Sample records for cations organic acids

  1. The effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six North American tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Geibe, C.; Holmstrom, S.; Lundstrom, U.S.; Breemen, van N.


    Organic acidity and its degree of neutralization in the forest floor can have large consequences for base cation leaching under different tree species. We investigated the effect of organic acids on base cation leaching from the forest floor under six common North American tree species. Forest floor

  2. Preparation and Properties of the Heteropolyoxometalates of Large Organic Cation with Molybdotungstosilicic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dunjia; FANG Zhengdong; WEI Xianhong


    Some new heteropolyoxometalates of large organic cations with molybdotungstosilicic acids (general formula: (CTMA)4SiMoxW12-xO40·mH20·nDMF, x=0,2,4,6,8,10,12) were prepared by the reaction of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB,C16H33N(CH3)3Br) with H4SiMoxW12-xO40(x=0,2,4,6,8,10,12)in aqueous solution and recrystallization in DMF, and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra,TG-DTA and XRD techniques. The IR spectrum confirms the presence of Keggin structure and organic cations in these compounds, and it is indicated that the stretching vibration of the M-Od, M-Ob-M and Si-Oa becomes more red-shifted when molybdenum is gradually substituted for the tungsten atom. In particular, the thermal decomposition of the heteropolyoxometalates was studied in nitrogen atmosphere. The TG-DTA curves show that their thermal behaviors not only contain the release of water molecule, DMF molecule, CTMA and its fragments but also contains simultaneous collapse of Keggin anion. Their end products of the thermal decomposition are the mixture of WO3, MoO3 and SiO2. And from the final decomposition temperature of view, it is found that the thermal stability of these compounds gradually is decreased when the number of molybdenum atoms is increased.

  3. Chemically modified polymeric resins for separation of cations, organic acids, and small polar moleculea by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.


    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: a review, ion chromatography of metal cations on carboxylic resins, separation of hydrophilic organic acids and small polar compounds on macroporous resin columns, and use of eluent modifiers for liquid chromatographic separation of carboxylic acids using conductivity detection.

  4. Cation transfer across a hydrogel/organic phase: Effect of cation size, hydrophobicity and acid-base properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez, Ana V. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, IMBIV, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Yudi, Lidia M. [Departamento de Fisico Quimica, INFIQC, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia [Departamento de Quimica Organica, IMBIV, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Strumia, Miriam C., E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Organica, IMBIV, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)


    The transfers of tetraethylammonium (TEA{sup +}) and protonated triflupromazine (HTFP{sup +}) through a hydrogel/liquid interface (g/o) and a liquid/liquid interface (w/o) were compared using cyclic voltammetry. After the two phases were put in contact, the behavior of each molecule was analyzed at different pH values and at different time points. The gel induces hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions with TEA{sup +} and HTFP{sup +}, shifting the peak potentials to more positive values. The diffusion coefficients, D, in both phases (g and w) at different pH values were calculated. In the case of TEA{sup +}, the D value remains constant in both systems. However, the D value of HTFP{sup +} is lower in the gel phase than in the liquid phase. HTFP{sup +} is transferred from the aqueous phase to the organic phase via a direct mechanism that involves coupled acid-base and partition processes. At the g/o interface, the coupled chemical reactions of HTFP{sup +} were inhibited by the drug/gel interaction. The results demonstrate that the g/o system could be used as a model to study the controlled release of charged drugs.

  5. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Higashi

    Full Text Available Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2 was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  6. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina


    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  7. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese. (United States)

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R


    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  8. Studies on the Phosphotungstic Acid Method to Determine the Organic Cations of Drilling Fluid Materials%磷钨酸法测定钻井液材料中有机阳离子的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周姝娜; 湛玉玲; 黄伟琴; 张月华


    磷钨酸法是测定两性离子表面活性剂阳离子度的经典方法,经实验验证该方法可用于测定钻井液材料中的阳离子或两性离子的含量.含有有机阳离子基团的钻井液材料由于其成分复杂,试样溶液颜色较深,不易准确测定其中的有机阳离子度.本文采用钠型阳离子交换树脂对产品进行提纯,在弱酸性条件下,以刚果红为指示剂,用磷钨酸标准溶液定量测定有机阳离子度,实验相对误差是0.59%.本文介绍了方法原理、操作程序及方法验证.结果表明,采用磷钨酸法测定钻井液中的有机阳离子含量不受阴离子的干扰,而且无机阳离子对测定结果也无影响.经岩心相对回收率实验,测定结果和使用性能相吻合,结果准确可靠.%Phosphotungstic acid method is a classical method to measure the Cationic degree of zwitterionic surfactant,and the method can be also used to determine the content of cations or zwitterions of the drilling fluid materials.It is not easy to determine the organic cationic degree of drilling fluid materials containing organic cationic groups accurately due to the complex composition and the deeper colour of sample solution.In this paper,products was purified first by cation exchange resin of sodium type,then the phosphotungstic acid standard solution was used to determine the organic cation degrees quantitatively with congo red as indicator in weak acidic conditions.The experimental relative error was 0.59%.In the paper,the method,principle,operating procedure and method validation was introduced.The results showed that the organic cation content of the drilling fluid could be determined with phosphotungstic acid method,which is free of anion and inorganic cations.The core relative recovery experiment also showed that the measurement results fitted in well with the usability,and the results were reliable.

  9. Relative abundance of chemical forms of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on soybean roots as influenced by pH, cations and organic acids (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Liu, Zhao-Dong; Liu, Yuan; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou


    Little information is available on chemical forms of heavy metals on integrate plant roots. KNO3 (1 M), 0.05M EDTA at pH6 and 0.01 M HCl were used sequentially to extract the exchangeable, complexed and precipitated forms of Cu(II) and Cd(II) from soybean roots and then to investigate chemical form distribution of Cu(II) and Cd(II) on soybean roots. Cu(II) and Cd(II) adsorbed on soybean roots were mainly exchangeable form, followed by complexed form, while their precipitated forms were very low under acidic conditions. Soybean roots had a higher adsorption affinity to Cu(II) than Cd(II), leading to higher toxic of Cu(II) than Cd(II). An increase in solution pH increased negative charge on soybean and thus increased exchangeable Cu(II) and Cd(II) on the roots. Ca2+, Mg2+ and NH4+ reduced exchangeable Cu(II) and Cd(II) levels on soybean roots and these cations showed greater effects on Cd(II) than Cu(II) due to greater adsorption affinity of the roots to Cu(II) than Cd(II). L-malic and citric acids decreased exchangeable and complexed Cu(II) on soybean roots. In conclusion, Cu(II) and Cd(II) mainly existed as exchangeable and complexed forms on soybean roots. Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations and citric and L-malic acids can potentially alleviate Cu(II) and Cd(II) toxicity to plants.

  10. Sorption of uranyl(VI) cations on suspended silicate: effects of N-donor ligands, carboxylic acids, organic cosolvents, and metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, P.N.; Choppin, G.R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry


    Sorption of uranyl ion, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, on silicate particles (3.00g/L) was studied in sodium perchlorate solution as a function of pcH and ionic strength at 298 K. The effects of different ligands (e.g., N-donors, carboxylic acids) on the uranyl sorption were investigated. At I = 0.20 M (NaClO{sub 4}), uranyl sorption on silicate increased from ca. 6% (pcH 3.0) to ca. 99% (at pcH 6.5), above which a small decrease was observed. A synergistic enhancement in uranyl sorption was observed in the presence of N-donor ligands such as 1,10-phenanthroline and ethylenediamine in the pcH range 3 to 4.5 as compared to that in the absence of ligands. Carboxylic acids inhibited the sorption in the order: citric acid > malonic acid > nitrilotriacetic acid > iminodiacetic acid > sulfosalicylic acid > succinic acid > glycolic acid. The presence of organic cosolvents such as dimethylsulfoxide, glycerol and tetrahydrofuran had no significant influence on the uranyl sorption profile. Uranyl sorption decreased marginally in the presence of 1.00 x 10{sup -3} M Eu(III). (orig.)

  11. The NH4--NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O Aerosol System and its Gas Phase Precursors at a Rural Site in the Amazon Basin: How Relevant are Mineral Cations and Soluble Organic Acids? (United States)

    Helas, G.; Trebs, I.; Metzger, S.; Meixner, F. X.; Hoffer, A.; Moura, M. A.; da Silva, R. S.; Rudich, Y.; Falkovich, A.; Artaxo, P.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M. O.


    We performed real-time measurements of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), and sulfate (SO42-) at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the closing of the dry season (biomass burning), the transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions) (12 Sep. to 14 Nov. 2002, LBA-SMOCC*), using a wet-annular denuder (WAD) in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Real-time data were combined with measurements of mineral cations (K+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+) and low-molecular weight (LMW) polar organic acids on 12-, 24- and 48-hours integrated filter samples. The contribution of inorganic species to the fine particulate mass (Dp 90 %) NH4NO3 and NH4Cl were predicted to be formed in the aqueous aerosol phase. Cl- was largely driven out of the aerosol phase by reaction of KCl with HNO3 and H2SO4. As shown by an updated version of EQSAM, which incorporates mineral aerosol species and lumped LMW polar organic acids, daytime aerosol NH4+ was mainly balanced by organic compounds. *Large Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall and Climate: Aerosols from Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate).

  12. STXM / NEXAFS investigation of humic acid metal cation interaction (United States)

    Plaschke, M.; Rothe, J.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.


    Waste matrix dissolution following water intrusion in a future underground nuclear waste repository is regarded as a possible failure scenario leading to the dispersal of radioactive substances in the environment. Dissolved actinides, carriers of the long term radiotoxicity, may interact with groundwater constituents or sediment and host rock phases. These processes can either enhance or retard actinide mobility in the aquifer surrounding the repository. Actinide species may be highly mobile occuring as ‘eigen-colloids' or actinides adsorbed on groundwater colloids. The latter include dissolved humic acids (HA), mineral particles like iron oxides/hydroxides or clays and mineral/organic associations. The chemical characterization of these carrier colloids and a molecular scale understanding of the actinide-colloid interaction is a prerequisite to reliable prediction of actinide mobility based on model calculations. Therefore, chemical speciation information along with micro-scale morphology information is mandatory. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) is a powerful technique to reveal the chemical functionality and morphology of organic matter on a sub-µm scale. Moreover, STXM benefits from the ability to characterize organic samples in a thin film of aqueous solution. Morphological and microchemical information can be obtained at the same time within the spectral ‘water window' (i.e., between the C 1s and O 1s absorption edges at 284 eV and 537 eV, respectively). This ensures that complex hydrated structures of HA are kept in their native state. STXM investigations of HA in contact with polyvalent metal cations are carried out at the NSLS and SLS endstations. STXM micrographs at the carbon K-edge of metal cation loaded HA show optically dense zones (densification of carbon) embedded in a matrix of less dense material. Carboxyl groups are proposed to act as the primary HA cation attachment sites. NEXAFS (Near Edge Absorption Fine Structure) spectra of

  13. Competition by meperidine for the organic cation renal excretory system. (United States)

    Acara, M; Gessner, T; Trudnowski, R J


    Renal tubular excretory transport of meperidine was studied using the Sperber preparation in chickens. When urine samples from infused and uninfused kidneys were analyzed for meperidine by gas chromatography, meperidine was always present in greater amounts in the urine from the infused kidney, demonstrating active tubular excretion. Meperidine at an infusion rate of 1 mumole/min, also inhibited the excretion of the organic cations choline and acetylcholine, indicating occupation of the renal organic cation excretory system in the chicken.

  14. Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation on CH Bond Acidity in Cationic Alkanes (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka


    We have demonstrated large enhancements of CH bond acidities in alcohol, ether, and amine cations through infrared predissociation spectroscopy based on the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization detection. In this study, we investigate for the cationic alkanes (pentane, hexane, and heptane) with different alkyl chain lengths. The σ electrons are ejected in the ionization of alkanes, while nonbonding electrons are ejected in ionization of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Nevertheless, the acidity enhancements of CH in these cationic alkanes have also been demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. The correlations of their CH bond acidities with the alkyl chain lengths as well as the mechanisms of their acidity enhancements will be discussed by comparison of infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.

  15. Calix[4]arene Polyaza Derivatives: Novel Effective Neutral Receptors for Cations and (a)-Amino Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction Calixarenes are one of the most important supramolecular building blocks, which can be modified by introducing different functional and/or structrual groups to create a specific interaction between the host and the target molecules, such as metal cations and small organic molecules[1,2]. In particular, the recognition of amino acids is an interesting theme in biomimetic chemistry[3].

  16. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu


    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  17. Adsorption Capability of Cationic Dyes (Methylene Blue and Crystal Violet) onto Poly-γ-glutamic Acid. (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Kawasaki, Naohito


    In this study, the adsorption capability of cationic dyes, which were methylene blue and crystal violet, by poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) in a single or binary solution system was investigated. The effect of the molecular weight of PGA, initial dye concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of dyes was evaluated. The adsorption mechanism of dyes onto PGA was the interaction between -COOH group on the PGA surface and the polarity groups of dyes. These results indicated that PGA is useful for removal of dyes and cationic organic compounds from a single or binary solution system.

  18. In vitro inhibition of rat small intestinal absorption by lipophilic organic cations. (United States)

    Elsenhans, B; Blume, R; Lembcke, B; Caspary, W F


    Cationic, lipid-soluble organic compounds may interfere with cation-mediated membrane transport processes. Thus, small intestinal absorption may be influenced by lipophilic organic cations. Therefore a series of arylalkylamines was studied in the concentration range from 0.5 to 20 mmol/l for their effect on the transport of various monosaccharides and leucine in the rat small intestine in vitro by means of the tissue accumulation technique. Whereas the monophenyl substituted monoamines (e.g. benzylamine, 2-phenylethylamine, 3-phenylpropylamine) did not show a significant effect on the active transport, the corresponding omega,omega-diphenyl derivatives exhibited a strong inhibition of the active transport of the sugars and the amino acid. These monoamines and drugs of similar structure (e.g. benzoctamine, diphenydramine) exhibited a mixed or non-competitive type of inhibition which correlated quite well with their octanol-water partition coefficients. In contrast, di- or triamines (e.g. harmaline, imipramine, pyrilamine) revealed a rather pure competitive type of inhibition. These findings tentatively suggest a different mode of action on the active transport by lipid-soluble organic amines according to the molecular charge distribution. In addition, membrane vesicles were used to examine the effect of the different amines on the sucrase activity. Regarding the cation-dependent hydrolysis of sucrose, however, no distinct pattern developed.

  19. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes. (United States)

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok


    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water.

  20. Diffusion of an organic cation into root cell walls. (United States)

    Meychik, N R; Yermakov, I P; Prokoptseva, O S


    , it is concluded that the mechanism of methylene blue uptake by plant roots involves ion exchange reactions between the organic cation and cell wall carboxyl groups, and the uptake rate is determined by the cation diffusion in the polymer matrix of the cell walls.

  1. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.


    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  2. Organic Ligand, Competing Cation, and pH Effects on Dissolution of Zinc in Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A series of experiments were conducted to examine the interactive effects of an organic ligand,a competing cation,and pH on the dissolution of zinc(Zn)from three California soils,Maymen sandy loam,Merced clay,and Yolo clay loam.The concentrations of soluble Zn of the three soils were low in a background solution of Ca(NO3)2.Citric acid,a common organic ligand found in the rhizosphere,was effective in mobilizing Zn in these soils; its presence enhanced the concentration of Zn in soil solution by citrate forming a complex with Zn.The ability of Zn to form a complex with citric acid in the soil solution was dependent on the concentration of citric acid,pH,and the concentration of the competing cation Ca2+.The pH of the soil solution determined the extent of desorption of Zn in solid phase in the presence of citric acid.The amounts of Zn released from the solid phase were proportional to the concentration of citric acid and inversely proportional to the concentration of Ca(NO3)2 background solution,which supplied the competing cation Ca2+ for the formation of a complex with citrate.When the soil suspension was spiked with Zn,the adsorption of Zn by the soils was retarded by citric acid via the formation of the soluble Zn-citrate complex.The dissolution of Zn in the presence of citric acid was pH dependent in both adsorption and desorption processes.

  3. Reduced hepatic uptake and intestinal excretion of organic cations in mice with a targeted disruption of the organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1 [Slc22a1]) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; Mol, CAAM; Buitelaar, M; Koepsell, H; Smit, JW; Schinkel, AH


    The polyspecific organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1 [SLC22A1]) mediates facilitated transport of small (hydrophilic) organic cations. OCT1 is localized at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the liver, kidney, and intestine and could therefore be involved in the elimination of endogenous

  4. Sorption of the organic cation metoprolol on silica gel from its aqueous solution considering the competition of inorganic cations. (United States)

    Kutzner, Susann; Schaffer, Mario; Börnick, Hilmar; Licha, Tobias; Worch, Eckhard


    Systematic batch experiments with the organic monovalent cation metoprolol as sorbate and the synthetic material silica gel as sorbent were conducted with the aim of characterizing the sorption of organic cations onto charged surfaces. Sorption isotherms for metoprolol (>99% protonated in the tested pH of around 6) in competition with mono- and divalent inorganic cations (Na(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were determined in order to assess their influence on cation exchange processes and to identify the role of further sorptive interactions. The obtained sorption isotherms could be described well by an exponential function (Freundlich isotherm model) with consistent exponents (about 0.8). In general, a decreasing sorption of metoprolol with increasing concentrations in inorganic cations was observed. Competing ions of the same valence showed similar effects. A significant sorption affinity of metoprolol with ion type dependent Freundlich coefficients KF,0.77 between 234.42 and 426.58 (L/kg)(0.77) could still be observed even at very high concentrations of competing inorganic cations. Additional column experiments confirm this behavior, which suggests the existence of further relevant interactions beside cation exchange. In subsequent batch experiments, the influence of mixtures with more than one competing ion and the effect of a reduced negative surface charge at a pH below the point of zero charge (pHPZC ≈ 2.5) were also investigated. Finally, the study demonstrates that cation exchange is the most relevant but not the sole mechanism for the sorption of metoprolol on silica gel.

  5. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.


    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  6. Analysis of Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Thermodynamic Behaviour of Some Organic Cations on Dowex 50WX4-50/H+ Cation Exchanger in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehteram A. Noor


    Full Text Available The equilibrium adsorption, ion exchange characteristics of various concentrations of some organic cations from aqueous solutions onto dowex 50WEX/H+ cation exchanger were studied at different temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. The studied cations showed good adsorptive properties onto dowex 50WX4-5/H+ at different concentrations and temperatures. Main adsorption behaviour was ion exchange between hydrogen ions and the organic cations as indicated from the linear relation between the initial concentration of the organic cations and the released hydrogen ions. It was found that the adsorption affinity of dowex 50WX4-50/H+ towards the studied organic cations depends on the substituent type of the organic cations giving the following increasing order: 1-H < 2-OH < 3-OCH3. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of the studied organic cations were evaluated and discussed. It was found that the adsorption 1-H organic cation was spontaneous, ordered, exothermic and favored with decreasing temperature. On the other hand the adsorption of both 2-OH and 3-OCH3 organic cations was found to be spontaneous and disordered with enthalpy change varies significantly with increasing organic cation concentration, suggesting dipole-dipole adsorption forces as new active sites for adsorption under conditions of relatively high concentrations. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models reasonably describe the adsorption of the studied organic cations onto dowex 50WX4-50/H+ by segmented straight lines depending on the studied range of concentration, indicating the existence of two different sets of adsorption sites with substantial difference in energy of adsorption. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm model, physical-ion exchange mechanism was suggested for the adsorption of 1-H organic cation and both physical and chemical-ion exchange mechanisms were suggested for the adsorption of 2-OH and 3-OCH3 organic cations

  7. Radical-cationic gaseous amino acids: a theoretical study. (United States)

    Sutherland, Kailee N; Mineau, Philippe C; Orlova, Galina


    Three major forms of gaseous radical-cationic amino acids (RCAAs), keto (COOH), enolic (C(OH)OH), and zwitterionic (COO(-)), as well as their tautomers, are examined for aliphatic Ala(.+), Pro(.+), and Ser(.+), sulfur-containing Cys(.+), aromatic Trp(.+), Tyr(.+), and Phe(.+), and basic His(.+). The hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional with various basis sets along with the highly correlated CCSD(T) method is used. For all RCAAs considered, the main stabilizing factor is spin delocalization; for His(.+), protonation of the basic side chain is equally important. Minor stabilizing factors are hydrogen bonding and 3e-2c interactions. An efficient spin delocalization along the N-C(alpha)-C(O-)O moiety occurs upon H-transfer from C(alpha) to the carboxylic group to yield the captodative enolic form, which is the lowest-energy isomer for Ala(.+), Pro(.+), Ser(.+), Cys(.+), Tyr(.+), and Phe(.+). This H-transfer occurs in a single step as a 1,3-shift through the sigma-system. For His(.+), the lowest-energy isomer is formed upon H-transfer from C(alpha) to the basic side chain, which results in a keto form, with spin delocalized along the N-C(alpha)-C=O fragment. Trp(.+) is the only RCAA that favors spin delocalization over an aromatic system given the low ionization energy of indole. The lowest-energy isomer of Trp(.+) is a keto form, with no H-transfer.

  8. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Lovrincic, Robert; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhuoying; Walsh, Aron; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to these materials. The extent and the time scales of the orientational mobility of the organic cation and the molecular mechanism behind its motion remain

  9. Influence of the substitution of {beta}-cyclodextrins by cationic groups on the complexation of organic anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hbaieb, S. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)], E-mail:; Kalfat, R. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Chevalier, Y. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UMR 5007 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail:; Amdouni, N. [U.R. Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Faculte des Sciences de Tunis, Manar II, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Parrot-Lopez, H. [Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moleculaires et Supramoleculaires (ICBMS), UMR 5246 CNRS-Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail:


    The inclusion complexation of the organic anion, dansyl-acid, by cationic derivatives of {beta}-cyclodextrin has been investigated. A series of cationic {beta}-cyclodextrins with various positive charge has been synthesized by selective functionalization of the primary face of {beta}-cyclodextrin with amino groups. The complexes were of the 1:1 stoichiometry; the stability constants (K{sub 11}) have been evaluated from UV-Vis measurements by application of the Benesi-Hildebrand equation. The presence of amino groups increased the complexation ability. {beta}-cyclodextrin fully substituted at the primary face with amino groups showed the strongest inclusion binding ability towards the dansyl-acid guest. The enhanced complexation for anions was ascribed to the cationic amino groups. A simple thermodynamic model of the electrostatic contribution to the complexation is presented.

  10. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.


    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  11. Transport of biguanides by human organic cation transporter OCT2. (United States)

    Sogame, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Atsushi; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko; Takano, Mikihisa


    Biguanides have the severe side effect of lactic acidosis. Although both metformin and phenformin are biguanide derivatives, there is a difference in the frequency at which they induce lactic acidosis. However, the reasons for the difference are not clear. Metformin has been reported to be mainly excreted into urine by human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2). The present study was designed to investigate the renal transport of metformin and phenformin, focusing on hOCT2, using hOCT2-expressing oocytes. Both biguanides were found to be good substrates for hOCT2. However, phenformin exhibited a higher affinity and transport activity than metformin. The Km values for metformin and phenformin were 235 and 37.4 μM, with CL(int) (V(max)/K(m)) values of 71.9×10⁻³ μL/min per oocyte and 209×10⁻³ μL/min per oocyte, respectively. This is the first report that has compared the transport profiles of these biguanides in hOCT2-expressing oocytes. The results suggest that plasma concentration of phenformin in subjects carrying hOCT2 variant may be higher compared to reference subjects, as reported in metformin. In addition, the relationship between plasma concentration of these biguanides and blood lactate level as well as the possible reasons for the difference in the associated frequency of occurrence of lactic acidosis are discussed.

  12. The NH4+-NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O aerosol system and its gas phase precursors at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin: How relevant are mineral cations and soluble organic acids? (United States)

    Trebs, Ivonne; Metzger, Swen; Meixner, Franz X.; Helas, Günter; Hoffer, AndráS.; Rudich, Yinon; Falkovich, Alla H.; Moura, Marcos A. L.; da Silva, Rosiberto S.; Artaxo, Paulo; Slanina, Jacob; Andreae, Meinrat O.


    Real-time measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate were performed at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the late dry season (biomass burning), the transition period, and the onset of the wet season (clean conditions) using a wet-annular denuder (WAD) in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Measurements were conducted from 12 September to 14 November 2002 within the framework of LBA-SMOCC (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia - Smoke Aerosols, Clouds, Rainfall, and Climate: Aerosols From Biomass Burning Perturb Global and Regional Climate). Real-time data were combined with measurements of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and low-molecular weight (LMW) polar organic acids determined on 12-, 24-, and 48-hours integrated filter samples. The contribution of inorganic species to the fine particulate mass (Dp ≤ 2.5 μm) was frequently below 20% by mass, indicating the preponderance of organic matter. The measured concentration products of NH3 × HNO3 and NH3 × HCl persistently remained below the theoretical equilibrium dissociation constants of the NH3/HNO3/NH4NO3 and NH3/HCl/NH4Cl systems during daytime (RH 90%) fine-mode NH4NO3 and NH4Cl are predicted to be formed in the aqueous aerosol phase. Probably, Cl- was driven out of the aerosol phase largely by reaction of pyrogenic KCl with HNO3 and H2SO4. As shown by an updated version of the equilibrium simplified aerosol model (EQSAM2), which incorporates mineral aerosol species and lumped LMW polar organic acids, daytime aerosol NH4+ was mainly balanced by organic compounds.

  13. The role of multivalent metal cations and organic complexing agents in bitumen-mineral interactions in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Gan, Weibing

    A systematic investigation was carried out to study the interactions between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals (quartz, kaolinite and illite) in aqueous solutions containing multivalent metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+/Fe3+, in the absence and presence of organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, EDTA and citric acid). A range of experimental techniques, including coagulation measurement, visualization of bitumen-mineral attachment, metal ion adsorption measurement, zeta potential measurement, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses, were employed in the investigation. Free energy changes of adsorption of metal cations on the minerals and bitumen were evaluated using the James & Healy thermodynamic model. Total interaction energies between the minerals and bitumen were calculated using classical DLVO theory. It was observed that while the tested minerals showed varying degrees of mutual-coagulation with bitumen (or hexadecane), the presence of the multivalent metal cations could prominently increase the mutual coagulation. It was also found that such enhancement of the mutual coagulation was only significant when the metal cations formed first-order hydroxyl complexes (such as CaOH +, MgOH+, etc.) or metal hydroxides (such as Fe(OH) 3, Mg(OH)2, etc.). Therefore, the increase of the bitumen-mineral mutual coagulation by the metal cations was strongly pH dependent. Organic complexing agents (oxalic acid, citric acid and EDTA) used in this study, citric acid in particular, significantly reduced or virtually eliminated the mutual coagulation between bitumen (or hexadecane) and minerals caused by metal cations Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe 2+ and Fe3+. Due to its ability to substantially lower the mutual coagulation between bitumen and mineral particles, citric acid was found the most effective in improving bitumen-mineral liberation in solutions containing the multivalent metal cations at pH 8--10. In small scale flotation experiments


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A number of cationic amine drugs that are taken up by liver and excreted into bile may accumulate in acidified intracellular organelles such as lysosomes and endosomes. These studies were undertaken to assess directly the uptake and accumulation of three types of model organic cationic amines by end

  15. Adsorptive behaviour of mercury on algal biomass: Competition with divalent cations and organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, Leticia; Barriada, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Ingenieria Quimica I, Universidad de A Coruna, c/Rua da Fraga 10, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, Roberto, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Ingenieria Quimica I, Universidad de A Coruna, c/Rua da Fraga 10, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Ingenieria Quimica I, Universidad de A Coruna, c/Rua da Fraga 10, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)


    Highlights: {yields} Native and protonated macroalga S. muticum are good materials for mercury removal. {yields} Fast kinetic process and high mercury uptakes have been found for those materials. {yields} Diffusion control is the rate limiting step of the process. {yields} Competition effects by organic compounds, inorganic salts and divalent cations were analyzed. {yields} Continuous flow experiments allowed identification of mercury reduction during metal removal. - Abstract: Biosorption processes constitute an effective technique for mercury elimination. Sorption properties of native and acid-treated Sargassum muticum have been studied. Effect of pH, initial mercury concentration and contact time studies provided fundamental information about the sorption process. This information was used as the reference values to analyse mercury sorption under competition conditions. Saline effect has shown little influence in sorption, when only electrostatic modifications took place upon salt addition. On the contrary, if mercury speciation dramatically changed owing to the addition of an electrolyte, such as in the case of chloride salt, very large modifications in mercury sorption were observed. Competition with other divalent cations or organic compounds has shown little or none effect on mercury, indicating that a different mechanism is taking place during the removal of these pollutants. Finally, continuous flow experiments have clearly shown that a reduction process is also taking place during mercury removal. This fact is not obvious to elucidate under batch sorption experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of the surface of the materials show deposits of mercury(I) and metallic mercury which is indicative of the reduction process proposed.

  16. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment. (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard


    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface.

  17. Pulse radiolysis and spectrophotometric studies on the binding of organic cations with heparin (United States)

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Adamus, Jan; Gębicki, Jerzy; Marcinek, Andrzej; Sikora, Adam


    Here we present the spectroscopic and pulse radiolysis studies of the interactions of heparin and some organic cations:methylene blue (MB), 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA+), and its dimer 1,3-bis(1-methylnicotinamide)propane (bis(MNA+)).


    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC). Batch and column experiments were performed to investigate this phenomenon with the cationic surfactant dodecylpyridinium (DP), a se...

  19. Study of the interaction metallic cation - ligand in concentrated phosphorus acid media; Etude de l'interaction cation metallique - ligand en milieu acide phosphorique concentre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sefiani, N.; Azzi, M.; Hlaibi, M. [Faculte des Sciences Ain Chock, Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et Chimie de l' Environnement (LECE), Casablanca (Morocco); Kossair, A. [Centre de Recherche des Phosphates Mineraux (CERPHOS), Casablanca (Morocco)


    The phosphoric acid is more and more used with a high purity. The recovery of recycling element (uranium, vanadium, rare earth...) and the elimination of toxic element (cadmium, molybdenum, lead...) contained in the phosphoric acid are generally realized by extraction or precipitation. It is then very important to understand these impurities behavior in the phosphoric media in order to control their elimination. In this work, the authors considered the presence of some metallic cations (V, Al, fe, U) and fluorides ions as impurity in concentrated phosphoric acid media. (A.L.B.)

  20. Cation exchange at the secondary building units of metal–organic frameworks


    Brozek, Carl Kavanaugh; Dinca, Mircea


    Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units (SBUs) of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). This technique has been used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and molecules, but the extent of its applications for MOFs is still expanding. To harness cation exchange as a rational tool, we need to elucidate its governing factors. Not nearly enough experimental observations exist for drawing these conclusions, so we provide a conceptual fra...

  1. Does Cation Size Affect Occupancy and Electrostatic Screening of the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere? (United States)

    Gebala, Magdalena; Bonilla, Steve; Bisaria, Namita; Herschlag, Daniel


    Electrostatics are central to all aspects of nucleic acid behavior, including their folding, condensation, and binding to other molecules, and the energetics of these processes are profoundly influenced by the ion atmosphere that surrounds nucleic acids. Given the highly complex and dynamic nature of the ion atmosphere, understanding its properties and effects will require synergy between computational modeling and experiment. Prior computational models and experiments suggest that cation occupancy in the ion atmosphere depends on the size of the cation. However, the computational models have not been independently tested, and the experimentally observed effects were small. Here, we evaluate a computational model of ion size effects by experimentally testing a blind prediction made from that model, and we present additional experimental results that extend our understanding of the ion atmosphere. Giambasu et al. developed and implemented a three-dimensional reference interaction site (3D-RISM) model for monovalent cations surrounding DNA and RNA helices, and this model predicts that Na(+) would outcompete Cs(+) by 1.8-2.1-fold; i.e., with Cs(+) in 2-fold excess of Na(+) the ion atmosphere would contain an equal number of each cation (Nucleic Acids Res. 2015, 43, 8405). However, our ion counting experiments indicate that there is no significant preference for Na(+) over Cs(+). There is an ∼25% preferential occupancy of Li(+) over larger cations in the ion atmosphere but, counter to general expectations from existing models, no size dependence for the other alkali metal ions. Further, we followed the folding of the P4-P6 RNA and showed that differences in folding with different alkali metal ions observed at high concentration arise from cation-anion interactions and not cation size effects. Overall, our results provide a critical test of a computational prediction, fundamental information about ion atmosphere properties, and parameters that will aid in the

  2. Development and evaluation of a new sorption model for organic cations in soil: contributions from organic matter and clay minerals. (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    This study evaluates a newly proposed cation-exchange model that defines the sorption of organic cations to soil as a summed contribution of sorption to organic matter (OM) and sorption to phyllosilicate clay minerals. Sorption to OM is normalized to the fraction organic carbon (fOC), and sorption to clay is normalized to the estimated cation-exchange capacity attributed to clay minerals (CECCLAY). Sorption affinity is specified to a fixed medium composition, with correction factors for other electrolyte concentrations. The model applies measured sorption coefficients to one reference OM material and one clay mineral. If measured values are absent, then empirical relationships are available on the basis of molecular volume and amine type in combination with corrective increments for specific polar moieties. The model is tested using new sorption data generated at pH 6 for two Eurosoils, one enriched in clay and the other, OM, using 29 strong bases (pKa > 8). Using experimental data on reference materials for all tested compounds, model predictions for the two soils differed on average by only -0.1 ± 0.4 log units from measured sorption affinities. Within the chemical applicability domain, the model can also be applied successfully to various reported soil sorption data for organic cations. Particularly for clayish soils, the model shows that sorption of organic cations to clay minerals accounts for more than 90% of the overall affinity.

