volta, Antonella; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Gelati, Aldo; Bertoni, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in cats. It has been widely described in Persians and Persian-related cats and sporadically in other breeds. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the first reported case of PKD in a 12-year-old female Chartreux cat. The cat was referred with polyuria and polydipsia and enlarged and irregular kidneys at palpation. Multiple renal cysts and a single liver cyst were identified by ultrasound and the inherited pattern was confirmed by genetic test (polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) assay). Chartreux cats should be included in the screening programme of PKD, and PKD should be always considered as a possible cause of chronic renal failure in this breed. Copyright 2009 ESFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feline Epitheliotropic Mastocytic Conjunctivitis in 15 Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, B; Dubielzig, R R; Maggs, D J; Teixeira, L B C

    2017-01-01

    Mast cell infiltration occurs in malignant, inflammatory (eg, allergic, infectious), and idiopathic disease processes in humans and animals. Here, we describe the clinical and histological features of a unique proliferative conjunctivitis occurring in 15 cats. Ocular specimens were examined histologically, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) was performed on ocular tissues obtained from 10 cats. Cats had a median age of 8 years (range: 7 months-17.5 years). The known median duration of ocular lesions prior to biopsy was 4 months (range: 1 week-3 years). Ocular disease was unilateral in 12 cats, and 9 cats had coexisting corneal disease. Clinically and histologically, proliferative or nodular conjunctival lesions were noted in 13 cats. The nictitating membrane was affected in 10 cats. Histologically, lesions were characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrates with an abundance of Giemsa-positive and toluidine blue-positive intraepithelial and subepithelial mast cells, marked edema, and papillary epithelial hyperplasia. Feline herpesvirus 1 was demonstrated by PCR in 1 of 10 cats tested. Follow-up information was available for 14 cats: 8 had no recurrence during a median follow-up period of 17.5 months (range: 4.5-30 months), 2 underwent orbital exenteration, 3 had recurrence that was medically managed, and 1 cat had diffuse conjunctivitis at the time of biopsy and recurrence was deemed irrelevant. Various ocular medications were administered before and after surgical biopsy. This condition was designated as feline epitheliotropic mastocytic conjunctivitis, with intraepithelial mast cells being an essential feature and papillary epithelial proliferation being characteristic but not diagnostic alone. The condition appears to be uncommon and benign. Although the cause is unknown, an allergic component is possible.

  15. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  16. Corneal hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalot, G; Regnier, A; Deviers, A; Serra, F; Lucas, M N; Etienne, C L; Letron, I Raymond

    2011-09-01

    A 10 year-old castrated male Domestic Short-hair cat with a history of chronic bilateral keratitis was referred for assessment of a red, elevated mass involving the left cornea. The rapid growth of the mass, over a month period in combination with pronounced vascularization and invasion of the corneal surface suggested an aggressive inflammatory or neoplastic process. Following keratectomy, the lesion was diagnosed histopathologically as a hemangiosarcoma. The tumor recurred locally within 3 weeks and enucleation was performed. Histopathologic examination of the globe confirmed the diagnosis and did not reveal infiltration of the limbus and conjunctiva. No signs of local recurrence or metastatic disease have been observed 18 months following enucleation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of primary corneal hemangiosarcoma described in the feline species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  18. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas. PMID:27774506

  19. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289

  20. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  1. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  2. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  4. Nasopharyngeal turbinates in brachycephalic dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Jennifer A; Kumar, M S A; McKiernan, Brendan C; Powers, Barbara E

    2008-01-01

    This retrospective study reports the presence and incidence of nasal turbinates in the nasopharynx (nasopharyngeal turbinates) in a population of brachycephalic dogs and cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease. Medical records were reviewed for 53 brachycephalic dogs and 10 brachycephalic cats undergoing upper airway endoscopy. Nasopharyngeal turbinates were identified in 21% of brachycephalic animals, including 21% of dogs and 20% of cats. Pugs accounted for 32% of all dogs in the study population and 82% of dogs with nasopharyngeal turbinates. The presence of nasopharyngeal turbinates may play a role in upper airway obstruction in the brachycephalic airway syndrome.

  5. Cytogenetic investigation of cat-eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walknowska, J; Peakman, D; Weleber, R G

    1977-10-01

    Using multiple chromosomal banding techniques, we studied a child with typical cat-eye syndrome and ocular retraction syndrome. Although the mother was was chromosomally normal, other maternal relatives showed features of the cat-eye syndrome, suggesting the basic abnormality is heritable. The abnormal chromosome in our case was most likely the product of reciprocal translocation where short arm plus centromeric chromatin from two separate acrocentric chromosomes fused together. The chromosomes involved were probably No. 22 and either Nos. 13 or 14. The basic underlying defect in cat-eye syndrome may be a heritable fragile site or some other predisposition leading to complex chromosomal interchange.

  6. Adverse food reactions in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschen, Frédéric P; Merchant, Sandra R

    2011-03-01

    Adverse food reactions (AFR) are a common problem that may cause cutaneous and/or gastrointestinal signs in dogs and cats. They comprise food intolerance, food intoxication, and food allergy. Response to a dietary elimination trial and recurrence of signs during dietary provocation remain the centerpiece of diagnosis and management of dogs and cats with AFR. Response to an elimination trial is frequently observed in dogs and cats with chronic idiopathic enteropathies. However, only a fraction of them relapse after a dietary challenge. These animals may have mild to enteritis and/or colitis and benefit from various additional properties of the elimination diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pain and adverse behavior in declawed cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell-Moran, Nicole K; Solano, Mauricio; Townsend, Hugh Gg

    2017-05-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the impact of onychectomy (declawing) upon subsequent development of back pain and unwanted behavior in cohorts of treated and control cats housed in two different locations. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. In total, there was 137 declawed and 137 non-declawed cats, of which 176 were owned cats (88 declawed, 88 non-declawed) and 98 were shelter cats (49 declawed and 49 non-declawed). All cats were physically examined for signs of pain and barbering. The previous 2 years of medical history were reviewed for documented unwanted behavior such as inappropriate elimination and biting with minimal provocation and aggression. All declawed cats were radiographed for distal limb abnormalities, including P3 (third phalanx) bone fragments. The associations of declaw surgery with the outcomes of interest were examined using χ 2 analysis, two sample t-tests and manual, backwards, stepwise logistic regression. Results Significant increases in the odds of back pain (odds ratio [OR] 2.9), periuria/perichezia (OR 7.2), biting (OR 4.5) and barbering (OR 3.06) occurred in declawed compared with control cats. Of the 137 declawed cats, 86 (63%) showed radiographic evidence of residual P3 fragments. The odds of back pain (OR 2.66), periuria/perichezia (OR 2.52) and aggression (OR 8.9) were significantly increased in declawed cats with retained P3 fragments compared with those declawed cats without. Optimal surgical technique, with removal of P3 in its entirety, was associated with fewer adverse outcomes and lower odds of these outcomes, but operated animals remained at increased odds of biting (OR 3.0) and undesirable habits of elimination (OR 4.0) compared with non-surgical controls. Conclusions and relevance Declawing cats increases the risk of unwanted behaviors and may increase risk for developing back pain. Evidence of inadequate surgical technique was common in the study population. Among declawed cats, retained P3

  8. Earliest "Domestic" Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat 'domestic' relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat's 'domestic' status, however, appears to have been short-lived--its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris.

  9. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  10. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  11. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  12. A Systematic Review of Human Bat Rabies Virus Variant Cases: Evaluating Unprotected Physical Contact with Claws and Teeth in Support of Accurate Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Virginia M; Campagnolo, Enzo R; Long, Jonah; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    In the United States and Canada, the most recent documented cases of rabies have been attributed to bat rabies viruses (RABV). We undertook this systematic review in an effort to summarize and enhance understanding of the risk of infection for individuals who have been potentially exposed to a suspect or confirmed rabid bat. United States rabies surveillance summaries documented a total of 41 human bat-rabies virus variant verified non-transplant cases between 1990 and 2015. All cases were fatal. Seven (17.1%) of 41 cases reported a bite from a bat. Ten (24.3%) cases had unprotected physical contact (UPC); these included seven cases that had a bat land or crawl on them (contact with claws) and one case that touched a bat's teeth. Seven (17.1%) cases had probable UPC. Insectivorous bat teeth are extremely sharp and highly efficient for predation upon arthropod prey. Bats also have sharp claws on the end of their thumbs and feet. One of the most common bat RABV variants has an ability to replicate in non-neural cells. Questioning individuals about unprotected contact with bat teeth and claws (including a bat landing or crawling on a person) may help identify additional exposures.

  13. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  15. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  16. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For ...

  17. [Polycystic kidney disease in a Persian cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, R; Zimmer, C; Reusch, C

    2001-04-01

    This case report is about a 9-year-old male castrated Persian cat with chronic renal failure. After physical examination and ultrasonography polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was diagnosed. Various aspects of etiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of PKD are discussed.

  18. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web......BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  19. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  20. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  1. Second order Horner's syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Risio, Luisa; Fraser McConnell, James

    2009-08-01

    This case report describes the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 3.5-year-old, male neutered, domestic shorthair cat with second order Horner's syndrome as the only clinical abnormality. The neuroanatomical pathway of the sympathetic innervation to the eye, differential diagnoses for Horner's syndrome in cats, and the interpretation of pharmacological testing are reviewed. The unusual MRI findings and the value of fat-suppressed MRI sequences are discussed.

  2. Neutropenia in cats with the Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Prieur, D J; Collier, L L

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome and 22 control cats from the same colony, were evaluated for neutropenia. The absolute neutrophil counts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than those of the control cats. It is concluded that Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats, like Chediak-Higashi syndrome humans, have a neutropenia associated with the other manifestations of the syndrome. Lysozyme activity which was undetectable in the serum of both Chediak...

  3. Constitutive expression of catABC genes in the aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus species AN-22: production, purification, characterization and gene analysis of CatA, CatB and CatC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Eitaro; Sakai, Masashi; Hayashi, Katsuaki; Murakami, Shuichiro; Takenaka, Shinji; Aoki, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    The aniline-assimilating bacterium Rhodococcus sp. AN-22 was found to constitutively synthesize CatB (cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase) and CatC (muconolactone isomerase) in its cells growing on non-aromatic substrates, in addition to the previously reported CatA (catechol 1,2-dioxygenase). The bacterium maintained the specific activity of the three enzymes at an almost equal level during cultivation on succinate. CatB and CatC were purified to homogeneity and characterized. CatB was a monomer with a molecular mass of 44 kDa. The enzyme was activated by Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+. Native CatC was a homo-octamer with a molecular mass of 100 kDa. The enzyme was stable between pH 7.0 and 10.5 and was resistant to heating up to 90 °C. Genes coding for CatA, CatB and CatC were cloned and named catA, catB and catC respectively. The catABC genes were transcribed as one operon. The deduced amino acid sequences of CatA, CatB and CatC showed high identities with those from other Gram-positive micro-organisms. A regulator gene such as catR encoding a regulatory protein was not observed around the cat gene cluster of Rhodococcus sp. AN-22, but a possible relic of catR was found in the upstream region of catA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR and primer extension analyses showed that the transcriptional start site of the cat gene cluster was located 891 bp upstream of the catA initiation codon in the AN-22 strain growing on both aniline and succinate. Based on these data, we concluded that the bacterium constitutively transcribed the catABC genes and translated its mRNA into CatA, CatB and CatC. PMID:16156722

  4. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-09-01

    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.

  5. [Splenic abscess and cat-scratch disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Pineda Solas, V; Martín Martín, C; Sanfeliu Sala, I; Cabezas Maspoch, R M; Sánchez Oespina, M

    2001-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is caused by a Gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella henselae. This disease is usually benign and causes regional adenitis that does not require treatment. However, some patients develop more serious atypical forms of the disease including prolonged systemic illness with hepatic and splenic abscesses.A 14-year-old girl was admitted to hospital with a 12-day history of persistent high fever and abdominal pain. Ultrasonography and computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed splenic abscesses. These findings, together with an antecedent of cat exposure, led to the suspicion of cat-scratch disease, which was confirmed by serology. The girl was treated with intramuscular ceftriaxone and clinical evolution was favorable. Splenic cat-scratch disease is infrequent. Cat-scratch disease sometimes presents as fever of unknown origin and consequently this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prolonged fever. Although evolution is usually favorable, antibiotic therapy is recommended in systemic manifestations of cat-scratch disease.