  3. Effect of Sulfuric and Triflic Acids on the Hydration of Vanadium Cations: An ab Initio Study. (United States)

    Sepehr, Fatemeh; Paddison, Stephen J


    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) may be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage applications, but the crossover of any of the redox active species V(2+), V(3+), VO(2+), and VO2(+) through the ion exchange membrane will result in self-discharge of the battery. Hence, a molecular level understanding of the states of vanadium cations in the highly acidic environment of a VRFB is needed. We examine the effects of sulfuric and triflic (CF3SO3H) acids on the hydration of vanadium species as they mimic the electrolyte and functional group of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes. Hybrid density functional theory in conjunction with a continuum solvation model was utilized to obtain the local structures of the hydrated vanadium cations in proximity to H2SO4, CF3SO3H, and their conjugate anions. The results indicate that none of these species covalently bond to the vanadium cations. The hydration structure of V(3+) is more distorted than that of V(2+) in an acidic medium. The oxo-group of VO2(+) is protonated by either acid, in contrast to VO(2+) which is not protonated. The atomic partial charge of the four oxidation states of vanadium varies from +1.7 to +2.0. These results provide the local solvation structures of vanadium cations in the VRFBs environment that are directly related to the electrolytes stability and diffusion of vanadium ions into the membrane.

  4. The NH4+-NO3--Cl--SO42--H2O aerosol system and its gas phase precursors at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin: How relevant are mineral cations and soluble organic acids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trebs, I.; Metzger, S.; Meixner, F.X.; Helas, G.N.; Hoffer, A.; Rudich, Y.; Falkovich, A.H.; Moura, M.A.L.; Silva, da R.S.; Artaxo, P.; Slanina, J.; Andreae, M.O.


    Real-time measurements of ammonia, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, sulfur dioxide and the water-soluble inorganic aerosol species, ammonium, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate were performed at a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil). The measurements were made during the late dry season (

  5. Detection of target DNA using fluorescent cationic polymer and peptide nucleic acid probes on solid support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leclerc Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleic acids detection using microarrays requires labelling of target nucleic acids with fluorophores or other reporter molecules prior to hybridization. Results Using surface-bound peptide nucleic acids (PNA probes and soluble fluorescent cationic polythiophenes, we show a simple and sensitive electrostatic approach to detect and identify unlabelled target nucleic acid on microarray. Conclusion This simple methodology opens exciting possibilities for applied genetic analysis for the diagnosis of infections, identification of genetic mutations, and forensic inquiries. This electrostatic strategy could also be used with other nucleic acid detection methods such as electrochemistry, silver staining, metallization, quantum dots, or electrochemical dyes.

  6. Aromatic Amino Acids-Guanidinium Complexes through Cation-π Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Trujillo


    Full Text Available Continuing with our interest in the guanidinium group and the different interactions than can establish, we have carried out a theoretical study of the complexes formed by this cation and the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, histidine, tryptophan and tyrosine using DFT methods and PCM-water solvation. Both hydrogen bonds and cation-π interactions have been found upon complexation. These interactions have been characterized by means of the analysis of the molecular electron density using the Atoms-in-Molecules approach as well as the orbital interactions using the Natural Bond Orbital methodology. Finally, the effect that the cation-π and hydrogen bond interactions exert on the aromaticity of the corresponding amino acids has been evaluated by calculating the theoretical NICS values, finding that the aromatic character was not heavily modified upon complexation.

  7. Size of the Organic Cation Tunes the Band Gap of Colloidal Organolead Bromide Perovskite Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Mittal, Mona; Jana, Atanu; Sarkar, Sagar; Mahadevan, Priya; Sapra, Sameer


    A few approaches have been employed to tune the band gap of colloidal organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites (OTPs) nanocrystals by changing the halide anion. However, to date, there is no report of electronic structure tuning of perovskite NCs upon changing the organic cation. We report here, for the first time, the room temperature colloidal synthesis of (EA)x(MA)1-xPbBr3 nanocrystals (NCs) (where, x varies between 0 and 1) to tune the band gap of hybrid organic-inorganic lead perovskite NCs from 2.38 to 2.94 eV by varying the ratio of ethylammonium (EA) and methylammonium (MA) cations. The tuning of band gap is confirmed by electronic structure calculations within density functional theory, which explains the increase in the band gap upon going toward larger "A" site cations in APbBr3 NCs. The photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of these NCs lies between 5% to 85% and the average lifetime falls in the range 1.4 to 215 ns. A mixture of MA cations and its higher analog EA cations provide a versatile tool to tune the structural as well as optoelectronic properties of perovskite NCs.

  8. Multicenter bond index analysis of influence of metal cations on the aromaticity of aromatic amino acids: Phenylalanine and tyrosine (United States)

    Pakiari, A. H.; Farrokhnia, M.; Azami, S. M.


    In order to provide insight into the influence of metal cations on the aromaticity of amino acids, evaluation of six-center delocalization indices is accomplished in the context of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Aromaticity of two amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine, is investigated as typical amino acids containing aromatic ring in their isolated state and complexed by some metal cations. The results showed that the metal cations affect the most important three connectivities differently. Also, it is shown that the existence of metal cations can increase two-center delocalization in certain parts of the aromatic rings.

  9. Cationic and radical intermediates in the acid photorelease from aryl sulfonates and phosphates. (United States)

    Terpolilli, Marco; Merli, Daniele; Protti, Stefano; Dichiarante, Valentina; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Albini, Angelo


    The irradiation of a series of phenyl sulfonates and phosphates leads to the quantitative release of acidity with a reasonable quantum yield (≈0.2). Products characterization, ion chromatography analysis and potentiometric titration are consistent with the intervening of two different paths in this reaction, viz. cationic with phosphates and (mainly) radical with sulfonates.

  10. Cell number and transfection volume dependent peptide nucleic acid antisense activity by cationic delivery methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llovera Nadal, Laia; Berthold, Peter; Nielsen, Peter E


    peptides as complexing agents and carriers of the nucleic acids. However, uptake mechanisms remain rather poorly understood, and protocols always require optimization of transfection parameters. Considering that cationic transfection complexes bind to and thus may up-concentrate on the cell surface, we...

  11. A method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins (United States)

    Heller, H.; Werner, F.; Mitschker, A.; Diehl, H. V.; Schaefer, A.


    The invention relates to a nonpolluting method for the production of weakly acidic cation exchange resins by saponification of cross-linked acrylonitrile bead polymers, with an alkaline saponification agent at elevated temperature, according to which method the bead polymer and alkaline saponification agent are jointly added only at elevated temperature.

  12. Characterization of cationic acid phosphatase isozyme from rat liver mitochondria. (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Murakami, K; Hosoda, T; Yamamoto, Y; Watanabe, K; Morinaka, Y; Ohara, A


    Acid phosphatase isozyme was highly purified from rat liver mitochondrial fraction. The enzyme showed an isoelectric point value of above 9.5 on isoelectric focusing, and the apparent molecular weight was estimated to be 32000 by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration or 16000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme catalyzed the hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, thiamine pyrophosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate, and phosphoprotein such as casein and phosvitin, but not of several phosphomonoesters, except for p-nitrophenyl phosphate and o-phosphotyrosine. The enzyme was not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate, and was significantly activated by Fe2+ and reducing agents such as ascorbic acid, L-cysteine,and dithiothreitol. The enzyme was found to be distributed in various rat tissues including liver, spleen, kidney, small intestine, lung, stomach, brain and heart, but not in skeletal muscle.

  13. Sorption of Acid Dyes onto Silica Modified with Cetrltrimethylammonium Cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TahirImranQureshi; Dong-IkSong; 等


    The sorption behavior of acid dyes onto cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-modified silica as a function of pH in the aqueous medium was studied. Single-and multi-solute sorption equilibria of orange Ⅱ(OR), phenol red (PR) and Eriochrome Black T (EBT) were studied at pH 3, unbuffered water pH and pH 11. Sorption behavior of EBT could not be conducted at pH3 due to its aggregation in acidic medium. All the reaction conditions, experimental protocols and techniques remained the same throughout the sorption process. Sorption isotherms for single-solute system were fitted by the Langmuir model, while Langmuir competitive model (LCM) and the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) coupled with Langmuir model (IAST/Langmuir) were used for the prediction of multisolute competitive sorption. Sorption affinities influenced by the factors like physical interactive forces between the molecules of CTA on silica and sorbate, structural limitations of the dyes based on their geometrical arrangement were investigated. Sorption affinity of OR was found to be higher than that of EBT and PR at all the pH values investigated. Magnitude of the sorption capacities was observed to be higher in acidic medium but lower in alkaline medium. Trends of the sorption affinities in multisolute system were simlar to those in single-solute system but magnitude of the sorption capacities was significantly reduced due to the prevailing competition among the sorbates.

  14. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.


    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  15. Spectral and Acid-Base Properties of Hydroxyflavones in Micellar Solutions of Cationic Surfactants (United States)

    Lipkovska, N. A.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Fedyanina, T. V.; Rugal', A. A.


    It has been shown that the spectral characteristics (intensity, position of the absorption band) and the acid-base properties in a series of structurally similar hydroxyflavones depend on the concentration of the cationic surfactants miramistin and decamethoxin in aqueous solutions, and the extent of their changes is more pronounced for hydrophobic quercetin than for hydrophilic rutin. For the first time, we have determined the apparent dissociation constants of quercetin and rutin in solutions of these cationic surfactants (pKa1) over a broad concentration range and we have established that they decrease in the series water-decamethoxin-miramistin.

  16. Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in hepatic and intestinal distribution of metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, DS; Jonker, JW; Kato, Y; Kusuhara, H; Schinkel, AH; Sugiyama, Y


    Metformin, a biguanide, is widely used as an oral hypoglycemic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1) in the disposition of metformin. Transfection of rat Oct1 cDNA results in the time-d

  17. Involvement of organic cation transporter 1 in the lactic acidosis caused bv metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, DS; Kusuhara, H; Kato, Y; Jonker, JW; Schinkel, AH; Sugiyama, Y


    Biguanides are a class of drugs widely used as oral antihyperglycemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but they are associated with lactic acidosis, a lethal side effect. We reported previously that biguanides are good substrates of rat organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1; Slc22a

  18. Oxatub[4]arene: a molecular "transformer" capable of hosting a wide range of organic cations. (United States)

    Jia, Fei; Wang, Hao-Yi; Li, Dong-Hao; Yang, Liu-Pan; Jiang, Wei


    The molecular "transformer", oxatub[4]arene, was found to be able to host a wide range of organic cations. The strong binding ability is believed to originate from its four interconvertible and deep-cavity conformers. The binding behavior of such adaptable receptors may provide implications for molecular recognition in nature.

  19. Thermodynamics of the adsorption of organic cations on kaolinite. Temperature dependence and calorimetry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehrian Isfahany, T.


    The present work is aimed at understanding the interactions involved in the adsorption of cationic surfactants on heterogeneous surfaces. The relevance of the study derives from the environmental aspects of the adsorption of small organic molecules onto soil constituents. This thesis emphasizes the

  20. Chemical behavior of organic compounds in the interface ofwater/dual-cation organobentonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The sorption behavior of polar or ionizable organiccompounds, such as p-nitrophenol, phenol and aniline, in thewater/organobentonite systems is investigated. Both adsorption andpartition occur to the sorption of organic compounds to dual-cationorganobentonites. The separate contributions of adsorption andpartition to the total sorption of organic compounds to dual-cationorganobentonites are analyzed mathematically in the first time. The factors to the contributions are also discussed. The results indicated that the contribution of adsorption and partition is related to the composition and ratio of dual-cation surfactants exchanging onto the bentonite. The sorption of organic compounds to dual-cation organobentonite is dominated by adsorption at low concentrations and by partition at high concentrations, making the organobentonites powerful sorbents for organic contaminants over wide range of concentrations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar


    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  2. Hybrid Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Perovskite Nanocrystals with Organic-Inorganic Mixed Cations. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, He; Wang, Weigao; Zhang, Jinbao; Xu, Bing; Karen, Ke Lin; Zheng, Yuanjin; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Kai; Sun, Xiao Wei


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials with mixed cations have demonstrated tremendous advances in photovoltaics recently, by showing a significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency and improved perovskite stability. Inspired by this development, this study presents the facile synthesis of mixed-cation perovskite nanocrystals based on FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 (FA = CH(NH2 )2 ). By detailed characterization of their morphological, optical, and physicochemical properties, it is found that the emission property of the perovskite, FA(1-x) Csx PbBr3 , is significantly dependent on the substitution content of the Cs cations in the perovskite composition. These mixed-cation perovskites are employed as light emitters in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). With an optimized composition of FA0.8 Cs0.2 PbBr3 , the LEDs exhibit encouraging performance with a highest reported luminance of 55 005 cd m(-2) and a current efficiency of 10.09 cd A(-1) . This work provides important instructions on the future compositional optimization of mixed-cation perovskite for obtaining high-performance LEDs. The authors believe this work is a new milestone in the development of bright and efficient perovskite LEDs.

  3. Amino acid preference against beta sheet through allowing backbone hydration enabled by the presence of cation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharley, John N


    It is known that steric blocking by peptide sidechains of hydrogen bonding, HB, between water and peptide groups, PGs, in beta sheets accords with an amino acid intrinsic beta sheet preference. The present observations with Quantum Molecular Dynamics, QMD, simulation with quantum mechanical treatment of every water molecule solvating a beta sheet that would be transient in nature suggest that this steric blocking is not applicable in a hydrophobic region unless a cation is present, so that the amino acid beta sheet preference due to this steric blocking is only effective in the presence of a cation. We observed backbone hydration in a polyalanine and to a lesser extent polyvaline alpha helix without a cation being present, but a cation could increase the strength of these HBs. Parallel beta sheets have a greater tendency than antiparallel beta sheets of equivalent small size to retain regular structure in solvated QMD, and a 4 strand 4 inter-PG HB chain parallel beta sheet was used. Stability was reinforced b...

  4. Cation hydration in hydrogelic polyacrylamide-phosphoric acid network: A study by Raman spectroscopy


    Costa, A. M. Amorim da; Amado, A. M.


    The effects upon the structure and morphology of adding lithium, calcium and magnesium chlorides to a phosphoric acid/polyacrylamide 2:1 molar ratio proton conducting hydrogel are examined by observing the changes in the vibrational features of the polyacrylamide chain, in the phosphate group and in the interstitial water molecules as a function of the concentration and the cationic nature of the additive, at 295 K. On adding H3PO4 to the polyacrylamide hydrogel matrix, the amide groups becom...

  5. Synthesis and Performance Properties of Cationic Fabric Softeners Derived from Free Fatty Acid of Tallow Fat. (United States)

    Mondal, Mithun G; Pratap, Amit Prabhakar


    Esterquat cationic softener is basically the class of surface active quaternary ammonium compounds. Esterquat compounds were synthesized and their surface behavior, antibacterial activity and Textile softening properties were investigated. Easily found cheap material was used to synthesize cationic fabric softeners. This fabric softener will be a good for commercially and industrially important because their emulsify activity, rewettability dispersing power and softness. Free fatty acids were derived from tallow oil and were treated with triethanolamine and mono-ethanolamine at 140°C. This diester was quaternaries with dimethyl sulphate and benzyl chloride. The synthesized esterquat compounds were characterized by its cationic content, 1H NMR and FT-IR analysis. In addition to the cationic content, surface tension, CMC (critical micelle concentration), rewettability, fabric softening, emulsification and dispersing power were determined as their surface-active properties. The fabric softening activity of esterquat and esteramide prepared from DMS was better softening activity of fabrics compared to untreated cotton and polyester fabrics cloth. The presented result shows that the esterquat made from BCl exhibit the best dispersing power. The esterquat made from DMS both in TEA and MEA shows good rewettability was determined.

  6. Improved cellular activity of antisense peptide nucleic acids by conjugation to a cationic peptide-lipid (CatLip) domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Shiraishi, Takehiko; Zachar, Vladimir;


    Conjugation to cationic cell penetrating peptides (such as Tat, Penetratin, or oligo arginines) efficiently improves the cellular uptake of large hydrophilic molecules such as oligonucleotides and peptide nucleic acids, but the cellular uptake is predominantly via an unproductive endosomal pathwa...


    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) and retard their migration. For example, cationic surfactants could be injected into an aquifer downgradient from a source of HOC conta...

  8. Proton-Coupled Organic Cation Antiporter Contributes to the Hepatic Uptake of Matrine. (United States)

    Wu, Chunyong; Sun, Xiaomin; Feng, Chao; Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Hufang; Feng, Fang; Zhang, Junying


    Matrine is the major bioactive alkaloid found in certain Sophora plants and has been used for the treatment of liver diseases and protection of liver function. The aim of this study was to investigate the human liver uptake mechanism of matrine by using HepG2 cells as the in vitro model. Matrine was transported into HepG2 cells in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The cellular uptake was saturable and was significantly reduced by the metabolic inhibitors, such as sodium azide and rotenone. Furthermore, the uptake of matrine was found to be regulated by a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) and pH, indicating that this influx transporter may be a proton-coupled antiporter. The uptake of matrine was sensitive to inhibition by the cationic drugs including pyrilamine, quinidine, verapamil, amantadine, diphenhydramine, and cimetidine but insensitive to other typical substrates or inhibitors of well-known organic cation transport systems. The present study reveals that, for the first time, in HepG2 cells, the existence of a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter that contributes substantially to the hepatic uptake of matrine.

  9. The effect of cation-πinteractions in electrolyte/organic nanofiltration systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Yang; Yu Ma; Weihong Xing


    The rejection properties of a nanofiltration organic membrane were investigated using KCl solutions, NaCl solutions, NaCl/benzyl alcohol hybrid solutions and KCl/benzyl alcohol hybrid solutions. The presence of benzyl alcohol (3.7 mol · m−3) caused a decrease in electrolyte rejection within the range of 0 to 6%. The mechanism of the decrease was discussed. The cation–πbond was assumed to form in the hybrid solution and to further induce the partial dehydration of the cation. The steric and charge density inhibition of the salt activity was strength-ened, and the salt rejection was thus decreased. A simulation was performed to evaluate the radius of the cation. © 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  10. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayss, M. K.; Armentrout, P. B.; Oomens, J.; Schaefer, M.


    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+,K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectra

  11. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayß, M.K.; Armentrout, P.B.; Oomens, J.; Schäfer, M.


    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectr

  12. Hypomorphic variants of cationic amino acid transporter 3 in males with autism spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Nava, Caroline; Rupp, Johanna; Boissel, Jean-Paul; Mignot, Cyril; Rastetter, Agnès; Amiet, Claire; Jacquette, Aurélia; Dupuits, Céline; Bouteiller, Delphine; Keren, Boris; Ruberg, Merle; Faudet, Anne; Doummar, Diane; Philippe, Anne; Périsse, Didier; Laurent, Claudine; Lebrun, Nicolas; Guillemot, Vincent; Chelly, Jamel; Cohen, David; Héron, Delphine; Brice, Alexis; Closs, Ellen I; Depienne, Christel


    Cationic amino acid transporters (CATs) mediate the entry of L-type cationic amino acids (arginine, ornithine and lysine) into the cells including neurons. CAT-3, encoded by the SLC7A3 gene on chromosome X, is one of the three CATs present in the human genome, with selective expression in brain. SLC7A3 is highly intolerant to variation in humans, as attested by the low frequency of deleterious variants in available databases, but the impact on variants in this gene in humans remains undefined. In this study, we identified a missense variant in SLC7A3, encoding the CAT-3 cationic amino acid transporter, on chromosome X by exome sequencing in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We then sequenced the SLC7A3 coding sequence in 148 male patients with ASD and identified three additional rare missense variants in unrelated patients. Functional analyses of the mutant transporters showed that two of the four identified variants cause severe or moderate loss of CAT-3 function due to altered protein stability or abnormal trafficking to the plasma membrane. The patient with the most deleterious SLC7A3 variant had high-functioning autism and epilepsy, and also carries a de novo 16p11.2 duplication possibly contributing to his phenotype. This study shows that rare hypomorphic variants of SLC7A3 exist in male individuals and suggest that SLC7A3 variants possibly contribute to the etiology of ASD in male subjects in association with other genetic factors.

  13. Biological and surface-active properties of double-chain cationic amino acid-based surfactants. (United States)

    Greber, Katarzyna E; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Sawicki, Wiesław; Łukasiak, Jerzy


    Cationic amino acid-based surfactants were synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis and terminal acylation of their α and ε positions with saturated fatty acids. Five new lipopeptides, N-α-acyl-N-ε-acyl lysine analogues, were obtained. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal (fungicidal) concentration were determined on reference strains of bacteria and fungi to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the lipopeptides. Toxicity to eukaryotic cells was examined via determination of the haemolytic activities. The surface-active properties of these compounds were evaluated by measuring the surface tension and formation of micelles as a function of concentration in aqueous solution. The cationic surfactants demonstrated diverse antibacterial activities dependent on the length of the fatty acid chain. Gram-negative bacteria and fungi showed a higher resistance than Gram-positive bacterial strains. It was found that the haemolytic activities were also chain length-dependent values. The surface-active properties showed a linear correlation between the alkyl chain length and the critical micelle concentration.

  14. Acarbose Isolation with Gel Type Strong Acid Cation Exchange Resin:Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚军; 于蕾; 郑裕国; 王远山; 沈寅初


    Acarbose, a potentα-glucosidase inhibitor, is widely used as an oral anti-diabetic drug for the treatment of the type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In this work, a gel type strong acid cation exchange resin 001×4 was applied to isolate acarbose from fermentation broth. It was demonstrated that cation exchanger 001×4 displayed a large adsorption capacity and quick exchange rate for acarbose. The static adsorption equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir equation. Column adsorption experiments demonstrated that high dynamic adsorption capacity was reached at bed height of 104.4 mm, feed flow rate of 1.0 ml·min-1 and acarbose concentration of 4.0 mg·ml-1. Under the optimized conditions, the column chromatography packed with cation exchanger 001×4 recovered 74.3%(by mass) of acarbose from Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196 fermentation broth with purity of 80.1%(by mass), demonstrating great potential in the practical applications in acarbose separation.

  15. Selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules on mesoporous borosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Manidipa; Pal, Nabanita; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail:


    Mesoporous materials can play a pivotal role as a host material for delivery application to a specific part of a system. In this work we explore the selective adsorption and release of cationic organic dye molecules such as safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) on mesoporous borosilicate materials. The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and borosilicate materials (MBS) were prepared using non-ionic surfactant Pluronic P123 as template via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) method. After template removal the materials show high surface areas and in some cases ordered mesopores of dimensions ca. 6-7 nm. High surface area, mesoporosity and the presence of heteroatom (boron) help this mesoporous borosilicate material to adsorb high amount of cationic dye molecules at its surface from the respective aqueous solutions. Furthermore, the mesoporous borosilicate samples containing higher percentage adsorbed dyes show excellent release of ST or MG dye in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution at physiological pH = 7.4 and temperature 310 K. The adsorption and release efficiency of mesoporous borosilicate samples are compared with reference boron-free mesoporous pure silica material to understand the nature of adsorbate-adsorbent interaction at the surfaces. - Graphical abstract: Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate materials have been synthesized by using Pluronic P123 as template. The materials show very good adsorption and release of organic cationic dye molecules under physiological conditions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered 2D-hexagonal mesoporous borosilicate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nonionic Pluoronic P123 templated mesoporous material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption of organic dyes at the mesopore surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled release of dyes under physiological pH and temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of safranine T (ST) and malachite green (MG) dyes in simulated body fluids.

  16. Cation-π Interaction between the Aromatic Organic Counterion and DTAB Micelle in Mixed Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG,Dong-Shun(邓东顺); LI,Hao-Ran(李浩然); LIU,Di-Xia(刘迪霞); HAN,Shi-Jun(韩世钧)


    The cation-π interaction between the aromatic organic counterion potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) and DTAB micelle in aqueous mixture of EG was investigated, using the techniques of conductivity measurements, UV absorption spectrum and NMR spectrum. The conductivity and UV spectrum studies were with respect to the effect of KHP on DTAB and that of DTAB micelle on KHP, respectively. According to the chemical shift changes of the aromatic ring and the surfactant methylene protons, it can be assumed that KHP penetrated into DTAB micelle with its carboxylic group protruding out of the micellar surface. And the strength of the interaction became weaker with the content of EG in the mixed solvent increasing.

  17. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites



    This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to t...

  18. Spectroscopic detection, reactivity, and acid-base behavior of ring-dimethoxylated phenylethanoic acid radical cations and radical zwitterions in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Capone, Alberto


    A product and time-resolved kinetic study of the one-electron oxidation of ring-dimethoxylated phenylethanoic acids has been carried out at different pH values. Oxidation leads to the formation of aromatic radical cations or radical zwitterions depending on pH, and pK(a) values for the corresponding acid-base equilibria have been measured. The radical cations undergo decarboxylation with first-order rate constants (k(dec)) ranging from <10(2) to 5.6 x 10(4) s(-1) depending on radical cation stability. A significant increase in k(dec) (between 10 and 40 times) is observed on going from the radical cations to the corresponding radical zwitterions. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of intramolecular side chain to ring electron transfer required for decarboxylation, in both the radical cations and radical zwitterions.

  19. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill


    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  20. Elucidating the Higher Stability of Vanadium (V) Cations in Mixed Acid Based Redox Flow Battery Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Wang, Wei; Nie, Zimin; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Hu, Jian Z.


    The Vanadium (V) cation structures in mixed acid based electrolyte solution were analysed by density functional theory (DFT) based computational modelling and 51V and 35Cl Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The Vanadium (V) cation exists as di-nuclear [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound at higher vanadium concentrations (≥1.75M). In particular, at high temperatures (>295K) this di-nuclear compound undergoes ligand exchange process with nearby solvent chlorine molecule and forms chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound. This chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be resistant to the de-protonation reaction which is the initial step in the precipitation reaction in Vanadium based electrolyte solutions. The combined theoretical and experimental approach reveals that formation of chlorine bonded [V2O3Cl2.6H2O]2+ compound might be central to the observed higher thermal stability of mixed acid based Vanadium (V) electrolyte solutions.

  1. Targeting the S1 and S3 subsite of trypsin with unnatural cationic amino acids generates antimicrobial peptides with potential for oral administration. (United States)

    Karstad, Rasmus; Isaksen, Geir; Wynendaele, Evelien; Guttormsen, Yngve; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Brandsdal, Bjørn-Olav; Svendsen, John Sigurd; Svenson, Johan


    This study investigates how the S1 and S3 site of trypsin can be challenged with cationic amino acid analogues to yield active antimicrobial peptides with stability toward tryptic degradation. It is shown that unnatural analogues can be incorporated to generate stable peptides with maintained bioactivity to allow for a potential oral uptake. Selected peptides were studied using isothermal calorimetry and computational methods. Both stable and unstable peptides were found to bind stoichiometrically to trypsin with dissociation constants ranging 2-60 μM, suggesting several different binding modes. The stability of selected peptides was analyzed in whole organ extracts and the incorporation of homoarginine and 2-amino-(3-guanidino)propanoic acid resulted in a 14- and 50-fold increase in duodenal stability. In addition, a 40- and 70-fold increase in stomach stability is also reported. Overall, these results illustrate how the incorporation of cationic side chains can be employed to generate bioactive peptides with significant systemic stability.

  2. Effecf of pH and some cations on activity of acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. isolated from acid sulphate soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairatana Nilnond


    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. is able to hydrolyze organic phosphorus. These soil yeast microorganisms were isolated from rice roots grown in acid sulphate soil that generally contains highamount of aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn ions. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pH and some cations on acid phosphatase activity. Two isolates of Ustilago sp., AR101and AR102, were cultured in 100 mL of modified Pikovskaya's broth containing Na-phytate, pH 4, and acid phosphatase activity was determined at pH 2.0-7.0. Effect of Al, Fe, and Mn, including calcium (Ca ions,on growth of AR101 and AR102, secreted acid phosphatase activity, and the ability of acid phosphatase on the phosphorus release from Na-phytate by Ustilago sp. were investigated. It was found that the optimum pH for acid phosphatase activity was 3.5-4.5. The activity of acid phosphatase secreted from AR101 (3,690nmol min-1 mL-1 was remarkably higher than that from AR102 (956 nmol min-1 mL-1. Aluminum, iron, manganese and calcium ions in the medium did not affect the growth of either isolate. The activity of secretedacid phosphatase of AR101 was inhibited by Al and Ca ion, and synthesis of acid phosphatase of Ustilago sp. AR102 was possibly stimulated by Fe ion. Both AR101 and AR102 solubilized Na-phytate, resulting in therelease of P. However, some amount of released P was then precipitated with Al and Fe ions as the highly insoluble Fe- or Al- phosphate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYuehua; HUANGWenqiang; 等


    An improved method is developed by using strongly acidic cation exchange resin(001×1,H+ form) as a catalyst for the synthesis of diphenyl 1-(N-benzyloxycarbonyl-amino) alkanephosphonates and 1-(N-benzyloxycarbonylamino) alkanephenyl phosphinic acids in high yields.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is synthesized from acrylic acid and ethylene glycol under a simple and mild condition by using strong acidic cation ion exchange resin as a catalyst,which could be recycled as long as 10 times with high activation.

  5. The Role of Transporters in the Toxicity of Chemotherapeutic Drugs: Focus on Transporters for Organic Cations. (United States)

    Hucke, Anna; Ciarimboli, Giuliano


    The introduction of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer is one of the most important achievements of modern medicine, even allowing the cure of some lethal diseases such as testicular cancer and other malignant neoplasms. The number and type of chemotherapeutic agents available have steadily increased and have developed until the introduction of targeted tumor therapy. It is now evident that transporters play an important role for determining toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs not only against target but also against nontarget cells. This is of special importance for intracellularly active hydrophilic drugs, which cannot freely penetrate the plasma membrane. Because many important chemotherapeutic agents are substrates of transporters for organic cations, this review discusses the known interaction of these substances with these transporters. A particular focus is given to the role of transporters for organic cations in the development of side effects of chemotherapy with platinum derivatives and in the efficacy of recently developed tyrosine kinase inhibitors to specifically target cancer cells. It is evident that specific inhibition of uptake transporters may be a possible strategy to protect against undesired side effects of platinum derivatives without compromising their antitumor efficacy. These transporters are also important for efficient targeting of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to cancer cells. However, in order to achieve the aims of protecting from undesired toxicities and improving the specificity of uptake by tumor cells, an exact knowledge of transporter expression, function, regulation under normal and pathologic conditions, and of genetically and epigenetically regulation is mandatory.

  6. Dissociation of Methylammonium Cations in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells. (United States)

    Xu, Weidong; Liu, Lijia; Yang, Linju; Shen, Pengfei; Sun, Baoquan; McLeod, John A


    Organic-inorganic lead perovskites have shown great promise as photovoltaic materials, and within this class of materials (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is of particular interest. Herein we use soft X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations to demonstrate that the methylammonium cations in a typical photovoltaic layer may dissociate into a metastable arrangement of CH3I-Pb2 defects and trapped NH3. The possibility that other metastable configurations of the organic components in (CH3NH3)PbI3-xClx is rarely considered but adds an entirely new dimension in understanding the charge trapping, ionic transport, and structural degradation mechanisms in these materials. Understanding the influence of these other configurations is of critical importance for further improving the performance of these photovoltaics.

  7. Cation trapping by cellular acidic compartments: Beyond the concept of lysosomotropic drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, François, E-mail: [Centre de recherche en rhumatologie et immunologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Bawolak, Marie-Thérèse [Centre de recherche en rhumatologie et immunologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Lodge, Robert [Centre de recherche en infectiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Bouthillier, Johanne; Gagné-Henley, Angélique [Centre de recherche en rhumatologie et immunologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Gaudreault, René C. [Unité des Biotechnologies et de Bioingénierie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1L 3L5 (Canada); Morissette, Guillaume [Centre de recherche en rhumatologie et immunologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec QC, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada)


    “Lysosomotropic” cationic drugs are known to concentrate in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping); they draw water by an osmotic mechanism, leading to a vacuolar response. Several aspects of this phenomenon were recently reexamined. (1) The proton pump vacuolar (V)-ATPase is the driving force of cationic drug uptake and ensuing vacuolization. In quantitative transport experiments, V-ATPase inhibitors, such as bafilomycin A1, greatly reduced the uptake of cationic drugs and released them in preloaded cells. (2) Pigmented or fluorescent amines are effectively present in a concentrated form in the large vacuoles. (3) Consistent with V-ATPase expression in trans-Golgi, lysosomes and endosomes, a fraction of the vacuoles is consistently labeled with trans-Golgi markers and protein secretion and endocytosis are often inhibited in vacuolar cells. (4) Macroautophagic signaling (accumulation of lipidated and membrane-bound LC3 II) and labeling of the large vacuoles by the autophagy effector LC3 were consistently observed in cells, precisely at incubation periods and amine concentrations that cause vacuolization. Vacuoles also exhibit late endosome/lysosome markers, because they may originate from such organelles or because macroautophagosomes fuse with lysosomes. Autophagosome persistence is likely due to the lack of resolution of autophagy, rather than to nutritional deprivation. (5) Increased lipophilicity decreases the threshold concentration for the vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology, because simple diffusion into cells is limiting. (6) A still unexplained mitotic arrest is consistently observed in cells loaded with amines. An extended recognition of relevant clinical situations is proposed for local or systemic drug administration.

  8. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.


    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  9. Acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for systemic salmonellae virulence. (United States)

    Hicks, Kevin G; Delbecq, Scott P; Sancho-Vaello, Enea; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; Dove, Katja K; Prost, Lynne R; Daley, Margaret E; Zeth, Kornelius; Klevit, Rachel E; Miller, Samuel I


    Salmonella PhoQ is a histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain (PD) that promotes virulence by detecting the macrophage phagosome. PhoQ activity is repressed by divalent cations and induced in environments of acidic pH, limited divalent cations, and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP). Previously, it was unclear which signals are sensed by salmonellae to promote PhoQ-mediated virulence. We defined conformational changes produced in the PhoQ PD on exposure to acidic pH that indicate structural flexibility is induced in α-helices 4 and 5, suggesting this region contributes to pH sensing. Therefore, we engineered a disulfide bond between W104C and A128C in the PhoQ PD that restrains conformational flexibility in α-helices 4 and 5. PhoQ(W104C-A128C) is responsive to CAMP, but is inhibited for activation by acidic pH and divalent cation limitation. phoQ(W104C-A128C) Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is virulent in mice, indicating that acidic pH and divalent cation sensing by PhoQ are dispensable for virulence.

  10. Importance of mineral cations and organics in gas-aerosol partitioning of reactive nitrogen compounds: case study based on MINOS results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Metzger


    Full Text Available The partitioning of reactive nitrogen compounds between the gas and the aerosol phase, as observed during the MINOS (Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study campaign in Crete, Greece, in July and August 2001, has been studied with three thermodynamic gas-aerosol equilibrium models (EQMs of different chemical complexity: ISORROPIA, which is limited to the ammonium sulfate-nitrate-sodium-chloride-water-system, SCAPE2, which also includes mineral elements (calcium, magnesium and potassium, and EQSAM2, which additionally accounts for organic acids. The different EQMs, as applied at the same level of complexity, generally produce comparable results within the range of measurement uncertainties (on average within ~10%, although they differ considerably in particular aspects. Model simulations of three distinct air pollution episodes during MINOS show that organic acids (lumped and soluble mineral cations need to be included in EQMs to accurately simulate the gas-aerosol partitioning of ammonia and nitric acid.

  11. Organic cation transporter-mediated ergothioneine uptake in mouse neural progenitor cells suppresses proliferation and promotes differentiation into neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to clarify the functional expression and physiological role in neural progenitor cells (NPCs of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which accepts the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO as a substrate in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of OCTN1 was much higher than that of other organic cation transporters in mouse cultured cortical NPCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed colocalization of OCTN1 with the NPC marker nestin in cultured NPCs and mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells differentiated into neural progenitor-like cells (P19-NPCs. These cells exhibited time-dependent [(3H]ERGO uptake. These results demonstrate that OCTN1 is functionally expressed in murine NPCs. Cultured NPCs and P19-NPCs formed neurospheres from clusters of proliferating cells in a culture time-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO or other antioxidants (edaravone and ascorbic acid led to a significant decrease in the area of neurospheres with concomitant elimination of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Transfection of P19-NPCs with small interfering RNA for OCTN1 markedly promoted formation of neurospheres with a concomitant decrease of [(3H]ERGO uptake. On the other hand, exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO markedly increased the number of cells immunoreactive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin, but decreased the number immunoreactive for the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with concomitant up-regulation of neuronal differentiation activator gene Math1. Interestingly, edaravone and ascorbic acid did not affect such differentiation of NPCs, in contrast to the case of proliferation. Knockdown of OCTN1 increased the number of cells immunoreactive for GFAP, but decreased the number immunoreactive for βIII-tubulin, with concomitant down-regulation of Math1 in P19-NPCs. Thus, OCTN1-mediated uptake of ERGO in NPCs inhibits

  12. Characterization of Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors to Detect Cations of Different Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Contat-Rodrigo


    Full Text Available A novel screen-printing fabrication method was used to prepare organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene doped with polysterene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS. Initially, three types of these screen-printed OECTs with a different channel and gate areas ratio were compared in terms of output characteristics, transfer characteristics, and current modulation in a phosphate buffered saline (PBS solution. Results confirm that transistors with a gate electrode larger than the channel exhibit higher modulation. OECTs with this geometry were therefore chosen to investigate their ion-sensitive properties in aqueous solutions of cations of different sizes (sodium and rhodamine B. The effect of the gate electrode was additionally studied by comparing these all-PEDOT:PSS transistors with OECTs with the same geometry but with a non-polarizable metal gate (Ag. The operation of the all-PEDOT:PSS OECTs yields a response that is not dependent on a Na+ or rhodamine concentration. The weak modulation of these transistors can be explained assuming that PEDOT:PSS behaves like a supercapacitor. In contrast, the operation of Ag-Gate OECTs yields a response that is dependent on ion concentration due to the redox reaction taking place at the gate electrode with Cl− counter-ions. This indicates that, for cation detection, the response is maximized in OECTs with non-polarizable gate electrodes.

  13. CO 2 adsorption in mono-, di- and trivalent cation-exchanged metal-organic frameworks: A molecular simulation study

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yifei


    A molecular simulation study is reported for CO 2 adsorption in rho zeolite-like metal-organic framework (rho-ZMOF) exchanged with a series of cations (Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, and Al 3+). The isosteric heat and Henry\\'s constant at infinite dilution increase monotonically with increasing charge-to-diameter ratio of cation (Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ < Al 3+). At low pressures, cations act as preferential adsorption sites for CO 2 and the capacity follows the charge-to-diameter ratio. However, the free volume of framework becomes predominant with increasing pressure and Mg-rho-ZMOF appears to possess the highest saturation capacity. The equilibrium locations of cations are observed to shift slightly upon CO 2 adsorption. Furthermore, the adsorption selectivity of CO 2/H 2 mixture increases as Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ ≈ Al 3+. At ambient conditions, the selectivity is in the range of 800-3000 and significantly higher than in other nanoporous materials. In the presence of 0.1% H 2O, the selectivity decreases drastically because of the competitive adsorption between H 2O and CO 2, and shows a similar value in all of the cation-exchanged rho-ZMOFs. This simulation study provides microscopic insight into the important role of cations in governing gas adsorption and separation, and suggests that the performance of ionic rho-ZMOF can be tailored by cations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. L-carnitine, a diet component and organic cation transporter OCTN ligand, displays immunosuppressive properties and abrogates intestinal inflammation. (United States)

    Fortin, G; Yurchenko, K; Collette, C; Rubio, M; Villani, A-C; Bitton, A; Sarfati, M; Franchimont, D


    Allele variants in the L-carnitine (LCAR) transporters OCTN1 (SLC22A4, 1672 C --> T) and OCTN2 (SLC22A5, -207 G --> C) have been implicated in susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). LCAR is consumed in the diet and transported actively from the intestinal lumen via the organic cation transporter OCTN2. While recognized mainly for its role in fatty acid metabolism, several lines of evidence suggest that LCAR may also display immunosuppressive properties. This study sought to investigate the immunomodulatory capacity of LCAR on antigen-presenting cell (APC) and CD4+ T cell function by examining cytokine production and the expression of activation markers in LCAR-supplemented and deficient cell culture systems. The therapeutic efficacy of its systemic administration was then evaluated during the establishment of colonic inflammation in vivo. LCAR treatment significantly inhibited both APC and CD4+ T cell function, as assessed by the expression of classical activation markers, proliferation and cytokine production. Carnitine deficiency resulted in the hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells and enhanced cytokine production. In vivo, protection from trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis was observed in LCAR-treated mice and was attributed to the abrogation of both innate [interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 production] and adaptive (T cell proliferation in draining lymph nodes) immune responses. LCAR therapy may therefore represent a novel alternative therapeutic strategy and highlights the role of diet in CD.

  15. Cu and Zn adsorption to a heterogeneous natural sediment: Influence of leached cations and natural organic matter. (United States)

    Fisher-Power, Leanne M; Cheng, Tao; Rastghalam, Zahra Sadat


    Adsorption of heavy metals by natural sediments has important implications to the fate and transport of contaminants in subsurface environments. Although the importance of major multivalent cations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in heavy metal adsorption had been previously demonstrated, the leaching of major cations and DOM from sediments and its influence on heavy metal adsorption have not been fully examined. In this study, the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and natural organic matter that leached from a natural sediment in Cu and Zn adsorption experiments were measured and used in surface complexation models to elucidate their effects on Cu and Zn adsorption. Experimental results showed that the leaching of cations and DOM was substantial and pH-dependent. The leached concentrations of Ca and Mg were reasonably simulated based on BaCl2 extractable Ca and Mg at pH MINTEQ simulations showed that the leached cations markedly decreased Cu adsorption at pH 6 due to formation of Cu-DOM aqueous complexes, but increase Zn adsorption at pH 4-7 due to formation of aqueous complexes between DOM and major cations, which reduced competition from these cations against Zn for binding sites on the sediment.

  16. Cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates as catalyst prototypes for self-induced hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. (United States)

    Naruto, Masayuki; Saito, Susumu


    Carboxylic acids are ubiquitous in bio-renewable and petrochemical sources of carbon. Hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to yield alcohols produces water as the only byproduct, and thus represents a possible next generation, sustainable method for the production of these alternative energy carriers/platform chemicals on a large scale. Reported herein are molecular insights into cationic mononuclear ruthenium carboxylates ([Ru(OCOR)](+)) as prototypical catalysts for the hydrogenation of carboxylic acids. The substrate-derived coordinated carboxylate was found to function initially as a proton acceptor for the heterolytic cleavage of dihydrogen, and subsequently also as an acceptor for the hydride from [Ru-H](+), which was generated in the first step (self-induced catalysis). The hydrogenation proceeded selectively and at high levels of functional group tolerance, a feature that is challenging to achieve with existing heterogeneous/homogeneous catalyst systems. These fundamental insights are expected to significantly benefit the future development of metal carboxylate-catalysed hydrogenation processes of bio-renewable resources.

  17. The Preparation of Cationic Folic Acid and Its Application in Drug Delivery System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hu; Lu Gan; Qian-xuan Li; Hong Tao; Lin Ye; Ai-ying Zhang; Zeng-guo Feng


    The cationic folic acid (CFA) was prepared by introducing triethylenetetramine into folic acid with EDCI/NHS and characterized by IR,NMR and mass spectra.It was found that approximately one of two carboxyls in the folic acid molecule was substituted to form CFA.The conversion of r-carboxyl is found to be 59% higher than 30% of a-carboxyl.The CFA and doxorubicin hydrochloride can be loaded on the ionic shell of PTX-encapsulated micelle to form CFA loaded binary drug carrier via static interaction in aqueous solutions.The successful loading was demonstrated by zeta potential measurement and the drug load amount (DLA) of CFA was measured by HPLC.In vitro cytotoxicity results revealed the CFA drug carrier showed higher cytotoxicity to cancer cell MDA-MB-321 than the binary drug carrier without CFA and the positive control,while it showed lower cytotoxicity to normal cell HUVEC than the positive control,and similar cytotoxicity with the binary drug carrier without CFA.These results as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy observation indicate the synthesized CFA drug carrier possesses active tumor-targeting property.

  18. Enhancing Cation Diffusion and Suppressing Anion Diffusion via Lewis-Acidic Polymer Electrolytes

    CERN Document Server

    Savoie, Brett M; Miller, Thomas F


    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) have the potential to increase both the energy density and stability of lithium-based batteries, but low Li-ion conductivity remains a barrier to technological viability. SPEs are designed to maximize Li-ion diffusivity relative to the anion, while maintaining sufficient salt solubility. It is thus remarkable that polyethylene oxide (PEO), the most widely used SPE, exhibits Li-ion diffusivity that is an order of magnitude smaller than that of typical counter-ions, such as TFSI, at moderate salt concentrations. Here, we show that Lewis-basic polymers like PEO intrinsically favor slow cation and rapid anion diffusion while this relationship can be reversed in Lewis-acidic polymers. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Lewis-acidic polyboranes are identified that achieve up to a ten-fold increase in Li-ion diffusivity and a significant decrease in anion diffusivity, relative to PEO. The results for this new class of Lewis-acidic SPEs illustrate a general principle for incre...

  19. Cationic complexation with dissolved organic matter: Insights from molecular dynamics computer simulations and NMR spectroscopy (United States)

    Kalinichev, A. G.; Xu, X.; Kirkpatrick, R.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in soil and surface water and plays many important geochemical and environmental roles acting as a proton donor/acceptor and pH buffer and interacting with metal ions, minerals and organic species to form water-soluble and water-insoluble complexes of widely differing chemical and biological stabilities. There are strong correlations among the concentration of DOM and the speciation, solubility and toxicity of many trace metals in soil and water due to metal-DOM interaction. DOM can also significantly negatively affect the performance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used industrially for water purification and desalination, being one of the major causes of a so-called `membrane bio- fouling'. The molecular scale mechanisms and dynamics of the DOM interactions with metals and membranes are, however, quite poorly understood. Methods of computational molecular modeling, combined with element- specific nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can serve as highly effective tools to probe and quantify on a fundamental molecular level the DOM interactions with metal cations in aqueous solutions, and to develop predictive models of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the metal-DOM complexation in the environment. This paper presents the results of molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations of the interaction of DOM with dissolved Na+, Cs+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. Na+ forms only very weak outer-sphere complexes with DOM. These results and the results of other recent molecular modeling efforts (e.g., Sutton et al., Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24, 1902-1911, 2005), clearly indicate that both the structural and dynamic aspects of the cation-DOM complexation follow a simple trend in terms of the charge/size ratio for the ions. Due to the competition between ion hydration in bulk aqueous solution and adsorption of these cations by the negatively charged DOM functional groups (primarily carboxylate

  20. Mixed-organic-cation perovskite photovoltaics for enhanced solar-light harvesting. (United States)

    Pellet, Norman; Gao, Peng; Gregori, Giuliano; Yang, Tae-Youl; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad K; Maier, Joachim; Grätzel, Michael


    Hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite APbX3 pigments, such as methylammonium lead iodide, have recently emerged as excellent light harvesters in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. An important target for the further improvement of the performance of perovskite-based photovoltaics is to extend their optical-absorption onset further into the red to enhance solar-light harvesting. Herein, we show that this goal can be reached by using a mixture of formamidinium (HN=CHNH3 (+), FA) and methylammonium (CH3 NH3 (+), MA) cations in the A position of the APbI3 perovskite structure. This combination leads to an enhanced short-circuit current and thus superior devices to those based on only CH3 NH3 (+). This concept has not been applied previously in perovskite-based solar cells. It shows great potential as a versatile tool to tune the structural, electrical, and optoelectronic properties of the light-harvesting materials.

  1. TACN-based cationic lipids with amino acid backbone and double tails: materials for non-viral gene delivery. (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Xun, Miao-Miao; Yu, Xiao-Qi


    Cationic lipids have become an efficient type of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. In this Letter, four cationic lipids containing 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) headgroup, glutamic/aspartic acid backbone and dioleyl tails were designed and synthesized. The TACN headgroup gives these lipids excellent pH buffering capacities, which were higher than branched 25 kDa PEI. Cationic liposomes prepared from these lipids and DOPE showed good DNA affinity, and full DNA condensation was found at N/P ratio of 3 via agarose gel electrophoresis. The lipoplexes were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay, which gave proper particle sizes and zeta-potentials for transfection. In vitro gene transfection results in two cell lines reveal that TAN (with aspartic acid and amide bond in the structure) shows the best transfection efficiency, which is close to commercially available transfection agent Lipofectamine 2000.

  2. Cocktail-Dosing Microdialysis Study to Simultaneously Assess Delivery of Multiple Organic-Cationic Drugs to the Brain. (United States)

    Kitamura, Atsushi; Okura, Takashi; Higuchi, Kei; Deguchi, Yoshiharu


    Brain microdialysis is a powerful tool to estimate brain-to-plasma unbound concentration ratio at the steady state (Kp,uu) of compounds by direct measurement of the unbound concentration in brain interstitial fluid. Here, we evaluated a method to estimate Kp,uu values of multiple organic-cationic drugs simultaneously, by means of brain microdialysis combined with cocktail dosing. Five cationic drugs (diphenhydramine, memantine, oxycodone, pyrilamine, and tramadol), substrates of the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system, were selected as model drugs, and compared under single-dosing and cocktail-dosing conditions. We selected doses of the drugs at which no significant drug-drug interaction occurs at the proton-coupled organic cation antiport system in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed by uptake studies in hCMEC/D3 cells, an in vitro BBB model. The Kp,uu values after cocktail administration were in the range of 1.8-5.2, and were in good agreement with those after single administration. These results suggest that the microdialysis method with cocktail dosing is suitable to estimate Kp,uu values of several cationic drugs simultaneously, if there is no drug-drug interaction during BBB transport. The method could be useful for evaluating drug candidates with high Kp,uu values at an early stage in the development of central nervous system-acting drugs.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOZuyi; WANGChangshou


    The general procedure based on the potentiometric titration has developed.According to the procedure,the rational equilibrium constants of the ion exchange reactions RH/Na,RH/Ca,RH/Sr,RH/Ba for the weak acid cation exchange resin D725 and ROH/Cl for the weak base anion exchange resin D705 have been determined.

  4. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett


    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  5. A New Nanocatalytic Spectrophotometric Assay for Cationic Surfactant Using Phosphomolybdic Acid-Formic Acid-Nanogold as Indicator Reaction%A New Nanocatalytic Spectrophotometric Assay for Cationic Surfactant Using Phosphomolybdic Acid-Formic Acid-Nanogold as Indicator Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋治良; 覃惠敏; 梁爱惠


    In the pH 7.4 Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 buffer solution, the cationic surfactant (CS) interacted with nanogold particles (NG) to form NG aggregations (NGA) that resulted in its color changing from wine red to blue-violet. NG has a strong catalysis on the formic acid-phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) colored reaction, but that of the NGA catalysis is weak. With the increase of CS concentration, the NGA increased and the NG decreased, the catalysis decreased and the absorption value at 700 nm decreased linearly. The concentrations of 6.25-250 nmol/L tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (TDBAC), 0.625-250 nmol/L cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB) and 12.5 -500 nmol-L 1 dodecyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC) had good linear responses to the decreased absorption value (AA70o nm), with molar absorption coefficients of 2.2 × 106, 2.1 × 106 and 9 ×105 Lomol 1 respectively. This method was simple, highly sensitive and low-cost.

  6. Adsorption behavior and mechanism of cadmium on strong-acid cation exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; WANG Lian-jun; LI Jian-sheng; SUN Xiu-yun; HAN Wei-qing


    The adsorption behavior of Cd2+ on 001×7 strong-acid cation exchange resin was studied with the static adsorption method. The adsorption process was analyzed from thermodynamics and kinetics aspects. The influences of experimental parameters such as pH, temperature, initial concentration and adsorption rate were investigated. The experimental results show that in the studied concentration range, 001×7 resin has a good sorption ability for Cd2+, and the equilibrium adsorption data fit to Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption is an exothermic process which runs spontaneously. Kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is mainly governed by liquid film diffusion. The best adsorption condition is pH 4-5. The saturated resin can be regenerated by 3 mol/L nitric acid, and the desorption efficiency is over 98%. The maximal static saturated adsorption capacity is 355 mg/g (wet resin) at 293 K. The adsorption mechanism of Cd2+ on 001×7 resin was discussed based on IR spectra.

  7. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 enhances innate immunity during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Barry

    Full Text Available Once acquired, Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong due to an inadequate innate and adaptive immune response. Our previous studies indicate that interactions among the various pathways of arginine metabolism in the host are critical determinants of outcomes following infection. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 is essential for transport of L-arginine (L-Arg into monocytic immune cells during H. pylori infection. Once within the cell, this amino acid is utilized by opposing pathways that lead to elaboration of either bactericidal nitric oxide (NO produced from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, or hydrogen peroxide, which causes macrophage apoptosis, via arginase and the polyamine pathway. Because of its central role in controlling L-Arg availability in macrophages, we investigated the importance of CAT2 in vivo during H. pylori infection. CAT2(-/- mice infected for 4 months exhibited decreased gastritis and increased levels of colonization compared to wild type mice. We observed suppression of gastric macrophage levels, macrophage expression of iNOS, dendritic cell activation, and expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in CAT2(-/- mice suggesting that CAT2 is involved in enhancing the innate immune response. In addition, cytokine expression in CAT2(-/- mice was altered from an antimicrobial Th1 response to a Th2 response, indicating that the transporter has downstream effects on adaptive immunity as well. These findings demonstrate that CAT2 is an important regulator of the immune response during H. pylori infection.

  8. New inorganic-organic lamellar derivatives synthesized from H-RUB-18 and thermodynamics of cation sorption


    Macedo, TR; C. Airoldi


    A synthesized crystalline lamellar sodium RUB-18 was reacted with hydrochloric acid solution to exchange the original hydrated sodium cation on the interlayer space to obtain the acidic form, H-RUB-18, whose silanol groups on the surface favour covalent bond formation with the silylating agents 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (N) and N-3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (3N). Both new organofunctionalized nanostructured materials were characterized by means of elemental analysis, IR spect...

  9. Measurements of organic acids over central Germany (United States)

    Hartmann, W. R.; Andreae, M. O.; Helas, G.

    During three flights over central western Germany, air samples were taken for determination of organic acids. In air masses rapidly adverting from the west, between 0.15 and 3 km altitude mixing ratios of 0.17±0.06 ppbv formic acid and 0.72±0.08 ppbv acetic acid were found. In a local high pressure system mixing ratios increased up to 2.76 ppbv for formic acid and 2.20 ppbv for acetic acid.

  10. Role of Low-Molecule-Weight Organic Acids and Their Salts in Regulating Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-An; ZOU Bi; XIA Han-Ping; DING Yong-Zhen; TAN Wan-Neng; FU Sheng-Lei


    The process of organic materials increasing soil pH has not yet been fully understood.This study examined the role of cations and organic anions in regulating soil pH using organic compounds.Calcareous soil,acid soil,and paddy soil were incubated with different simple organic compounds,pH was determined periodically and CO2 emission was also measured.Mixing organic acids with the soil caused an instant decrease of soil pH.The magnitude of pH decrease depended on the initial soil acidity and dissociation degree of the acids.Decomposition of organic acids could only recover the soil pH to about its original level.Mixing organic salts with soil caused an instant increase of soil pH.Decomposition of organic salts of sodium resulted in a steady increase of soil pH,with final soil pH being about 2.7-3.2 pH units over the control.Organic salts with the same anions (citrate) but different cations led to different magnitudes of pH increase,while those having the same cations but different anions led to very similar pH increases.Organic salts of sodium and sodium carbonate caused very similar pH increases of soil when they were added to the acid soil at equimolar concentrations of Na+.The results suggested that cations played a central role in regulating soil pH.Decarboxylation might only consume a limited number of protons.Conversion of organic salts into inorganic salts (carbonate) was possibly responsible for pH increase during their decomposition,suggesting that only those plant residues containing high excess base cations could actually increase soil pH.

  11. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj


    Full Text Available Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L.

  12. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)


    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  13. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids (United States)

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred


    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  14. Use of monascus in organic acid production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusthuis, R.A.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Springer, J.; Oost, van der J.; Eggink, G.


    (EN)The present invention provides tools and methods for producing organic acids using strains of Monascus which are tolerant to high organicacid concentrations at low pH. (FR)La présente invention concerne des outils et des procédés pour produire des acides organiques en utilisant des souches de Mo

  15. Stress regulated members of the plant organic cation transporter family are localized to the vacuolar membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Wolfgang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis six genes group into the gene family of the organic cation transporters (OCTs. In animals the members of the OCT-family are mostly characterized as polyspecific transporters involved in the homeostasis of solutes, the transport of monoamine neurotransmitters and the transport of choline and carnitine. In plants little is known about function, localisation and regulation of this gene family. Only one protein has been characterized as a carnitine transporter at the plasma membrane so far. Findings We localized the five uncharacterized members of the Arabidopsis OCT family, designated OCT2-OCT6, via GFP fusions and protoplast transformation to the tonoplast. Expression analysis with RNA Gel Blots showed a distinct, organ-specific expression pattern of the individual genes. With reporter gene fusion of four members we analyzed the tissue specific distribution of OCT2, 3, 4, and 6. In experiments with salt, drought and cold stress, we could show that AtOCT4, 5 and 6 are up-regulated during drought stress, AtOCT3 and 5 during cold stress and AtOCT 5 and 6 during salt stress treatments. Conclusion Localisation of the proteins at the tonoplast and regulation of the gene expression under stress conditions suggests a specific role for the transporters in plant adaptation to environmental stress.

  16. Study and Development on the Organic Cationic Flocculant%有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怀礼; 舒型武


    At present, the organic cationic polymer flocculants have been received more and more concerns from scientists and technologists extensively, the remarkable progresses has been obtained. The commentary and introduction on researching development and application of the cationic organic flocculants at home and abroad have been introduced in this article, including the graft copolymerization of cationic polyacrylamide, hydroxyl etherification, variety of two alkenes two alkyl halogenated ammonium, the reaction product of epichhydin and amine, etc. Especially,the synthetic nonpoisonous cationic polymer flocculants and the modified cationic polymer flocculants from natural polymer such as starch in recent years are summarized and discusseed.%近年来,有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂得到国内外学者的广泛重视.它的研究、开发、应用都取得了显著进展.本文对此进行评述和介绍,内容涉及阳离子型聚丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物、羟基醚化类、二烷基二烯丙基卤化铵类和环氧氯丙烷与胺反应物,特别是近年来淀粉等天然高分子改性阳离子型絮凝剂和人工合成的无毒有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂.

  17. Unexpectedly Enhanced Solubility of Aromatic Amino Acids and Peptides in an Aqueous Solution of Divalent Transition-Metal Cations (United States)

    Shi, Guosheng; Dang, Yaru; Pan, Tingting; Liu, Xing; Liu, Hui; Li, Shaoxian; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhao, Hongwei; Li, Shaoping; Han, Jiaguang; Tai, Renzhong; Zhu, Yiming; Li, Jichen; Ji, Qing; Mole, R. A.; Yu, Dehong; Fang, Haiping


    We experimentally observed considerable solubility of tryptophan (Trp) in a CuCl2 aqueous solution, which could reach 2-5 times the solubility of Trp in pure water. Theoretical studies show that the strong cation-π interaction between Cu2 + and the aromatic ring in Trp modifies the electronic distribution of the aromatic ring to enhance significantly the water affinity of Trp. Similar solubility enhancement has also been observed for other divalent transition-metal cations (e.g., Zn2 + and Ni2 + ), another aromatic amino acid (phenylalanine), and three aromatic peptides (Trp-Phe, Phe-Phe, and Trp-Ala-Phe).

  18. Gas sorption and transition-metal cation separation with a thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK, Mostakim [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 Assam (India); Grzywa, Maciej; Volkmer, Dirk [Institute of Physics, Chair of Solid State Science, Augsburg University, Universitätsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Biswas, Shyam, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, 781039 Assam (India)


    The modulated synthesis of the thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework (MOF) material having formula [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(DMTDC){sub 6}]·4.8DMF·10H{sub 2}O (1) (H{sub 2}DMTDC=3,4-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid; DMF=N,N'-dimethylformamide) was carried out by heating a mixture of ZrCl{sub 4}, H{sub 2}DMTDC linker and benzoic acid (used as a modulator) with a molar ratio of 1:1:30 in DMF at 150 °C for 24 h. Systematic investigations have been performed in order to realize the effect of ZrCl{sub 4}/benzoic acid molar ratio on the crystallinity of the material. The activation (i.e., the removal of the guest solvent molecules from the pores) of as-synthesized compound was achieved by stirring it with methanol and subsequently heating under vacuum. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and elemental analysis was used to examine the phase purity of the as-synthesized and thermally activated 1. The material displays high thermal stability up to 310 °C in an air atmosphere. As revealed from the XRD measurements, the compound retains its crystallinity when treated with water, acetic acid and 1 M HCl solutions. The N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} sorption analyses suggest that the material possesses remarkably high microporosity (S{sub BET}=1236 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}; CO{sub 2} uptake=3.5 mmol g{sup −1} at 1 bar and 0 °C). The compound also shows selective adsorption behavior for Cu{sup 2+} over Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions. - Graphical abstract: Selective transition-metal cation adsorption by a thienothiophene based zirconium metal–organic framework material. - Highlights: • The modulated synthesis of a thienothiophene based Zr(IV) MOF has been described. • Effect of metal salt/modulator ratio on the crystallinity was thoroughly studied. • The compound showed high thermal and physiochemical stability. • N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} sorption experiments

  19. Influence of complexation phenomena with multivalent cations on the analysis of glyphosate and aminomethyl phosphonic acid in water. (United States)

    Freuze, Ingrid; Jadas-Hecart, Alain; Royer, Alain; Communal, Pierre-Yves


    Experimental and theoretical influence of multivalent cations on the analysis of glyphosate and aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) was studied in pure water and in one surface water. The procedure chosen, based on derivatization with FMOC-Cl, HPLC separation, and fluorescence detection, appears highly affected at cations concentrations current in natural waters. A detailed speciation study performed with the VMINTEQ software strongly suggests that the complexes formed between analytes and cations do not dissociate during the reaction and do not react with the derivatization agent, so that only the free forms are derivatized. These results point out the necessity of a pre-treatment to prevent these interferences, even in low salinity waters. The different ways conceivable are discussed in terms of kinetic and thermodynamic considerations.

  20. Resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral characteristics of interaction of nucleic acids with some cationic surfactantsand their analytical applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绍璞; 胡小莉; 罗红群; 范莉


    In near neutral medium, the resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensities of an alone cationic surfactant and nucleic acid are very weak. However, when they combine with each other to form a complex, the RRS intensity of the solution is enhanced greatly. In this paper the reactions of five cationic surfactants with nucleic acids have been studied. The results show that the reaction conditions and RRS spectral characteristics of these reactions are similar, but their sensitivities are obviously different. Among them, the sensitivity of cetyldimethyl benzylammonium chloride (CDBAC) with an aryl and large molecular weight is the highest, while that of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) without aryl and with small molecular weight is the lowest. The detection limits for ctDNA and yRNA of the former are 6.6 and 29.4 ng@mL?1, while that of the latter are 13.3 and 53.6 ng@mL?1. The method has better selectivity and can be applied to the determination of trace amounts of nucleic acids. Furthermore, it is discovered in the investigation that not only the RRS intensity is related to the structure and molecular weight of the cationic surfactants, but also the change of the RRS intensity is closely related to the conformational change of nucleic acid. Therefore, the RRS method can be expanded to become a useful way to study the nucleic acid conformation.