  6. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  7. The corneous layer of the claw in the lizard Anolis carolinensis mainly contains the glycine-cysteine-rich beta-protein HgGC3 in addition to hard keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L

    2014-10-01

    The localization of specific claw beta-proteins among the 40 total corneous beta-proteins present in the lizard Anolis carolinensis is not known. The hardness of claws likely depends on glycine-cysteine-rich beta-proteins content, as suggested by previous immunoblot studies. Previous studies have indicated that glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins in addition to cysteine-rich alpha-keratins are present in the claw. In order to detect at the ultrastructural level the presence of claw-specific corneous proteins immunofluorescence and electron microscopy immunogold have been utilized. More intense immunoreactivity is obtained for the HgGC3 beta-protein while less intense immunolabeling is seen for HgGC10 and HgG5 beta-proteins and no labeling for the cysteine-rich beta-protein HgC1. The HgGC3 beta-protein appears the prevalent type present in the claw and its numerous cysteines likely form intermolecular disulphide bonds while glycine contributes hydrophobic properties to the corneous material. Other antibodies tagging the core-box and pre-core box regions of beta-proteins label with less intensity the corneous layer. The presence of cysteine-rich alpha-keratins with high homology to some human hair keratins in the dorsal part of the claw suggests that HgGC3-like beta-proteins form numerous disulphide bonds with the larger alpha-keratins giving rise to the hard corneous material of the claw. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Host-defense and trefoil factor family peptides in skin secretions of the Mawa clawed frog Xenopus boumbaensis (Pipidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J Michael; Mechkarska, Milena; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Leprince, Jérôme; Coquet, Laurent; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Nowotny, Norbert; King, Jay D

    2015-10-01

    Peptidomic analysis of norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the octoploid Mawa clawed frog Xenopus boumbaensis Loumont, 1983 led to the identification and characterization of 15 host-defense peptides belonging to the magainin (two peptides), peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa; three peptides), xenopsin precursor fragment (XPF; three peptides), caerulein precursor fragment (CPF; two peptides), and caerulein precursor fragment-related peptide (CPF-RP; five peptides) families. In addition, caerulein and three peptides with structural similarity to the trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides, xP2 and xP4 from Xenopus laevis were also present in the secretions. Consistent with data from comparisons of the nucleotides sequence of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, the primary structures of the peptides suggest a close phylogenetic relationship between X. boumbaensis and the octoploid frogs Xenopus amieti and Xenopus andrei. As the three species occupy disjunct ranges within Cameroon, it is suggested that they diverged from a common ancestor by allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual variation in thermal performance curves: swimming burst speed and jumping endurance in wild-caught tropical clawed frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careau, Vincent; Biro, Peter A; Bonneaud, Camille; Fokam, Eric B; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-06-01

    The importance of studying individual variation in locomotor performance has long been recognized as it may determine the ability of an organism to escape from predators, catch prey or disperse. In ectotherms, locomotor performance is highly influenced by ambient temperature (Ta), yet several studies have showed that individual differences are usually retained across a Ta gradient. Less is known, however, about individual differences in thermal sensitivity of performance, despite the fact that it could represent adaptive sources of phenotypic variation and/or additional substrate for selection to act upon. We quantified swimming and jumping performance in 18 wild-caught tropical clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) across a Ta gradient. Maximum swimming velocity and acceleration were not repeatable and individuals did not differ in how their swimming performance varied across Ta. By contrast, time and distance jumped until exhaustion were repeatable across the Ta gradient, indicating that individuals that perform best at a given Ta also perform best at another Ta. Moreover, thermal sensitivity of jumping endurance significantly differed among individuals, with individuals of high performance at low Ta displaying the highest sensitivity to Ta. Individual differences in terrestrial performance increased with decreasing Ta, which is opposite to results obtained in lizards at the inter-specific and among-individual levels. To verify the generality of these patterns, we need more studies on individual variation in thermal reaction norms for locomotor performance in lizards and frogs.

  10. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte De Busschere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  11. Regulation of the insulin-Akt signaling pathway and glycolysis during dehydration stress in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Tessier, Shannon N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2017-12-01

    Estivation is an adaptive stress response utilized by some amphibians during periods of drought in the summer season. In this study, we examine the regulation of the insulin signaling cascade and glycolysis pathway in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis during the dehydration stress induced state of estivation. We show that in the brain and heart of X. laevis, dehydration reduces the phosphorylation of the insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), and this is followed by similar reductions in the phosphorylation of the Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase. Interestingly, phosphorylation levels of IGF-1R and mTOR were not affected in the kidney, and phosphorylation levels of P70S6K and the ribosomal S6 protein were elevated during dehydration stress. Animals under estivation are also susceptible to periods of hypoxia, suggesting that glycolysis may also be affected. We observed that protein levels of many glycolytic enzymes remained unchanged during dehydration; however, the hypoxia response factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) protein was elevated by greater than twofold in the heart during dehydration. Overall, we provide evidence that shows that the insulin signaling pathway in X. laevis is regulated in a tissue-specific manner during dehydration stress and suggests an important role for this signaling cascade in mediating the estivation response.

  12. MANAGEMENT OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH (AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN WESTERN FRANCE: ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TROUILHE M. C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In France, the distribution of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858, is restricted, fragmented and mainly located in headwaters. To preserve this indigenous species, it is necessary to characterize its ecological requirements (water and habitat quality. With this aim in view, a two-year study is being conducted in the Deux-Sèvres department (Western France since November 2002. Nine brooks from four different catchments are monitored regularly; eight of the nine brooks harbour whiteclawed crayfish populations. Two sampling sites are surveyed per brook, the first being where the crayfish population is located and the second 2 to 3 km downstream. Physicochemical parameters (18 are measured twice monthly and biotic factors are estimated twice yearly. In this study, the I.B.G.N. (Indice Biologique Global Normalisé protocol based on the determination of macroinvertebrates was used as a biotic index of biological water quality. Results of this preliminary study on two brooks (Thouet and Verdonnière show that physico-chemical and biological data considered separately do not provide reliable information about A. pallipes ecological requirements. However, the use of multivariate analyses (Principal Component Analysis to combine abiotic and biotic factors highlights a good correlation between these parameters. Organic matter appears to be a better discriminating factor than mineral matter affecting presence or absence of the whiteclawed crayfish.

  13. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test

  14. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Itraconazole for the treatment of cryptococcosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Jacobs, G J; Marks, M A

    1995-01-01

    Itraconazole was used in 35 cats with cryptococcosis. Treatment response was determined by comparing clinical signs before, during, and after treatment. It could not be evaluated in 7 cats because they died during treatment from causes unrelated to cryptococcosis. Of the remaining 28 cats, treatment response was classified as success in 16 cats (57%), as improvement in 8 cats (29%), and as a failure in 4 (14%). The failures were due to death or euthanasia from drug toxicity (1 cat), progressive fungal disease (2 cats), and relapse 1 year after treatment (1 cat). The cats that improved did not undergo a 1-year posttreatment evaluation because they were lost to follow-up (3 cats), died or were euthanatized for other reasons (4 cats), or had a noncompliant owner (1 cat). For the 16 cats in which treatment was successful, the median itraconazole dose was 13.8 mg/kg body weight daily (range, 10.9 to 26.7 mg/kg/d), and the median duration of treatment was 8.5 months (range, 4 to 16 months). Five of these cats had previously been treated unsuccessfully with ketoconazole.

  16. Neutropenia in cats with the Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieur, D J; Collier, L L

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen cats with Chediak-Higashi syndrome and 22 control cats from the same colony, were evaluated for neutropenia. The absolute neutrophil counts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats were significantly less (P less than 0.05) than those of the control cats. It is concluded that Chediak-Higashi syndrome cats, like Chediak-Higashi syndrome humans, have a neutropenia associated with the other manifestations of the syndrome. Lysozyme activity which was undetectable in the serum of both Chediak-Higashi syndrome and control cats was not of use for determining if the neutropenia was the result of neutrophil destruction. PMID:3651899

  17. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  18. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  19. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  1. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  2. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetto, W.V.; Patnaik, A.K.; Schrader, S.C.; Mooney, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  3. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  4. Dacryocystography in a cat with orbital pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meomartino, Leonardo; Pasolini, Maria P; Lamagna, Francesco; Santangelo, Bruna; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Della Valle, Giovanni; Lamagna, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    A 2-year-old neutered male European short-haired cat was presented for a persistent discharge from the scar of previous left eye enucleation, performed 6 months prior by the referring veterinarian. A surgical exploration of the orbit was performed and retained nictitating membrane glandular and conjunctival tissues were removed. Eleven days later, the cat developed an orbital pneumatosis caused by retrograde movement of air through a patent nasolacrimal system and diagnosed by survey radiographic examination of the skull. Nasolacrimal system patency was assessed by dacryocystography performed by injection of iodinated contrast medium under pressure into the orbital cavity. Computed tomography dacryocystography confirmed the radiographic findings. The condition resolved following dacryocystography, possibly as an inflammatory response to the contrast medium. To our knowledge, this is the first case of orbital pneumatosis reported in a cat. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Filippo; Pisani, Guido; Penazzi, Claudio; Carusi, Umberto; Vezzoni, Luca; Vezzoni, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors' knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb.

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  7. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  8. Laryngeal disease in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphail, Catriona

    2014-01-01

    The most common disease process involving the larynx is laryngeal paralysis, which occurs much more frequently in dogs than in cats. Diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis requires close attention to anesthetic plane and coordination of respiratory effort with laryngeal motion. Surgical arytenoid lateralization improves respiration and quality of life in dogs with laryngeal paralysis; however, aspiration pneumonia is a recognized complication, and generalized neuropathy can progress. Laryngeal collapse can result from any cause of chronic upper airway obstruction, but is most often associated with unaddressed brachycephalic airway syndrome. Laryngeal neoplasia, while generally uncommon, occurs more frequently in cats than in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Septic lens implantation syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesandro, Nicole; Stiles, Jean; Miller, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    A 13-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was presented initially for a change in the appearance of the left eye. On initial examination, a small penetrating wound was suspected as the cause for a corneal scar, an anterior cortical incipient cataract and mild iritis. The cat was not re-presented until 1 year later at which time ocular pain was marked. Severe anterior uveitis and glaucoma were diagnosed and the eye enucleated. Histopathology documented intralenticular coccoid bacteria and septic lens implantation syndrome. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. The prognostic biomarker L-homoarginine is a substrate of the cationic amino acid transporters CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafai, Anja; Fromm, Martin F; König, Jörg; Maas, Renke

    2017-07-06

    Low plasma concentration of L-homoarginine is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and total mortality. Experimental data indicate that supplementation of L-homoarginine may have protective effects. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the cellular uptake of L-homoarginine, which are little understood, so far. Using human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell lines stably overexpressing the human cationic amino acid transporters CAT1 [solute carrier family 7 (SLC7A1)], CAT2A (SLC7A2A) or CAT2B (SLC7A2B) we assessed the transport kinetics of L-homoarginine and interactions with the CAT substrates L-arginine and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Significant uptake of L-homoarginine was observed for all three CATs with apparent K M -values of 175 ± 7 µM for CAT1 and 523 ± 35 µM for CAT2B. Saturation of CAT2A-mediated L-homoarginine uptake could not be reached. Uptake of L-homoarginine by any of the three CATs could be inhibited by L-arginine and ADMA. Significant inhibition of CAT1-mediated uptake of L-homoarginine by L-arginine already occurred in the physiological concentration range. Taken together these data demonstrate that L-homoarginine is a substrate of CAT1, CAT2A and CAT2B and that CAT1 is a key site with regard to physiological relevance and interactions with related substrates such as L-arginine.

  11. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  13. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  14. [Mycoplasma sp. isolation in sick and normal cats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campedelli Filho, O

    1977-01-01

    This paper deals with the presence of mycoplasmosis in sick and normal cats lodged by U.I.P.A. (União Internacional de Proteçäo aos Animais) São Paulo, Brazil. In a group of 78 cats, 10.41% of mycoplasma was found in sick cats and 0% in normal cats, in a total of 6,41% of positive cases.

  15. Estimation of probability for the presence of claw and digital skin diseases by combining cow- and herd-level information using a Bayesian network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2009-01-01

    Cross sectional data on the prevalence of claw and (inter) digital skin diseases on 4854 Holstein Friesian cows in 50 Danish dairy herds was used in a Bayesian network to create herd specific probability distributions for the presence of lameness causing diseases. Parity and lactation stage...... probabilities and random herd effects are used to formulate cow-level probability distributions of disease presence in a specific Danish dairy herd. By step-wise inclusion of information on cow- and herd-level risk factors, lameness prevalence and clinical diagnosis of diseases on cows in the herd, the Bayesian...

  16. Toxocara cati infections in domestic cats from two communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken to study the prevalence and intensity of infection with Toxocara cati in some selected domestic cats from two communities in south-western Nigeria. Faecal samples of 200 cats were collected through a direct rectal swab using a long forceps from households with cat from Ode Irele ...

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  18. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  19. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  20. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  1. Detection of Vaccinia Virus in Urban Domestic Cats, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Miranda, Júlia Bahia; Almeida, Gregório Guilherme; Silva de Oliveira, Jaqueline; Pinheiro, Mariana Siqueira; Gonçalves, Stefanne Aparecida; Pimenta Dos Reis, Jenner Karlisson; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2017-02-01

    We investigated possible vaccinia virus (VACV) in urban house cats in Brazil. Serum samples from 6 cats were positive for VACV by PCR, indicating likely VACV circulation among house cats in urban areas of Brazil. This finding highlights the importance of epidemiologic surveillance to avoid outbreaks among urban human populations.

  2. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  3. Purified natural and recombinant Fel d 1 and cat albumin in in vitro diagnostics for cat allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic

  4. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  5. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  6. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029412

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  7. Phenotypic variability of cat-eye syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Tan-Sindhunata, G; Leegte, B; Van Essen, AJ

    2001-01-01

    Cat-Eye syndrome (CES) is a disorder with a variable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies of which coloboma of the iris and anal atresia are the best known. CES is cyogenetically characterised by the presence of an extra bisatellited marker chromosome, which represents an inverted dicentric

  8. Dermatophilus congolensis in a feral cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Anne M; Weedon, G Robert; Maddox, Carol W; Galloway, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    A young adult feral cat presented to the Champaign County Humane Society with a subcutaneous mass near the stifle. The mass was aspirated. Chains of paired cocci organisms were identified, consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis. The identity of these organisms was confirmed by culture and polymerase chain reaction. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  9. Cat Scratch Disease: The Story Continues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Opavsky

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a perspective on the current state of knowledge of cat scratch disease (CSD, including the evidence for Bartonella henselae as the etiological agent, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the disease, available diagnostic tests and current therapeutic options.

  10. Design of a Competency Administration Toolset (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    nor well integrated . The stakeholder competency’s Budget Financial Managers (BFMs) used two independent data repositories, including Navy Enterprise... report , all objectives have been met. Confirmation from all levels of the stakeholder representatives indicated that Team CAT successfully met the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release

  11. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  12. Renal abscesses in cats: six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Mathieu R; Theron, Marie-Laure; Reynolds, Brice S

    2017-04-01

    Case series summary Six cats were diagnosed with renal abscesses. Common clinical findings were lethargy, dehydration, abdominal pain and nephromegaly. Fever was noted in half of the cases. Diagnosis was established by ultrasonography, cytological examination and bacterial culture of abscess aspirates. At least one possible contributing factor could be identified in all cases. Antibiotics were consistently used and in two cats the abscess was surgically drained. The short-term outcome was fair but the long-term outcome was dependent on the underlying condition. Relevance and novel information The results of this small case series suggest that renal abscess should be considered when nephromegaly and/or abdominal discomfort are noted. Diagnosis of renal abscess is straightforward when ultrasonography and fine-needle aspirate analysis can be performed. Medical treatment is assumed to be preferable but surgical treatment may be warranted on a case-by-case basis. Given that almost every affected cat was diagnosed with at least one comorbidity, a thorough evaluation is recommended for all cats with renal abscesses.

  13. Daffodil toxicosis in an adult cat

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon-Buri, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    A domestic longhair cat with a 3-day history of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting dried daffodil stems (Narcissus spp.) was severely hypothermic (33.0°C), with bradycardia (78 beats/min) and hypotension. Treatment with atropine, dexamethasone, fluid therapy, and supportive care resulted in a complete recovery by 6 days after exposure.

  14. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  15. Veterinarian Gets Flu Virus from Cats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-28

    Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human.  Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/28/2018.

  16. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    and clinical options are available for the suppression of fertility in adult cats and the decision as to which should be chosen - independent of the legal registration of any state - depends on different facts: (i) feral or privately owned animal? (ii) temporary or permanent suppression of fertility wanted...

  17. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  18. Viral reproductive pathogens of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Carmichael, Leland E; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews the current literature on the viral agents that cause reproductive failures in domestic carnivores (dogs and cats). A meaningful update is provided on the etiologic, clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and prophylactic aspects of the viral infections impacting canine and feline reproduction as a consequence of either direct virus replication or severe debilitation of pregnant animals.

  19. Kipling's Cat: Learning from the New Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Richard

    1996-01-01

    International schools can benefit from new students' fresh vision. Some students exhibit "culture shock" on arrival, while others, like Kipling's cat, act as though "all places are alike to them." This article examines the newcomer's adjustment process by proposing a model of personal identity development and poses questions to test the theory…

  20. Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kealy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Schrödinger's Cat States

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Schrödinger's Cat States. A N Maheshwari V P Srivastava. Research News Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 79-82. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/02/0079-0082 ...

  2. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  3. [Feeding of dogs and cats in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, N; Dillitzer, N; Sauter-Louis, C; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine epidemiological data on the feeding of dogs and cats in Germany. A total of 865 dog owners and 243 cat owners were interviewed using standardised questionnaires about their animals (age, sex, weight, body condition, health) and feeding, including treats, additional supplements and reasons for food changes, together with data on the pet owners (age, sex, education, profession). The interviews took place in the waiting rooms of veterinarians, in dog schools, animal shelters and public parks as well as via the internet. Body condition scoring (BCS, scale 1-9) was performed separately by the pet owners and the interviewer. The mean age of dogs was 4.8 years and of cats 6.8 years. The dogs' body weight ranged from 2.2kg (Pomeranian dog) to 95kg (Saint Bernard). The cats had a body weight from 2 to 11kg. Approximately 52% of dogs and cats were overweight (BCS6-9). Differences existed between the assessment by the owner and the interviewer. Many owners underestimated the body condition, in particular, moderate overweight was not recognised (BCS6-7). Commercial food was exclusively used by 58% of dog and 90% of cat owners, while 35% and 10%, respectively, combined these with additional feed. Nearly 8% of dog and 7 years) and sick dogs received home-made diets more often. Older pet owners (≥ 46 years) fed their pets home-made diets more frequently. The education and profession of owners did not affect the percentage of home-made diets. There was no effect of the type of diet on BCS. Owners with a lower education as well as housewives and pensioners more often had overweight pets. Older owners and working owners gave treats less frequently. However, 95% of dogs and 65% of cats received treats. Being overweight is the biggest dietary problem. In comparison to previous studies, the number of overweight pets has increased. Pet owners should be advised early on excess weight, because the onset of being overweight is often not recognised

  4. Metabolic response to three different diets in lean cats and cats predisposed to overweight

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Claudia; Liesegang, Annette; Frey, Diana; Wichert, Brigitta

    2017-01-01

    Background The existence of a genetic predisposition to obesity is commonly recognized in humans and rodents. Recently, a link between genetics and overweight was shown in cats. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of diet composition on plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides in cats receiving different diets (high-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets). Results Insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with phenotype. ...

  5. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  6. Metabolic response to three different diets in lean cats and cats predisposed to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Claudia; Liesegang, Annette; Frey, Diana; Wichert, Brigitta

    2017-06-19

    The existence of a genetic predisposition to obesity is commonly recognized in humans and rodents. Recently, a link between genetics and overweight was shown in cats. The goal of this study was to identify the effect of diet composition on plasma levels of glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglycerides in cats receiving different diets (high-carbohydrate, high-fat and high-protein diets). Insulin and leptin concentrations were significantly correlated with phenotype. Insulin levels were lower, whereas leptin levels were higher in cats predisposed to overweight. The other blood parameters were not correlated with phenotype. Intake of the high-carbohydrate diet resulted in higher insulin concentrations compared with the two other diets. Insulin levels were within the values described for non-obese cats in previous studies. There was no difference in metabolic response between the two groups. As the high-carbohydrate diet led to the highest insulin blood concentrations, it might be useful to avoid such diets in cats predisposed to overweight. In addition, even cats with genetically linked obesity can regain insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

  7. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon

    1994-01-01

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs

  8. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-15

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs.

  9. The radiographic appearance of pulmonary histoplasmosis in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.M.; Green, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study of 18 cats with pulmonary histoplasmosis was conducted to evaluate radiographic patterns of disease and to determine age, breed, and sex distributions. All cats had active disease confirmed by biopsy/aspiration cytology (lung, bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, pleural fluid) or necropsy examination. Cats 3 years of age or less had the highest incidence of disease; females outnumbered males 2 to 1. Radiographically, most cats had an interstitial pattern which appeared as a fine, diffuse or linear pattern, or as a more distinct nodular pattern. An alveolar pattern was an uncommon radiographic finding. Tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy and calcified lymph nodes or pulmonary parenchymal lesions were not identified in these cats

  10. The behaviour and ecology of domestic cats (Felis catus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Panaman, Roger

    1984-01-01

    This thesis is a reconnaissance of the behavioural ecology of domestic cats. The principal subjects were two groups of farm cats. There was also a group of captive cats and a house cat. The study differs from all previous ones in that the cats were tame and therefore could be shadowed and observed for long periods at all hours. It deals with (1) activity patterns and activity budget, (2) use of space and social behaviour, (3) scent communication, (4) foraging and (5) population dynamics.

  11. A SURVEY OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH,AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES (LEREBOULLET, AND OF WATERQUALITY IN TWO CATCHMENTS OF EASTERN IRELAND.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEMERS A.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, is the only crayfish species found in Ireland. Because of the prohibition on importation of exotic species of crayfish onto the island and of its relatively clean rivers up to now, Ireland has kept an abundant population of crayfish. A survey was conducted in the catchments of the Liffey and Boyne rivers, in eastern Ireland to assess water quality and to sample crayfish populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the water quality requirements of the white-clawed crayfish in Ireland. Baited traps and nets were used to sample crayfish while water quality was measured with biological indices calculated from samples of macroinvertebrates. Distribution of this crayfish species is patchy in the Liffey catchment and seems to be related to factors such as soil types and water quality. They were not found in the downstream part of the river Liffey possibly due to poor water quality. In the Boyne catchment, no crayfish were found in most of the catchment. They were only present in the Kells Blackwater subcatchment. This may be due to an earlier outbreak of the fungal plague caused by Aphanomyces astaci. The disease was discovered in lakes at the top of some of the tributaries of the Boyne in 1987 and it probably spread from there through the whole catchment.

  12. Genomic regression of claw keratin, taste receptor and light-associated genes provides insights into biology and evolutionary origins of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A

    2017-10-01

    Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features. The first concerns two keratins that are putatively specific to claws. Both genes that encode these keratins are pseudogenized/deleted in snake genomes, providing additional evidence of claw-specificity. The second hypothesis is that snakes lack taste buds, an issue complicated by conflicting results in the literature. I found evidence that different snakes have lost one or more taste receptors, but all snakes examined retained at least one gustatory channel. The final hypothesis addressed is that the earliest snakes were adapted to a dim light niche. I found evidence of deleted and pseudogenized genes with light-associated functions in snakes, demonstrating a pattern of gene loss similar to other dim light-adapted clades. Molecular dating estimates suggest that dim light adaptation preceded the loss of limbs, providing some bearing on interpretations of the ecological origins of snakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensitivity of fecal occult blood testing in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudinsky, Adam J; Guillaumin, Julien; Gilor, Chen

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The impact of dietary factors on fecal occult blood (FOB) testing has been previously evaluated in cats, but the analytical sensitivity of this point-of-care test remains unexamined. The primary goal of this study was to assess the analytical sensitivity of the FOB test in cats. Methods Five cats were used in a repeated measures study. Following oral administration of blood, feces were collected and tested every 12 h for FOB and melena. All cats were fed an animal protein-free diet starting the week before entry into the study. Blood was administered on a milligram of hemoglobin per kilogram of body weight basis, and dosed at 1.5, 3, 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin in series with a wash-out period between each trial. Results FOB was detected in one cat at 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin, three cats at 3 mg/kg hemoglobin and in all five cats at 15, 30 and 45 mg/kg hemoglobin. Melena was noted in one cat at 30 mg/kg and four cats at 45 mg/kg, but not at lower doses. Conclusions and relevance Administration of 15 mg/kg hemoglobin (equivalent to about 1.5 ml blood) was sufficient for positive results in all cats. However, detection occurred with as little as 1.5 mg/kg hemoglobin. Thus, FOB has good analytical sensitivity in cats under appropriate clinical situations.

  14. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  15. Hepatic abscesses in cats: 14 cases (1985-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeff, Jennifer S; Armstrong, P Jane; Bunch, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    In this retrospective study, we describe 14 cats diagnosed with hepatic abscesses. The objective of the study was to report the clinical signs, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic findings, and outcomes in affected cats. These findings were then compared with those previously reported in dogs and humans. Clinical signs were vague and included anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss. Only 23% of cats had fever, whereas 31% were hypothermic. Increases in serum activities of alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were found in 45 and 18%, respectively, of the 11 cats that had laboratory work performed. Abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed in 7 cats, and abnormalities were found in 71% of them. Four cats had solitary abscesses, all of which were located in the right liver lobes. The other 10 cats had multifocal small abscesses or microabscesses, and all of these cats had clinical signs suggestive of sepsis. Cytologic evaluation of samples obtained by abdominocentesis indicated septic inflammation in 67% of cats in which peritoneal fluid was analyzed. Hepatic abscess cultures yielded polymicrobial growth in 66% of the cats: Escherichia coli was the most commonly cultured organism. Overall mortality rate was 79%. All survivors underwent exploratory laparotomy for partial hepatectomy to resect the abscess followed by medical management. Hepatic abscesses should be considered in cats with signs consistent with sepsis. More routine use of ultrasonography may aid in earlier diagnosis of hepatic abscesses, potentially improving prognosis and outcome.

  16. Vitamin D status in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titmarsh, Helen F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Tasker, Severine; Barker, Emily N; Berry, Jacqueline; Gunn-More, Danielle; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that can lead to a syndrome of acquired immune dysfunction. Infected cats often remain asymptomatic for several years before immune dysfunction leads to an increased risk for the development of systemic diseases, neoplasia and opportunistic infections. FIV is structurally related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the pathogenesis of FIV-related disease is similar to that seen in HIV-infected patients. Observational studies have documented an association between low plasma vitamin D and HIV infection. Vitamin D status has been shown to be associated with HIV-related disease progression, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that vitamin D status, as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations, are lower in cats with FIV infection compared to healthy control cats. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 20 healthy cats, 39 hospitalized ill cats and 59 cats infected with FIV. Cats which were FIV infected had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations compared to healthy control cats. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were not significantly different between FIV-infected cats and hospitalized ill cats. Further investigations are warranted to determine whether vitamin D status influences the prognosis of cats infected with FIV.