  1. Expression Profile of Cationic Amino Acid Transporters in Rats with Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Ray Hsu


    Full Text Available Purpose. The transcellular arginine transportation via cationic amino acid transporter (CAT is the rate-limiting step in nitric oxide (NO synthesis, which is crucial in intraocular inflammation. In this study, CAT isoforms and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression was investigated in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU. Methods. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by lipopolysaccharide (LPS injection. In the treatment group, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib before EIU induction. After 24 hours, leukocyte quantification, NO measurement of the aqueous humor, and histopathological examination were evaluated. The expression of CAT isoforms and iNOS was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB binding activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 was used to validate the in vivo findings. Results. LPS significantly stimulated iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B mRNA and protein expression but did not affect CAT-1 in EIU rats and RAW 264.7 cells. Bortezomib attenuated inflammation and inhibited iNOS, CAT-2A, and CAT-2B expression through NF-κB inhibition. Conclusions. CAT-2 and iNOS, but not CAT-1, are specifically involved in EIU. NF-κB is essential in the induction of CAT-2 and iNOS in EIU.

  2. Cationic amino acid transporter-2 regulates immunity by modulating arginase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thompson


    Full Text Available Cationic amino acid transporters (CAT are important regulators of NOS2 and ARG1 activity because they regulate L-arginine availability. However, their role in the development of Th1/Th2 effector functions following infection has not been investigated. Here we dissect the function of CAT2 by studying two infectious disease models characterized by the development of polarized Th1 or Th2-type responses. We show that CAT2(-/- mice are significantly more susceptible to the Th1-inducing pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Although T. gondii infected CAT2(-/- mice developed stronger IFN-gamma responses, nitric oxide (NO production was significantly impaired, which contributed to their enhanced susceptibility. In contrast, CAT2(-/- mice infected with the Th2-inducing pathogen Schistosoma mansoni displayed no change in susceptibility to infection, although they succumbed to schistosomiasis at an accelerated rate. Granuloma formation and fibrosis, pathological features regulated by Th2 cytokines, were also exacerbated even though their Th2 response was reduced. Finally, while IL-13 blockade was highly efficacious in wild-type mice, the development of fibrosis in CAT2(-/- mice was largely IL-13-independent. Instead, the exacerbated pathology was associated with increased arginase activity in fibroblasts and alternatively activated macrophages, both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, by controlling NOS2 and arginase activity, CAT2 functions as a potent regulator of immunity.

  3. Transport of cationic amino acids by the mouse ecotropic retrovirus receptor. (United States)

    Kim, J W; Closs, E I; Albritton, L M; Cunningham, J M


    Susceptibility of rodent cells to infection by ecotropic murine leukaemia viruses (MuLV) is determined by binding of the virus envelope to a membrane receptor that has multiple membrane-spanning domains. Cells infected by ecotropic MuLV synthesize envelope protein, gp70, which binds to this receptor, thereby preventing additional infections. The consequences of envelope-MuLV receptor binding for the infected host cell have not been directly determined, partly because the cellular function of the MuLV receptor protein is unknown. Here we report a coincidence in the positions of the first eight putative membrane-spanning domains found in the virus receptor and in two related proteins, the arginine and histidine permeases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fig. 1), but not in any other proteins identified by computer-based sequence comparison of the GenBank data base. Xenopus oocytes injected with receptor-encoding messenger RNA show increased uptake of L-arginine, L-lysine and L-ornithine. The transport properties and the expression pattern of the virus receptor behave in ways previously attributed to y+, the principal transporter of cationic L-amino acids in mammalian cells.

  4. Phase behavior and properties of salt-free cationic/anionic surfactant mixtures of oleic acid and stearic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO DianYing; LI HongGuang; SONG AiXin; HAO JingCheng


    Cationic base surfactant,tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TTAOH),can be obtained through anion exchange from tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTABr).Salt-free cationic and anionic (catanionic) surfactant mixtures were studied by mixing TTAOH with oleic acid (OA) or stearic acid (SA) in water.The phase behavior of TTAOH/OA/H_2O is compared with that of TTAOH/SA/H_2O.It was found that the phase behavior of TTAOH/OA/H_2O and TTAOH/SA/H_2O system differs from each other due to the existence of the unsaturated double carbon bond (C=C) in OA.At fixed total surfactant concentration (25 mg/mL) of TTAOHIONH_2O system at 25℃,one can observe an isotropic L_1 phase,and a L_1/L_α two-phase region with increasing OA content.The volume of top turbid L.phase increases while the bottom phase changes gradually from transparently clear to a bit turbid until a single L_α-phase is reached.Finally at high OA concentration,excess OA is separated from the bulk aqueous solutions.TTAOH/SA/H_2O system usually forms white precipitating at 25℃ due to the high chain melting temperature of SA.When heated to 60℃,however,the state of samples changes.At fixed total surfactant concentration of 25 mg/mL,an isotropic L1 phase and a milk-white or bluish La-phase are observed with increasing SA concentration.Transparent thin layers which are strongly birefringent form at the tops of some samples within the L_α-phase region.Finally,at high SA concentration,excess SA is separated from the bulk aqueous solutions.In addition to phase behavior study,we also measured the conductivity of TTAOH/OA/H_2O system at 25℃ and TTAOH/SA/H_2O system at 60℃,respectively.Surface tension and rheological measurements were also performed on typical samples.

  5. Single Photon Initiated Decomposition Rearrangement Reactions (spidrr) of Organic Molecules Mediated by the Ni+ Cation (United States)

    Bellert, Darrin; Mansell, Adam; Theis, Zachary; Gutierrez, Michael


    The Bellert group at Baylor University has developed a novel method for performing single photon initiated decomposition rearrangement reactions (SPIDRR) of organic molecules mediated by a transition metal cation. The advantage that SPIDRR affords is the direct measurement of first order microcanonical rate constants, k(E), determined at resolved internal energies. Furthermore, the SPIDRR technique measures kinetic details of exothermic reactions where product production is limited only by submerged activation barriers (kinetic barriers that are at energies below the separated reactant limit). Thus, such reactions approach unit efficiency, are thermodynamically driven, and are of greater relevance to catalytic research. Direct measurements of k(E) values extend to isotopically labelled species that provide direct measurement of the kinetic isotope effect (KIE), furnishing unique insight into the mechanistic details of a reaction. This talk presents results from the visible photon initiated, Ni+ induced decarbonylation reaction of propionaldehyde. Here a rather unique energy dependent behavior of the measured rate constants was observed and attributed to a dynamic competition between parallel reaction coordinates available to the photo-excited precursor. RRKM calculations in concert with high level DFT is used to support and further experimental results.

  6. Transport of dicationic drugs pentamidine and furamidine by human organic cation transporters. (United States)

    Ming, Xin; Ju, Wujian; Wu, Huali; Tidwell, Richard R; Hall, James E; Thakker, Dhiren R


    The antiparasitic activity of aromatic diamidine drugs, pentamidine and furamidine, depends on their entry into the pathogenic protozoa via membrane transporters. However, no such diamidine transporter has been identified in mammalian cells. The goal of this study is to investigate whether these dicationic drugs are substrates for human organic cation transporters (hOCTs, solute carrier family 22A1-3) and whether hOCTs play a role in their tissue distribution, elimination, and toxicity. Inhibitory and substrate activities of pentamidine and furamidine were studied in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The results of [(3)H]1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium uptake study showed that pentamidine is a potent inhibitor for all three OCT isoforms (IC50 pentamidine and furamidine was 4.4- and 9.3-fold greater, respectively, in CHO-hOCT1 cells compared with the mock cells. Ranitidine, an hOCT1 inhibitor, reversed this hOCT1-mediated potentiation of cytotoxicity. This is the first finding that dicationic drugs, such as pentamidine and furamidine, are substrates for hOCT1. In humans, aromatic diamidines are primarily eliminated in the bile but are distributed and cause toxicity in both liver and kidney. These transporters may play important roles in the disposition of aromatic diamidines in humans, as well as resultant drug-drug interactions and toxicity involving diamidine drugs.

  7. Transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1 affects the expression of porcine Klotho (KL gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li


    Full Text Available Klotho (KL, originally discovered as an aging suppressor, is a membrane protein that shares sequence similarity with the β-glucosidase enzymes. Recent reports showed Klotho might play a role in adipocyte maturation and systemic glucose metabolism. However, little is known about the transcription factors involved in regulating the expression of porcine KL gene. Deletion fragment analysis identified KL-D2 (−418 bp to −3 bp as the porcine KL core promoter. MARC0022311SNP (A or G in KL intron 1 was detected in Landrace × DIV pigs using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. The pGL-D2-A and pGL-D2-G were constructed with KL-D2 and the intron fragment of different alleles and relative luciferase activity of pGL3-D2-G was significantly higher than that of pGL3-D2-A in the PK cells and ST cells. This was possibly the result of a change in KL binding ability with transcription factor organic cation transporter 1 (OCT-1, which was confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA and chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP. Moreover, OCT-1 regulated endogenous KL expression by RNA interference experiments. Our study indicates SNP MARC0022311 affects porcine KL expression by regulating its promoter activity via OCT-1.

  8. Choline acetyltransferase and organic cation transporters are responsible for synthesis and propionate-induced release of acetylcholine in colon epithelium. (United States)

    Bader, Sandra; Klein, Jochen; Diener, Martin


    Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter, but is found in a variety of non-neuronal cells. For example, the enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), catalyzing acetylcholine synthesis, is expressed by the colonic epithelium of different species. These cells release acetylcholine across the basolateral membrane after luminal exposure to propionate, a short-chain fatty acid. The functional consequence is the induction of chloride secretion, measurable as increase in short-circuit current (Isc) in Ussing chamber experiments. It is unclear how acetylcholine is produced and released by colonic epithelium. Therefore, the aim of the present study was the identification (on mRNA and protein level) and functional characterization (in Ussing chamber experiments combined with HPLC detection of acetylcholine) of transporters/enzymes in the cholinergic system of rat colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemical staining as well as RT-PCR revealed the expression of high-affinity choline transporter, ChAT, carnitine acetyltransferase (CarAT), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, 3) in colonic epithelium. In contrast to blockade of ChAT with bromoacetylcholine, inhibition of CarAT with mildronate did not inhibit the propionate-induced increase in Isc, suggesting a predominant synthesis of epithelial acetylcholine by ChAT. Although being expressed, blockade of VAChT with vesamicol was ineffective, whereas inhibition of OCTs with omeprazole and corticosterone inhibited propionate-induced Isc and the release of acetylcholine into the basolateral compartment. In summary, OCTs seem to be involved in regulated acetylcholine release by colonic epithelium, which is assumed to be involved in chemosensing of luminal short-chain fatty acids by the intestinal epithelium.

  9. Indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography of common inorganic ions with sulfosalicylic acid eluent. (United States)

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Mori, Masanobu; Nakatani, Nobutake; Arai, Kaori; Masuno, Tomoe; Koseki, Masakazu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    Herein, we describe indirect UV detection-ion-exclusion/cation-exchange chromatography (IEC/CEC) on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form (TSKgel Super IC-A/C) using sulfosalicylic acid as the eluent. The goal of the study was to characterize the peaks detected by UV detector. The peak directions of analyte ions in UV at 315 nm were negative because the molar absorbance coefficients of analyte anions and cations were lower than that of the sulfosalicylic acid eluent. Good chromatographic resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios of analyte ions were obtained for the separations performed using 1.1 mM sulfosalicylic acid and 1.5 mM 18-crown-6 as the eluent. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak areas ranged from 0.6 to 4.9%. Lower detection limits of the analytes were achieved using indirect UV detection at 315 nm (0.23 - 0.98 μM) than those obtained with conductometric detection (CD) (0.61 - 2.1 μM) under the optimized elution conditions. The calibration curves were linear in the range from 0.01 to 1.0 mM except for Cl(-), which was from 0.02 to 2.0 mM. The present method was successfully applied to determine common inorganic ions in a pond water sample.

  10. Inhibition of human organic cation transporters by the alkaloids matrine and oxymatrine. (United States)

    Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Li; Gründemann, Dirk; Sweet, Douglas H


    Human organic cation transporters (hOCTs; SLC22) are expressed in many organs, including intestine, liver, kidney, heart and brain, where they contribute to the absorption, distribution, and elimination of endogenous and exogenous substances. The alkaloids matrine and oxymatrine are widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer, as well as viral, and cardiac diseases. Their physicochemical properties indicated that they are potential inhibitors for hOCTs, leading to drug-drug interactions in vivo. Therefore, we assessed the inhibitory effects of matrine and oxymatrine on the function of hOCT1 (SLC22A1), hOCT2 (SLC22A2) and hOCT3 (SLC22A3) using stably transfected transporter-expressing cells. At 100-fold excess, oxymatrine exhibited marked inhibition of hOCT1-mediated substrate uptake (pmatrine failed to produce significant inhibition on hOCT1. The IC50 value for oxymatrine on hOCT1 was estimated as 513±132 μM. While there was no significant inhibition of hOCT2 or hOCT3 at 100-fold excess, oxymatrine and matrine showed 42% and 88% inhibition of hOCT3-mediated substrate uptake at 3 and 6mM, respectively. Considering the potential intestinal lumen and reported plasma concentrations of matrine and oxymatrine, these data suggest that drug-drug interactions may occur during hOCT1-mediated hepatic and renal uptake and during hOCT3-mediated intestinal absorption.

  11. Proton pump inhibitors inhibit metformin uptake by organic cation transporters (OCTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne T Nies

    Full Text Available Metformin, an oral insulin-sensitizing drug, is actively transported into cells by organic cation transporters (OCT 1, 2, and 3 (encoded by SLC22A1, SLC22A2, or SLC22A3, which are tissue specifically expressed at significant levels in various organs such as liver, muscle, and kidney. Because metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism, drug-drug interaction by inhibition of OCT transporters may be important. So far, comprehensive data on the interaction of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs with OCTs are missing although PPIs are frequently used in metformin-treated patients. Using in silico modeling and computational analyses, we derived pharmacophore models indicating that PPIs (i.e. omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, and tenatoprazole are potent OCT inhibitors. We then established stably transfected cell lines expressing the human uptake transporters OCT1, OCT2, or OCT3 and tested whether these PPIs inhibit OCT-mediated metformin uptake in vitro. All tested PPIs significantly inhibited metformin uptake by OCT1, OCT2, and OCT3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values (IC(50 were in the low micromolar range (3-36 µM and thereby in the range of IC(50 values of other potent OCT drug inhibitors. Finally, we tested whether the PPIs are also transported by OCTs, but did not identify PPIs as OCT substrates. In conclusion, PPIs are potent inhibitors of the OCT-mediated metformin transport in vitro. Further studies are needed to elucidate the clinical relevance of this drug-drug interaction with potential consequences on metformin disposition and/or efficacy.

  12. Alleviating soil acidity through plant organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meda Anderson R.


    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of water soluble plant extracts on soil acidity. The plant materials were: black oat, oil seed radish, white and blue lupin, gray and dwarf mucuna, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. breviflora, millet, pigeon pea, star grass, mato grosso grass, coffee leaves, sugar cane leaves, rice straw, and wheat straw. Plant extracts were added on soil surface in a PVC soil column at a rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both soil and drainage water were analyzed for pH, Ca, Al, and K. Plant extracts applied on the soil surface increased soil pH, exchangeable Ca ex and Kex and decreased Al ex. Oil seed radish, black oat, and blue lupin were the best and millet the worst materials to alleviate soil acidity. Oil seed radish markedly increased Al in the drainage water. Chemical changes were associated with the concentrations of basic cations in the plant extract: the higher the concentration the greater the effects in alleviating soil acidity.

  13. Determination of some aliphatic carboxylic acids in anaerobic digestion process waters by ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection on a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column. (United States)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Takayama, Yohichi; Ikedo, Mikaru; Mori, Masanobu; Taoda, Hiroshi; Xu, Qun; Hu, Wenzhi; Sunahara, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Tsuneo; Sato, Shinji; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    The determination of seven aliphatic carboxylic acids, formic, acetic, propionic, isobutyric, n-butyric, isovaleric and n-valeric acids in anaerobic digestion process waters was examined using ion-exclusion chromatography with conductimetric detection. The analysis of these biologically important carboxylic acids is necessary as a measure for evaluating and controlling the process. The ion-exclusion chromatography system employed consisted of polymethacrylate-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin columns (TSKgel OApak-A or TSKgel Super IC-A/C). weakly acidic eluent (benzoic acid), and conductimetric detection. Particle size and cation-exchange capacity were 5 microm and 0.1 meq./ml for TSKgel OApak-A and 3 microm and 0.2 meq./ml for TSKgel Super IC-A/C, respectively. A dilute eluent (1.0-2.0 mM) of benzoic acid was effective for the high resolution and highly conductimetric detection of the carboxylic acids. The good separation of isobutyric and n-butyric acids was performed using the TSKgel Super IC-A/C column (150 mm x 6.0 mm i.d. x 2). The simple and good chromatograms were obtained by the optimized ion-exclusion chromatography conditions for real samples from mesophilic anaerobic digestors, thus the aliphatic carboxylic acids were successfully determined without any interferences.

  14. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: Separation of highly basic proteins using volatile acidic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Oostwaard, Th.M.J.; Laat, S.W. de; Zoelen, E.J.J. van


    The chromatographic behavior of a number of globular proteins was studied on a Bio-Sil TSK CM-2-SW weak cation exchange HPLC column under acidic conditions. A linear gradient of O-I M NH₄Ac in I M HOAc, inducing a convex pH gradient from 2.4-4.8, resulted in an excellent separation of highly basic p

  15. Effects of dietary protein and amino acid levels on the expression of selected cationic amino acid transporters and serum amino acid concentration in growing pigs. (United States)

    García-Villalobos, Héctor; Morales-Trejo, Adriana; Araiza-Piña, Benedicto A; Htoo, John K; Cervantes-Ramírez, Miguel


    The absorption of lysine is facilitated by leucine, but there is no information regarding the effect of crude protein, lysine and leucine levels on the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs. Therefore, an experiment was conducted with 20 pigs (14.9 +/- 0.62 kg initial body weight) to evaluate the effect of two protein levels, and the content of lysine, threonine, methionine and leucine in low crude protein diets on the expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 mRNA in jejunum, Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles and serum concentration of amino acids. Treatments were as follows: (i) wheat-soybean meal diet, 20% crude protein (Control); (ii) wheat diet deficient in lysine, threonine and methionine (Basal diet); (iii) Basal diet plus 0.70% L-lysine, 0.27% L-threonine, 0.10% DL-methionine (Diet LTM); (iv) Diet LTM plus 0.80% L-leucine (Diet LTM + Leu). Despite the Basal diet, all diets were formulated to meet the requirements of lysine, threonine and methionine; Diet LTM + Leu supplied 60% excess of leucine. The addition of lysine, threonine and methionine in Diet LTM increased the expression of b(0,+) in jejunum and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles and decreased CAT-1 in jejunum; the serum concentration of lysine was also increased (p Pigs fed the Control diet expressed less b(0,+) in jejunum, and CAT-1 in the Semitendinosus and Longissiums muscles expressed more CAT-1 in jejunum (p dietary amino acids, affect the expression of cationic amino acid transporters in pigs fed wheat-based diets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.


    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  17. Role of a Hydrophobic Pocket in Polyamine Interactions with the Polyspecific Organic Cation Transporter OCT3. (United States)

    Li, Dan C; Nichols, Colin G; Sala-Rabanal, Monica


    Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3) is a polyspecific, facilitative transporter expressed in astrocytes and in placental, intestinal, and blood-brain barrier epithelia, and thus elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying OCT3 substrate recognition is critical for the rational design of drugs targeting these tissues. The pharmacology of OCT3 is distinct from that of other OCTs, and here we investigated the role of a hydrophobic cavity tucked within the translocation pathway in OCT3 transport properties. Replacement of an absolutely conserved Asp by charge reversal (D478E), neutralization (D478N), or even exchange (D478E) abolished MPP(+) uptake, demonstrating this residue to be obligatory for OCT3-mediated transport. Mutations at non-conserved residues lining the putative binding pocket of OCT3 to the corresponding residue in OCT1 (L166F, F450L, and E451Q) reduced the rate of MPP(+) transport, but recapitulated the higher sensitivity pharmacological profile of OCT1. Thus, interactions of natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine) and polyamine-like potent OCT1 blockers (1,10-diaminodecane, decamethonium, bistriethylaminodecane, and 1,10-bisquinuclidinedecane) with wild-type OCT3 were weak, but were significantly potentiated in the mutant OCT3s. Conversely, a reciprocal mutation in OCT1 (F161L) shifted the polyamine-sensitivity phenotype toward that of OCT3. Further analysis indicated that OCT1 and OCT3 can recognize essentially the same substrates, but the strength of substrate-transporter interactions is weaker in OCT3, as informed by the distinct makeup of the hydrophobic cleft. The residues identified here are key contributors to both the observed differences between OCT3 and OCT1 and to the mechanisms of substrate recognition by OCTs in general.

  18. Combinatorial pharmacophore modeling of organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) inhibitors: insights into multiple inhibitory mechanisms. (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Li, Shanshan; Zhou, Nannan; Gong, Likun; Luo, Cheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Zheng, Mingyue; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian


    Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) is responsible for the entry step of many drugs in renal elimination, of which the changing activity may cause unwanted drug-drug interactions (DDIs). To develop drugs with favorable safety profile and provide instruction for rational clinical drug administration, it is of great interest to investigate the multiple mechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. In this study, we designed a combinatorial scheme to screen the optimum combination of pharmacophores from a pool of hypotheses established based on 162 OCT2 inhibitors. Among them, one single pharmacophore hypothesis represents a potential binding mode that may account for one unique inhibitory mechanism, and the obtained pharmacophore combination describes the multimechanisms of OCT2 inhibition. The final model consists of four individual pharmacophores, i.e., DHPR18, APR2, PRR5 and HHR4. Given a query ligand, it is considered as an inhibitor if it matches at least one of the hypotheses, or a noninhibitor if it fails to match any of four hypotheses. Our combinatorial pharmacophore model performs reasonably well to discriminate inhibitors and noninhibitors, yielding an overall accuracy around 0.70 for a test set containing 81 OCT2 inhibitors and 218 noninhibitors. Intriguingly, we found that the number of matched hypotheses was positively correlated with inhibition rate, which coincides with the pharmacophore modeling result of P-gp substrate binding. Further analysis suggested that the hypothesis PRR5 was responsible for competitive inhibition of OCT2, and other hypotheses were important for interaction between the inhibitor and OCT2. In light of the results, a hypothetical model for inhibiting transporting mediated by OCT2 was proposed.

  19. Weak organic acid stress in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, A.S.


    Weak organic acids are commonly used food preservatives that protect food products from bacterial contamination. A variety of spore-forming bacterial species pose a serious problem to the food industry by causing extensive food spoilage or even food poisoning. Understanding the mechanisms of bacteri

  20. Study and Development on the Organic Cationic Flocculant%有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑怀礼; 舒型武


      At present, the organic cationic polymer flocculants have been received more and more concerns from scientists and technologists extensively, the remark able progresses has been obtained. The commentary and introduction on researching development and application of the cationic organic flocculants at home and abroad have been introduced in this article, including the graft copolymerization of cationic polyacrylamide, hydroxyl etherification, variety of two alkenes two alkyl halogenated ammonium, the reaction product of epichhydin and amine, etc. Especially,the synthetic nonpoisonous cationic polymer flocculants and the modified cationic polymer flocculants from natural polymer such as starch in recent years are summarized and discusseed.%  近年来,有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂得到国内外学者的广泛重视。它的研究、开发、应用都取得了显著进展。本文对此进行评述和介绍,内容涉及阳离子型聚丙烯酰胺接枝共聚物、羟基醚化类、二烷基二烯丙基卤化铵类和环氧氯丙烷与胺反应物,特别是近年来淀粉等天然高分子改性阳离子型絮凝剂和人工合成的无毒有机阳离子高分子絮凝剂。

  1. Network diversity through decoration of trigonal-prismatic nodes: Two-step crystal engineering of cationic metal-organic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander


    MOMs the word! In a two-step process, first a trigonal-prismatic Primary Molecular Building Block ([Cr3O(isonic)6]+, tp-PMBB-1) was formed and then it was connected to linear linkers or square-planar nodes to afford three novel highly charged cationic metal-organic materials (MOMs) with snx, snw, and stp topologies. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Revealing the role of organic cations in hybrid halide perovskite CH3NH3PbI3


    Sanvito, Stefano; Motta, Carlo


    The hybrid halide perovskite CH$_{3}$NH$_{3}$PbI$_{3}$ has enabled solar cells to reach an efficiency of about 18\\%, demonstrating a pace for improvements with no precedents in the solar energy arena. Despite such explosive progress, the microscopic origin behind the success of such material is still debated, with the role played by the organic cations in the light-harvesting process remaining unclear. Here van-der-Waals-corrected density functional theory calculations reveal that the orienta...

  3. Three iodometalate organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on methylene blue cation: Syntheses, structures, properties and DFT calculations (United States)

    Chai, Wen-Xiang; Lin, Jian; Song, Li; Qin, Lai-Shun; Shi, Hong-Sheng; Guo, Jia-Yu; Shu, Kang-Ying


    The functional dye of methylene blue (MB) has been employed for seeking new organic-inorganic hybrid photochromic materials. Although the photochromism has not been observed yet, three iodometalate compounds, namely (MB) (PbI3) (DMF) (1), (MB)4(Cu2I4)2 (2), and (MB)3(Bi2I9) (DMF)2 (3), have been synthesized and characterized. The iodometalate anion features as a [PbI3]∞- chain in 1, a dinuclear unit of Cu2I42- in 2, and a dinuclear unit of Bi2I93- in 3. Due to the synergy of cations and anions, the MB+ cations present supramolecular column stacks in 1 and 3, but a novel supramolecular octamer structure in 2. Their thermogravimetric analyses reveal that the polymeric inorganic anion structure is helpful to increase the stability of cation whereas the discrete structure is adverse. For seeking some clues which is significant to searching new photochromic systems, the density functional theory (DFT) studies have been performed on 1, in which the electronic structure analyses suggests that the stacking mode of cations and anions could be also an important factor influencing the charge transfer between them. In addition, dielectric hysteresis loop testing has been performed on 1 due to its polar space group of Cc.

  4. Hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic/strong cation-exchange functional groups as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction. (United States)

    Zheng, Ming-Ming; Ruan, Ge-Deng; Feng, Yu-Qi


    A hybrid organic-inorganic silica monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups was prepared and used as a sorbent for micro-solid phase extraction (micro-SPE). The hybrid silica monolith functionalized with octyl and thiol groups was conveniently synthesized by hydrolysis and polycondensation of a mixture of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), n-octyltriethoxysilane (C8-TEOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) via a two-step catalytic sol-gel process. Due to the favorable chemical reactivity of mercapto pendant moieties, the obtained hybrid monolith was oxidized using hydrogen peroxide (30%, w/w) to yield sulfonic acid groups, which provided strong cation-exchange sites. The obtained hybrid monolith was characterized by diffused infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the resulting monolith contains much higher carbon (31.6%) and sulfur (4.8%) contents than traditionally bonded silica materials. The extraction performance of the hybrid monolith was evaluated using sulfonamides as testing analytes by micro-SPE on-line coupled to HPLC. The results show that the hybrid monolith with hydrophobic and strong cation-exchange functional groups exhibits high extraction efficiency towards the testing analytes. The column-to-column RSD values were 1.3-9.8% for the extraction of SAs investigated. The extraction performance of the hybrid silica monolith remained practically unchanged after treated with acid (pH 1.0) and basic solutions (pH 10.5). Finally, the application of the hybrid monolith was demonstrated by micro-SPE of sulfonamide residues from milk followed by HPLC-UV analysis. The limits of detection (S/N=3) for eight SAs were found to be 1.0-3.0ng/mL in milk. The recoveries of eight SAs spiked in milk sample ranged from 80.2% to 115.6%, with relative standard deviations less than 11.8%.

  5. A novel triazole-based cationic gemini surfactant: synthesis and effect on corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Lingguang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)]. E-mail:; Xie Anjian [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Shen Yuhua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)


    A triazole-based cationic gemini surfactant, 3,5-bis(methylene octadecyl dimethylammonium chloride)-1,2,4-triazole (18-triazole-18) has been synthesized, and its effect on corrosion inhibition of A{sub 3} steel in 1 M HCl has been studied using the weight-loss method. The result showed that 18-triazole-18 acted as an excellent inhibitor in 1 M HCl. It was found that the adsorption mechanism of 18-triazole-18 on the steel surface in acid medium was quite different from that of cationic gemini surfactants containing dimethylene as a spacer, as well as that of conventional cationic single-chained surfactants, which is due to unique molecular structure of 18-triazole-18. 18-Triazole-18 may be adsorbed on the steel surface in acid medium through a maximum of four atoms or groups, i.e., the two nitrogen atoms of triazole ring and two quaternary ammonium head groups. Four regions of surfactant concentration could be divided to illustrate the adsorption of 18-triazole-18 on the steel surface, and four different adsorption mechanisms may take place in different regions of surfactant concentration.

  6. Equilibrium adsorption of caffeic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids on cationic cross-linked starch with quaternary ammonium groups. (United States)

    Simanaviciute, Deimante; Klimaviciute, Rima; Rutkaite, Ramune


    In the present study, the equilibrium adsorption of caffeic acid (CA) and its derivatives, namely, chlorogenic (CGA) and rosmarinic (RA) acids on cationic cross-linked starch (CCS) with degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium groups of 0.42 have been investigated in relation to the structure and acidity of phenolic acids. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption models have been used to describe the equilibrium adsorption of CA, CGA and RA from their initial solutions and solutions having the equimolar amount of NaOH at different temperatures. In the case of adsorption from the initial solutions of acids the values of adsorption parameters were closely related to the dissociation constants of investigated acids. According to the increasing effectiveness of adsorption, phenolic acids could be arranged in the following order: CAacids solutions changed their sorption properties which became mostly related to the acids structure.

  7. Cationic zinc (II) dimers and one dimensional coordination polymer from ionic carboxylic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paladugu Suresh; Ganesan Prabusankar


    A rare example of chelating two tetra cationic paddle-wheel zinc dimers were synthesized from the reaction between flexible imidazolium carboxylate (LH2Br2) and corresponding zinc precursors. A zinc coordination polymer was synthesised by treating in situ generation of 2 in the presence of 4,4′-bipyridine. These new molecules, dimers and polymer, were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, UV-vis, fluorescent and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Zinc polymer is the first example of 1D coordination polymer constructed by tetra cationic zinc dimer as a secondary building unit in coordination polymer.

  8. Zero-dipole molecular organic cations in mixed organic-inorganic halide perovskites: possible chemical solution for the reported anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curve measurements. (United States)

    Giorgi, Giacomo; Yamashita, Koichi


    Starting from a brief description of the main architectures characterizing the novel solar technology of perovskite-based solar cells, we focus our attention on the anomalous hysteresis experimentally found to affect the measurement of the current-voltage curve of such devices. This detrimental effect, associated with slow dynamic reorganization processes, depends on several parameters; among them, the scan rate of the measurements, the architecture of the cell, and the perovskite deposition rate are crucial. Even if a conclusive explanation of the origin of the hysteresis has not been provided so far, several experimental findings ascribe its origin to ionic migration at an applied bias and dielectric polarization that occurs in the perovskite layer. Consistently, a dipole-moment-reduced cation such as formamidinium ion is experimentally reported to quantitatively reduce the hysteresis from perovskite-based devices. By means of a density-functional theory-based set of calculations, we have predicted and characterized guanidinium ion (GA = (+)[C(NH2)3], a zero-dipole moment cation by symmetry)-based organic-inorganic halide perovskite's structural and electronic properties, speculating that such a cation and the alloys it may form with other organic cations can represent a possible chemical solution for the puzzling issue of the hysteresis.