  17. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  18. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  19. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hohnen

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  20. MRI of secondary cervical syringomyelia in four cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Midori; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Kitagawa, Masato; Ito, Daisuke; Kanayama, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical syringomyelia in 4 cats. MRI revealed enlargement of the lateral ventricle in all the cats. Of the 4 cases, MRI revealed herniation of the cerebellum in 3 cats, an isolated fourth ventricle in 1 cat, severe hydrocephalus in 2 cats and brain masses in 1 cat. In this report, the cervical syringomyelia in these cats may have been due to formation of a secondary syrinx (enlargement of the central canal) as a result of blockage of flow in the outlet of the fourth ventricle caused by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) encephalomyelitis or secondary cerebellar tonsillar herniation caused by increased intracranial pressure due to intracranial masses or may have been due to caudal compression of the cerebellum caused by increased intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus. (author)

  1. Thyroid Cysts in Cats: A Retrospective Study of 40 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M L; Peterson, M E; Randolph, J F; Broome, M R; Norsworthy, G D; Rishniw, M

    2017-05-01

    Thyroid cysts are rare in cats and poorly documented. To report distinguishing clinical features and treatment responses of cats with thyroid cysts. Forty client-owned cats. Retrospective review of medical records for cats with thyroid cysts confirmed by scintigraphy, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or necropsy at 4 referral centers between 2005 and 2016. Signalment, clinical findings, diagnostic testing, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Cats ranged in age from 8 to 20 years with no apparent breed or sex predilection. 37 of 40 (93%) cats were hyperthyroid (duration, 1-96 months). Clinical findings included palpable neck mass (40/40, 100%), weight loss (15/40, 38%), dysphagia (8/40, 20%), decreased appetite (5/40, 13%), and dyspnea (4/40, 10%). Cysts were classified as small (≤8 cm 3 ) in 16 (40%) and large (>8 cm 3 ) in 24 (60%) cats. Of 25 cats treated with radioiodine, hyperthyroidism resolved in 23 (92%), whereas thyroid cysts resolved in 12 (50%). Radioiodine treatment resolved small cysts in 8 of 13 (62%) cats and large cysts in 4 of 11 (36%) cats. Eight cats, including 2 euthyroid cats, underwent thyroid-cystectomy; 3 with bilateral thyroid involvement were euthanized postoperatively for hypocalcemia. Excised cystic thyroid masses were identified as cystadenoma (4) and carcinoma (4). Thyroid cysts are encountered in hyperthyroid and euthyroid cats with benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Radioiodine treatment alone inconsistently resolved thyroid cysts. Thyroid-cystectomy could be considered in cats with unilateral thyroid disease or when symptomatic cysts persist despite successful radioiodine treatment of hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Intensive intravenous infusion of insulin in diabetic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, M; Dietiker-Moretti, S; Kaufmann, K; Mueller, C; Lutz, T A; Reusch, C E; Zini, E

    2014-01-01

    Remission occurs in 10-50% of cats with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is assumed that intensive treatment improves β-cell function and increases remission rates. Initial intravenous infusion of insulin that achieves tight glycemic control decreases subsequent insulin requirements and increases remission rate in diabetic cats. Thirty cats with newly diagnosed DM. Prospective study. Cats were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Cats in group 1 (n = 15) received intravenous infusion of insulin with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations at 90-180 mg/dL, for 6 days. Cats in group 2 (n = 15) received subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine (cats ≤4 kg: 0.5-1.0 IU, q12h; >4 kg 1.5-2.0 IU, q12h), for 6 days. Thereafter, all cats were treated with subcutaneous injections of insulin glargine and followed up for 6 months. Cats were considered in remission when euglycemia occurred for ≥4 weeks without the administration of insulin. Nonparametric tests were used for statistical analysis. In groups 1 and 2, remission was achieved in 10/15 and in 7/14 cats (P = .46), and good metabolic control was achieved in 3/5 and in 1/7 cats (P = .22), respectively. Overall, good metabolic control or remission occurred in 13/15 cats of group 1 and in 8/14 cats of group 2. In group 1, the median insulin dosage given during the 6-month follow-up was significantly lower than in group 2 (group 1: 0.32 IU/kg/day, group 2: 0.51 IU/kg/day; P = .013). Initial intravenous infusion of insulin for tight glycemic control in cats with DM decreases insulin requirements during the subsequent 6 months. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  4. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  5. CT studies of brain abscesses in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, K.; Wallenfang, T.; Bohl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral abscesses were produced in 56 cats by introducing staphylococcus aureus into the white matter of one cerebral hemisphere, using a stereotaxic apparatus. The cats were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids. The size and density of the inflammatory process and the abscess ring were measured on postcontrast CT scans. Differences were found depending on the stage of the abscess, but the deviation of values was too great for determining the age of the abscess from one measurement, to be able to apply proper treatment. The size and density of the abscesses were the same on CT whether the animals were treated or not. This was contrary to the clinical picture, the measurements of edema, and the histopathological studies. (orig.)

  6. OCULAR SONOGRAM OF INDONESIAN STRAY CAT EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Indonesian stray cat (KLI eyes by transpalpebrae B-mode ultrasound imaging. Eight healthy adult stray cats with 3.0-4.0 kg body weight were underwent of eyes ultrasound scanning without anesthesia or sedation. Linear ultrasound transducer with 7.5-15 MHz of frequency and ultrasound-gel were adhered directly to palpebral on the closed eyes. The results showed that the internal architecture of eyes was visible in different echogenicity according to the constituent of eyes structure. The sonograms with hypoechoic to hyperechoic parts of eyes were cornea, iris, cilliary body, suspensor ligament, sclera, and lens capsule. Moreover, anechoic parts of sonograms that having aqueous constituent were anterior chamber, posterior chamber, and vitreous humor. Based on the result, it can be concluded that B-mode ultrasound was able to assess the eyes through transpalpebral scanning.

  7. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  8. Allium species poisoning in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BS Salgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs and cats are the animals that owners most frequently seek assistance for potential poisonings, and these species are frequently involved with toxicoses due to ingestion of poisonous food. Feeding human foodstuff to pets may prove itself dangerous for their health, similarly to what is observed in Allium species toxicosis. Allium species toxicosis is reported worldwide in several animal species, and the toxic principles present in them causes the transformation of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, consequently resulting in hemolytic anemia with Heinz body formation. The aim of this review is to analyze the clinicopathologic aspects and therapeutic approach of this serious toxicosis of dogs and cats in order to give knowledge to veterinarians about Allium species toxicosis, and subsequently allow them to correctly diagnose this disease when facing it; and to educate pet owners to not feed their animals with Allium-containg food in order to better control this particular life-threatening toxicosis.

  9. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  10. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  11. Diagnosis of pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, P G

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in both dogs and cats. Ante-mortem diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis can be challenging. The clinical picture of dogs and cats with pancreatitis varies greatly (from very mild to severe or even fatal) and is characterised by non-specific findings. Complete blood count, serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis should always be performed in dogs and cats suspected of having pancreatitis, although findings are not-specific for pancreatitis. Serum amylase and lipase activities and trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI) concentrations have no or only limited clinical value for the diagnosis of pancreatitis in either dogs or cats. Conversely, serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) concentration is currently considered to be the clinicopathological test of choice for the diagnosis of canine and feline pancreatitis. Abdominal radiography is a useful diagnostic tool for the exclusion of other diseases that may cause similar clinical signs to those of pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography can be very useful for the diagnosis of pancreatitis, but this depends largely on the clinician's experience. Histopathological examination of the pancreas is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis and classification of pancreatitis, but it is not without limitations. In clinical practice, a combination of careful evaluation of the animal's history, serum PLI concentration and abdominal ultrasonography, together with pancreatic cytology or histopathology when indicated or possible, is considered to be the most practical and reliable means for an accurate diagnosis or exclusion of pancreatitis compared with other diagnostic modalities. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  13. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  14. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (C p(0) , 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t ½(d) ] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V (d[ss]) ] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [Cl B ], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t ½ ], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  15. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, Jean-Denis; Evin, Allowen; Cucchi, Thomas; Dai, Lingling; Yu, Chong; Hu, Songmei; Soulages, Nicolas; Wang, Weilin; Sun, Zhouyong; Gao, Jiangtao; Dobney, Keith; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The ancestor of all modern domestic cats is the wildcat, Felis silvestris lybica, with archaeological evidence indicating it was domesticated as early as 10,000 years ago in South-West Asia. A recent study, however, claims that cat domestication also occurred in China some 5,000 years ago and involved the same wildcat ancestor (F. silvestris). The application of geometric morphometric analyses to ancient small felid bones from China dating between 5,500 to 4,900 BP, instead reveal these and other remains to be that of the leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). These data clearly indicate that the origins of a human-cat ‘domestic’ relationship in Neolithic China began independently from South-West Asia and involved a different wild felid species altogether. The leopard cat’s ‘domestic’ status, however, appears to have been short-lived—its apparent subsequent replacement shown by the fact that today all domestic cats in China are genetically related to F. silvestris. PMID:26799955

  17. Continuous glucose monitoring in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmeyer, C E; DeClue, A E

    2008-01-01

    Use of continuous glucose monitoring in veterinary medicine is gaining popularity. Through use of a commercially available continuous glucose monitor system, insights into daily glucose changes in dogs and cats are achievable. The continuous glucose monitoring system measures glucose concentrations in the interstitial fluid of the subcutaneous space by use of a small, flexible probe. When placed in the subcutaneous tissue, the probe is connected to a recording device that is attached to the animal and records the interstitial fluid glucose concentration every 5 minutes (288 readings per 24 hours). Once attached and properly calibrated, the instrument can remain in place for several days, hospitalization of the patient is not necessary, and the normal daily routine of the animal can be maintained. The data from the recording device are then downloaded and a very detailed picture of the interstitial fluid glucose concentration over that time period can be obtained. Subcutaneous interstitial fluid glucose concentrations have a good correlation to blood glucose concentrations within a defined range. The continuous glucose monitoring system has distinct advantages over traditional blood glucose curves and is a valuable tool for managing diabetic dogs and cats. In addition, other clinical uses for continuous glucose monitoring are being developed. This review is designed to outline the technology behind the continuous glucose monitoring system, describe the clinical use of the instrument, provide clinical examples in which it may be useful, and discuss future directions for continuous glucose monitoring in dogs and cats.

  18. Is Schrödinger's Cat Alive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani L. Bhaumik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Erwin Schrödinger is famous for presenting his wave equation of motion that jump-started quantum mechanics. His disenchantment with the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics led him to unveil the Schrödinger's cat paradox, which did not get much attention for nearly half a century. In the meantime, disappointment with quantum mechanics turned his interest to biology facilitating, albeit in a peripheral way, the revelation of the structure of DNA. Interest in Schrödinger's cat has recently come roaring back making its appearance conspicuously in numerous scientific articles. From the arguments presented here, it would appear that the legendary Schrödinger's cat is here to stay, symbolizing a profound truth that quantum reality exists at all scales; but we do not observe it in our daily macroscopic world as it is masked for all practical purposes, most likely by environmental decoherence with irreversible thermal effects. Quanta 2017; 6: 70–80.

  19. Insulin detemir treatment in diabetic cats in a practice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten Madsen; Spodsberg, Eva-Maria Hohneck; Bjornvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Insulin detemir is a long-acting insulin analogue and may represent a valuable treatment option for diabetic cats. So far, only one study addressing detemir treatment of diabetic cats has been published, and this was based on an intensive blood glucose monitoring protocol. The aim of the current, retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of detemir therapy in diabetic cats in a general clinical setting. Fourteen diabetic cats with a follow-up period of at least 3 months were included. Data were collected from medical records at the University Hospital for Companion Animals, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Thirteen of 14 cats achieved moderate or excellent control of clinical symptoms within the initial 3 months of detemir therapy, including five cats previously treated unsuccessfully with other types of insulin. Clinical improvements were noted after 1 month of therapy and continued over time. Three cats achieved remission within the initial 3 months and none experienced a diabetic relapse during the study period. One cat achieved remission after 13 months of therapy. Improvements in clinical symptoms were markedly better than indicated by blood glucose and serum fructosamine concentrations. The safety of detemir was very high, with only two reported episodes of clinical hypoglycaemia, neither of which required veterinary attention. Based on these results detemir can be recommended for the treatment of diabetic cats, including cats previously treated unsuccessfully with other types of insulin. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  20. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Susan J; Jenvey, Caitlin J; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-02-07

    While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat owners: they had originally got the cat on Gumtree (n = 2); they use Gumtree for other things, and it works (n = 2), and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of unwanted dogs and cats.

  1. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  2. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  4. Assessment of the safety and efficacy of primary retropupillary fixation of iris-claw intraocular lenses in children with large lens subluxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anju; Goray, Apurva; Thacker, Prolima; Kamlesh; Babita

    2017-08-17

    To evaluate whether retropupillary fixation of the iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) is a safe and effective treatment option in children with large lens subluxations. Fourteen eyes of children between the ages of 8-17 years with lens subluxations more than 7 clock hours underwent pars plana lensectomy-vitrectomy with implantation of the iris-claw IOL in the retropupillary position as a primary procedure. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal endothelial count (EC) and the lens position using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Postoperatively, all patients had an increase in the BCVA with a mean of 0.351 ± 0.154 log MAR units which was statistically significant as compared to the preoperative value of 0.771 ± 0.132 log MAR units (p = 0.003). The difference between the mean preoperative IOP (13.642 ± 2.437 mmHg) and the mean postoperative intraocular pressure at the end of 6 months (13.5 ± 2.244 mmHg) was not statistically significant (p = 0.671). The mean EC decreased by 0.99% from 2838.42 ± 474.76 cells/mm 2 preoperatively to 2810 ± 461.24 cells/mm 2 at the end of 6 months postoperatively (p = 0.117). The lens position was analyzed using UBM and was found to be parallel to the iris plane in all cases at the end of 6 months. Our study shows that primary retropupillary iris-claw IOL implantation can be a safe and efficacious option for children with large (>7 clock hours) lens subluxations that is at least comparable to scleral-fixated PCIOLs.

  5. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  6. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  7. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  8. Susceptibility of Domestic Cats to Chronic Wasting Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalls, Amy V.; Seelig, Davis M.; Kraft, Susan L.; Carnes, Kevin; Anderson, Kelly R.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic and nondomestic cats have been shown to be susceptible to feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE), almost certainly caused by consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)-contaminated meat. Because domestic and free-ranging nondomestic felids scavenge cervid carcasses, including those in areas affected by chronic wasting disease (CWD), we evaluated the susceptibility of the domestic cat (Felis catus) to CWD infection experimentally. Cohorts of 5 cats each were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or orally (p.o.) with CWD-infected deer brain. At 40 and 42 months postinoculation, two i.c.-inoculated cats developed signs consistent with prion disease, including a stilted gait, weight loss, anorexia, polydipsia, patterned motor behaviors, head and tail tremors, and ataxia, and the cats progressed to terminal disease within 5 months. Brains from these two cats were pooled and inoculated into cohorts of cats by the i.c., p.o., and intraperitoneal and subcutaneous (i.p./s.c.) routes. Upon subpassage, feline CWD was transmitted to all i.c.-inoculated cats with a decreased incubation period of 23 to 27 months. Feline-adapted CWD (FelCWD) was demonstrated in the brains of all of the affected cats by Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormalities in clinically ill cats, which included multifocal T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) signal hyperintensities, ventricular size increases, prominent sulci, and white matter tract cavitation. Currently, 3 of 4 i.p./s.c.- and 2 of 4 p.o. secondary passage-inoculated cats have developed abnormal behavior patterns consistent with the early stage of feline CWD. These results demonstrate that CWD can be transmitted and adapted to the domestic cat, thus raising the issue of potential cervid-to-feline transmission in nature. PMID:23236066

  9. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette A. Hart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64. In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16 or less severe ASD (n = 11, or typical development (n = 17. From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities, affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children.

  10. Transient post-traumatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, M; Toniato, M; Rossi, F; Terragni, R; Manzini, M; Franchi, A; Pozzi, L

    2002-07-01

    A diagnosis of post-traumatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis was made in two cats. Both cats had a history of trauma and paradoxical inward movement of the abdominal wall at inspiration. Thoracic radiographs were taken at inspiration and expiration. Although the images were suggestive of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis, definitive diagnosis was reached by fluoroscopy in one cat and by ultrasonography in the second. Both cases resolved spontaneously and diaphragmatic function was normal at follow-up.

  11. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynette A; Thigpen, Abigail P; Willits, Neil H; Lyons, Leslie A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hart, Benjamin L

    2018-01-01

    Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD ( n  = 64). In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD ( n  = 16) or less severe ASD ( n  = 11), or typical development ( n  = 17). From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities), affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children's behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children.

  12. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  13. Polycystic kidney disease in a family of Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, D S; Chew, D J; DiBartola, S P

    1990-04-15

    A 6-year-old Persian cat was determined to have polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Because of 3 previous clinical reports of PKD in Persian cats, the offspring were examined by use of ultrasonography, which provided evidence of PKD in 3 of the 4 offspring. Because of the genetic transmission of this disease, breeders should be advised not to breed PKD-positive Persian cats.

  14. A CASE OF POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN A PERSIAN CAT

    OpenAIRE

    KARABAGLI, Murat; AKDOGAN KAYMAZ, Alev

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Feline polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease that has been identified in Persian cats and Persian related breeds such as the Exotic Shorthair cats. PKD has been reported sporadically in the veterinary literature and progress asymptomaticly until the renal deficiency is observed. Diagnosis of the PKD can be carried out by abdominal ultrasonography and DNA test in 7 weeks old. Our case was a 7 years old male Persian cat which had been brought to Dep...

  15. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  17. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  18. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  19. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  20. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  1. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J.; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to analyze dog and cat advertisements on a popular online trading website in Australia in February 2016. A total of 2640 ads for dogs and 2093 ads for cats were classified as being relinquished on Gumtree. A total of 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads were for free animals. The median age was 1.42 years in dogs and 0.9 years in cats. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. In comparison to pets from animal shelters advertised on PetRescue, there were more purebred dogs on Gumtree, although the common breeds were similar. Fifteen people who had relinquished a dog or cat on Gumtree were interviewed. They used Gumtree because they believed shelters were full, they wanted to see/interview the new owner, or because they originally got the animal on Gumtree and it works. These results shed light on a hitherto under-studied population of relinquished dogs and cats. Abstract While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat

  2. Cats are not small dogs: the emergence of feline medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Amy

    2006-11-01

    Cats have finally garnered the attention they deserve in veterinary medicine, however, there is still much to learn about this unique species and new challenges surface daily. For example, at the time of writing, avian influenza in cats is being closely monitored by world veterinary and health officials. Controversial topics, such as how to manage the homeless cat population, declawing, and cloning will continue to spark active debate. However, the future appears promising for cats as more veterinarians, researchers, and organizations increase their focus on felines.

  3. EFICIÊNCIA DE DISPOSITIVOS DE DESGASTE DE UNHAS PARA POEDEIRAS ALOJADAS EM GAIOLAS ENRIQUECIDAS EFFECTS OF CLAW SHORTENING DEVICES IN LAYING HENS HOUSED IN FURNISHED CAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Alojaram-se 642 frangas ISA Brown com dezessete semanas de idade em dois modelos de gaiolas enriquecidas. O modelo A possuía defletor de ovos onde foram colocados dois dispositivos de desgaste de unhas (CSD em cada gaiola em posição horizontal (HP. O modelo B não possuía defletor de ovos e os dois CSD foram colocados em posição vertical na parte externa dos comedouros em posição vertical (VP no interior da gaiola. Empregaram-se dois CSD, lixas adesivas e placas de cerâmica. Um terceiro grupo de aves foi alojado em gaiolas convencionais sem CSD. Realizaram-se diversas avaliações numa amostra de 10% das aves nas semanas 18, 35, 49, 62 e 78 de idade. Avaliaram-se o comprimento da unha central, o tipo e o número de lesões (FL e a condição da plumagem (FC. Procedeu-se à análise dos dados mediante o uso do procedimento GLM do pacote estatístico SPSS. Os efeitos principais foram tipos e posição de CSD e idade das aves. Os resultados demonstraram que os dispositivos de desgaste de unhas foram eficientes para encurtar as unhas e para a manutenção da plumagem, principalmente quando colocados sobre os defletores de ovos em posição horizontal. Entretanto, nesta posição podem afetar negativamente o bem-estar animal, por causa do aumento de lesões nos pés.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bem-estar, gaiolas enriquecidas, poedeiras, unhas, lesões.

    Seventeen weeks old ISA Brown pullets (n=642 were housed into two models of furnished cages. Model A had egg baffles with two claw shortening devices (CSD per cage, placed in horizontal position (HP. Model B had no egg baffles and two CSD per cage were placed on the rear of feeders, in vertical position (VP. Two types of CSD were used, either abrasive strips or ceramic plates. A third group of birds was housed in conventional cages, with or without strips in VP. Several measures were taken at 18, 35, 49, 62, and 78 weeks of age in a random sample of 10% of hens. The following

  4. DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT REQUIREMENTS OF THE WHITE-CLAWED CRAYFISH, AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES, IN A STREAM FROM THE PAYS DE LOIRE REGION, FRANCE: AN EXPERIMENTAL AND DESCRIPTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BROQUET T.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes was studied from January to October 2000 in a stream from the Pays de Loire region (Western France. An experimental modification of habitat was performed in four stream sections by providing refuges for crayfish, followed by a regular survey of population dynamics in these areas. The crayfish distribution along the brook was studied in relation to several parameters, including water quality, current speed, brook depth and presence of refuges for crayfish. Presence of hiding places was the only habitat parameter correlated with crayfish distribution along the stream whereas colonization process in modified sections was determined by sun exposure and current speed conditions. Despite a presumably high growth rate and its ability to reach locally important densities, the population appeared to be fragmented.

  5. Outcomes of iris-claw anterior chamber versus iris-fixated foldable intraocular lens in subluxated lens secondary to Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Denise E; Soriano, Eduardo S; Meirelles, Rodrigo L; Alberti, Gustave N; Nosé, Walton

    2010-08-01

    To compare the outcome of phacoemulsification using 2 different iris-fixation techniques for intraocular lens (IOL) replacement, a foldable posterior chamber IOL (PCIOL; AcrySof MA60AC, Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX) and an iris-claw anterior chamber IOL (ACIOL; Artisan, Ophtec BV), for treatment of subluxated lenses in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). Randomized, controlled trial. A total of 31 eyes of 16 patients with subluxated lenses associated with MFS and a preoperative corrected visual acuity (CVA) IOL type. Preoperative and postoperative ophthalmologic examination, optical coherence tomography, and endothelial cell counts were performed. We recorded CVA results at 3, 6, and 12 months, complications, endothelial cell loss, and central retinal thickness. In the iris-fixated PCIOL group, CVA was significantly improved at 3 (P = 0.011; n = 16), 6 (P = 0.006; n = 16), and 12 months (P = 0.002; n = 16). In the iris-claw ACIOL group, CVA was significantly improved at 3 (P = 0.001; n=15), 6 (P = 0.001; n = 15), and 12 months (P = 0.009; n = 12). The CVA results did not differ significantly between groups. Dislocation of the IOL occurred in 3 of 16 (18.75%) eyes in the PCIOL group. Retinal detachment occurred in 3 eyes (2 in the PCIOL group and 1 in the ACIOL group) and was successfully repaired. Postoperative foveal tomograms in both groups revealed a decrease in the mean foveal thickness (MFT; IOL dislocation tended to occur more frequently in the iris-fixated PCIOL group, the difference was not significant. At 6 months postoperatively, all study patients tended to have a thinner MFT. None of the patients in either group developed cystoid macular edema. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  7. Scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussadee, Metita; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2017-05-01

    To establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (ERG) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (FC) and leopard cats (LC). Twelve normal, FC and eight LC kept in the Chiang Mai Night Safari Zoo, Thailand. The mean ages of FC and LC were 7.08 and 5.00 years, respectively. All animals were studied using a standard scotopic protocol of a portable, handheld, multi-species electroretinography (HMsERG). There were significant differences in the means of ERG b-wave amplitude of the rod response (Rod, 0.01 cd.s/m 2 ), a- and b-wave amplitudes of standard light intensity of rod and cone response (Std R&C, 3 cd.s/m 2 ) and b-wave amplitude of high light intensity of rod and cone response (Hi-int R&C, 10 cd.s/m 2 ) with LC having higher amplitudes than FC. There was no significant difference in a- and b- wave implicit time except for the b-wave of Hi-int (P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in b/a amplitude ratios. Data from this report provides reference values for scotopic ERG measurements in these two wild cat species. It showed that the normal scotopic ERG responses have some differences between the two species which might be due to the skull conformation, eye size or physiology of the retina. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. CATS Deliverable 2.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident parameters and test scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 2 "Test scenario definition" of the CATS project. It describes relevant accident parameters for the 5 most dominant accidents scenarios defined in WP1. The objective of this WP2 is to construct car-to-cyclist accident test scenarios

  9. CATS Deliverable 1.2 : CATS car-to-cyclist accident scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Rodarius, C.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 1 "accident analysis" of the CATS project. It describes the collection of data, the analyses as well as the final accident scenarios. The objective of this WP was to analyse car-to-cyclist accident scenarios in the EU, mainly

  10. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jorg M

    2008-03-01

    Pancreatitis is the most common disorder of the exocrine pancreas in dogs and cats. Clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is challenging because the disease is usually mild or subclinical and because its clinical signs are often the same as those of complicating or concurrent diseases. Obtaining a detailed history, performing a thorough physical examination, and conducting tests that are sensitive and specific for pancreatitis are crucial in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Initial management of an acute episode of chronic pancreatitis largely involves supportive and dietary measures, while long-term management of chronic pancreatitis is based on dietary modification. Management of complications and concurrent diseases is crucial in animals with chronic pancreatitis.

  11. Cat eye syndrome with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, H; Ozaki, T; Nogimori, T

    1998-10-01

    A 17-year-old male diagnosed as having Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism showed short stature and no development of secondary sex characteristics. Exogeneous gonadotropin replacement therapy combining human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) was started. As a result, the short stature and androgen deficiency were relieved. The critical region of CES was tetrasomy of 22 pter-->q11. Abnormalities of other chromosomes which cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism may exist, thus further investigation is needed.

  12. Eurytrema procyonis and pancreatitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnal, Kristin K; Barr, Stephen C; Hornbuckle, William E; Yeager, Amy E; Wade, Susan E; Frongillo, Marguerite F; Simpson, Kenneth W; Bowman, Dwight D

    2008-08-01

    A young adult male domestic shorthair cat was presented for physical examination, routine vaccinations, and a fecal examination. Physical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Eggs of the raccoon pancreatic fluke Eurytrema procyonis were detected by fecal flotation. Results of a complete blood count and serum biochemistry panel were normal. Abdominal sonography revealed an enlarged hypoechoic pancreas with a hyperechoic rim, and a distended and thickened pancreatic duct. Serum pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) was increased. These findings supported the possibility of fluke-associated pancreatitis. Treatment with praziquantel/pyrantel/febantel was associated with resolution of sonographic abnormalities and normalization of PLI.

  13. Prostatic abscess in a neutered cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Adam; Liptak, Julius M; Hofstede, Tamara; Stalker, Margaret; Kruth, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, male castrated domestic shorthair cat was presented for evaluation of lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, and constipation. Physical examination revealed an elevated body temperature and an extramural colonic mass. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a hypoechoic mass measuring 2.2 cm in maximum dimension immediately caudal to the bladder. Cytological evaluation of a fine-needle aspirate confirmed the mass was a prostatic abscess. Abdominal celiotomy and prostatic omentalization were successful in resolving clinical abnormalities. Feline prostatic abscessation is a rare condition that has not been previously reported and may have a good outcome if treated early and appropriately.

  14. Post incisional hernia in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raiser, Alceu Gaspar

    1999-01-01

    A hérnia pós-incisão foi analisada quanto à prevalência e protocolo terapêutico em nove cães e seis gatos cadastrados no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Os animais apresentaram peritonite localizada que foi tratada com reposição hidroeletrolítica, antibioticoterapia, irrigação abundante da cavidade abdominal e debridamento cirúrgico. Todos tiveram evolução favorável.The case records of nine dogs and six cats with post-incisional hernia were managed by ...

  15. Spontaneaous linear gastric tears in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, M; Olivero, D; Costa Devoti, C

    2015-09-01

    An 11-year-old female cat presented for chronic vomiting. Endoscopy revealed an altered gastric mucosa and spontaneous formation of linear gastric tears during normal organ insufflations. The histopathological diagnosis was atrophic gastritis with Helicobacter pylori infection. Medical treatment permitted a complete resolution of clinical signs. The linear tears observed resembled gastric lesions rarely reported in humans, called "Mallory-Weiss syndrome". To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of spontaneous linear gastric tears in animals. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Evaluation of plasma islet amyloid polypeptide and serum glucose and insulin concentrations in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Michael S; Hegstad-Davies, Rebecca L; Wang, Qi; Hardy, Robert M; Armstrong, P Jane; Jordan, Kathryn; Johnson, Kenneth H; O'Brien, Timothy D

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. 109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats. Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables. In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats. Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.