  9. Increasing the gravimetric energy density of organic based secondary battery cathodes using small radius cations (Li+ and Mg2+). (United States)

    Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Rodríguez-Calero, Gabriel G; Zhou, Weidong; Burkhardt, Stephen E; Abruña, Héctor D


    One of the major challenges in electrochemical energy storage (EES) is increasing the gravimetric capacity and energy density of the cathode material. Here we demonstrate how to increase the gravimetric energy density of electrical energy storage devices based on the use of organic materials through exploitation of the strong ionic coupling between a reduced carbonyl functionality and small cations such as lithium (Li(+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)). Binding of the cation to the reduced carbonyl results in a positive shift of the formal reduction potential of the carbonyl couple. This has the effect of increasing the cell voltage which, in turn, results in an increase in the energy density. We show how this interaction can be used to dramatically increase, by up to a factor of 2, the energy density for a selected case study using 1,2-di(thiophen-2-yl)ethane-1,2-dione (DTED). We have carried out electrochemical and computational studies in order to understand the thermodynamic (positive shift of 250 mV and 1 V in the formal potential for the first and second reductions, respectively, of the carbonyl groups of DTED) and kinetic effects between small radii cations (Li(+) and Mg(2+)) and the reduced carbonyl functionality of carbonyl-based organic molecules (C-bOMs).

  10. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids (United States)

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan


    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  11. Filmogen organic-inorganic hybrids obtained by sol-gel in the presence of cationic polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donescu, Dan; Serban, Sever; Uricanu, Violeta; Duits, Michel; Perichaud, Alain; Olteanu, Mihaela; Spiroiu, Manuela; Vasilescu, Marilena


    Self-standing and coated-on-glass films were prepared from polymer-inorganic ormosils, using the cationic polymer poly(methacrylamide propyl quaternarydimethyldodecyl bromide). The inorganic compound was grown in sol-gel reactions based on methyltriethoxysilane (MeTES), with or without addition of t

  12. Layered inorganic-organic hybrid with talc-like structure for cation removal at the solid/liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badshah, Syed [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Airoldi, Claudio, E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    Graphical abstract: A lamellar inorganic-organic hybrid with talc-like structure has been synthesized through a single sol-gel step. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New silylating agent isolated from acrylamide includes basic centers attached to enlarged chain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lamellar inorganic-organic talc-like structure has been synthesized through a single sol-gel step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High basal distance accommodates the pendant chain in the cavities only in inclined disposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pendant chain sorbs spontaneously and favorable cations as demonstrated by thermodynamic data. - Abstract: A new silylating agent N-((3-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propylthio)propanamido)methyl)acrylamide synthesized from the reaction of N,N-methylenebisacrylamide and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane yielded layered inorganic-organic talc-like magnesium phyllosilicate through the sol-gel process. Elemental analysis data based on sulfur demonstrated incorporation of 2.70 mmol g{sup -1} of organic moiety inside the lamellar cavities and the X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the talc-like structure with a basal distance of 2.11 nm. Infrared spectroscopy, {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si NMR in the solid state are in agreement with the presence of organic chains covalently bonded to the inorganic lamellar framework, as also supported by the presence of T{sup n} silicon species. Nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur basic centers sorb divalent lead, copper and cobalt cations with maximum capacity of 5.30, 3.82 and 1.60 mmol g{sup -1}. The thermodynamic data for cation/basic center interactions at the solid/liquid interface were determined through calorimetric titration with exothermic enthalpy, negative Gibbs energy and positive entropy, as expected for spontaneous and favorable reaction conditions.

  13. Crystal structure of an organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on morpholinium cations and a β-type Anderson polyanion. (United States)

    Lukianova, Tamara J; Kinzhybalo, Vasyl; Pietraszko, Adam


    A new organic-inorganic hybrid compound, penta-morpholinium hexa-hydrogen hexa-molybdoferrate(III) sulfate 3.5-hydrate, (C4H10NO)5[Fe(III)(OH)6Mo6O18](SO4)·3.5H2O, was obtained from an aqueous solution. The polyoxidomolybdate (POM) anion is of the Anderson β-type with a central Fe(III) ion. Three of five crystallographically independent morpholinium cations are disordered over two sets of sites. An intricate network of inter-molecular N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O inter-actions between cations, POMs, sulfate anions and non-coordinating water mol-ecules creates a three-dimensional network structure.

  14. Organic Acid Composition in Croatian Predicate Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Mihaljević Žulj


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Continental Croatia wine region and especially Kutjevo vineyards are famous for their predicate wines production and quality. The most common grape varieties used there for different types of predicate wine are Welsch Riesling and Traminer. Ice wines, selected harvest wines and dry berry selection wines from different harvest years were examined by HPLC method to determine organic acids composition. The oldest sample was Traminer selected harvest from vintage year 1990, while the youngest wine was Traminer ice wine from harvest 2011. The dominant organic acids in all analyzed wines were tartaric, malic, citric and galactaric, ranged from 0.09 to 2.98 g/L. In most wines the difference in concentration of glucuronic, galacturonic and gluconic acids was established. The highest content of glucuronic acid was 58.4 mg/L in Traminer dry berry selection 2011. Galacturonic acid dominated in the same wine (924 mg/L, just like gluconic acid (141 mg/L. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  15. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils (United States)

    Ahmed, O. H.; Susilawati, K.; Nik Muhamad, A. B.; Khanif, M. Y.


    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  16. Coadsorption of low-molecular weight aromatic and aliphatic alcohols and acids with the cationic surfactant, CTAB, on silica surfaces. (United States)

    Wangchareansak, Thipvaree; Keniry, Max A; Liu, Guangming; Craig, Vincent S J


    We have investigated the coadsorption of a range of small molecules with the cationic surfactant CTAB to silica surfaces over a range of concentrations and CTAB to solute ratios and compared the coadsorption with adsorption in the presence of the salicylate ion. We find that molecules with aromatic character and molecules with double bonds are most favorably adsorbed, and we attribute this to cation-π bonding between the surfactant headgroups and the π orbitals of the unsaturated bonds of the solute molecules. The adsorption is complex and depends on chemical interactions between the solute molecules and the surfactant, which are highly specific to the structure of the solute. To improve our understanding of the specifics of these interactions, we have performed one-dimensional rotating frame Overhauser spectroscopy (ROESY) nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. These experiments show the complexity of the intermolecular interactions and can be used to determine the position of the solute molecule with regard to the CTAB molecules in the adsorbed aggregates. The ROESY spectrum for the salicylate anion is distinct from those of the other solute molecules and suggests that the anions are dimerizing. Along with the cation-π bonding between the dimers, this provides a model for the strong influence that salicylate has on adsorption, micellar structure, and viscoelasticity. The ROESY data indicate that the catechol molecule interacts with all parts of the surfactant alkane chains such that they wrap around the molecule, but this has little effect on the interfacial curvature or aggregate shape. More intense isophthalic acid-CTAB intermolecular ROEs compared to those of other aromatic solutes are consistent with an interaction between isophthalic acid and the headgroups of two surfactant molecules that slows the intramicellar motion of isophthalic acid. Differences in interactions between solute molecules and the aliphatic surfactant chains do not result in changes

  17. Unraveling the impact of hydroxylation on interactions of bile acid cationic lipids with model membranes by in-depth calorimetry studies. (United States)

    Singh, Manish; Bajaj, Avinash


    We used eight bile acid cationic lipids differing in the number of hydroxyl groups and performed in-depth differential scanning calorimetry studies on model membranes doped with different percentages of these cationic bile acids. These studies revealed that the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids modulate the phase transition and co-operativity of membranes. Lithocholic acid based cationic lipids having no free hydroxyl groups gel well with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes. Chenodeoxycholic acid lipids having one free hydroxyl group at the 7'-carbon position disrupt the membranes and lower their co-operativity. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid based cationic lipids have free hydroxyl groups at the 12'-carbon position, and at 7'- and 12'-carbon positions respectively. Doping of these lipids at high concentrations increases the co-operativity of membranes suggesting that these lipids might induce self-assembly in DPPC membranes. These different modes of interactions between cationic lipids and model membranes would help in future for exploring their use in DNA/drug delivery.

  18. Novel Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids based on benzothiazolium cations as catalysts for esterification reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hang


    Full Text Available Three novel Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids based on benzothiazolium cations were prepared, which served as catalysts for the synthesis of benzoic esters. All three gave good yields of the target esters in esterification reactions. Moreover, they combine the advantages of both homogeneous and heterogeneous solid catalysts in esterification reactions, which enabled them to serve as homogeneous catalysts to catalyze the reactions and be conveniently recovered by simple filtration after the reactions. They could be reused several times without noticeable decrease in efficiency.

  19. Simultaneous analysis of small organic acids and humic acids using high performance size exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, X.P.; Liu, F.; Wang, G.C.; Weng, L.P.


    An accurate and fast method for simultaneous determination of small organic acids and much larger humic acids was developed using high performance size exclusion chromatography. Two small organic acids, i.e. salicylic acid and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, and one purified humic acid material were used

  20. The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jinhua; Pan, Baofei; Duan, Wentao; Wei, Xiaoliang; Assary, Rajeev S.; Su, Liang; Brushett, Fikile; Cheng, Lei; Liao, Chen; Ferrandon, Magali S.; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Burrell, Anthony K.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Zhang, Lu


    Electrochemically reversible fluids of high energy density are promising materials for capturing the electrical energy generated from intermittent sources like solar and wind. To meet this technological challenge there is a need to understand the fundamental limits and interplay of electrochemical potential, stability and solubility in “lean” derivatives of redox-active molecules. Here we describe the process of molecular pruning, illustrated for 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)benzene, a molecule known to produce a persistently stable, high-potential radical cation. By systematically shedding molecular fragments considered important for radical cation steric stabilization, we discovered a minimalistic structure that retains long-term stability in its oxidized form. Interestingly, we find the tert-butyl groups are unnecessary; high stability of the radical cation and high solubility are both realized in derivatives having appropriately positioned arene methyl groups. These stability trends are rationalized by mechanistic considerations of the postulated decomposition pathways. We suggest that the molecular pruning approach will uncover lean redox active derivatives for electrochemical energy storage leading to materials with long-term stability and high intrinsic capacity.

  1. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine. (United States)

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A


    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  2. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens


    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further ex...... performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed......Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further...... expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high...

  3. The Role of Organic Acids in the Acid-Base Status of Surface Waters at Bickford Watershed, Massachusetts (United States)

    Eshleman, K. N.; Hemond, H. F.


    An experimental field study of the alkalinity and major ion budgets of Bickford watershed in central Massachusetts indicates that organic acid production by the ecosystem contributes measurably to surface water acidification. Applying the concepts of alkalinity, electroneutrality of solutions, and mass balance, organic acids were found to comprise 20% of all strong acid sources on one subcatchment annually, a value half as large as the measured bulk mineral acid deposition. Inorganic cation to anion ratios in Provencial Brook varied between 1.0 in winter and 1.6 during summer, suggesting the presence of up to 100 μeq/L of unmeasured charge from organic anions during the growing season. Base titrations and ultraviolet photooxidation experiments confirmed the existence of low pKa (3.5-5.0) acidic functional groups. A positive linear relationship between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anion deficit for a group of surface and groundwater samples indicates the DOC contains about 7.5 meq carboxylic groups per gram C. Biological factors related to both upland and wetland carbon metabolism apparently control this natural acidification phenomenon, which has not been documented on other watersheds in the northeastern United States for which annual alkalinity budgets have been determined.

  4. Competition Between Organic Matter and Solid Surface for Cation Sorption: Ce and Rare Earth Element as Proxy (United States)

    Davranche, M.; Pourret, O.; Gruau, G.; Dia, A.


    Aquatic or soil organic matter are well-known to be strong adsorbent of many cations due to their adsorption capacity. Among these cations, the trivalent rare earth element (REE) and particularly Ce seem to be promising tools to investigate the impact of competition in between organic or inorganic ligands. Ce (III) is oxidized into Ce (IV) by oxidative surface such as Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. Since Ce (IV) is preferentially adsorbed (as compared to other REE), a positive and negative Ce anomaly is developed respectively onto the solid and within the solution. Previous studies (Davranche et al., 2004, 2005) highlighted the suppression of this feature when Ce occurs to be complexed with organic matter (as humate species). Recent experiments were designed to evaluate the competition between humate and Mn oxide for REE complexation (each reactant being added simultaneously). Two parameters control the competition: time and pH. While organic matter does adsorb immediately the free REE, a desorption of REE occurs through time. Desorption is marked by the development of a Ce anomaly in the REE pattern that reflects the complexation with Mn oxide surface. Along the time, solid surface becomes thus more competitive than the organic matter. PH still influences the competition since at basic pH, REE and organic matter - probably as REE-organic complexes - are adsorbed onto the solid surface. Ultrafiltration analyses at 5 KD were also performed to separate organic matter and organic complexes from the solution. Results provide evidence that in presence of a solid surface, HREE (high rare earth element) desorption from the organic matter occurs through time. This leads to HREE enrichment in solution. All these results suggest that complexation of organic matter is kinetically favoured as compared to the complexation with solid surfaces. However, the organic complex formed during the first stage of the complexation process involves weak bindings. These bindings are easily broken

  5. Use of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column and propionic acid as an eluent in ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Hironaga, Takahiro; Kajiwara, Hiroe; Nakatani, Nobutake; Kozaki, Daisuke; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    We developed an ion-exclusion/adsorption chromatography (IEAC) method employing a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based weakly acidic cation-exchange resin (PS-WCX) column with propionic acid as the eluent for the simultaneous determination of multivalent aliphatic carboxylic acids and ethanol in food samples. The PS-WCX column well resolved mono-, di-, and trivalent carboxylic acids in the acidic eluent. Propionic acid as the eluent gave a higher signal-to-noise ratio, and enabled sensitive conductimetric detection of analyte acids. We found the optimal separation condition to be the combination of a PS-WCX column and 20-mM propionic acid. Practical applicability of the developed method was confirmed by using a short precolumn with a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H(+)-form connected before the separation column; this was to remove cations from food samples by converting them to hydrogen ions. Consequently, common carboxylic acids and ethanol in beer, wine, and soy sauce were successfully separated by the developed method.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by surface fluorination in degradation of organic cationic compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shi-ying; CHEN You-yuan; ZHENG Jian-guo; CUI Ying-jie


    Experiments were carried out to investigate the influence of TiO2 surface fluorination on the photodegradation of a representative organic cationic compound, Methylene Blue (MB). The electropositive MB shows poor adsorption on TiO2 surface; its degradation performs a HO· radical-mediated mechanism. In the F-modified system, the kinetic reaction rate enlarged more than 2.5 fold that was attributed mainly to the accumulating adsorption of MB and the increased photogenerated hole available on the F-modified TiO2 surface.

  7. Transport of organic anions and cations in murine embryonic kidney development and in serially-reaggregated engineered kidneys. (United States)

    Lawrence, Melanie L; Chang, C-Hong; Davies, Jamie A


    Recent advances in renal tissue engineering have shown that dissociated, early renogenic tissue from the developing embryo can self-assemble into morphologically accurate kidney-like organs arranged around a central collecting duct tree. In order for such self-assembled kidneys to be useful therapeutically or as models for drug screening, it is necessary to demonstrate that they are functional. One of the main functional characteristics of mature kidneys is transport of organic anions and cations into and out of the proximal tubule. Here, we show that the transport function of embryonic kidneys allowed to develop in culture follows a developmental time-course that is comparable to embryonic kidney development in vivo. We also demonstrate that serially-reaggregated engineered kidneys can transport organic anions and cations through specific uptake and efflux channels. These results support the physiological relevance of kidneys grown in culture, a commonly used model for kidney development and research, and suggest that serially-reaggregated kidneys self-assembled from separated cells have some functional characteristics of intact kidneys.

  8. Silica gel modified with ethylenediamine and succinic acid-adsorption and calorimetry of cations in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakaki, L.N.H.; Filha, V.L.S. Augusto; Germano, A.F.S.; Santos, S.S.G. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Fonseca, M.G., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Sousa, K.S.; Espínola, J.G.P. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, 58051-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil); Arakaki, T. [Department of Food Engineering, CT, Federal University of Paraíba, 58059-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)


    Highlights: ► Succinic acid-modified silica acted as an adsorbent for Cu (II), Ni (II), and Co (II) from aqueous solutions. ► Modified silica adsorbed metallic cations in the order Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. ► Succinic acid-modified silica could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of cations from aqueous solution. ► Thermodynamic data for these systems are favorable at the solid/liquid interface. - Abstract: Ethylenediamine molecules were covalently immobilized onto silica gel previously functionalized with 3-chlorosilylpropyltrimethoxysilane (Sil–Cl), producing a Sil–N surface. The Sil–N surface reacted with succinic acid, yielding a Sil–NSuc surface. This new synthesized silica gel surface was used to adsorb divalent cations from aqueous solutions at room temperature. The adsorption isotherms were fit to a modified Langmuir equation using the data obtained by suspending the solid in MCl{sub 2} (M = Cu, Ni, and Co) aqueous solutions, yielding the maximum number of moles adsorbed as 1.04 ± 0.01, 1.89 ± 0.02 and 1.85 ± 0.02 mmol g{sup −1} for divalent copper, nickel and cobalt, respectively. The metal-basic center ratio for complexes on the surfaces varied with the nature of the metal. The spontaneity of these systems was reflected in the negative values of the Gibbs free energy calculated using calorimetric data. The net thermal effects obtained from the calorimetric titration measurements were adjusted to a modified Langmuir equation, and the calculation of the enthalpies of the interaction for the complexation with Sil–NSuc yielded the following exothermic values: 2.81 ± 0.08, 0.35 ± 0.04 ± and 0.69 ± 0.05 kJ mol{sup −1} for Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+}, respectively. Based on these values, the metals are preferentially adsorbed in the order Cu{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+}. The other thermodynamic data for these systems are favorable at the solid/liquid interface, suggesting the efficacy of this

  9. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui


    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation

  10. Dissociations of copper(II)-containing complexes of aromatic amino acids: radical cations of tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. (United States)

    Siu, Chi-Kit; Ke, Yuyong; Guo, Yuzhu; Hopkinson, Alan C; Siu, K W Michael


    The dissociations of two types of copper(II)-containing complexes of tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), or phenylalanine (Phe) are described. The first type is the bis-amino acid complex, [Cu(II)(M)(2)].(2+), where M = Trp, Tyr, or Phe; the second [Cu(II)(4Cl-tpy)(M)].(2+), where 4Cl-tpy is the tridendate ligand 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine. Dissociations of the Cu(ii) bis-amino acid complexes produce abundant radical cation of the amino acid, M.(+), and/or its secondary products. By contrast, dissociations of the 4Cl-tpy-bearing ternary complexes give abundant M.(+) only for Trp. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that for Tyr and Phe, amino-acid displacement reactions by H(2)O and CH(3)OH (giving [Cu(II)(4Cl-tpy)(H(2)O)].(2+) and [Cu(II)(4Cl-tpy)(CH(3)OH)].(2+)) are energetically more favorable than dissociative electron transfer (giving M.(+) and [Cu(I)(4Cl-tpy)](+)). The fragmentation pathway common to all these [Cu(II)(4Cl-tpy)(M)].(2+) ions is the loss of NH(3). DFT calculations show that the loss of NH(3) proceeds via a "phenonium-type" intermediate. Dissociative electron transfer in [Cu(II)(4Cl-tpy)(M-NH(3))].(2+) results in [M-NH(3)].(+). The [Phe-NH(3)] (+) ion dissociates facilely by eliminating CO(2) and giving a metastable phenonium-type ion that rearranges readily into the styrene radical cation.

  11. Molecular modeling of organic corrosion inhibitors: why bare metal cations are not appropriate models of oxidized metal surfaces and solvated metal cations. (United States)

    Kokalj, Anton


    The applicability of various models of oxidized metal surfaces - bare metal cations, clusters of various size, and extended (periodic) slabs - that are used in the field of quantum-chemical modeling of corrosion inhibitors is examined and discussed. As representative model systems imidazole inhibitor, MgO surface, and solvated Mg(2+) ion are considered by means of density-functional-theory calculations. Although the results of cluster models are prone to cluster size and shape effects, the clusters of moderate size seem useful at least for qualitative purposes. In contrast, the bare metal cations are useless not only as models of oxidized surfaces but also as models of solvated cations, because they bind molecules several times stronger than the more appropriate models. In particular, bare Mg(2+) binds imidazole by 5.9 eV, while the slab model of MgO(001) by only 0.35 eV. Such binding is even stronger for 3+ cations, e.g., bare Al(3+) binds imidazole by 17.9 eV. The reasons for these fantastically strong binding energies are discussed and it is shown that the strong bonding is predominantly due to electron charge transfer from molecule to metal cation, which stems from differences between molecular and metal ionization potentials.

  12. Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by polyoxometalate-based metal-organic framework composite (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Gong, Wenpeng; Luo, Jing; Zou, Chentao; Yang, Yun; Yang, Shuijin


    A novel environmental friendly adsorbent H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was synthesized by a simple one-step reaction under solvothermal conditions and characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The removal rate of H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 was quite greater (85%) than that of MOF-5 (almost zero), showing that the adsorption performance of porous MOF-5 can be improved through the modification of H6P2W18O62. Further study revealed that H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 exhibited a fast adsorption rate and selective adsorption ability towards the cationic dyes in aqueous solution. The removal rate was up to 97% for cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and 68% for rhodamine B(Rhb) within 10 min. However, anionicdye methyl orange(MO) can only reach to 10%. The influences including initial concentration, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature of MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 were investigated in detail. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of MB onto H6P2W18O62/MOF-5 followed the pseudo second-order model well. The isotherm obtained from experimental data fitted the Langmuir model, yielding maximum adsorption capacity of 51.81 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters analysis illustrated that the MB adsorption onto H6P2W18O62 immobilized MOF-5 was spontaneous and endothermic process. Besides, these results implied that designing a novel material polyoxometalate-based metal-organic frameworks is great potential for removing cationic organic pollutants and even extended to improve other specific application.

  13. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K


    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  14. Theoretical vibrational spectra and thermodynamics of organic semiconductive tetrathiafulvalene and its cation radical. (United States)

    Mukherjee, V; Singh, N P


    Molecular structure in optimum geometry and vibrational frequencies of pentafulvalene [bicyclopentyliden-2,4,2',4'-tetraene], tetrathiafulvalene [2,2'-bis(1,3-dithiolylidene)] and its cation are calculated. All the calculations are carried out by employing density functional theory incorporated with a suitable basis set. Normal coordinate analysis is also employed to scale the DFT calculated frequencies and to calculate potential energy distributions. The molecular structures and vibrational frequencies are compared for both the pentafulvalene and tetrathiafulvalene molecules. The effect upon geometry and vibrational frequencies of TTF due to charge transfer has also been studied. The vibrational partition function and hence, the thermodynamical properties, such as Helmholtz free energy, entropy, specific heat at constant volume and enthalpy are also calculated and compared for the title molecules. The reason of conductivity of tetrathiafulvalene has been tried to explain on the basis of molecular geometry and normal modes. Study of vibrational partition function exhibits that below 109 K, PFV starts to condense.

  15. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi. (United States)

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj


    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  16. Uremic Toxins Induce ET-1 Release by Human Proximal Tubule Cells, which Regulates Organic Cation Uptake Time-Dependently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M. S. Schophuizen


    Full Text Available In renal failure, the systemic accumulation of uremic waste products is strongly associated with the development of a chronic inflammatory state. Here, the effect of cationic uremic toxins on the release of inflammatory cytokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1 was investigated in conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC. Additionally, we examined the effects of ET-1 on the cellular uptake mediated by organic cation transporters (OCTs. Exposure of ciPTEC to cationic uremic toxins initiated production of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 (117 ± 3%, p < 0.001, IL-8 (122 ± 3%, p < 0.001, and ET-1 (134 ± 5%, p < 0.001. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of OCT mediated 4-(4-(dimethylaminostyryl-N-methylpyridinium-iodide (ASP+ uptake in ciPTEC at 30 min (23 ± 4%, p < 0.001, which restored within 60 min of incubation. Exposure to ET-1 for 24 h increased the ASP+ uptake significantly (20 ± 5%, p < 0.001. These effects could be blocked by BQ-788, indicating activation of an ET-B-receptor-mediated signaling pathway. Downstream the receptor, iNOS inhibition by (N(G‐monomethyl‐l‐arginine l-NMMA acetate or aminoguanidine, as well as protein kinase C activation, ameliorated the short-term effects. These results indicate that uremia results in the release of cytokines and ET-1 from human proximal tubule cells, in vitro. Furthermore, ET-1 exposure was found to regulate proximal tubular OCT transport activity in a differential, time-dependent, fashion.

  17. Adsorption characteristics of humic acid-immobilized amine modified polyacrylamide/bentonite composite for cationic dyes in aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. S. Anirudhan; P. S. Suchithra


    Humic acid-immobilized amine modified polyacrylamide/bentonite composite (HA-Am-PAA-B) was prepared and used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of cationic dyes (Malachite Green (MG), Methylene Blue (MB) and Crystal Violet (CV)) from aqueous solutions. The polyacrylamide/bentonite composite (PAA-B) was prepared by intercalative polymerization of acrylamide with Na-bentonite in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinking agent and hexamethylenediammine as propagater. PAA-B was subsequently treated with ethylenediammine to increase its loading capacity for HA. The surface characterizations of the adsorbent were investigated. The adsorbent behaved like a cation exchanger and more than 99.0% removal of dyes was detected at pH range 6.0-8.0. The capacity of HA-Am-PAA-B was found to decrease in the following order: MG > MB > CV. The kinetic and isotherm data were interpreted by pseudo-second order rate equation and Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. Experiments were carried out using binary solute systems to assess the competitive adsorption phenomenon. The experimental isotherm data for each binary solute combination of MG, MB and CV were analyzed using Sheindrof-Rebhun-Sheintuch (SRS) (multicomponent Freundlich type) equation.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of the 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) Radical Cation-Scavenging Reaction Products of Arbutin. (United States)

    Tai, Akihiro; Ohno, Asako; Ito, Hideyuki


    Arbutin, a glucoside of hydroquinone, has shown strong 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation-scavenging activity, especially in reaction stoichiometry. This study investigated the reaction mechanism of arbutin against ABTS radical cation that caused high stoichiometry of arbutin in an ABTS radical cation-scavenging assay. HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture of arbutin and ABTS radical cation indicated the existence of two reaction products. The two reaction products were purified and identified to be a covalent adduct of arbutin with an ABTS degradation fragment and 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolone. A time-course study of the radical-scavenging reactions of arbutin and the two reaction products suggested that one molecule of arbutin scavenges three ABTS radical cation molecules to generate an arbutin-ABTS fragment adduct as a final reaction product. The results suggest that one molecule of arbutin reduced two ABTS radical cation molecules to ABTS and then cleaved the third ABTS radical cation molecule to generate two products, an arbutin-ABTS fragment adduct and 3-ethyl-6-sulfonate benzothiazolone.

  19. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production. (United States)

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter


    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  20. Novel Brφnsted Acidic Ionic Liquid Based on a Cyclic Guanidinium Cation: a Green, Efficient, and Recyclable Dual Slovent-catalyst System for Fisher Esterification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xu; DUAN Hai-feng; SUN Hai; CAO Jun-gang; LIN Ying-jie


    A novel Brφnsted acidic ionic liquid(IL) based on the cyclic guanidinium cation has been synthesized. This IL,as a strong Brφnsted acid catalyst or solvent, shows high catalytic activity and biphsaic behavor in the esterifications of carboxylic acids and alcohols. The produced esters as a separate phase can be conveniently decanted out from the IL and the IL is recyclable without any loss of catalytic activity.

  1. Lixiviação de cátions favorecida pela presença de ânions inorgânicos e ácidos orgânicos de baixa massa molecular em solos adubados com camas de aviário Cation leaching favored by inorganic anions and low molecular mass organic acids in soils fertilized with different poultry litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Oliveira Gebrim


    to 1.200 mm, totaling 10 applications. Leachates were analyzed for cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na, anions (Cl-, NO3-and SO4(2- and low molecular mass organic acids by ion chromatography. Results indicate substantial base-leaching through the soil columns, particularly up to the third percolation. This was most likely a result of the presence of bases contained in the high poultry litter doses and the presence of accompanying anions (Cl-, NO3-and SO4(2-in the sandy loam soil and Cl-and NO3-in the clayey soil. Ca leaching was positively correlated with the malic and oxalic acid concentrations in the clayey soil. High acetic acid concentration in leachates of poultry litter-treated soils suggest that it may have favored base-leaching in the soil profile as a result of its action as an ion pair.

  2. Application of the CPA equation of state to organic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derawi, Samer; Zeuthen, Frederik Jacob; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    The CPA (Cubic-Plus-Association) equation of state has been extended to modeling of organic acids. We will focus in this work on formic, acetic, and propanoic acids due to their importance to the chemical and petrochemical industries. Organic acids, unlike many other associating compounds, have...

  3. Effect of the head-group geometry of amino acid-based cationic surfactants on interaction with plasmid DNA. (United States)

    Jadhav, Vaibhav; Maiti, Souvik; Dasgupta, Antara; Das, Prasanta Kumar; Dias, Rita S; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn


    The interaction between DNA and different types of amino acid-based cationic surfactants was investigated. Particular attention was directed to determine the extent of influence of surfactant head-group geometry toward tuning the interaction behavior of these surfactants with DNA. An overview is obtained by gel retardation assay, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism at different mole ratios of surfactant/DNA; also, cell viability was assessed. The studies show that the surfactants with more complex/bulkier hydrophobic head group interact more strongly with DNA but exclude ethidium bromide less efficiently; thus, the accessibility of DNA to small molecules is preserved to a certain extent. The presence of more hydrophobic groups surrounding the positive amino charge also gave rise to a significantly lower cytotoxicity. The surfactant self-assembly pattern is quite different without and with DNA, illustrating the roles of electrostatic and steric effects in determining the effective shape of a surfactant molecule.

  4. Catalysis of the Oligomerization of O-Phospho-Serine, Aspartic Acid, or Glutamic Acid by Cationic Micelles (United States)

    Boehler, Christof; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Orgel, Leslie E.


    Treatment of relatively concentrated aqueous solutions of O-phospho-serine (50 mM), aspartic acid (100 mM) or glutamic acid (100 mM) with carbonyldiimidazole leads to the formation of an activated intermediate that oligomerizes efficiently. When the concentration of amino acid is reduced tenfold, few long oligomers can be detected. Positively-charged cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles concentrate the negatively-charged activated intermediates of the amino acids at their surfaces and catalyze efficient oligomerization even from dilute solutions.

  5. Organo-Lewis acid as cocatalyst for cationic homogenous metallocene Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerizations (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian


    The synthesis of the organo-Lewis acid perfluorobiphenylborane (PBB) and the activation of metallocenes for the formation of a variety of highly active homogeneous Ziegler-Natta metallocene olefin polymerization, copolymerization and ring-opening polymerization catalysts is described.

  6. Superior SWNT dispersion by amino acid based amphiphiles: designing biocompatible cationic nanohybrids. (United States)

    Brahmachari, Sayanti; Das, Dibyendu; Das, Prasanta Kumar


    Stable aqueous SWNT dispersion up to 92% was achieved using amino acid based amphiphiles through a structure-property investigation. The nanohybrids showed remarkable serum stability and biocompatibility to mammalian cells.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of new inorganic–organic hybrid: arsenomolybdate compound with cytosinium cations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meriem Ayed; Brahim Ayed; Amor Haddad


    New organic–inorganic hybrid compound, with formula (C4H6N3O)6 [(HAsO4)2Mo6O19].7H2O, was prepared and characterized by IR and UV–visible spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermal analysis was performed to study their thermal stability. The crystal structure of the title compound (triclinic, space group $P − 1$, = 2) was determined by X-ray diffraction. The compound contains the polyanion [(HAsO4)2Mo6O19]6−, which consists of the six molybdenum octahedral grouped into two parts consisting of four edge-sharing octahedral and two face-sharing octahedral, respectively, these two parts are connected by two corner-sharing O atoms to form a bent Mo6 ring. The polyanion framework derives from the Strandberg type and it is a new isomer. The cytosinium cations (Cyt+) are embedded in the channels and interact with the inorganic framework by way of N-H $\\cdots$ O and O-H $\\cdots$ O hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the electrochemical property of this compound has been studied.