  17. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    Overweight in cats is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus and has also been associated with other disorders. Overweight and obesity are believed to be increasing problems in cats, as is currently seen in people, with important health consequences. The objectives of the present study were to determine the prevalence of overweight in cats from two different cohorts in a cross-sectional study design and to assess associations between overweight and diagnoses, and between overweight and demographic and environmental factors. Data were obtained from medical records for cats (n = 1072) visiting an academic medical center during 2013-2015, and from a questionnaire on insured cats (n = 1665). From the medical records, information on body condition score, breed, age, sex, neutering status, and diagnosis was obtained. The questionnaire included questions relating to the cat's body condition, breed, age, sex, neutering status, outdoor access, activity level, and diet. Data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of overweight was 45% in the medical records cohort and 22% in the questionnaire cohort, where owners judged their pet's body condition. Overweight cats in the medical records cohort were more likely to be diagnosed with lower urinary tract disease, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, skin disorders, locomotor disease, and trauma. Eating predominantly dry food, being a greedy eater, and inactivity were factors associated with an increased risk of overweight in the final model in the questionnaire cohort. In both cohorts, the Birman and Persian breeds, and geriatric cats, were less likely to be overweight, and male cats were more likely to be overweight. The prevalence of overweight cats (45%) as assessed by trained personnel was high and in the same range as previously reported. Birman and Persian cats had a lower risk of overweight. The association with dry food found in adult, neutered cats is potentially important because

  18. The prevalence and significance of hyperglycemia in hospitalized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Casey C; Callahan-Clark, Julie; Beckel, Nicole F; Walters, Patricia C

    2009-08-01

    To report the prevalence of hyperglycemia in cats admitted to a veterinary hospital and to determine if hyperglycemic cats had increased morbidity and mortality when compared with normoglycemic cats. DESIGN - Retrospective clinical study. Community-based referral hospital. Nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital. None. The medical records of nondiabetic cats admitted to the hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. There were 182 cats that met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Information obtained included signalment, length of hospitalization, initial and highest blood glucose measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and final disposition. Sixty-three percent of cats (116/182) were hyperglycemic at the time of presentation. Total incidence of hyperglycemia at any point during hospitalization was 64% (118/182). No association was found between hyperglycemia either initially or at any point during the hospitalization and mortality. However, a significant association was documented between the presence of hyperglycemia and increased length of hospitalization (LOH) (P=0.04). The duration of LOH was also significantly associated with the degree of hyperglycemia (P=0.01). A number of different disease processes were represented in the study population. However, the number of cats in each disease category was small and no association could be found between any of them and blood glucose affecting mortality and morbidity. The prevalence of hyperglycemia in feline patients admitted to a primary referral hospital was 64%. Cats with hyperglycemia had a longer LOH when compared with normoglycemic cats; however, presence of hyperglycemia did not impact mortality in this population of cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2009.

  19. CATS Cloud and Aerosol Level 2 Heritage Edition Data Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, S. D.; Vaughan, M.; Yorks, J. E.; Palm, S. P.; Selmer, P. A.; Hlavka, D. L.; McGill, M. J.; Trepte, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) instrument was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in January 2015. The CATS elastic backscatter lidars have been operating continuously in one of two science modes since February 2015. One of the primary science objectives of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record to provide continuity of lidar climate observations during the transition from CALIPSO to EarthCARE. To accomplish this, the CATS project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the CALIPSO project at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC) closely collaborated to develop and deliver a full suite of CALIPSO-like level 2 data products using the latest version of the CALIPSO level 2 Version 4 algorithms for the CATS data acquired while operating in science mode 1 (Multi-beam backscatter detection at 1064 and 532 nm, with depolarization measurement at both wavelengths). In this work, we present the current status of the CATS Heritage (i.e. CALIPSO-like) level 2 data products derived from the recent released CATS Level 1B V2-08 data. Extensive comparisons are performed between the three data sets (CALIPSO V4.10 Level 2, CATS Level 2 Operational V2-00 and CATS Heritage V1.00) for cloud and aerosol measurements (e.g., cloud-top height cloud-phase, cloud-layer occurrence frequency and cloud-aerosol discrimination) along the ISS path. In addition, global comparisons (between 52°S and 52°N) of aerosol extinction profiles derived from the CATS Level 2 Operational products and CALIOP V4 Level 2 products are presented. Comparisons of aerosol optical depths retrieved from active sensors (CATS and CALIOP) and passive sensors (MODIS) will provide context for the extinction profile comparisons.

  20. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  1. Season effect in the occurrence of claw diseases in dairy cattle Efeito da sazonalidade sobre a ocorrência de lesões podais em vacas de raças leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Jorge Facury Filho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Claw diseases in cattle present different factors which contribute to its occurrence. At the present study, it was evaluated the claw diseases occurrence in cows and heifers from two farms of Minas Gerais state after rainy and dry periods. Cows kept in stables during dry period showed claw diseases more frequently. Claw diseases observed in these animals were heel erosion (group 1, digital dermatitis, interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia (group 2. Grazing cows during all year presented a decrease on the occurrence of claw diseases in the dry period, which demonstrated a relationship among lesions from groups 1 and 3 (sole hemorrhage, white line disease and double sole and the rain rate. Hygienic conditions of installations and paddocks also contributed to the occurrence of claw diseases in the animals.As afecções podais dos bovinos apresentam diversos fatores que predispõem a sua ocorrência. No presente estudo, avaliou-se a ocorrência de lesões podais em vacas e novilhas em duas fazendas em Minas Gerais, após os períodos chuvoso e seco. Vacas estabuladas durante o período seco apresentaram freqüência mais elevada na maioria das lesões infecciosas podais. As patologias podais observada nesses animais foram erosão de talão (grupo1, dermatite digital, dermatite interdigital e hiperplasia interdigital (grupo2. As vacas criadas a pasto o ano todo apresentaram uma diminuição nas ocorrências de lesões no período seco, indicando uma relação entre as lesões do grupo 1 e 3 (hemorragia de sola, doença da linha branca e sola dupla com os índices pluviométricos. As condições higiênicas das instalações e dos piquetes também favoreceram para a ocorrência de lesões podais nos animais.

  2. Acromegaly in a non-diabetic cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Fracassi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old, neutered male European shorthair cat was evaluated for a routine health check. The owner did not report any clinical signs except for respiratory stridor. On physical examination the main findings were broad facial features and increased interdental spaces. On haematology, a mild, non-regenerative anaemia was detected, whereas the serum biochemistry profile and urinalysis were unremarkable. The serum glucose concentration was within the reference interval. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration was markedly elevated (>1600 ng/ml. The basal serum growth hormone concentration was elevated and decreased only mildly after somatostatin administration. Basal serum insulin concentration was high, and the insulin concentration increased considerably after glucose loading, consistent with insulin resistance. CT scanning of the skull showed an enlarged pituitary gland and increased skull bone thickness. The final diagnosis was acromegaly. Relevance and novel information These findings demonstrate that acromegaly should be pursued and suspected in cats other than those with diabetes mellitus.

  3. Serum Beta Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations in Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hyperthyroidism, or Hepatic Lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, L.; Sharkey, L.C.; Armstrong, P.J.; Little, K.; Rendahl, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ketones, including beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB), are produced in conditions of negative energy balance and decreased glucose utilization. Serum BHB concentrations in cats are poorly characterized in diseases other than diabetes mellitus. Hypothesis Serum BHB concentrations will be increased in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD), hyperthyroidism (HT), or hepatic lipidosis (HL). Animals Twenty?eight client?owned cats with CKD, 34 cats with HT, and 15 cats with HL; 43 healthy cats. ...

  4. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  5. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  7. The French CAT: An Assessment of Its Empirical Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the empirical validity of the Monash-Melbourne computer adaptive test for French (French CAT). The article focuses on the accuracy of the French CAT as a tool for streaming incoming university students into three levels of a first-year (post-high school) French course. The test is demonstrated to be a good predictor of short-term…

  8. Simple nonparametric checks for model data fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the usefulness of several nonparametric checks is discussed in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Although there is no tradition of nonparametric scalability in CAT, it can be argued that scalability checks can be useful to investigate, for example, the quality of item

  9. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  10. Pancreatic function in domestic cats with pancreatic fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J N; Mosley, J G; Vogler, G A; Austin, J L; Reber, H A

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one of 290 cats (10.7%) from the area around St Louis, Mo, were infected with Eurytrema procyonis. In some cats, the pancreas was severely affected, with almost complete atrophy and fibrous replacement of the gland. Both bicarbonate and protein secretions were impaired, although clinically evident pancreatic insufficiency was not seen.

  11. Abdominal (liver, spleen) and bone manifestations of cat scratch disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, C.E.; Patrick, L.E. (Egleston Children' s Hospital, Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1992-09-01

    Cat scratch disease is usually a self-limiting illness. Patients may develop systemic complications including hepatic granulomas, splenic abscesses, mesenteric adenitis, osteolytic lesions, as well as dermatologic and CNS complications. In this paper the literature is reviewed and two cases are discussed which present the imaging findings in patients with hepatic, splenic, mesenteric, and bony manifestations of cat scratch disease. (orig.).

  12. Cat scratch disease presenting as orbital abscess and osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhur, Beloo; Shah, Samir S; Ratner, Adam J; Goldstein, Scott M; Bell, Louis M; Kim, Jean O

    2003-08-01

    Ocular manifestations of cat scratch disease are uncommon. The diagnosis is usually made on the basis of increasing Bartonella henselae serum antibody titers. We report a child presenting with orbital abscess and osteomyelitis who was diagnosed with hepatosplenic cat scratch disease by detection of B. henselae DNA in the orbital abscess fluid.

  13. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  14. Using the Domestic Cat in the Teaching of Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnear, Judith F.

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on genetic concepts that form key components of transmission genetics and illustrates how the domestic cat can be used in the teaching of these concepts. Offers examples of how laboratory experiences with the cat can enhance student learning of genetics. (ML)

  15. Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In this paper we identify new genetic profiles of eight Latin American cat populations. In addition, we combine data from the present study and previously published data on 70 other American and European populations to discuss (1) the points of introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin ...

  16. Plasma amylin and insulin concentrations in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T A; Rand, J S

    1996-01-01

    The recently discovered pancreatic peptide amylin is postulated to be involved in the pathogenesis of feline diabetes mellitus. However, plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats have not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to validate a commercial amylin radioimmunoassay kit for the measurement of feline amylin in unextracted plasma, and to measure plasma amylin concentrations in normal and diabetic cats. The kit had satisfactory specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision, and can be recommended for measurement of feline amylin in unextracted EDTA plasma, when nonspecific binding of plasma samples is used in the calculation of measured amylin concentration. Fasting amylin concentration in cats with normal glucose tolerance was 97 +/- 4 pmol/L. Plasma amylin increased in parallel with insulin after glucose administration in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. In contrast to cats with normal glucose tolerance, cats with impaired glucose tolerance had markedly delayed amylin and insulin secretion. Diabetic cats had basal hypoinsulinemia combined with hyperamylinemia. Hyperamylinemia may lead to reduced insulin secretion and insulin resistance, and contribute to the development of feline diabetes. In conclusion, feline amylin can be measured in unextracted EDTA plasma. Fasting amylin concentrations are approximately 100 pmol/L, and amylin and insulin are cosecreted in cats with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. Increased amylin concentrations may contribute to the development of feline diabetes mellitus.

  17. Isolation of Actinobacillus suis from a cat's lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daignault, D.; Chouinard, L.; Møller, Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Actinobacillus suis has been isolated from the lungs of a 9-month-old cat. The bacterium was characterized biochemically as well as genetically, and its sensitivity profile to different antimicrobial agents was established. The role of this isolate in the cat's condition is discussed....

  18. Symmetric Dimethylarginine in Cats with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, R.; Kieler, I. N.; Koch, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been increasingly used as a marker of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats, but little is known about the influence of comorbidities on SDMA in this species. Hypothesis: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and diabetes mellitus (DM), independe...... controls, a finding that needs further investigation and should be kept in mind when evaluating renal function of cats with this endocrinopathy....

  19. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  20. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the cat myostatin gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MEF3, MTBF, PAX3, SMAD, HBOX, HOMF and TEAF motifs. Comparative analysis for some motifs showed both conservations and differences among cat, horse, porcine and human. Key words: Cat, myostatin 5'-regulatory region, molecular cloning, sequence analysis and comparison, transcription factor binding sites.

  1. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  2. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Gastrointestinal parasites of feral cats from. Christmas Island. Australian Veterinary. Journal, 86:60-63. Arai H, Fukuda Y, Hara T, Funakoshi Y, Kaneko S,. Yoshida T, Asahi H, Kumada M, Kato K &. Koyama T (1990). Prevalence of cryptosporidium infection among domestic cat in the Tokyo Metropolitan District,. Japan.

  3. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  4. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  5. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P),

  6. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhaff, C.J.; Mooney, S.

    1985-01-01

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  7. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the

  8. CatSper channel, sperm function and male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akhand Pratap; Rajender, Singh

    2015-01-01

    A number of physiological events, such as sperm hyperactivation, chemotaxis towards the egg, capacitation and acrosome reaction, are triggered by activation of sperm ion channels in response to a diverse range of chemical cues. Cation channel of sperm (CatSper), a sperm-specific ion channel, is unique in orchestrating the events for fertilization, and seems to be exclusively evolved for sperm function and male fertility. CatSper acts as a polymodal, chemosensory calcium channel and plays a vital role in the regulation of sperm hyperactivation. CatSper knockout models and application of patch clamp recordings have shown that it is indispensable for male fertility, and mutations and deletions in CatSper gene(s) may lead to infertility. In fact, mutations in CatSper1 and 2 have been identified in infertile individuals; however, CatSper3 and 4 have not been explored. Restricted localization and expression of CatSper in sperm offer an added advantage to developing gamete-based safe non-hormonal contraceptives. This review concisely covers identification, structure, function, and mechanism of action of CatSper channels. The functional importance of this complex ion channel in sperm motility and male fertility is highlighted for further research on male fertility, infertility, and contraception. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review on trypanosomosis in dogs and cats | Nwoha | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma congolense were initially thought to be the only species of trypanosomes capable of causing diseases in dogs and cats. However, dogs and cats are challenged by diverse species of trypanosomes with varying virulence and pathogenicity. Dogs may ...

  10. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  11. Delayed physeal closure associated with castration in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, C.; Bennett, D.; Downham, D.Y.

    1991-01-01

    Radiographs of 152 cats under four years of age were examined for evidence of physeal closure. Radiographic closure was compared between entire male, castrated male, and female (neutered and entire] cats. Physeal closure in castrated males was delayed when compared to that of entire males

  12. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT MENGGUNAKAN METODE POHON SEGITIGA KEPUTUSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarno Winarno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menghasilkan CAT menggunakan metode pohon segitiga keputusan dalam prosedur pemilihan item dan mengetahui kemampuan CAT dalam mengestimasi kemampuan peserta tes dengan tepat. Penelitian ini menggunakan Research and Development (R&D. Peng-ambilan data dengan observasi, dokumentasi, dan angket. Analisis data yang digunakan adalah teknik analisis deskriptif evaluatif dan teknik analisis deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 CAT yang dikembangkan berdasar kebutuhan pemakai yaitu: berbasis internet, memiliki sistem ke-amanan, dan mudah diakses, (2 CAT dapat mengenali tiga pengguna, yaitu: administrator, guru, dan siswa, (3 CAT mampu memberikan butir-butir yang bersifat adaptif berdasarkan respon jawaban peserta tes. Secara keseluruhan kinerja CAT mampu melaksanakan tugas dengan baik untuk memilih butir tes dan mengukur kemampuan peserta tes dengan akurat dan tepat dilihat dari nilai korelasi antara hasil estimasi kemampuan (θ dengan nilai ulangan murni (NUM di sekolah siswa cukup tinggi yakni 0,67. Kata kunci: metode pohon segitiga keputusan, metode maximum likelihood ______________________________________________________________ DEVELOPING COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING (CAT BY USING THE TRIANGLE DECISION TREE METHOD Abstract This research aims at producing a CAT software that uses the tri-angle decision tree method in the test item selection procedure and detecting the CAT ability in estimating the test-takers’ ability accurately and correctly. This research used the research and development approach (R&D. The data were collected through observation, documentation, inquiry, and the data were analyzed descriptively and quantitatively. The findings are as follows. (1 The CAT developed is:based on users’ need, web-based, user-friendly, interactive, highly secured, and easily accessible. (2 The CAT can recognize three different users: school administrators, teachers, and students. (3 The CAT software is able

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2015-01-01

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...... was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence...

  14. Acquired cervical spinal arachnoid diverticulum in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R J; Garosi, L; Matiasek, K; Lowrie, M

    2015-04-01

    A one-year-old, female entire, domestic, shorthair cat presented with acute onset non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging was consistent with a C3-C4 acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion and the cat was treated conservatively. The cat was able to walk after 10 days and was normal 2 months after presentation. The cat was referred five and a half years later for investigation of an insidious onset 3-month history of ataxia and tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine was repeated, demonstrating a spinal arachnoid diverticulum at C3 causing marked focal compression of the spinal cord. This was treated surgically with hemilaminectomy and durectomy. The cat improved uneventfully and was discharged 12 days later. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Dona, Francesco; Murino, Carla; Della Valle, Giovanni; Fatone, Gerardo

    2016-07-19

    A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies.

  16. A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Gao, Yvonne Y.; Reinhold, Philip; Heeres, R. W.; Ofek, Nissim; Chou, Kevin; Axline, Christopher; Reagor, Matthew; Blumoff, Jacob; Sliwa, K. M.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, Liang; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum superpositions of distinct coherent states in a single-mode harmonic oscillator, known as “cat states,” have been an elegant demonstration of Schrödinger’s famous cat paradox. Here, we realize a two-mode cat state of electromagnetic fields in two microwave cavities bridged by a superconducting artificial atom, which can also be viewed as an entangled pair of single-cavity cat states. We present full quantum state tomography of this complex cat state over a Hilbert space exceeding 100 dimensions via quantum nondemolition measurements of the joint photon number parity. The ability to manipulate such multicavity quantum states paves the way for logical operations between redundantly encoded qubits for fault-tolerant quantum computation and communication.

  17. Glucose lowering effects of inhaled insulin in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClue, Amy E; Leverenz, Elizabeth F; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Bryan, Margaret E; Reinero, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Inhaled medications have proven effective and well tolerated in cats, and inhaled insulin has been used successfully for the management of diabetes mellitus in humans. Thus, we hypothesize that delivery of aerosolized regular insulin can lower blood glucose in healthy cats. Five adult cats were administered aerosolized 0.9% saline (IS), regular insulin intravenously (IV) 0.5 U/kg, and aerosolized regular insulin 15 U/kg (I15) and 25 U/kg (I25) and blood glucose was evaluated. Mean blood glucose was significantly lower at 15, 30 and 45 min in the I25 and IV groups compared to baseline. Similarly, the IV and I25 groups had a significantly greater maximal percent change in blood glucose than the IS group. Significantly more cats developed severe hypoglycemia (glucose concentrations in healthy cats.

  18. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  19. Inheritance of polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, D S; DiBartola, S P; Eaton, K A; Pflueger, S; Wellman, M L; Radin, M J

    1996-01-01

    Polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats culminates in chronic renal failure after a variable clinical course. An affected 6-year-old Persian cat was used to establish a colony of cats with polycystic kidney disease. In affected cats, cysts could be detected by ultrasonography as early as 7 weeks of age. Absence of cysts on ultrasound examination at 6 months of age was correlated with absence of polycystic kidney disease at necropsy. Both males and females were affected and, of progeny from affected x unaffected crosses, 42% were affected and 58% were unaffected. In affected x affected crosses, 73% of progeny were affected and 27% were unaffected. These results are compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance of this trait. Polycystic kidney disease in Persian cats resembles autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in human beings, and represents a valuable animal model of the human disease.

  20. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  1. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dystocia in the cat evaluated using an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Axnér, Eva; Öhlund, Malin; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of feline dystocia with respect to breed. Methods The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance and/or life insurance claims in cats registered in a Swedish insurance database from 1999-2006. Results The incidence rates for dystocia were about 22 cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk, 67 per 10,000 for purebred cats and seven per 10,000 for domestic shorthair cats. The median age was 2.5 years. A significant effect of breed was seen. An incidence rate ratio (IRR) that was significantly higher compared with other purebred cats was seen in the British Shorthair (IRR 2.5), the Oriental group (IRR 2.2), Birman (IRR 1.7), Ragdoll (IRR 1.5) and the Abyssinian group (IRR 1.5). A significantly lower IRR was seen in the Norwegian Forest Cat (IRR 0.38), the Maine Coon (IRR 0.48), the Persian/Exotic group (IRR 0.49) and the Cornish Rex (IRR 0.50). No common factor among the high-risk breeds explained their high risk for dystocia. There was no effect of location; that is, the incidence rate did not differ depending on whether the cat lived in an urban or rural area. Caesarean section was performed in 56% of the cats with dystocia, and the case fatality was 2%. Conclusions and relevance The incidence rate for dystocia was of a similar magnitude in purebred cats as in dogs. The IRR varied significantly among breeds, and the main cause for dystocia should be identified separately for each breed. A selection for easy parturitions in breeding programmes is suggested.

  3. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  4. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  8. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  9. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  10. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  11. Ecology driving genetic variation: a comparative phylogeography of jungle cat (Felis chaus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shomita; Krishnan, Anand; Tamma, Krishnapriya; Home, Chandrima; Navya, R; Joseph, Sonia; Das, Arundhati; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-10-29

    Comparative phylogeography links historical population processes to current/ecological processes through congruent/incongruent patterns of genetic variation among species/lineages. Despite high biodiversity, India lacks a phylogeographic paradigm due to limited comparative studies. We compared the phylogenetic patterns of Indian populations of jungle cat (Felis chaus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). Given similarities in their distribution within India, evolutionary histories, body size and habits, congruent patterns of genetic variation were expected. We collected scats from various biogeographic zones in India and analyzed mtDNA from 55 jungle cats (460 bp NADH5, 141 bp cytochrome b) and 40 leopard cats (362 bp NADH5, 202 bp cytochrome b). Jungle cats revealed high genetic variation, relatively low population structure and demographic expansion around the mid-Pleistocene. In contrast, leopard cats revealed lower genetic variation and high population structure with a F(ST) of 0.86 between North and South Indian populations. Niche-model analyses using two approaches (BIOCLIM and MaxEnt) support absence of leopard cats from Central India, indicating a climate associated barrier. We hypothesize that high summer temperatures limit leopard cat distribution and that a rise in temperature in the peninsular region of India during the LGM caused the split in leopard cat population in India. Our results indicate that ecological variables describing a species range can predict genetic patterns. Our study has also resolved the confusion over the distribution of the leopard cat in India. The reciprocally monophyletic island population in the South mandates conservation attention.

  12. Bone vitality in the cat's irradiated jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrain, R.; Dhem, A.; Gueulette, J.; Wambersie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The vitality of the mandible in cats was studied from two to 15 months after irradiation. Dose of 80 Gy in three days was delivered using three hairpin shape iridium-192 wires surrounding the mandibula. The osseous vitality was assessed from the percentages of lacunae inhabited by osteocytes (IL). The results are compared with those obtained by microradiography. At two months, a small reduction of vitality is already observed, it becomes progressively more important. At one year, vitality is recovered nearly fully in the ventral part of the mandibula, mainly at the level of the alveolar crest. Vitality remains reduced in the dorsal part. Microradiographic lesions appear more slowly; they are apparent at six months. (orig.) [de

  13. [CAT-guided percutaneous drainage of abscesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Manrique, F; Fernández Miranda, E; García Cáceres, E; Franciso Moriana Maldonado, J; Granero Molina, J; Aguilera Manrique, G

    2001-09-01

    Drainage of percutaneous abscesses guided by Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) is a technique being employed more frequently all the time by Radiodiagnostic Services. Correctly put into practice by trained professionals, this procedure can prevent patients having to undergo another series of treatments which bear greater risks, to have a longer hospital stay, or even, depending on the case, to have to undergo an operation. Nurses in a radiological unit have an overwhelming role in every step of a percutaneous abscess drainage, a role which can not be carried out by any other personnel. To achieve being up to date in this technique and to perform our function as nurses in the use of this technique are the main objectives of this review.

  14. La catástrofe urbana

    OpenAIRE

    Böckelmann, Franck

    1997-01-01

    La catástrofe urbana es pot llegir com un text que oscil.la entre la ciencia, i la ficció. Després de presentar-se a les primeres pagines amb el ropatge terminologic d'un tractat de sociologia urbana, la catastrofe de la que parla I'opuscle prové de I'horitzó apocalíptic, d'un cemés enlla, del futur on i'han projectat el cinema i la mateixa ciencia. Aquí la catastrofe ja és entre nosaltres, forma part de I'ordre familiar i quotidia com <

  15. Physics Girl: Where Education meets Cat Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, Dianna

    YouTube is usually considered an entertainment medium to watch cats, gaming, and music videos. But educational channels have been gaining momentum on the platform, some garnering millions of subscribers and billions of views. The Physics Girl YouTube channel is an educational series with PBS Digital Studios created by Dianna Cowern. Using Physics Girl as an example, this talk will examine what it takes to start a short-form educational video series, including logistics and resources. One benefit of video is that every failure is documented on camera and can, and will, be used in this talk as a learning tool. We will look at the channels demographical reach, discuss best practices for effective physics outreach, and survey how online media and technology can facilitate good and bad learning. The aim of this talk is to show how videos are a unique way to share science and enrich the learning experience, in and out of a classroom.

  16. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  17. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  18. Massage therapy for dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    Massage is gaining recognition as a beneficial modality for the treatment of many ailments due to recent scientific research in humans. We can infer that these benefits apply to dogs and cats due to their similar physiology and anatomy. Defined as the therapeutic manipulation of soft tissues, massage has many effects on muscle, the circulatory system, the autonomic nervous system, and the mind. Various techniques are employed to achieve a desired effect in the treatment of many conditions, including but not limited to, swelling and edema, critical illness and prolonged recumbency, osteoarthritis and chronic pain, and palliative and hospice care. This article reviews the above topics and encourages the practitioner to seek out expert advice on massage in the care of companion animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  20. Orthopedic problems in geriatric dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Brian S

    2005-05-01

    Senior dogs and cats with orthopedic injuries and diseases often require a treatment plan that differs from that of younger patients. Injured bone and soft tissues tend to heal more slowly in the geriatric patient. The older animal is likely to have a less competent immune system and may have compromised metabolic and endocrine function. Pre-existing musculoskeletal problems may make ambulation difficult for an animal convalescing from a new orthopedic problem. Special attention is often needed when treating these patients for fractures, joint instability, infection, and neoplasia. In general, issues that should be addressed in the geriatric patient include reducing intraoperative and anesthesia time, enhancing bone and soft tissue healing, return to early function, control of postoperative pain, physical therapy, and proper nutrition.