  8. Benzene carboxylic acid derivatized graphene oxide nanosheets on natural zeolites as effective adsorbents for cationic dye removal. (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Murthy, Bandaru N; Shapter, Joseph G; Constantopoulos, Kristina T; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Ellis, Amanda V


    Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were grafted to acid-treated natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders followed by a coupling reaction with a diazonium salt (4-carboxybenzenediazoniumtetrafluoroborate) to the GO surface. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of GO nanosheets onto the zeolite surface. The application of the adsorbents for the adsorption of rhodamine B from aqueous solutions was then demonstrated. After reaching adsorption equilibrium the maximum adsorption capacities were shown to be 50.25, 55.56 and 67.56 mg g(-1) for pristine natural zeolite, GO grafted zeolite (GO-zeolite) and benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders, respectively. The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. Further, a relationship between surface functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency was established. Results indicate that benzene carboxylic acid derivatized GO-zeolite powders are environmentally favorable adsorbents for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions.

  9. Ligand-functionalized degradable polyplexes formed by cationic poly(aspartic acid)-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugates. (United States)

    Song, Hai-Qing; Li, Rui-Quan; Duan, Shun; Yu, Bingran; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Da-Fu; Xu, Fu-Jian


    Polypeptide-based degradable polyplexes attracted considerable attention in drug delivery systems. Polysaccharides including cyclodextrin (CD), dextran, and chitosan (CS) were readily grafted with cationic poly(aspartic acid)s (PAsps). To further enhance the transfection performances of PAsp-based polyplexes, herein, different types of ligand (folic acid, FA)-functionalized degradable polyplexes were proposed based on the PAsp-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugate (CCPE), where multiple β-CDs were tied on a CS chain. The FA-functionalized CCPE (i.e., CCPE-FA) was obtained via a host-guest interaction between the CD units of CCPE and the adamantane (Ad) species of Ad-modified FA (Ad-FA). The resulting CCPE/pDNA, CCPE-FA/pDNA, and ternary CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA (prepared by layer-by-layer assembly) polyplexes were investigated in detail using different cell lines. The CCPE-based polyplexes displayed much higher transfection efficiencies than the CS-based polyplexes reported earlier by us. The ternary polyplexes of CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA produced excellent gene transfection abilities in the folate receptor (FR)-positive tumor cells. This work would provide a promising means to produce highly efficient polyplexes for future gene therapy applications.

  10. Anthropogenically driven changes in chloride complicate interpretation of base cation trends in lakes recovering from acidic deposition. (United States)

    Rosfjord, Catherine H; Webster, Katherine E; Kahl, Jeffrey S; Norton, Stephen A; Fernandez, Ivan J; Herlihy, Alan T


    Declines in Ca and Mg in low ANC lakes recovering from acidic deposition are widespread across the northern hemisphere. We report overall increases between 1984 and 2004 in the concentrations of Ca + Mg and Cl in lakes representing the statistical population of nearly 4000 low ANC lakes in the northeast U.S. Increases in Cl occurred in nearly all lakes in urbanized southern New England, but only 18% of lakes in more remote Maine had Cl increases. This spatial pattern implicates road salt application as the major source of the increased Cl salts. Among the 48% of the lake population classified as salt-affected, the median changes in Cl (+133 microeq/L) and Ca + Mg (+47 microeq/ L) were large and positive in direction over the 20 years. However, in the unaffected lakes, Cl remained stable and Ca + Mg decreased (-3 microeq/L), consistent with reported long-term trends in base cations of acid-sensitive lakes. This discrepancy between the Cl groups suggests that changes in ion exchange processes in salt-affected watersheds have altered the geochemical cycling of Ca and Mg. One policy-relevant implication is that waters influenced by Cl salts complicate regional assessments of surface water recovery from "acid rain" related to the passage of the Clean Air Act.

  11. High expression of organic cation transporter 3 in human BAT-like adipocytes. Implications for extraneuronal norepinephrine uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Peter; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Pikelis, Arunas;


    with known markers of thermogenic function, e.g. UCP1. When examining neck AT biopsies from 57 individuals we found that OCT3 was expressed at 2.5 ± 0.16 fold higher level in the deep-neck AT compared with subcutaneous AT. UCP1 was found extensively expressed in the deep-neck AT depot and the correlation...... between UCP1 and OCT3 within the deep-neck AT was found highly significant (r(2) = 0.4012, P-value 3-blocker. In conclusion, we found that OCT3 may......Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated by extracellular norepinephrine (NE) released by the sympathetic nervous system. The extracellular concentration of NE is additionally regulated by the disappearance/degradation of NE. Recent studies have introduced the organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3...

  12. Acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterial with large surface area: Preparation, characterization, and adsorption properties for cationic and anionic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kai; Ma, Chun–Fang; Ling, Yuan; Li, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Qiang, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geo Materials of Ministry of Education, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Luo, Wen–Jun, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    Nanostructured carbonaceous materials are extremely important in the nano field, yet developing simple, mild, and “green” methods that can make such materials possess large surface area and rich functional groups on their surfaces still remains a considerable challenge. Herein, a one-pot and environment-friendly method, i.e., thermal treatment (180 °C; 18 h) of water mixed with glucose and chitosan (CTS), has been proposed. The resultant carbonaceous nanomaterials were characterized by field emitting scanning electron microscope, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta-potential analysis. It was found that, in contrast to the conventional hydrothermally carbonized product from pure glucose, with low surface area (9.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and pore volume (0.016 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}), the CTS-added carbonaceous products showed satisfactory textural parameters (surface area and pore volume up to 254 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and 0.701 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}, respectively). Moreover, it was also interestingly found that these CTS-added carbonaceous products possessed both acidic (–COOH) and basic (–NH{sub 2}) groups on their surfaces. Taking the advantages of large surface area and –COOH/–NH{sub 2} bifunctional surface, the carbonaceous nanomaterials exhibited excellent performance for adsorptions of cationic compound (i.e., methylene blue) at pH 10 and anionic compound (i.e., acid red 18) at pH 2, respectively. This work not only provides a simple and green route to prepare acid/base bifunctional carbonaceous nanomaterials with large surface area but also well demonstrates their potential for application in adsorption. - Highlights: • A simple and green method was proposed to prepare carbon nanomaterials. • The carbon product showed acid/base bifunctional surface with large surface area. • The carbon material could efficiently adsorb both cationic and anionic compounds.

  13. Degassed conductivity - comments on an interesting and reasonable plant cycle chemistry monitoring technique. Part 1. Degassing of low-molecular-weight organic acis in technical degassed cation conductivity monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.; Bursik, A. [PowerPlant Chemistry GmbH, Neulussheim (Germany)


    Degassed cation conductivity monitoring is not as common as specific and cation conductivity monitoring even though this technique offers some very interesting features. This technique can help to distinguish between plant cycle contamination with inorganic and/or organic acids and/or their salts and that caused by carbon dioxide. This may be important, e.g., during startup of a unit. Two issues are often discussed in connection with degassed conductivity monitoring: the behavior of formic and acetic acid during degassing and the correct conversion of values measured at nearly 100 C to standard temperature (25 C). This first part of a two-part publication focuses on the first issue. A rigorous thermodynamic approach was chosen for the evaluation of conditions in the degassing part of the monitoring system. The results of calculations clearly show that the actual loss of formic and acetic acid in a technical atmospheric degassing system via system vents is so low that it can be disregarded. In contrast, the concentration of formic and acetic acid in the sample exiting the technical atmospheric degassing system is somewhat higher than that in the original sample. The actual increase in concentration is based on the volatility behavior of both acids and depends additionally on the evaporation rate of the system. (orig.)

  14. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment (United States)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.


    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  15. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid nano composite: A dispersive cation exchange sorbent for the enrichment of aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from environmental aqueous samples. (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak


    Present study aimed at graphene surface modification to achieve selective analyte binding in dispersive solid phase extraction. Magnetic graphene - polystyrene sulfonic acid (MG-PSS) cation exchange nano-composite was prepared by non-covalent wrapping method. Composite was characterized by FT-IR and zeta potential. Material exhibited good dispersion in water and high exchange capacity of 1.97±0.16mMg(-1). Prepared nano-sorbent was then exploited for the cation exchange extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometric analysis of Chemical Weapons Convention relevant aminoalcohols and ethanolamines from aqueous samples. Extraction parameters such as sorbent amount, extraction time, desorption conditions and sample pH were optimized and effect of common matrix interferences such as polyethylene glycol and metal salts was also studied. Three milligram of sorbent per mL of sample with 20min of extraction time at room temperature afforded 70-81% recoveries of the selected analytes spiked at concentration level of 1μgmL(-1). Method showed good linearity in the studied range with r(2)≥0.993. The limits of detection and limits of quantification ranged from 23 to 54ngmL(-1) and 72 to 147ngmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation for intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 4.6 to 10.2% and 7.4 to 14.8% respectively. Applicability of the method to different environmental samples as well as the proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) was also ascertained.

  16. Goat Urine and Limestone Affect Nitrogen and Cation Distributions in an Acidic Grassland (United States)

    Use of goats (Capra aegagrus hircus L.) to clear overgrown pastures and woodlots of unwanted vegetation may result in high rates of urine deposition where goats congregate. Surface application of limestone to dystrophic acid soils before clearing is known to augment ammonia gas volatilization from ...

  17. Selective adsorption of cationic dyes from aqueous solution by polyoxometalate-based metal–organic framework composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Gong, Wenpeng; Luo, Jing; Zou, Chentao; Yang, Yun; Yang, Shuijin, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: Selective adsorption ability of H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 toward MO (a), Rhb (b) and the removal rate of Rhb, MO and MB (c). - Highlights: • Using metal–organic framework (MOF) composite as an adsorbent was investigated. • Selective adsorption ability of the composite towards cationic dyes was proposed. • The removal rate of MOF was raised greatly by the modification of polyoxometalate. • The adsorption kinetic and isotherm were used to describe the adsorption process. • The thermodynamic parameters of the composite were investigated in detail. - Abstract: A novel environmental friendly adsorbent H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 was synthesized by a simple one-step reaction under solvothermal conditions and characterized by XRD, FTIR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms. The removal rate of H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 was quite greater (85%) than that of MOF-5 (almost zero), showing that the adsorption performance of porous MOF-5 can be improved through the modification of H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}. Further study revealed that H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 exhibited a fast adsorption rate and selective adsorption ability towards the cationic dyes in aqueous solution. The removal rate was up to 97% for cationic dyes methylene blue (MB) and 68% for rhodamine B(Rhb) within 10 min. However, anionicdye methyl orange(MO) can only reach to 10%. The influences including initial concentration, contact time, initial solution pH and temperature of MB adsorption onto H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 were investigated in detail. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of MB onto H{sub 6}P{sub 2}W{sub 18}O{sub 62}/MOF-5 followed the pseudo second-order model well. The isotherm obtained from experimental data fitted the Langmuir model, yielding maximum adsorption capacity of 51.81 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters analysis

  18. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions. (United States)

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O


    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  19. Significance of the long-chain organic cation structure in the sorption of the penconazole and metalaxyl fungicides by organo clays. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Andrades, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J


    Sorption-desorption of two different hydrophobic fungicides, penconazole and metalaxyl, by a series of clay minerals layered and non-layered (montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite, muscovite, sepiolite and palygorskite) modified with the two-chain cationic surfactant, dihexadecyldimetylammonium (DHDDMA) was studied by first time in this work. DHDDMA-clays showed a good capacity to sorb both fungicides from water. Freundlich sorption constants (K(f)) increased 22-268-fold for penconazole and 4-112-fold for metalaxyl in relation to natural clays. High sorption irreversibility was observed for penconazole for all modified clays, while for metalaxyl this occurred only for some of the modified clays. Additionally, a comparative study of the sorption of the fungicides by clay minerals modified with organic cations of different structure was carried out by a statistical approach. Non-layered and layered clay minerals modified with the two-chain alkylammonium organic cation DHDDMA, and with single-chain organic cations octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) and hexadecylpyridinium (HDPY) were used as sorbents. The study indicated a significant linear regression between the distribution coefficients K(d) of fungicides and the organic carbon (OC) content of the organo clays (r(2)>or=0.80, porgano clays and their relative OC contents revealed higher increase in sorption for HDPY-clays (penconazole) and for ODTMA-clays (metalaxyl) pointing out different effectiveness of the OC provided by each organic cation. These effects were also supported by the values of K(d) relative to OC, K(d)(oc). The results evidenced the different relative weight of alkyl cations to make organo clays effective barriers to prevent the mobility of pesticides from a point source of pollution.

  20. Carborane acids. New "strong yet gentle" acids for organic and inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Reed, Christopher A


    Icosahedral carborane anions such as CHB11Cl11- are amongst the least coordinating, most chemically inert anions known. They are also amongst the least basic, so their conjugate acids, H(carborane), are superacids (i.e. stronger than 100% H2SO4). Acidity scale measurements indicate that H(CHB11Cl11) is the strongest pure Brønsted acid presently known, surpassing triflic and fluorosulfuric acid. Nevertheless, it is also an extremely gentle acid--because its conjugate base engages in so little chemistry. Carborane acids separate protic acidity from anion nucleophilicity and destructive oxidative capacity in the conjugate base, to a degree not previously achieved. As a result, many long-sought, highly acidic, reactive cations such as protonated benzene (C6H7+), protonated C60(HC60+), tertiary carbocations (R3C+), vinyl cations (R2C=C(+)-R), silylium ions (R3Si+) and discrete hydronium ions (H3O+, H5O2+ etc.) can be readily isolated as carborane salts and characterized at room temperature by X-ray crystallography.

  1. Sorption of organic cations to phyllosilicate clay minerals: CEC-normalization, salt dependency, and the role of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects. (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    Sorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals Illite, kaolinite, and bentonite has been studied for a wide variety of organic cations using a flow-through method with fully aqueous medium as the eluent. Linear isotherms were observed at concentrations below 10% of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) for Illite and kaolinite and below 1 mmol/kg (<1% CEC) for bentonite. Sorption to clays was strongly influenced by the electrolyte composition of the eluent but with a consistent trend for a diverse set of compounds on all clays, thus allowing for empirical correction factors. When sorption affinities for a given compound to a given clay are normalized to the CEC of the clay, the differences in sorption affinities between clays are reduced to less than 0.5 log units for most compounds. Although CEC-normalized sorption of quaternary ammonium compounds to clay was up to 10-fold higher than CEC-normalized sorption to soil organic matter, CEC-normalized sorption for most compounds was comparable between clays and soil organic matter. The clay fraction is thus a potentially relevant sorption phase for organic cations in many soils. The sorption data for organic cations to clay showed several regular trends with molecular structure but also showed quite a few systematic effects that we cannot explain. A model on the basis of the molecular size and charge density at the ionized nitrogen is used here as a tool to obtain benchmark values that elucidate the effect of specific polar moieties on the sorption affinity.

  2. Changes of Soil Water, Organic Matter, and Exchangeable Cations Along a Forest Successional Gradient in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun-Hua; ZHOU Guo-Yi; ZHANG De-Qiang; CHU Guo-Wei


    Information on the distribution patterns of soil water content (SWC), soil organic matter (SOM), and soil exchangeable cations (SEC) is important for managing forest ecosystems in a sustainable manner. This study investigated how SWC, SOM, and SEC were influenced in forests along a successional gradient, including a regional climax (monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest, or MEBF), a transitional forest (coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, or MF), and a pioneer forest (coniferous Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forest, or MPF) of the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve in the subtropical region of southern China. SWC, SOM, and SEC excluding Ca2+ were found to increase in the soil during forest succession, being highest in the top soil layer (0 to 15 cm depth) except for Na+. The differences between soil layers were largest in MF. This finding also suggested that the nutrients were enriched in the topsoil when they became increasingly scarce in the soil. There were no significant differences (P = 0.05) among SWC, SOM, and SBC. A linear, positive correlation was found between SWC and SOM. The correlation between SOM and cation exchange capacity (CEC) was statistically significant, which agreed with the theory that the most important factor determining SEC is SOM. The ratio of K+ to Na+ in the topsoil was about a half of that in the plants of each forest. MF had the lowest exchangeable Ca2+ concentration among the three forests and Ca2+:K+ in MPF was two times higher than that in MF. Understanding the changes of SWC, SOM, and CEC during forest succession would be of great help in protecting all three forests in southern China.

  3. Ligand-functionalized degradable polyplexes formed by cationic poly(aspartic acid)-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugates (United States)

    Song, Hai-Qing; Li, Rui-Quan; Duan, Shun; Yu, Bingran; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Da-Fu; Xu, Fu-Jian


    Polypeptide-based degradable polyplexes attracted considerable attention in drug delivery systems. Polysaccharides including cyclodextrin (CD), dextran, and chitosan (CS) were readily grafted with cationic poly(aspartic acid)s (PAsps). To further enhance the transfection performances of PAsp-based polyplexes, herein, different types of ligand (folic acid, FA)-functionalized degradable polyplexes were proposed based on the PAsp-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugate (CCPE), where multiple β-CDs were tied on a CS chain. The FA-functionalized CCPE (i.e., CCPE-FA) was obtained via a host-guest interaction between the CD units of CCPE and the adamantane (Ad) species of Ad-modified FA (Ad-FA). The resulting CCPE/pDNA, CCPE-FA/pDNA, and ternary CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA (prepared by layer-by-layer assembly) polyplexes were investigated in detail using different cell lines. The CCPE-based polyplexes displayed much higher transfection efficiencies than the CS-based polyplexes reported earlier by us. The ternary polyplexes of CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA produced excellent gene transfection abilities in the folate receptor (FR)-positive tumor cells. This work would provide a promising means to produce highly efficient polyplexes for future gene therapy applications.Polypeptide-based degradable polyplexes attracted considerable attention in drug delivery systems. Polysaccharides including cyclodextrin (CD), dextran, and chitosan (CS) were readily grafted with cationic poly(aspartic acid)s (PAsps). To further enhance the transfection performances of PAsp-based polyplexes, herein, different types of ligand (folic acid, FA)-functionalized degradable polyplexes were proposed based on the PAsp-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugate (CCPE), where multiple β-CDs were tied on a CS chain. The FA-functionalized CCPE (i.e., CCPE-FA) was obtained via a host-guest interaction between the CD units of CCPE and the adamantane (Ad) species of Ad-modified FA (Ad-FA). The resulting CCPE/pDNA, CCPE

  4. Reactivity of nitrate and organic acids at the concrete–bitumen interface of a nuclear waste repository cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertron, A., E-mail: [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Jacquemet, N. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Erable, B. [Université de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4, Allée Emile Monso, F-31030 Toulouse (France); Sablayrolles, C. [Université de Toulouse (France); INP (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), ENSIACET, 4 allée Emile Monso, BP 44 362, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); INRA (France); LCA (Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle), F-31029 Toulouse (France); Escadeillas, G. [Université de Toulouse (France); UPS, INSA (France); LMDC (Laboratoire Matériaux et Durabilité des Constructions), 135, avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077, Toulouse Cedex 04 (France); Albrecht, A. [Andra, 1-7, rue Jean-Monnet, 92298 Châtenay-Malabry (France)


    Highlights: • Interactions of cement paste and organic acid–nitrate solutions were investigated. • Cement leaching imposed alkaline pH (>10) very rapidly in the liquid media. • Acetic acid action on cement paste was similar to that of classical leaching. • Oxalic acid attack formed Ca-oxalate salts; organic matter in solution decreased. • Nitrate was stable under abiotic conditions and with organic matter. - Abstract: This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumen–concrete interface within repository cell for long-lived, intermediate-level, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V cement paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the abiotic conditions of the experiments. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching in the absence of organic acids (i.e. carried out with water or strong acids); no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liga Priecina


    Full Text Available Organic acids are one of the major phytochemicals in vegetables and responsible for food taste and odor. Different organic acids are analyzed in fruits and cereals, but least in vegetables and spices. Organic acids has been analyzed because of their high importance in the formation of other phytochemical and increased antioxidant activity. The aim of the current research was to determine the oxalic, tartaric, quinic, malic, malonic, ascorbic, citric, fumaric, succinic, salicylic and benzoic acid content in fresh and pre-treated (with steam vegetables and spices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method. Major organic acids in highest concentrations in spices and vegetables are quinic, malic, malonic and citric acids. Spices contain higher total organic acid content than vegetables. Using steaming as pre-treatment, some of the organic acids content significantly decreased. Obtained changes could be explained by the organic acid formation into more complex chemicals in food or metabolic process. For the future, these changes will be combined with individual phenolic compound changes in analyzed samples.

  6. Alkali metal cation doping of metal-organic framework for enhancing carbon dioxide adsorption capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cao; Yunxia Zhao; Fujiao Song; Qin Zhong


    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention as adsorbents for the separation of CO2 from flue gas or natural gas. Here, a typical metal-organic framework HKUST-1(also named Cu-BTC or MOF-199) was chemically reduced by doping it with alkali metals (Li, Na and K) and they were further used to investigate their CO2 adsorption capacities. The structural information, surface chemistry and thermal behavior of the prepared adsorbent samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. The results showed that the CO2 storage capacity of HKUST-1 doped with moderate quantities of Li+, Na+ and K+, individually, was greater than that of unmodified HKUST-1. The highest CO2 adsorption uptake of 8.64 mmol/g was obtained with 1K-HKUST-1, and it was ca. 11%increase in adsorption capacity at 298 K and 18 bar as compared with HKUST-1. Moreover, adsorption tests showed that HKUST-1 and 1K-HKUST-1 displayed much higher adsorption capacities of CO2 than those of N2. Finally, the adsorption/desorption cycle experiment revealed that the adsorption performance of 1K-HKUST-1 was fairly stable, without obvious deterioration in the adsorption capacity of CO2 after 10 cycles.

  7. Fluorescence properties of riboflavin-functionalized mesoporous silica SBA-15 and riboflavin solutions in presence of different metal and organic cations (United States)

    Lewandowski, Dawid; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Sawczak, Mirosław; Ossowski, Tadeusz


    Riboflavin was covalently linked to mesoporous SBA-15 silica surface via grafting technique. Then fluorescence properties of the system obtained were analyzed in the presence of several metal and organic cations. Both quenching and strengthening of fluorescence as well as significant changes in the maximum fluorescence wavelength were observed. The results were compared with absorption and fluorescence data obtained for riboflavin water solutions.

  8. Pharmacological and physiological functions of the polyspecific organic cation transporters : OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, JW; Schinkel, AH


    For the elimination of environmental toxins and metabolic waste products, the body is equipped with a range of broad-specificity transporters that are generally present in the liver, kidney, and intestine. The polyspecific organic cation transporters OCT1, 2, and 3 (SLC22A1-3) mediate the facilitate

  9. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate


    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  10. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering (United States)

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate


    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  11. Generation of novel cationic antimicrobial peptides from natural non-antimicrobial sequences by acid-amide substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamada Yasushi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs are well recognized to be promising as novel antimicrobial and antitumor agents. To obtain novel skeletons of CAMPs, we propose a simple strategy using acid-amide substitution (i.e. Glu→Gln, Asp→Asn to confer net positive charge to natural non-antimicrobial sequences that have structures distinct from known CAMPs. The potential of this strategy was verified by a trial study. Methods The pro-regions of nematode cecropin P1-P3 (P1P-P3P were selected as parent sequences. P1P-P3P and their acid-amide-substituted mutants (NP1P-NP3P were chemically synthesized. Bactericidal and membrane-disruptive activities of these peptides were evaluated. Conformational changes were estimated from far-ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD spectra. Results NP1P-NP3P acquired potent bactericidal activities via membrane-disruption although P1P-P3P were not antimicrobial. Far-ultraviolet CD spectra of NP1P-NP3P were similar to those of their parent peptides P1P-P3P, suggesting that NP1P-NP3P acquire microbicidal activity without remarkable conformational changes. NP1P-NP3P killed bacteria in almost parallel fashion with their membrane-disruptive activities, suggesting that the mode of action of those peptides was membrane-disruption. Interestingly, membrane-disruptive activity of NP1P-NP3P were highly diversified against acidic liposomes, indicating that the acid-amide-substituted nematode cecropin pro-region was expected to be a unique and promising skeleton for novel synthetic CAMPs with diversified membrane-discriminative properties. Conclusions The acid-amide substitution successfully generated some novel CAMPs in our trial study. These novel CAMPs were derived from natural non-antimicrobial sequences, and their sequences were completely distinct from any categories of known CAMPs, suggesting that such mutated natural sequences could be a promising source of novel skeletons of CAMPs.

  12. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal


    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  13. Self-assembly and supramolecular liquid crystals based on organic cation encapsulated polyoxometalate hybrid reverse micelles and pyridine derivatives. (United States)

    Yin, Shengyan; Sun, Hang; Yan, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wen; Wu, Lixin


    The controlled self-assembly of multi-components in one system represents the capability integrating intermolecular interactions and functions of components and is believed the key procedure leading to multifunctional materials finally. In pursuing this goal, we used a double-chain cationic surfactant with a benzoic acid group at the end of one tail to encapsulate Keggin-type polyanion clusters via electrostatic interaction, obtaining uniform supramolecular hybrid reverse micelles, which served as hydrogen-bonding donors. Five pyridine derivatives containing conjugated and non-conjugated groups were chosen as hydrogen-bonding acceptors to bind with reverse micelles. Through mixing with these components according to chemical stoichiometry, the hybrid reverse micelle changed to a new self-assembly precursor through intermolecular hydrogen bonding. The as-prepared reverse micelles bearing conjugated pyridine groups exhibit supramolecular liquid crystal properties, which were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The length and number of the alky chain in the pyridine derivatives, as well as the charges of polyoxometalates were also studied with regard to the liquid crystal structure. The synergistic effect of among three components was analyzed, and the liquid crystal properties could be conveniently adjusted through the modification of the hydrogen-bonding acceptor components.

  14. Identification of organic acids in wine that stimulate mechanisms of gastric acid secretion. (United States)

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Walker, Jessica; Somoza, Veronika


    Wine may cause stomach irritation due to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion, although the mechanisms by which wine or components thereof activate pathways of gastric acid secretion are poorly understood. Gastric pH was measured with a noninvasive intragastric probe, demonstrating that administration of 125 mL of white or red wine to healthy volunteers stimulated gastric acid secretion more potently than the administration of equivalent amounts of ethanol. Between both beverages, red wine showed a clear trend for being more active in stimulating gastric acid secretion than white wine (p = 0.054). Quantification of the intracellular proton concentration in human gastric tumor cells (HGT-1), a well-established indicator of proton secretion and, in turn, stomach acid formation in vivo, confirmed the stronger effect of red wine as compared to white wine. RT-qPCR experiments on cells exposed to red wine also revealed a more pronounced effect than white wine on the fold change expression of genes associated with gastric acid secretion. Of the quantitatively abundant organic acids in wine, malic acid and succinic acid most actively stimulated proton secretion in vitro. However, addition of ethanol to individual organic acids attenuated the secretory effect of tartaric acid, but not that of the other organic acids. It was concluded that malic acid for white wine and succinic acid for red wine are key organic acids that contribute to gastric acid stimulation.

  15. Weakening of salmonella with selected microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds and organic acids. (United States)

    Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Aura, Anna-Marja; Helander, Ilkka M; Nohynek, Liisa; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Saarela, Maria


    Gram-negative bacteria are important food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Their unique outer membrane (OM) provides them with a hydrophilic surface structure, which makes them inherently resistant to many antimicrobial agents, thus hindering their control. However, with permeabilizers, compounds that disintegrate and weaken the OM, Gram-negative cells can be sensitized to several external agents. Although antimicrobial activity of plant-derived phenolic compounds has been widely reported, their mechanisms of action have not yet been well demonstrated. The aim of our study was to elucidate the role of selected colonic microbial metabolites of berry-derived phenolic compounds in the weakening of the Gram-negative OM. The effect of the agents on the OM permeability of Salmonella was studied utilizing a fluorescence probe uptake assay, sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release. Our results show that 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (3,4-diHPP), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid efficiently destabilized the OM of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Infantis as indicated by an increase in the uptake of the fluorescent probe 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (NPN). The OM-destabilizing activity of the compounds was partially abolished by MgCl2 addition, indicating that part of their activity is based on removal of OM-stabilizing divalent cations. Furthermore, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-diHPP increased the susceptibility of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains for novobiocin. In addition, organic acids present in berries, such as malic acid, sorbic acid, and benzoic acid, were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of Salmonella as shown by an increase in the NPN uptake assay and by LPS release.

  16. Modelling the cloud condensation nucleus activity of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varga


    Full Text Available In this study vapour pressure osmometry was used to determine water activity in solutions of organic acids. The surface tension of the solutions was also monitored in parallel and then Köhler curves were calculated for nine organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic acid, maleic acid, malic acid, citric acid and pinonic acid. Surface tension depression is negligible for most of the organic acids in dilute (≤1 w/w% solutions. Therefore, these compounds affect the supersaturation only in the beginning phase of droplet formation but not necessarily at the critical size. An exception is cis-pinonic acid which remarkably depress surface tension also in dilute (0.1 w/w% solution and hence at the critical point. The surface tension of organic acid solutions is influenced by the solubility of the compound, the length of the carbon chain and also by the polar functional groups present in the molecule. Similarly to surface tension solubility plays an important role also in water activity: compounds with higher solubility (e.g. malonic, maleic, and glutaric acid reduce water activity significantly in the early phase of droplet formation while less soluble acids (e.g. succinic and adipic acid are saturated in small droplets and the solution starts diluting only in bigger droplets. As a consequence, compounds with lower solubility have a minor effect on water activity in the early phase of droplet formation. To deduce the total effect Köhler curves were calculated and critical supersaturations were determined for the organic acids using measured surface tension and water activity. It was found that critical supersaturation grew with growing carbon number. Oxalic acid had the lowest critical supersaturation in the size range studied and it was comparable to the activation of ammonium sulfate. The Sc values obtained in this study were compared to data from CCNC measurements. In most cases good agreement was found.

  17. The effect of organic acid on the spectral-induced polarization response of soil (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Shalem, T.; Furman, A.


    In spectral-induced polarization (SIP) studies of sites contaminated by organic hydrocarbons, it was shown that biodegradation by-products in general, and organic acids in particular, significantly alter the SIP signature of the subsurface. Still a systematic study that considers the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical and electrical (SIP) properties of the soil is missing. The goal of this work is to relate between the effect of organic acid on the physicochemical properties of the soil, and the soil electrical properties. To do so, we measured the temporal changes of the soil chemical (ion content) and electrical (low-frequency SIP) properties in response to influx of organic acid at different concentrations, gradually altering the soil pH. Our results show that organic acid reduces the soil pH, enhances mineral weathering and consequently reduces both the in-phase and quadrature conductivity. At the pH range where mineral weathering is most significant (pH 6-4.5) a negative linear relation between the soil pH and the soil formation factor was found, suggesting that mineral weathering changes the pore space geometry and hence affecting the in-phase electrical conductivity. In addition, we attribute the reduction in the quadrature conductivity to an exchange process between the natural cation adsorbed on the mineral surface and hydronium, and to changes in the width of the pore bottleneck that results from the mineral weathering. Overall, our results allow a better understanding of the SIP signature of soil undergoing acidification process in general and as biodegradation process in particular.

  18. Organic acids in continental background aerosols (United States)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  19. Cationic Lipid-Nucleic Acid Complexes for Gene Delivery And Silencing: Pathways And Mechanisms for Plasmid Dna And Sirna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewert, K.K.; Zidovska, A.; Ahmad, A.; Bouxsein, N.F.; Evans, H.M.; McAllister, C.S.; Samuel, C.E.; Safinya, C.R.; /SLAC


    Motivated by the promises of gene therapy, there is great interest in developing non-viral lipid-based vectors for therapeutic applications due to their low immunogenicity, low toxicity, ease of production, and the potential of transferring large pieces of DNA into cells. In fact, cationic liposome (CL) based vectors are among the prevalent synthetic carriers of nucleic acids (NAs) currently used in gene therapy clinical trials worldwide. These vectors are studied both for gene delivery with CL-DNA complexes and gene silencing with CL-siRNA (short interfering RNA) complexes. However, their transfection efficiencies and silencing efficiencies remain low compared to those of engineered viral vectors. This reflects the currently poor understanding of transfection-related mechanisms at the molecular and self-assembled levels, including a lack of knowledge about interactions between membranes and double stranded NAs and between CL-NA complexes and cellular components. In this review we describe our recent efforts to improve the mechanistic understanding of transfection by CL-NA complexes, which will help to design optimal lipid-based carriers of DNA and siRNA for therapeutic gene delivery and gene silencing.