  1. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyles, A.E.; Stone, E.A.; Gookin, J.; Spaulding, K.; Clary, E.M.; Wylie, K.; Spodnick, G.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  2. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  3. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishko, Alexander N; Farrell, Bradley J; Beloozerova, Irina N; Latash, Mark L; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2014-09-15

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it ("bad variance," variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not ("good variance," variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Stabilization of cat paw trajectory during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishko, Alexander N.; Farrell, Bradley J.; Beloozerova, Irina N.; Latash, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated which of cat limb kinematic variables during swing of regular walking and accurate stepping along a horizontal ladder are stabilized by coordinated changes of limb segment angles. Three hypotheses were tested: 1) animals stabilize the entire swing trajectory of specific kinematic variables (performance variables); and 2) the level of trajectory stabilization is similar between regular and ladder walking and 3) is higher for forelimbs compared with hindlimbs. We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis to quantify the structure of variance of limb kinematics in the limb segment orientation space across steps. Two components of variance were quantified for each potential performance variable, one of which affected it (“bad variance,” variance orthogonal to the UCM, VORT) while the other one did not (“good variance,” variance within the UCM, VUCM). The analysis of five candidate performance variables revealed that cats during both locomotor behaviors stabilize 1) paw vertical position during the entire swing (VUCM > VORT, except in mid-hindpaw swing of ladder walking) and 2) horizontal paw position in initial and terminal swing (except for the entire forepaw swing of regular walking). We also found that the limb length was typically stabilized in midswing, whereas limb orientation was not (VUCM ≤ VORT) for both limbs and behaviors during entire swing. We conclude that stabilization of paw position in early and terminal swing enables accurate and stable locomotion, while stabilization of vertical paw position in midswing helps paw clearance. This study is the first to demonstrate the applicability of the UCM-based analysis to nonhuman movement. PMID:24899676

  5. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, B.; Wilson, J. M.

    2000-05-01

    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Hα , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye formed. A good fit to the observed Hα surface brightness distribution is obtained if the bubbles were ejected with constant mass, thickness, and ejection velocity. The model can be used to estimate the total mass of the rings, ~ 0.1M⊙ , which lies between that of the core ( ~ 0.05 M⊙ ) and the surrounding halo ( ~ 0.5 M⊙ ). Assuming an ejection speed of 10 km s-1 the interpulse period is 1500 +/- 300 y, the same as the expansion age of the core itself. Hubble images of other planetaries displayed on the poster, IC 418, NGC 7027, and Hubble 5 (a bipolar) show similar sets of multiple concentric rings. Hence, it appears, regular isotropic AGB mass pulses often precede the formation of brighter and more complex PN cores. However, the interpulse time scale, ~ 103 y, is a serious problem for extant models of core thermal pulses and surface pulsations. The cores of PNe seem to form in an abrupt change of mode of mass loss, as predicted by disrputive binary companion merger models. A preprint is available from ftp://ftp.astro.washington.edu/pub/users/balick/6543paper. Financial support from NASA/STScI grant GO 7501 is very gratefully acknowledged.

  6. High Prevalence of Covert Infection With Gastrointestinal Helminths in Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan; Adolph, Chris; Downie, Kathryn; Snider, Tim; Reichard, Mason

    2015-01-01

    Fecal flotation is routinely used to identify feline helminth infections in clinical practice, but it is known to have limitations of sensitivity, particularly for cestodes. To determine the prevalence of helminths in a contemporary population of cats and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation to detect these infections, helminths were recovered from intestinal tracts removed from 116 adult cats humanely euthanized by an animal control shelter in northeastern Oklahoma. Results were compared to those of fecal flotation performed using both passive and centrifugal techniques. Helminths were identified in 78/116 (67.2%) cats, including Toxocara cati (48/116; 41.4%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (8/116; 6.9%), Dipylidium caninum (40/116; 34.5%), and Taenia taeniaeformis (30/116; 25.9%). Cats with T. cati were significantly more likely to harbor T. taeniaeformis (P = .001) than cats without ascarids. Centrifugal fecal flotation with sugar solution identified 37/48 (77.1%) T. cati infections, 8/30 (26.7%) T. taeniaeformis infections, and no D. caninum infections. Proglottids were detected on external examination in 19.0% (12/63) of cats with cestodes. Cestodes were present in over half of the cats examined in this study, but the majority of these infections were not evident by the detection of external proglottids or recovery of characteristic stages on fecal flotation.

  7. Diagnostic utility of glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Ferguson, D C

    1999-01-01

    Changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) concentrations, K values (% disappearance of glucose/min after an intravenous injection of 1 g/kg dextrose), and blood glucose concentrations were examined in eight cats before and during the induction of diabetes, and in four of these cats after they were placed on insulin treatment. There was a statistically significant separation of GHb, K values, and fasting blood glucose concentrations between healthy and diabetic cats. Changes in GHb correlated best with the K value and single weekly fasting glucose concentrations averaged over eight periods for each cat while diabetes was induced (R = 0.80 and 0.78, respectively); however, fasting blood glucose concentrations obtained on the day of the GHb measurement were also highly correlated (R = 0.69; P glucose concentrations obtained in insulin-treated cats at the time of insulin peak action and averaged over an 8-wk time period for each cat was less but still significant (R = 0.53; P measurements are a simple and reliable way to monitor changes in glucose control in the diabetic cat over a prolonged period.

  8. Ileocolic junction resection in dogs and cats: 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.

  9. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous fenoldopam in healthy, awake cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, K E; Labato, M A; Court, M H

    2016-04-01

    Fenoldopam is a selective dopamine-1 receptor agonist that improves diuresis by increasing renal blood flow and perfusion and causing peripheral vasodilation. Fenoldopam has been shown to induce diuresis and be well-tolerated in healthy cats. It is used clinically in cats with oliguric kidney injury at doses extrapolated from human medicine and canine studies. The pharmacokinetics in healthy beagle dogs has been reported; however, pharmacokinetic data in cats are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine pharmacokinetic data for healthy, awake cats receiving an infusion of fenoldopam. Six healthy, awake, client-owned cats aged 2-6 years old received a 120-min constant rate infusion of fenoldopam at 0.8 μg/kg/min followed by a 20-min washout period. Ascorbate stabilized plasma samples were collected during and after the infusion for the measurement of fenoldopam concentration by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. This study showed that the geometric mean of the volume of distribution, clearance, and half-life (198 mL/kg, 46 mL/kg/min, and 3.0 mins) is similar to pharmacokinetic parameters for humans. No adverse events were noted. Fenoldopam at a constant rate infusion of 0.8 μg/kg per min was well tolerated in healthy cats. Based on the results, further evaluation of fenoldopam in cats with kidney disease is recommended. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, F.J.M.; Kass, P.H.; Terpak, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiographyin cats.Sample Population-115 cats referred for dental treatment without a previous full-mouth radiographic series available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of cats referred for dental treatment, full-mouth radiography was done prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, the clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from radiography and unexpected radiographic findings. Importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all cats. Odontoclastic resorption lesions, missed on clinical examination, were diagnosed in 8.7% of cats. Analysis of selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 4.8 and 41.7% of cats, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 53.6%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 13.9% of cats, but yielded additional or clinically essential information in 53.9 and 32.2%, respectively. Clinical Relevance-The diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new feline patients referred for dental treatment is high, and routine use of full-mouth radiography is justifiable

  11. Bartonella species antibodies and hyperglobulinemia in privately owned cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, J C; Hawley, J R; Radecki, S V; Steinberg, J D; Lappin, M R

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella species are zoonotic agents and primary pathogens in cats. Hyperglobulinemia has been associated with bartonellosis in humans and cats. To evaluate for associations between Bartonella species immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and serum biochemistry panel results in privately owned cats. 1,477 privately owned cats. Residual sera were collected after biochemical evaluation for this prospective, cross-sectional serosurvey. Bartonella species IgG ELISA was performed with a cutoff value of ≥ 1 : 64. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed with the endpoint titer as the outcome variable. The final statistical model included age, albumin, ALP activity, ALT activity, bilirubin, creatinine, glucose, and globulin as covariates. Serum protein electrophoresis was performed with serum from 50 cats with and without antibodies to Bartonella species and hyperglobulinemia. Sera from cats seropositive to Bartonella species and with hyperglobulinemia were assessed for evidence of exposure to other infectious agents associated with hyperglobulinemia. Risk of seropositivity to Bartonella species was positively associated with the natural log of globulin concentration (OR = 11.90, 95% CI 6.15-23.02, P glucose concentration (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87, P = .004). Another explanation for hyperglobulinemia was not identified for most cats with Bartonella species antibodies. Hyperglobulinemia was primarily caused by polyclonal gammopathy in cats that were seronegative and seropositive for Bartonella species. Hyperglobulinemia was significantly associated with seropositivity to Bartonella species. Testing for bartonellosis is warranted in cats with unexplained hyperglobulinemia and clinical or laboratory findings suggestive of bartonellosis. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OHD and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OHD, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OHD concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52 for cats with a serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OHD concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats.

  13. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  14. Alterations in amino acid status in cats with feline dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Symonds, Herb W; Knottenbelt, Clare; Cave, Tom A; MacDonald, Susan J; Stratton, Joanna; Leon, Irene; Turner, Judith A; Pirie, R Scott

    2017-01-01

    Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses. Amino acids were quantified in plasma/serum from 14 FD cats, 5 healthy in-contact cats which shared housing and diet with the FD cats, and 6 healthy control cats which were housed separately from FD cats and which received a different diet. The adequacy of amino acids in the cats' diet was assessed by determining the amino acid content of tinned and dry pelleted foods collected immediately after occurrences of FD. Compared with controls, FD cats had increased concentrations of many essential amino acids, with the exception of methionine which was significantly reduced, and reductions in most non-essential amino acids. In-contact cats also had inadequate methionine status. Artefactual loss of cysteine during analysis precluded assessment of the cyst(e)ine status. Food analysis indicated that the low methionine status was unlikely to be attributable to dietary inadequacy of methionine or cystine. Multi-mycotoxin screening identified low concentrations of several mycotoxins in dry food from all 3 premises. While this indicates fungal contamination of the food, none of these mycotoxins appears to induce the specific clinico-pathologic features which characterise FD and equivalent multiple system neuropathies in other species. Instead, we hypothesise that ingestion of another, as yet unidentified, dietary neurotoxic mycotoxin or xenobiotic, may cause both the characteristic disease pathology and the plasma SAA depletion.

  15. Effects of compensated heart failure on digoxin pharmacokinetics in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, C E; Snyder, P S; Keene, B W; Rush, J E

    1989-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of compensated heart failure (HF) on digoxin pharmacokinetic properties in cats, 6 cats with dilated cardiomyopathy were compared with 6 clinically normal (control) cats. Digoxin tablets were administered at a dosage of 0.01 mg/kg of body weight, q 48 h for approximately 10 days, until presumed steady state was reached. Both groups were treated concomitantly with aspirin, furosemide, and a commercial low-salt diet. Retrospectively, control and HF cats were calculated to be at 95% and 97% steady state, respectively. At the time blood samples were collected, HF cats were clinically compensated. Serum digoxin concentration [( DXN]) was determined by radioimmunoassay on samples drawn immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 34, and 48 hours after digoxin administration. Measured and calculated values (peak, 8-hour, and mean [DXN]; elimination half-life [t1/2]; oral clearance; and hours during which [DXN] was in the toxic range) were not significantly different between control and HF cats. To predict individual propensity for digoxin intoxication, serum creatinine and urea concentrations and sulfobromophthalein dye retention were measured in control and HF cats prior to the onset of treatment with digoxin. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum creatinine and urea concentrations when compared with sulfobromophthalein dye retention nor between any of these values and digoxin peak, 8-hour, and mean concentrations or t1/2, oral clearance, or hours during which [DXN] was in the toxic range. Mean serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly greater (P less than 0.01) and sulfobromophthalein dye retention approached significant prolongation (P less than 0.06) in HF cats, compared with that in control cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konde, L.J.; Thrall, M.A.; Gasper, P.; Dial, S.M.; McBiles, K.; Colgan, S.; Haskins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  17. [Associated brachial cleft anomalies in the cat eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avior, Galit; Derowe, Ari; Fliss, Dan M; Leicear-Trejo, Leonor; Braverman, Itzhak

    2007-02-01

    The cat eye syndrome is a congenital malformation usually associated with anal atresia, ocular coloboma, downward slanting eyes, microphthalmia, hypertelorism, strabismus, preauricular tags or fistulas, congenital heart defect particularly septal defect, urinary tract abnormalities, skeletal anomalies and frequently mental and physical retardation. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited and represents an inv dup 22 (q11). A two years old female presented to our department with an association of cat eye syndrome with preauricular tags and a first branchial arch anomaly. This article discusses the surgical management and the association between the cat eye syndrome and first branchial cleft anomaly.

  18. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnar, J.; Valastyan, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18 F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  19. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.

    2013-01-01

    with pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...... attain amplitudes too small for practical use. This is for example the case for photon-subtracted squeezed vacuum (PSSV), which can be used to approximate cat states of amplitude no larger than y = 1.5 if the fidelity is to be maintained above 95%. One way to reach larger amplitudes is to start...

  20. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and steroid hepatopathy in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaer, M; Ginn, P E

    1999-01-01

    The distinguishing clinical features of Cushing's syndrome in the cat include very friable skin, a high incidence of diabetes mellitus, and the general absence of steroid hepatopathy. This case report describes a nine-year-old, spayed female domestic shorthair with triamcinolone-induced Cushing's syndrome. Unique to this cat were markedly elevated liver enzymes which prompted an expanded clinical evaluation. An ultrasonographic-guided liver biopsy demonstrated diffuse hepatocellular vacuolation that stained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive and was removed subsequently with diastase application, indicating glycogen accumulation. These findings are compatible with the rarely seen syndrome of steroid hepatopathy in the cat.