  20. Corrosion inhibition efficiency and surface activity of benzothiazol-3-ium cationic Schiff base derivatives in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negm, N.A., E-mail: [Petrochemicals Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Elkholy, Y.M.; Zahran, M.K. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); Tawfik, S.M. [Petrochemicals Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)


    Research highlights: {yields} Benzothiazolium inhibitors show high corrosion inhibition for carbon steel. {yields} Weight loss and corrosion rates decrease by increasing inhibitor dose. {yields} Inhibition mechanism suggested as physisorption mechanism supported by adsorption free energy values. {yields} The adsorption of the inhibitors obeys Langmuir isotherm. {yields} Side chains have ascending order on the corrosion inhibition of the different inhibitors. - Abstract: Two series of cationic Schiff base surfactants namely: 2-(benzylideneamino)-3-(2-oxo-2-alkoxyethyl)-1,3-benzothiazol-3-ium bromide and 2-[(4-methoxybenzylidene)amino]-3-(2-oxo-2-alkoxyethyl)-1, 3-benzothiazol-3-ium bromide were prepared and confirmed using elemental analysis, FTIR, and {sup 1}H NMR spectra. The surface activity of the synthesized Schiff bases showed their tendency towards adsorption at the interfaces. The prepared compounds were evaluated as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M HCl solution using gravimetric and polarization measurements. By fitting the gravimetric data, some thermodynamic and kinetic parameters were estimated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism. Polarization measurements showed that the synthesized inhibitors act as mixed inhibitors for carbon steel in the acidic media. The results of the corrosion inhibition using two different methods showed narrow differences in the obtained values between the two methods within 5%.

  1. Development of helix-stabilized cell-penetrating peptides containing cationic α,α-disubstituted amino acids as helical promoters. (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroko; Misawa, Takashi; Oba, Makoto; Tanaka, Masakazu; Naito, Mikihiko; Kurihara, Masaaki; Demizu, Yosuke


    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have attracted many scientists' attention as intracellular delivery tools due to their high cargo molecule transportation efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Therefore, in many research fields CPP, such as HIV-Tat and oligoarginine (Rn), are used to deliver hydrophilic drugs and biomolecules, including proteins, DNA, and RNA. We designed four types of CPP that contained cationic α,α-disubstituted amino acids (Api(C2Gu) and Api(C4Gu)) as helical promoters; i.e., 1-4 [FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg-l-Arg-Xaa)3-(Gly)3-NH2 (1: Xaa=Api(C2Gu), 2: Xaa=Api(C4Gu)), 3: FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg)8-Api(C2Gu)-(Gly)3-NH2, and 4: FAM-β-Ala-(l-Arg)5-Api(C2Gu)-(l-Arg)2-Api(C2Gu)-(Gly)3-NH2], and investigated their preferred secondary structures and cell membrane-penetrating ability. As a result, we found that the permeation efficiency of the CPP was affected by the number of helical promoters in their sequences. Specially, peptide 1, which contained three Api(C2Gu) residues, formed a stable helical structure and passed through the cell membrane more efficiently than the other peptides. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the spatial arrangement of the peptides' side chains also influenced their permeability and the helical stabilization of their main chains.

  2. Effect of the intercalated cation-exchanged on the properties of nanocomposites prepared by 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toumi, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Benyoucef, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Yahiaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Quijada, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Pza Ferrandiz i Carbonel, E-03801 Alcoy, Alicante (Spain); Morallon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared. Intercalation of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline monomers into montmorillonite modified by cation was followed by subsequent oxidative polymerization of monomers in the interlayer spacing. The clay was prepared by cation exchange process between sodium cation in (M-Na) and copper cation (M-Cu). XRD analyses show the manifestation of a basal spacing (d-spacing) for M-Cu changes depending on the inorganic cation and the polymer intercalated in the M-Cu structure. TGA analyses reveal that polymer/M-Cu composites is less stable than M-Cu. The conductivity of the composites is found to be 10{sup 3} times higher than that for M-Cu. The microscopic examinations including TEM picture of the nanocomposite demonstrated an entirely different and more compatible morphology. Remarkable differences in the properties of the polymers have also been observed by UV-Vis and FTIR, suggesting that the polymer produced with presence of aniline has a higher degree of branching. The electrochemical behavior of the polymers extracted from the nanocomposites has been studied by cyclic voltammetry which indicates the electroactive effect of nanocomposite gradually increased with aniline in the polymer chain.

  3. Engineering of CH3 NH3 PbI3 Perovskite Crystals by Alloying Large Organic Cations for Enhanced Thermal Stability and Transport Properties. (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Miao, Xiaohe; Adinolfi, Valerio; Alarousu, Erkki; El Tall, Omar; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid; Zhao, Chao; Walters, Grant; Liu, Jiakai; Ouellette, Olivier; Pan, Jun; Murali, Banavoth; Sargent, Edward H; Mohammed, Omar F; Bakr, Osman M


    The number of studies on organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites has soared in recent years. However, the majority of hybrid perovskites under investigation are based on a limited number of organic cations of suitable sizes, such as methylammonium and formamidinium. These small cations easily fit into the perovskite's three-dimensional (3D) lead halide framework to produce semiconductors with excellent charge transport properties. Until now, larger cations, such as ethylammonium, have been found to form 2D crystals with lead halide. Here we show for the first time that ethylammonium can in fact be incorporated coordinately with methylammonium in the lattice of a 3D perovskite thanks to a balance of opposite lattice distortion strains. This inclusion results in higher crystal symmetry, improved material stability, and markedly enhanced charge carrier lifetime. This crystal engineering strategy of balancing opposite lattice distortion effects vastly increases the number of potential choices of organic cations for 3D perovskites, opening up new degrees of freedom to tailor their optoelectronic and environmental properties.

  4. Reactivity and acid-base behavior of ring-methoxylated arylalkanoic acid radical cations and radical zwitterions in aqueous solution. Influence of structural effects and pH on the benzylic C-H deprotonation pathway. (United States)

    Bietti, Massimo; Capone, Alberto


    A product and time-resolved kinetic study of the one-electron oxidation of ring-methoxylated phenylpropanoic and phenylbutanoic acids (Ar(CH2)nCO2H, n = 2, 3) has been carried out at different pH values. Oxidation leads to the formation of aromatic radical cations (Ar.+(CH2)nCO2H) or radical zwitterions (Ar.+(CH2)nCO2-) depending on pH, and pKa values for the corresponding acid-base equilibria have been measured. In the radical cation, the acidity of the carboxylic proton decreases by increasing the number of methoxy ring substituents and by increasing the distance between the carboxylic group and the aromatic ring. At pH 1.7 or 6.7, the radical cations or radical zwitterions undergo benzylic C-H deprotonation as the exclusive side-chain fragmentation pathway, as clearly shown by product analysis results. At pH 1.7, the first-order deprotonation rate constants measured for the ring-methoxylated arylalkanoic acid radical cations are similar to those measured previously in acidic aqueous solution for the alpha-C-H deprotonation of structurally related ring-methoxylated alkylaromatic radical cations. In basic solution, the second-order rate constants for reaction of the radical zwitterions with (-)OH (k-OH)) have been obtained. These values are similar to those obtained previously for the (-)OH-induced alpha-C-H deprotonation of structurally related ring-methoxylated alkylaromatic radical cations, indicating that under these conditions the radical zwitterions undergo benzylic C-H deprotonation. Very interestingly, with 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethanoic acid radical zwitterion, that was previously observed to undergo exclusive decarboxylation up to pH 10, competition between decarboxylation and benzylic C-H deprotonation is observed above pH 11.

  5. Comparison of immobilized poly-L-aspartic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid for chelation of metal cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malachowski, Lisa; Holcombe, James A


    Poly-L-aspartic acid (PLAsp) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGlu) were individually immobilized onto controlled pore glass (CPG) and compared according to their metal-binding capabilities in a solution of pH 7.0. The metal-binding capacities were calculated through the analysis of breakthrough curves generated by monitoring the metal concentrations on a flow injection-flame atomic absorption system. Capacities for individual metals were comparable and in the order of Cu{sup 2+} >> Pb{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} {approx} Cd{sup 2+} > Co{sup 2+} > Mn{sup 2+} >> Na{sup +}. Elemental combustion analysis yielded polymer coverage on the CPG of approximately 4 x 10{sup 12} to 5 x 10{sup 12} chains/cm{sup 2}, when average chain lengths were used in the calculations. Formation constants and site capacities of both polymers for Cd{sup 2+} were determined through equilibrium and breakthrough studies. The maximum log K values for the strong sites were determined to be {approx}13 for both PLAsp and for PLGlu. Additionally, the metal selectivity of PLAsp and PLGlu was evaluated when breakthrough curves were run with several metals present in solution at one time. Both polymers showed selectivities in the order of their single metal-binding capacities, i.e., Cu{sup 2+} > Pb{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} {approx} Cd{sup 2+}. Both polymers exhibited similar binding trends and binding strengths for all of the metals studied. This likely reflects the absence of a predetermined tertiary structure of the polymers on the surface and the relatively high residue-per-metal ratio ({approx}20:1), which places less stringent requirements on the steric hindrance between the side chains and the resultant 'wrapping' of the peptide around the metal.

  6. Electrolytes as Cathode Interlayers in Inverted Organic Solar Cells: Influence of the Cations on Bias-Dependent Performance. (United States)

    Li, Yaru; Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenjun; Xing, Feifei; Fang, Junfeng


    The performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) with edetate electrolytes depends on external bias, and ions are speculated to be responsible for this phenomenon. To clarify the detailed relationship between the ions of electrolytes and the bias-dependent behaviors of devices, this work introduces four edetate cathode interlayers (EDTA-X, X = nH(4-n)Na, n = 0, 1, 2, and 4) containing different kinds and number of cations into inverted OSCs. The results show that the devices initial and saturated (after external bias treatment) power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) both decrease with the increase in the number of H(+). Moreover, the bias-dependent degrees increase with the increase in H(+) number; with that, the PCE increment of EDTA-4H device is 53.4%, while that of the EDTA-4Na device is almost unchanged. The electrical impedance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage tests reveal that the interfacial recombination is greatly suppressed by external bias treatment, which is not a result of the decreased density of defect states. The results indicate that the ion's motion, specifically the H(+) motion, under external electrical field is responsible for the bias-dependent behavior, which is conducive to the design of new efficient electrolytic interlayers without bias-dependent performance.

  7. Influência da matéria orgânica na capacidade de troca de cations do solo Cation-exchange capacity of the organic fraction of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Costa Verdade


    . The cation-exchange capacity and other data on these soils show that the organic fraction must play an important role in the cation-exchange process. The study of the adsorptive capacity of the organic matter was done by destruction of the organic fraction of the soil by 12% hydrogen peroxide. For heavy textured soils the results show that the organic fraction most resistant to oxidation had a higher cation-exchange capacity than the portion first oxidized. For sandy soils all organic fractions had the same magnitude in the base adsorbing power. It was observed that the organic matter seems to inhibit the base-exchange capacity of the mineral fraction. Plotting the percentage of cation-exchange capacity of the organic fraction against the percentage of organic carbon in the soil, a curve is determined which shows the inhibition phenomenon. The results were rather scattered and the experiments are now being repeated to elucidate these observations. The organic cation-exchange capacity of soils in São Paulo is 30-40% for fine textured soils and 50-60% for sandy soils. Since most of the farming land in São Paulo belongs to the sandy soil group called Bauru, the problem of maintaining or increasing the fertility of these soils is dependent on their organic matter content.

  8. Evaluation of organic cation transporter 3 (SLC22A3) inhibition as a potential mechanism of antidepressant action. (United States)

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Appel, David I; Gründemann, Dirk; Richelson, Elliott; Markowitz, John S


    Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3, SLC22A3) is a low-affinity, high-capacity transporter widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and other major organs in both humans and rodents. It is postulated that OCT3 has a role in the overall regulation of neurotransmission and maintenance of homeostasis within the CNS. It is generally believed that all antidepressant drugs in current clinical use exert their primary therapeutic effects through inhibition of one or more of the high-affinity neuronal plasma membrane monoamine transporters, such as the norepinephrine transporter and the serotonin transporter. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of selected antidepressants on OCT3 activity in OCT3-transfected cells to evaluate whether OCT3 inhibition may at least in part contribute to the pharmacological effects of tested antidepressants. The studies demonstrated that all examined antidepressants inhibited OCT3-mediated uptake of the established OCT3 substrate 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (4-Di-1-ASP) in a concentration-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were determined to be 4.7 μM, 7.4 μM, 12.0 μM, 18.6 μM, 11.2 μM, and 21.9 μM for desipramine, sertraline, paroxetine, amitriptyline, imipramine, and fluoxetine, respectively. Additionally, desipramine had an IC(50) value of 0.7 μM for the uptake of NE by OCT3, while the IC(50) value of sertraline was 2.3 μM for 5-HT uptake. Both desipramine and sertraline appeared to inhibit OCT3 activity via a non-competitive mechanism. In vivo studies are warranted to determine whether such effects on OCT3 inhibition are of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the overall therapeutic effects of antidepressants.

  9. Organic anion and cation SLC22 "drug" transporter (Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 regulation during development and maturation of the kidney proximal tubule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Gallegos

    Full Text Available Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways. Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.

  10. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.


    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  11. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V


    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  12. Molecular physiology of the insect K-activated amino acid transporter 1 (KAAT1) and cation-anion activated amino acid transporter/channel 1 (CAATCH1) in the light of the structure of the homologous protein LeuT. (United States)

    Castagna, M; Bossi, E; Sacchi, V F


    K-activated amino acid transporter 1 (KAAT1) and cation-anion-activated amino acid transporter/channel 1 (CAATCH1) are amino acid cotransporters, belonging to the Na/Cl-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family (also called SLC6/NSS), that have been cloned from Manduca sexta midgut. They have been thoroughly studied by expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and structure/function analyses have made it possible to identify the structural determinants of their cation and amino acid selectivity. About 40 mutants of these proteins have been studied by measuring amino acid uptake and current/voltage relationships. The results obtained since the cloning of KAAT1 and CAATCH1 are here discussed in the light of the 3D model of the first crystallized member of the family, the leucine transporter LeuT.

  13. 磷钨酸催化β-蒎烯阳离子聚合反应%Cationic polymerization of β-pinene using Keggin phosphotungstic acid as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祖广; 朱华龙; 曾巍; 张太顺; 安鑫南; 雷福厚


    以磷钨酸(PW12)为催化剂,催化β-蒎烯阳离子聚合,显示出良好的催化活性.采用1H NMR、XPS、XRD、FTIR、GPC和GC-MS对催化剂及反应产物进行了表征,实验结果表明:磷钨酸在反应前后Keggin结构没有发生变化,在聚合反应中起引发剂和抗衡负离子的双重作用;在-15℃时,该反应以聚合反应为主,异构化反应为次;聚合物的结构表征和异构化产物均支持β-蒎烯阳离子开环聚合机理;采用单因素实验.得出了β-蒎烯阳离子聚合的最佳工艺条件:聚合温度-15℃,PW12用量5%(质量),V溶剂:V单体=1:1,反应时间9 h,PW12的焙烧温度200℃,焙烧时间4 h,溶剂为1,2-二氯乙烷.在此条件下聚合,β-蒎烯转化率达97.37%,不溶于乙醇的聚β-蒎烯树脂得率为60.85%,相对数均分子质量约为1170.%β-Pinene polymerization is usually initiated with cationic catalysts. Lewis acids such as A1C13,BF3, TiCl4 are the most effective catalysts and therefore commonly used in the commercial process. But the halides can cause severe problems of environmental hazards and poison hydrogenation catalysts in later hydrogenation process. In addition, dark color of polymer obtained limits its application in many areas in which light color or colorless resins are required. Keggin heteropolyacids (HPAs) are of some advantages such as high catalytic activity, high thermal and oxidative stability, non-corrosion and non-polluting to environment, and have been paid more and more attention in organic synthesis and the petrochemical industry. 12-Phosphotungstic acid (PW12) catalyst is explored for β-pinene cationic polymerization in this paper. The catalyst and polymer obtained are characterized by 1 H NMR, XPS, XRD, FTIR, GPC and GCMS, and it is shown that the crystal structure of the heteropolyanion is not destroyed during the reaction. The protons dissociating from the catalyst play an important role in the polymerization. The PW12 is both polymerization initiator

  14. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane (United States)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.


    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  15. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy]. (United States)

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela


    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  16. 2-Acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic Acid Grafted Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-Based Acid-/Oxidative-Resistant Cation Exchange for Membrane Electrolysis. (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi P; Das, Arindam K; Shahi, Vinod K


    For developing acid-/oxidative-resistant aliphatic-polymer-based cation-exchange membrane (CEM), macromolecular modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-co-HFP) was carried out by controlled chemical grafting of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS). To introduce the unsaturation suitable for chemical grafting, dehydrofluorination of commercially available PVDF-co-HFP was achieved under alkaline medium. Sulfonated copolymer (SCP) was prepared by the free radical copolymerization of dehydofluorinated PVDF-co-HFP (DHPVDF-co-HFP) and AMPS in the presence of free radical initiator. Prepared SCP-based CEMs were analyzed for their morphological characteristics, ion-exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, conductivity, and stabilities (mechanical, chemical, and thermal) in comparison with state-of-art Nafion117 membrane. High bound water content avoids the membrane dehydration, and most optimal (SCP-1.33) membrane exhibited about ∼2.5-fold high bound water content in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane. Bunsen reaction of iodine-sulfur (I-S) was successfully performed by direct-contact-mode membrane electrolysis in a two-compartment electrolytic cell using different SCP membranes. High current efficiency (83-99%) confirmed absence of any side reaction and 328.05 kJ mol-H2(-1) energy was required for to produce 1 mol of H2 by electrolytic cell with SCP-1.33 membrane. In spite of low conductivity for reported SCP membrane in comparison with that of Nafion117 membrane, SCP-1.33 membrane was assessed as suitable candidate for electrolysis because of its low-cost nature and excellent stabilities in highly acidic environment may be due to partial fluorinated segments in the membrane structure.

  17. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Book, D.E.


    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  18. Compositional Analysis of Cationic Polyacrylamide Resins by Reactive Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography in the Presence of Organic Alkali


    Ishida, Yasuyuki; Tsuge, Shin; Otani, Hajime; Inokuchi, Fumiaki; Fujii, Yuji; Suetomo, Shigeru; オオタニ, ハジメ; 大谷, 肇


    Reactive pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was successfully applied to the compositional analysis of cationic polyacrylamide (PAAm) resins, prepared from acrylamide (AAm) and dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DM). The reactive pyrolysis of cationic PAAm resulted only in hydrolysis of ester linkages in DM units and did not lead to subsequent methylation of hydrolyzates and cyclization. The intense peak of 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol formed ...

  19. Equilibrative nucleoside (ENTs) and cationic amino acid (CATs) transporters: implications in foetal endothelial dysfunction in human pregnancy diseases. (United States)

    Casanello, Paola; Escudero, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis


    Gestational diabetes (GD, characterized by abnormal D-glucose metabolism), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR, a disease associated with reduced oxygen delivery (hypoxia) to the foetus), and preeclampsia (PE, a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria and increased vascular resistance), induce foetal endothelial dysfunction with implications in adult life and increase the risk of vascular diseases. Synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and uptake of L-arginine (the NO synthase (NOS) substrate) and adenosine (a vasoactive endogenous nucleoside) by the umbilical vein endothelium is altered in pregnancies with GD, IUGR or PE. Mechanisms underlying these alterations include differential expression of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs), cationic amino acid transporters (CATs), and NOS. Modulation of ENTs, CATs, and NOS expression and activity in endothelium involves protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases p42 and p44 (p42/44(mapk)), calcium, and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3k), among others. Elevated extracellular D-glucose and hypoxia alter human endothelial function. However, information regarding the transcriptional modulation of ENTs, CATs, and NOS is limited. This review focuses on the effect of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved in the modulation of ENTs and CATs, and NOS expression and activity, and the consequences for foetal endothelial function in GD, IUGR and PE. The available information will contribute to a better understanding of the cell and molecular basis of the altered vascular endothelial function in these pregnancy diseases and will emphasize the key role of this type of epithelium in placental function and the normal foetal development and growth.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Glycidyl-Based Poly(aminoester-Folic Acid Targeting Conjugates and Study on Gene Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Che Hsiao


    Full Text Available A new poly(aminoester (EPAE-FA containing folic acid and amino groups in the backbone and side chain was synthesized. EPAE-FA self-assembled readily with the plasmid DNA (pCMV-βgal in HEPES buffer and was characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, fluorescence images, and XTT cell viability assays. To evaluate the transfection effect of graft ratio of FA on the EPAE system, EPAE-FA polymers with two different graft ratios (EPAE-FA12k and EPAE-FA14k were also prepared. This study found that all EPAE-FA polymers were able to bind plasmid DNA and yielded positively charged complexes with nano-sized particles ( < 200 nm. To assess the transfection efficiency mediated by EPAE and EPAE-FA polymers, we performed in vitro transfection activity assays using FR-negative (COS-7 and FR-positive (HeLa cells. The EPAE-FA12k/DNA and EPAE-FA14k/DNA complexes were able to transfect HeLa cell in vitro with higher transfection efficiency than PEI25k/DNA at the similar weight ratio. These results demonstrated that the introduction of FA into EPAE system had a significant effect on transferring ability for FR-positive cells (HeLa. Examination of the cytotoxicity of PEI25k and EPAE-FA system revealed that EPAE-FA system had lower cytotoxicity. In this paper, EPAE-FA seemed to be a novel cationic poly(aminoester for gene delivery and an interesting candidate for further study.

  1. Biotic ligand modeling approach: Synthesis of the effect of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms. (United States)

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Straalen, Nico M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M


    The biotic ligand model (BLM) approach is used to assess metal toxicity, taking into account the competition of other cations with the free metal ions for binding to the biotic ligand sites of aquatic and soil organisms. The bioavailable fraction of metals, represented by the free metal ion, is a better measure than the total concentration for assessing their potential risk to the environment. Because BLMs are relating toxicity to the fraction of biotic ligands occupied by the metal, they can be useful for investigating factors affecting metal bioaccumulation and toxicity. In the present review, the effects of major cations on the toxicity of metals to soil and aquatic organisms were comprehensively studied by performing a meta-analysis of BLM literature data. Interactions at the binding sites were shown to be species- and metal-specific. The main factors affecting the relationships between toxicity and conditional binding constants for metal binding at the biotic ligand appeared to be Ca(2+) , Mg(2+) , and protons. Other important characteristics of the exposure medium, such as levels of dissolved organic carbon and concentrations of other cations, should also be considered to obtain a proper assessment of metal toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms.

  2. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 1. Cyanide cations in the spectra of N-alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl-α-amino acids and their methyl esters (United States)

    Todua, Nino G.; Tretyakov, Kirill V.; Mikaia, Anzor I.


    The central mission for the development of the National Institute of Standards and Technology/National Institutes of Health/Environmental Protection Agency Mass Spectral Library is the acquisition of reference gas chromatography–mass spectrometry data for important compounds and their chemical modification products. The addition of reliable reference data of various derivatives of amino acids to The Library, and the study of their behavior under electron ionization conditions may be useful for their identification, structure elucidation, and a better understanding of the data obtained when the same derivatives are subjected to other ionization methods. N-Alkyl-N-perfluoroacyl derivatives of amino acids readily produce previously unreported alkylnitrilium cations of composition [HC≡N-alkyl]+. Homologous [HC≡N-aryl]+ cations are typical for corresponding N-aryl analogs. The formation of other ions characteristic for these derivatives involves oxygen rearrangement giving rise to ions [CnF2n+1–C≡N+–CnH2n+1] and [CnF2n+1–C≡N+-aryl]. The introduction of an N-benzyl substituent in a molecule favors a process producing benzylidene iminium cations. l-Threonine and l-cysteine derivatives exhibit more fragmentation pathways not typical for other α-amino acids; additionally, the Nω-amino group in l-lysine directs the dissociation process and provides structural information on the substitution at the amino functions in the molecule. PMID:26307698

  3. Complexation of trivalent lanthanide cations by different chelation sites of malic and tartric acid (composition, stability and probable structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riri


    Full Text Available The formation of colorless gadolinium complexes (x,y,z between x gadolinium ions, y ligands and z protons of some organic acids has been studied in aqueous solution. In this work we shall present the results of investigations on the interaction of the gadolinium ion (Gd3+ with different chelation sites of malic and tartric acid formed in dilute solution for pH values between 5.50 and 7.50. The structures of these new organometallic complexes are Gd3(C4H4O52·(NO33·nH2O and Gd3(C4H4O62·(NO33·nH2O (C4H4O52-: malate ions and C4H4O62-: tartrate ions. These colorless gadolinium complexes of malate and tartrate ions have no absorption band UV–visible, the indirect photometry detection (IPD study; have identified major tri-nuclear complexes of these dicarboxylic acids, giving for these colorless complexes a (3,2,2 and (3,2,3, respectively. Composition and apparent stability constant depends on the acidity of the medium. To complement previous results and to propose probable structures for these new complexes detected in solution FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy have been conducted to identify the different chelation sites for both ligands.

  4. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids (United States)

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing


    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  5. Amino acid anions in organic ionic compounds. An ab initio study of selected ion pairs. (United States)

    Benedetto, A; Bodo, E; Gontrani, L; Ballone, P; Caminiti, R


    The combination of amino acids in their deprotonated and thus anionic form with a choline cation gives origin to a new and potentially important class of organic ionic compounds. A series of such neutral ion pairs has been investigated by first principle methods. The results reveal intriguing structural motives as well as regular patterns in the charge distribution and predict a number of vibrational and optical properties that could guide the experimental investigation of these compounds. The replacement of choline with its phosphocholine analogue causes the spontaneous reciprocal neutralization of cations and anions, taking place through the transfer of a proton between the two ions. Systems of this kind, therefore, provide a wide and easily accessible playground to probe the ionic/polar transition in organic systems, while the easy transfer of H(+) among neutral and ionic species points to their potential application as proton conductors. The analysis of the ab initio data highlights similarities as well as discrepancies from the rigid-ions force-field picture and suggests directions for the improvement of empirical models.

  6. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion (United States)

    Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M.; Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L.; Kravetz, María C.; Lee, Brenda M.; Carranza, Andrea; Del Mauro, Julieta S.; Pandolfo, Marcela; Gironacci, Mariela M.; Gorzalczany, Susana; Toblli, Jorge E.; Fernández, Belisario E.


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on organic cation transporters (OCTs) expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T), ANP, dopamine (DA), D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects. PMID:27392042

  7. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Stimulates Dopamine Tubular Transport by Organic Cation Transporters: A Novel Mechanism to Enhance Renal Sodium Excretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás M Kouyoumdzian

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP on organic cation transporters (OCTs expression and activity, and its consequences on dopamine urinary levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity and renal function. Male Sprague Dawley rats were infused with isotonic saline solution during 120 minutes and randomized in nine different groups: control, pargyline plus tolcapone (P+T, ANP, dopamine (DA, D-22, DA+D-22, ANP+D-22, ANP+DA and ANP+DA+D-22. Renal functional parameters were determined and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by HPLC. Expression of OCTs and D1-receptor in membrane preparations from renal cortex tissues were determined by western blot and Na+, K+-ATPase activity was determined using in vitro enzyme assay. 3H-DA renal uptake was determined in vitro. Compared to P+T group, ANP and dopamine infusion increased diuresis, urinary sodium and dopamine excretion significantly. These effects were more pronounced in ANP+DA group and reversed by OCTs blockade by D-22, demonstrating that OCTs are implied in ANP stimulated-DA uptake and transport in renal tissues. The activity of Na+, K+-ATPase exhibited a similar fashion when it was measured in the same experimental groups. Although OCTs and D1-receptor protein expression were not modified by ANP, OCTs-dependent-dopamine tubular uptake was increased by ANP through activation of NPR-A receptor and protein kinase G as signaling pathway. This effect was reflected by an increase in urinary dopamine excretion, natriuresis, diuresis and decreased Na+, K+-ATPase activity. OCTs represent a novel target that links the activity of ANP and dopamine together in a common mechanism to enhance their natriuretic and diuretic effects.

  8. Cationic gemini pyrrolidinium surfactants based sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous detection of nine organic pollutants in environmental water. (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wei, Ran; Cai, Bo; Dong, Jinfeng; Deng, Bin; Xiao, Yuxiu


    A series of novel cationic gemini surfactants with pyrrolidinium head groups, 1,1'-(butane-1,s-alkyl) bis (1-alkylpyrrolidinium) (Cn-4-CnPB, n=12, 14, 16), were employed as carriers in sweeping-micellar electrokinetic chromatography (sweeping-MEKC) for simultaneous detection of nine organic water pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfonamides and steroids. The sweeping and separation conditions were optimized. Cn-4-CnPB (n=12, 14, 16) were compared with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in terms of their abilities to preconcentrate and separate the nine analytes. Under the optimized conditions, the sensitivity enhancement factors based on the peak height (SEFsHeight) were ca. 310-580 of C16-4-C16PB, which were higher than those of C14-4-C14PB (120-290) and C12-4-C12PB (110-160). Meanwhile, the SEFsHeight of C16-4-C16PB were higher than those of 30% (v/v) methanol-modified CTAB (140-320). The C16-4-C16PB based sweeping-MEKC, coupled with offline solid phase extraction and UV detection (228nm), was used to analyze spiked environmental water samples. The nine analytes were successfully separated and detected. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was in range of 2.79-3.76ng/mL, and the recovery ranged from 70.8% to 95.5% with the RSDs less than 9.89%. This study confirms that the C16-4-C16PB based sweeping-MEKC has significant advantages over the CTAB based sweeping-MEKC and it is a promising method for sensitive and simultaneous detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfonamides and steroids in environmental water samples.

  9. Organic acids for control of Salmonella in different feed materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyuncu, Sevinc; Andersson, Mats Gunnar; Löfström, Charlotta


    Background Salmonella control in animal feed is important in order to protect animal and public health. Organic acids is one of the control measures used for treatment of Salmonella contaminated feed or feed ingredients. In the present study, the efficacy of formic acid (FA) and different blends...

  10. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half...... matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination....

  11. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants (United States)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.


    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  12. [Inhibition of growth of microscopic fungi with organic acids]. (United States)

    Conková, E; Para, L; Kocisová, A


    Fungicidal effects of five selected organic acids (lactic, acetic, formic, oxalic, and propionic) in concentrations 3, 5, 10, 20 and 50 ml/l on nine selected species of moulds were tested. Lactic and oxalic acids did not prove the satisfactory fungicidal activity in any of the chosen concentrations. The antifungal effect of the other three acids, manifested by the growth inhibition of the tested moulds is shown in Tab. I and it can be expressed by sequence: propionic acid, formic acid, and acetic acid. These acids also had effects only in concentrations 20 ml/l and 50 ml/l. Propionic acid in concentration 20 ml/l inhibited the growth of five moulds (Penicillium glabrum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum). In testing of concentration 50 ml/l, the lower fungicidal ability was ascertained only in growth suppression of Aspergillus flavus. The fungicidal activity of formic acid was registered in concentration 20 ml/l in two cases and in concentration 50 ml/l in six cases. Acetic acid inhibited the growth in concentration 50 ml/l only in two cases. Tab. II shows the percentual evaluation of propionic acid and formic acid with regard to their inhibition abilities. The fungicidal efficiency of propionic acid resulting from the experiment is 88.9%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar


    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  14. Supplemental leucine and isoleucine affect expression of cationic amino acid transporters and myosin, serum concentration of amino acids, and growth performance of pigs. (United States)

    Cervantes-Ramírez, M; Mendez-Trujillo, V; Araiza-Piña, B A; Barrera-Silva, M A; González-Mendoza, D; Morales-Trejo, A


    Leucine (Leu) participates in the activity of cationic amino acid (aa) transporters. Also, branched-chain aa [Leu, isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val)] share intestinal transporters for absorption. We conducted an experiment with 16 young pigs (body weight of about 16 kg) to determine whether Leu and Ile affect expression of aa transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and expression of myosin in muscle, as well as serum concentration of essential aa, and growth performance in pigs. Dietary treatments were: wheat-based diets fortified with Lys, Thr, and Met; basal diet plus 0.50% Leu; basal diet plus 0.50% Ile, and basal diet plus 0.50% Leu and 0.50% Ile. After 28 days, the pigs were sacrificed to collect blood, jejunum, and semitendinosus and longissimus muscle samples. The effects of single and combined addition of Leu and Ile were analyzed. Leu alone or combined with Ile significantly decreased daily weight gain and reduced feed conversion. Leu and Ile, alone or in combination, significantly decreased expression of b(0,+) and significantly increased CAT-1. Ile alone or combined with Leu significantly decreased myosin expression in semitendinosus and significantly decreased it in longissimus muscle. Leu alone significantly decreased Lys, Ile and Thr serum concentrations; Ile significantly decreased Thr serum concentration; combined Leu and Ile significantly decreased Thr and significantly increased Val serum concentration. We conclude that dietary levels of Leu and Ile affect growth performance, expression of aa transporters and myosin, and aa serum concentrations in pigs.

  15. Sulphonic acid strong cation-exchange restricted access columns in sample cleanup for profiling of endogenous peptides in multidimensional liquid chromatography. Structure and function of strong cation-exchange restricted access materials. (United States)

    Machtejevas, E; Denoyel, R; Meneses, J M; Kudirkaite, V; Grimes, B A; Lubda, D; Unger, K K


    In this work, the pore structural parameters and size exclusion properties of LiChrospher strong cation-exchange and reverse phase restricted access materials (RAM) are analysed. The molecular weight size exclusion limit for polystyrenes was found to be about 17.7 kDa, while for standard proteins, the molecular weight size exclusion limit was higher, at approximately 25 kDa. The average pore diameter on a volume basis calculated from the pore network model changes from 8.5 nm (native LiChrospher) to 8.6 nm (diol derivative) to 8.2 nm (sulphonic acid derivative) to 6.9 nm (n-octadecyl derivative). Additional characterisations were performed on restricted access materials with nitrogen sorption at 77 K, water adsorption at 25 degrees C, intrusion-extrusion of water (in order to evaluate the hydrophobic properties of the pores of the hydrophobic RAM), and zeta potential measurements by microelectrophoresis. For peptide analysis out of the biofluids, the strong cation-exchange functionality seems to be particularly suitable mainly because of the high loadability of the strong cation-exchange restricted access material (SCX-RAM) and the fact that one can work under non-denaturing conditions to perform effective chromatographic separations. For bacitracin, the dynamic capacity of the SCX-RAM columns does not reach its maximum value in the analysed range. For lysozyme, the dynamic capacity reaches a value of 0.08 mg/ml of column volume before column is overloaded. Additionally, the proper column operating conditions that lead to the total effective working time of the RAM column to be equal to approximately 500 injections (depending on the type of sample), is comprehensively described. The SCX-RAM column was used in the same system analysing urine samples for the period of 1 month (approximately 150 injections) with run-to-run reproducibility below 5% RSD and below 10% RSD for the relative fractions.

  16. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88 (United States)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.


    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  17. New Particle Formation and Growth from Methanesulfonic Acid, Amines, Water, and Organics (United States)

    Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.


    Particles in the atmosphere can influence visibility, negatively impact human health, and affect climate. The largest uncertainty in determining global radiative forcing is attributed to atmospheric aerosols. While new particle formation in many locations is correlated with sulfuric acid in air, neither the gas-phase binary nucleation of H2SO4-H2O nor the gas-phase ternary nucleation of H2SO4-NH3-H2O alone can fully explain observations. An additional potential particle source, based on previous studies in this laboratory, is methanesulfonic acid (MSA) with amines and water vapor. However, organics are ubiquitous in the atmosphere, with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) being a major component of particles. Organics could be involved in the initial stages of particle formation by enhancing or inhibiting nucleation from sulfuric acid or MSA, in addition to contributing to their growth to form SOA. Experiments to measure the effects of a series of organics of varying structure on particle formation and growth from MSA, amines, and water were performed in a custom-built small volume aerosol flow tube reactor. Analytical instruments and techniques include a scanning mobility particle sizer to measure particle size distributions, sampling onto a weak cation exchange resin with analysis by ion chromatography to measure amine concentrations, and filter collection and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure MSA concentrations. Organics were measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The impact of these organics on the initial particle formation as well as growth will be reported. The outcome is an improved understanding of fundamental chemistry of nucleation and growth to ultimately be incorporated into climate models to better predict how particles affect the global climate budget.

  18. Identification of the endogenous key substrates of the human organic cation transporter OCT2 and their implication in function of dopaminergic neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Taubert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the accelerated loss of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease, is unclear. Current hypotheses suggest an abnormal function of the neuronal sodium-dependent dopamine transporter DAT to contribute to cell death in the dopaminergic system, but it has not been investigated whether sodium-independent amine transporters are implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By the use of a novel tandem-mass spectrometry-based substrate search technique, we have shown that the dopaminergic neuromodulators histidyl-proline diketopiperazine (cyclo(his-pro and salsolinol were the endogenous key substrates of the sodium-independent organic cation transporter OCT2. Quantitative real-time mRNA expression analysis revealed that OCT2 in contrast to its related transporters was preferentially expressed in the dopaminergic regions of the substantia nigra where it colocalized with DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase. By assessing cell viability with the MTT reduction assay, we found that salsolinol exhibited a selective toxicity toward OCT2-expressing cells that was prevented by cyclo(his-pro. A frequent genetic variant of OCT2 with the amino acid substitution R400C reduced the transport efficiency for the cytoprotective cyclo(his-pro and thereby increased the susceptibility to salsolinol-induced cell death. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that the OCT2-regulated interplay between cyclo(his-pro and salsolinol is crucial for nigral cell integrity and that a shift in transport efficiency may impact the risk of Parkinson's disease.

  19. Acidity and origin of dissolved organic carbon in different vegetation zones (United States)

    Hruška, Jakub; Oulehle, Filip; Myška, Oldřích; Chuman, Tomáš


    The acid/base character of aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been studied intensively during recent decades with regard to the role of DOC in stream water acidity and the balance between natural acidity and anthropogenic acidification. Recently, DOC has been shown to play an important role in preindustrial surface waters. Studies focused on the acid/base properties of DOC have been carried out in mainly in Europe and North America and paint a conflicting picture. Some studies reported large differences in acid base properties, sometimes between quite similar and nearby localities, or between seasons at the same site. Other studies, however, found similar acid/base properties in waters from a variety of sites, sometimes far from each other as well as stable acid/base properties at the same site through different seasons or runoff events. Site density of DOC (amount of carboxylic groups per milligram of DOC) and SUVA was measured for streams (or small tundra ponds respectively) from the tundra in northern Alaska, boreal zone of Sweden, western Czech Republic (temperate region), and tropical Congo rain forest in central Africa. At least 10 samples from each region were taken from surface waters during the growing season. Titration of carboxylic groups after proton saturation on cation-exchange resin was used for site density determination. Despite very different climatic and vegetation properties and internal variation within a region, there was no statistically significant difference among regions for site density (it varied between 10.2-10.5 ueq/mg DOC) as well as for SUVA (tested by ANOVA). Results suggest that different vegetation and climate produced generally the same DOC in respect of acid/base character and SUVA. It also suggests that use of the one analytical technique was more important than differences between climatic zones itself.

  20. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaji, A. D., E-mail: [Golestan University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddahi, E. [Iran University of Science & Technology, Ms.C Educated, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Chow, T. J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Chemistry (China)


    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  1. Organic acid profile of commercial sour cassava starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Organic acids are present in sour cassava starch ("polvilho azedo" and contribute with organoleptic and physical characteristics like aroma, flavor and the exclusive baking property, that differentiate this product from the native cassava starch. Samples of commercial sour cassava starch collected in South and Southeast Brazil were prepared for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The HPLC equipment had a Biorad Aminex HPX-87H column for organic acid analysis and a refractometric detector. Analysis was carried out with 0.005M sulfuric acid as mobile phase, 0.6ml/min flow rate and column temperature of 60° C. The acids quantified were lactic (0.036 to 0.813 g/100g, acetic (0 to 0.068 g/100g, propionic (0 to 0.013 g/100g and butyric (0 to 0.057 g/100g, that are produced during the natural fermentation of cassava starch. Results showed large variation among samples, even within the same region. Some samples exhibited high acid levels, mainly lactic acid, but in these neither propionic nor butyric acids were detected. Absence of butyric acid was not expected because this is an important component of the sour cassava starch aroma, and the lack of this acid may suggest that such samples were produced without the natural fermentation step.

  2. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis. (United States)

    Ludwig, Martha


    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  3. Cationic Polymerization of 1,2-Epoxypropane by an Acid Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay in the Presence of Ethylene Glycol

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    Aïcha Hachemaoui


    Full Text Available Abstract: The polymerization of propylene oxide (PO catalysed by maghnite-H+ (mag-H+ in the presence of ethylene glycol was investigated. Mag-H+ is a montmorillonite silicate sheet clay was prepared through a straight forward proton exchange process. It was found that the cationic polymerization of PO was initiated by mag-H+ at 20 °C both in bulk and in solution. The effect of the amount of mag-H+ and solvent was studied. These results indicated the cationic nature of the polymerization A possible initiation pathway, via the transfer of protons from mag-H+ to the monomer, is proposed.

  4. Hydrogen generation from magnesium hydride by using organic acid (United States)

    Ho, Yen-Hsi

    In this paper, the hydrolysis of solid magnesium hydride has been studied with the high concentration of catalyst at the varying temperature. An organic acid (acetic acid, CH3COOH) has been chosen as the catalyst. The study has three objectives: first, using three different weights of MgH 2 react with aqueous solution of acid for the hydrogen generation experiments. Secondly, utilizing acetic acid as the catalyst accelerates hydrogen generation. Third, emphasizing the combination of the three operating conditions (the weight of MgH2, the concentration of acetic acid, and the varying temperature) influence the amount of hydrogen generation. The experiments results show acetic acid truly can increase the rate of hydrogen generation and the weight of MgH2 can affect the amount of hydrogen generation more than the varying temperature.

  5. Aspartic Acid 397 in Subunit B of the Na+-pumping NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase from Vibrio cholerae Forms Part of a Sodium-binding Site, Is Involved in Cation Selectivity, and Affects Cation-binding Site Cooperativity (United States)

    Shea, Michael E.; Juárez, Oscar; Cho, Jonathan; Barquera, Blanca


    The Na+-pumping NADH:quinone complex is found in Vibrio cholerae and other marine and pathogenic bacteria. NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase oxidizes NADH and reduces ubiquinone, using the free energy released by this reaction to pump sodium ions across the cell membrane. In a previous report, a conserved aspartic acid residue in the NqrB subunit at position 397, located in the cytosolic face of this protein, was proposed to be involved in the capture of sodium. Here, we studied the role of this residue through the characterization of mutant enzymes in which this aspartic acid was substituted by other residues that change charge and size, such as arginine, serine, lysine, glutamic acid, and cysteine. Our results indicate that NqrB-Asp-397 forms part of one of the at least two sodium-binding sites and that both size and charge at this position are critical for the function of the enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that this residue is involved in cation selectivity, has a critical role in the communication between sodium-binding sites, by promoting cooperativity, and controls the electron transfer step involved in sodium uptake (2Fe-2S → FMNC). PMID:24030824

  6. Organic Cations Might Not Be Essential to the Remarkable Properties of Band Edge Carriers in Lead Halide Perovskites. (United States)

    Zhu, Haiming; Trinh, M Tuan; Wang, Jue; Fu, Yongping; Joshi, Prakriti P; Miyata, Kiyoshi; Jin, Song; Zhu, X-Y


    A charge carrier in a lead halide perovskite lattice is protected as a large polaron responsible for the remarkable photophysical properties, irrespective of the cation type. All-inorganic-based APbX3 perovskites may mitigate the stability problem for their applications in solar cells and other optoelectronics.

  7. Sugars, organic acids, minerals and lipids in jabuticaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de Jesus Boari Lima


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the sugar, organic acid and mineral compositions of the whole fruit and fractions (skin, pulp and seed of the Paulista (Plinia cauliflora and Sabará (Plinia jaboticaba jabuticaba tree genotypes, as well as the oil compositions of their skin and seeds. High levels of sugar, especially fructose, followed by glucose and sucrose, were encountered in the fruit. In the Paulista genotype, higher levels of total and reducing sugars were found in the pulp and skin, which was not observed when comparing the whole fruit of both genotypes. Five organic acids were found in the whole fruit and in the fractions of the two jabuticaba genotypes in quantitative order: citric acid > succinic acid > malic acid > oxalic acid > acetic acid. Potassium was the most abundant mineral found. This fruit was also shown to be rich in magnesium, phosphorus, calcium and copper. The seed oil had nearly the same constitution as the oil extracted from the skin in both genotypes and the major compounds were an unidentified phytosterol, palmitic, linoleic and oleic acids, and squalene.

  8. Melt processing of poly(L‐lactic acid) in the presence of organomodified anionic or cationic clays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katiyar, Vimal; Gerds, Nathalie; Koch, Christian Bender


    ‐Al layered double hydroxide (LDH‐C12) and a cationic organomodified montmorillonite (MMT) clay (Cloisite® 30B), were investigated. The dispersion of these fillers in PLA by melt processing was explored using two methods, either by mixing the nanofillers with PLA granulate immediately before extrusion....... J Appl Polym Sci, 2011...

  9. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica Ačkar


    Full Text Available Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS, which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of homopolymers bearing acid-cleavable cationic side-chains for pH-modulated release of DNA. (United States)

    Xu, Zhangyan; Lai, Junping; Tang, Rupei; Ji, Weihang; Wang, Rui; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chun


    A new type of homopolymers, PMAOE, bearing acid-cleavable cationic side-chains is synthesized and characterized. PMAOE is obtained via free radical polymerization, and they could efficiently bind and condense plasmid DNA at neutral pH. The strength of DNA binding is dependent on the length of PMAOE chains. NMR analysis reveals that hydrolysis of the ortho ester group of PMAOE follows an exocyclic mechanism and the rate of hydrolysis is much accelerated at mildly acidic pH, leading to accelerated disruption of polyplexes and release of DNA in mildly acidic environment. PMAOE is not toxic to cultured NIH 3T3 and COS-7 cells measured by MTT. This study demonstrates a unique mechanism of achieving pH-modulated binding and release of DNA from polymers with potential applications for gene delivery.

  11. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects. (United States)

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian


    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  12. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum. (United States)

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J


    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  13. Use of potassium-form cation-exchange resin as a conductimetric enhancer in ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids. (United States)

    Iwata, Tomotaka; Mori, Masanobu; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    In this study, a cation-exchange resin (CEX) of the K(+)-form, i.e., an enhancer resin, is used as a postcolumn conductimetric enhancer in the ion-exclusion chromatography of aliphatic carboxylic acids. The enhancer resin is filled in the switching valve of an ion chromatograph; this valve is usually used as a suppressor valve in ion-exchange chromatography. An aliphatic carboxylic acid (e.g., CH(3)COOH) separated by a weakly acidic CEX column of the H(+)-form converts into that of the K(+)-form (e.g., CH(3)COOK) by passing through the enhancer resin. In contrast, the background conductivity decreases because a strong acid (e.g., HNO(3)) with a higher conductimetric response in an eluent converts into a salt (e.g., KNO(3)) with a lower conductimetric response. Since the pH of the eluent containing the resin enhancer increases from 3.27 to 5.85, the enhancer accelerates the dissociations of analyte acids. Consequently, peak heights and peak areas of aliphatic carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and valeric acid) with the enhancer resin are 6.3-8.0 times higher and 7.2-9.2 times larger, respectively, than those without the enhancer resin. Calibrations of peak areas for injected analytes are linear in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0mM. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) range from 0.10 microM to 0.39 microM in this system, as opposed to those in the range of 0.24-7.1 microM in the separation column alone. The developed system is successfully applied to the determination of aliphatic carboxylic acids in a chicken droppings sample.

  14. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to Elevated Sodium Concentrations Increases Cation Tolerance and Enables Greater Lactic Acid Production


    Wu, Xianghao; Altman, Ronni; Eiteman, Mark A; Altman, Elliot


    Adaptive evolution was employed to generate sodium (Na+)-tolerant mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655. Four mutants with elevated sodium tolerance, designated ALS1184, ALS1185, ALS1186, and ALS1187, were independently isolated after 73 days of serial transfer in medium containing progressively greater Na+ concentrations. The isolates also showed increased tolerance of K+, although this cation was not used for selective pressure. None of the adapted mutants showed increased tolerance to the non...

  15. Humic acid adsorption onto cationic cellulose nanofibers for bioinspired removal of copper( ii ) and a positively charged dye

    KAUST Repository

    Sehaqui, H.


    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. Waste pulp residues are herein exploited for the synthesis of a sorbent for humic acid (HA), which is a major water pollutant. Cellulose pulp was etherified with a quaternary ammonium salt in water thereby introducing positive charges onto the surface of the pulp fibers, and subsequently mechanically disintegrated into high surface area cellulose nanofibers (CNF). CNF with three different charge contents were produced and their adsorption capacity towards HA was investigated with UV-spectrophotometry, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, and ζ-potential measurements. Substantial coverage of the CNF surface with HA in a wide pH range led to a reversal of the positive ζ-potentials of CNF suspensions. The HA adsorption capacity and the kinetics of HA uptake were found to be promoted by both acidic pH conditions and the surface charge content of CNF. It is suggested that HA adsorption onto CNF depends on electrostatic interactions between the two components, as well as on the conformation of HA. At pH ∼ 6, up to 310 mg g-1 of HA were adsorbed by the functionalized CNF, a substantially higher capacity than that of previously reported HA sorbents in the literature. It is further shown that CNF-HA complexes could be freeze-dried into "soil-mimicking" porous foams having good capacity to capture Cu(ii) ions and positive dyes from contaminated water. Thus, the most abundant natural polymer, i.e., cellulose could effectively bind the most abundant natural organic matter for environmental remediation purpose.

  16. Phytogenic additives and organic acids in broiler chicken diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Barbosa Fascina


    Full Text Available The experiment evaluated the influence of isolated or associated phytogenic additives (PA and organic acids (OA on nutrient digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments (with or without PA × with or without OA + antibiotic performance enhancer and anticoccidial. In the first experiment, two metabolic tests were conducted to determine the metabolizability coefficients of the nutrients of starter and growth diets. In the second experiment, 2520 one-day-old chicks were housed in 40 experimental units to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics. The phytogenic additives and organic acids, isolated or associated, improve the nutrient digestibility of the diet and replace the growth- promoting antibiotics. The use of organic acids isolated or associated with phytogenic additives in broiler diets improves broiler performance in comparison with free antibiotic performance enhancer at 42 days of age. Isolated or associated phytogenic additives and organic acids provided better carcass characteristics.

  17. Dissolution kinetics of a lunar glass simulant at 25 degrees C: the effect of pH and organic acids (United States)

    Eick, M. J.; Grossl, P. R.; Golden, D. C.; Sparks, D. L.; Ming, D. W.


    The dissolution kinetics of a simulated lunar glass were examined at pH 3, 5, and 7. Additionally, the pH 7 experiments were conducted in the presence of citric and oxalic acid at concentrations of 2 and 20 mM. The organic acids were buffered at pH 7 to examine the effect of each molecule in their dissociated form. At pH 3, 5, and 7, the dissolution of the synthetic lunar glass was observed to proceed via a two-stage process. The first stage involved the parabolic release of Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe, and the linear release of Si. Dissolution was incongruent, creating a leached layer rich in Si and Ti which was verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). During the second stage the release of Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe was linear. A coupled diffusion/surface dissolution model was proposed for dissolution of the simulated lunar glass at pH 3, 5, and 7. During the first stage the initial release of mobile cations (i.e., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe) was limited by diffusion through the surface leached layer of the glass (parabolic release), while Si release was controlled by the hydrolysis of the Si-O-Al bonds at the glass surface (linear release). As dissolution continued, the mobile cations diffused from greater depths within the glass surface. A steady-state was then reached where the diffusion rate across the increased path lengths equalled the Si release rate from the surface. In the presence of the organic acids, the dissolution of the synthetic lunar glass proceeded by a one stage process. The release of Ca, Mg, Al, and Fe followed a parabolic relationship, while the release of Si was linear. The relative reactivity of the organic acids used in the experiments was citrate > oxalate. A thinner leached layer rich in Si/Ti, as compared to the pH experiments, was observed using TEM. Rate data suggest that the chemisorption of the organic anion to the surface silanol groups was responsible for enhanced dissolution in the presence of the organic acids. It is proposed that the increased

  18. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids. (United States)

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi


    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  19. Analysis of Organic Acids in Blueberry Juice and its Fermented Wine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxue Fu


    Full Text Available A rapid analytical method for simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids is of the essence for quality control of blueberry juice and its fermented wine. In this present study, a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids (oxalic acid, gluconic acid, tartaric acid, formic acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, isocitric acid, shikimic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid and propionic acid in blueberry juice and wine has been developed. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35°C by using an ammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.8 as mobile phase and 0.6 mL/min as the column flow rate. A C18 analytical column and Ultraviolet Detection (UV at &lembda = 210 nm were used for all acids above. The method was validated for linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing organic acids in real samples of six species of blueberry juices and wines. The results show that species significantly affect distribution of organic acids in samples but not the kinds of organic acids between six species. Oxalic acid, gluconic acid, malic acid, shikimic acid and citric acid are detected in blueberry juice. Citric acid, which accounts for a percentage >75% of the whole content of organic acids, is the major acid in four kinds of tested species (Sharpblue, Misty, Anna and Bluecrop. In the other two species (Britewell and Premier, malic acid, gluconic acid and citric acid own a mean percentage of 40, 32 and 25%, respectively. After yeast fermentation and aging, several new organic acids (pyruvic acid, isocitric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid and propionic acid appear in wine.

  20. The poorly membrane permeable antipsychotic drugs amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of the organic cation transporters from the SLC22 family. (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira, Joao N; Tadjerpisheh, Sina; Abu Abed, Manar; Saadatmand, Ali R; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V


    Variations in influx transport at the blood-brain barrier might affect the concentration of psychotropic drugs at their site of action and as a consequence might alter therapy response. Furthermore, influx transporters in organs such as the gut, liver and kidney may influence absorption, distribution, and elimination. Here, we analyzed 30 commonly used psychotropic drugs using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. Amisulpride and sulpiride showed the lowest membrane permeability (P e sulpiride by the organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 Amisulpride was found to be transported by all five transporters studied. In contrast, sulpiride was only transported by OCT1 and OCT2. OCT1 showed the highest transport ability both for amisulpride (CLint = 1.9 ml/min/mg protein) and sulpiride (CLint = 4.2 ml/min/mg protein) and polymorphisms in OCT1 significantly reduced the uptake of both drugs. Furthermore, we observed carrier-mediated uptake that was inhibitable by known OCT inhibitors in the immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family. SLC22 transporters may play an important role in the distribution of amisulpride and sulpiride, including their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

  1. Crystal phase competition by addition of a second metal cation in solid solution metal-organic frameworks. (United States)

    Castillo-Blas, C; Snejko, N; de la Peña-O'Shea, V A; Gallardo, J; Gutiérrez-Puebla, E; Monge, M A; Gándara, F


    Herein we report a synthetic study focused on the preparation of solid-solution metal-organic frameworks, MOFs, with the use of two kinds of linkers. In particular, we have explored the system composed by zinc, cobalt, 1,2,4-triazole and 4,4′-hexafluoroisopropylidenebisbenzoic acid (H2hfipbb). During this study, four new MOFs have been isolated, denoted TMPF-88 [M3(hfipbb)2(triazole)2(H2O)], TMPF-90 [M2(triazole)3(OCH2CH3)], TMPF-91 [M2(hfipbb)(triazole)2(H2O)] and TMPF-95 [M5(hfipbb)4(triazole)2(H2O)] (TMPF = transition metal polymeric framework, M = Zn, Co, or mixture of them). The study demonstrates that the addition of a second metal element during the MOF synthesis has a major effect in the formation of new phases, even at very high Zn/Co metal ratios. Furthermore, we show that during the MOF formation reaction, there is a competition among different crystal phases, where kinetically favoured phases of various compositions crystallize in short reaction times, precluding the formation of the pure solid-solution phases of other energetically more stable MOFs.

  2. Effect of base stacking on the acid-base properties of the adenine cation radical [A*+] in solution: ESR and DFT studies. (United States)

    Adhikary, Amitava; Kumar, Anil; Khanduri, Deepti; Sevilla, Michael D


    In this study, the acid-base properties of the adenine cation radical are investigated by means of experiment and theory. Adenine cation radical (A*(+)) is produced by one-electron oxidation of dAdo and of the stacked DNA-oligomer (dA)6 by Cl2*(-) in aqueous glass (7.5 M LiCl in H2O and in D2O) and investigated by ESR spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations and deuterium substitution at C8-H and N6-H in dAdo aid in our assignments of structure. We find the pKa value of A*(+) in this system to be ca. 8 at 150 K in seeming contradiction to the accepted value of or = 160 K, complete deprotonation of A*(+) occurs in dAdo in these glassy systems even at pH ca. 3. A*(+) found in (dA)6 at 150 K also deprotonates on thermal annealing. The stability of A*(+) at 150 K in these systems is attributed to charge delocalization between stacked bases. Theoretical calculations at various levels (DFT B3LYP/6-31G*, MPWB95, and HF-MP2) predict binding energies for the adenine stacked dimer cation radical of 12 to 16 kcal/mol. Further DFT B3LYP/6-31G* calculations predict that, in aqueous solution, monomeric A*(+) should deprotonate spontaneously (a predicted pKa of ca. -0.3 for A*(+)). However, the charge resonance stabilized dimer AA*(+) is predicted to result in a significant barrier to deprotonation and a calculated pKa of ca. 7 for the AA*(+) dimer which is 7 pH units higher than the monomer. These theoretical and experimental results suggest that A*(+) isolated in solution and A*(+) in adenine stacks have highly differing acid-base properties resulting from the stabilization induced by hole delocalization within adenine stacks.

  3. Aluminium uptake and translocation in Al hyperaccumulator Rumex obtusifolius is affected by low-molecular-weight organic acids content and soil pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislava Vondráčková

    Full Text Available High Al resistance of Rumex obtusifolius together with its ability to accumulate Al has never been studied in weakly acidic conditions (pH > 5.8 and is not sufficiently described in real soil conditions. The potential elucidation of the role of organic acids in plant can explain the Al tolerance mechanism.We established a pot experiment with R. obtusifolius planted in slightly acidic and alkaline soils. For the manipulation of Al availability, both soils were untreated and treated by lime and superphosphate. We determined mobile Al concentrations in soils and concentrations of Al and organic acids in organs.Al availability correlated positively to the extraction of organic acids (citric acid < oxalic acid in soils. Monovalent Al cations were the most abundant mobile Al forms with positive charge in soils. Liming and superphosphate application were ambiguous measures for changing Al mobility in soils. Elevated transport of total Al from belowground organs into leaves was recorded in both lime-treated soils and in superphosphate-treated alkaline soil as a result of sufficient amount of Ca available from soil solution as well as from superphosphate that can probably modify distribution of total Al in R. obtusifolius as a representative of "oxalate plants." The highest concentrations of Al and organic acids were recorded in the leaves, followed by the stem and belowground organ infusions.In alkaline soil, R. obtusifolius is an Al-hyperaccumulator with the highest concentrations of oxalate in leaves, of malate in stems, and of citrate in belowground organs. These organic acids form strong complexes with Al that can play a key role in internal Al tolerance but the used methods did not allow us to distinguish the proportion of total Al-organic complexes to the free organic acids.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel 3D Coordination Polymer Based on Cu(Ⅱ) Cations and Mellitic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG E; QIN Ye-Yan; CAO Xin-Yi; LIN Qi-Pu; YIN Pei-Xiu; YAO Yuan-Gen


    A new mellitate complex [Cu3(μ2-mellitate)(μ2-H2O)(H2O)2·H2O]n 1 has been synthesi- zed by the reaction of mellitic acid and Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O in the presence of base. Crystallogra- phic data for 1: C12H80O16Cu3, Mr = 598.80, orthorhombic, Pbcn, a = 8.4378(6), b = 10.0396(7), c = 17.6799(12) A, V = 1497.70(18) A3, Z = 4, Dc = 2.656 g/cm3,μ = 4.327 mm-1, F(000) = 1180, R = 0.0431 and wR = 0.0964 for 1075 observed reflections (Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ)). X-ray crystal structural analysis revealed that the mellitate anions behave as the bridging ligands and link eight copper atoms repeatedly to form a novel three-dimensional metal-organic coordination polymer with two different rhombic tunnels in the solid-state structure.

  5. Acid decomposition and thiourea leaching of silver from hazardous jarosite residues: Effect of some cations on the stability of the thiourea system. (United States)

    Calla-Choque, D; Nava-Alonso, F; Fuentes-Aceituno, J C


    The recovery of silver from hazardous jarosite residues was studied employing thiourea as leaching agent at acid pH and 90°C. The stability of the thiourea in synthetic solutions was evaluated in the presence of some cations that can be present in this leaching system: cupric and ferric ions as oxidant species, and zinc, lead and iron as divalent ions. Two silver leaching methods were studied: the simultaneous jarosite decomposition-silver leaching, and the jarosite decomposition followed by the silver leaching. The study with synthetic solutions demonstrated that cupric and ferric ions have a negative effect on thiourea stability due to their oxidant properties. The effect of cupric ions is more significant than the effect of ferric ions; other studied cations (Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+)) had no effect on the stability of thiourea. When the decomposition of jarosite and the silver leaching are carried out simultaneously, 70% of the silver can be recovered. When the acid decomposition was performed at pH 0.5 followed by the leaching step at pH 1, total silver recovery increased up to 90%. The zinc is completely dissolved with any of these processes while the lead is practically insoluble with these systems producing a lead-rich residue.

  6. Poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic Acid) Hydrogel Induced by Glow-Discharge Electrolysis Plasma and Its Adsorption Properties for Cationic Dyes (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Yang, Gege; Pan, Yuanpei; Lu, Quanfang; Yang, Wu; Gao, Jinzhang


    In this paper, poly (acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (P(AM-co-AA)) hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous solution by using glow-discharge electrolysis plasma (GDEP) induced copolymerization of acrylamide (AM) and acrylic acid (AA), in which N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) was used as a crosslinker. A mechanism for the synthesis of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel was proposed. To optimize the synthesis condition, the following parameters were examined in detail: the discharge voltage, discharge time, the content of the crosslinker, and the mass ratio of AM to AA. The results showed that the optimum pH range for cationic dyes removal was found to be 5.0-10.0. The P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel exhibits a very high adsorption potential and the experimental adsorption capacities for Crystal violet (CV) and Methylene blue (MB) were 2974.3 mg/g and 2303.6 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption process follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of P(AM-co-AA) hydrogel for cationic dyes was also discussed.

  7. Resonance energies of the allyl cation and allyl anion: contribution by resonance and inductive effects toward the acidity and hydride abstraction enthalpy of propene. (United States)

    Barbour, Josiah B; Karty, Joel M


    Density functional theory was employed to calculate the acidities and hydride abstraction enthalpies of propene (3) and propane (4), along with their vinylogues (5 and 6, respectively). The same reaction enthalpies were calculated for the propene vinylogues in which the terminal vinyl group was rotated perpendicular to the rest of the conjugated system (7). The contribution by resonance and inductive effects toward the acidity and hydride abstraction enthalpy of each vinylogue of 5 (n = 1-3) was computed and extrapolated to n = 0 (the parent propene system). The resonance energies of the allyl cation and anion were determined to be about 20-22 and 17-18 kcal/mol, respectively. Comparisons are made to resonance energies calculated using other methodologies.

  8. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.


    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  9. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.


    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  10. Sulphate behaviour from dissolution of gypsum in organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruah, M.K.; Gogoi, P.C.; Kotoky, P. [NNS College, Titabar (India). Dept. of Chemistry


    The solubility of gypsum in organic acids namely acetic, oxalic, tartaric and succinic acids at low temperature (30{degree}C) was studied. The results show that sulphate sulphur content increases with increasing acid concentration from 0.1 to 0.25 M and decreases again at higher concentration. It is suggested that different behaviour of the acids beyond 0.25 M solution could be due to incorporation of sulphate into the co-ordination sphere of calcium-organic complexes. It is suggested that the occurrence of free and fixed sulphate in the solution is highly pH dependent. The nature of incorporation of sulphate in a system containing calcium species and natural organic matter has also been studied. Humic acids, extracted from forest and tea-garden soils, were treated with a solution of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O) at room temperature and the infrared spectra of the gypsum treated samples reveal that sulphate has been incorporated into the calcium complex as a monodentate ligand. Further an inorganic-sulphur free high-sulphur coal when treated with the gypsum solution, incorporated sulphate as bidentate ligand. It is concluded that the nature of the organic matter plays an important role for the occurrence of various fixed sulphates either as monodentate or bidentate ligand in natural systems. This work is a novel breakthrough for the occurrence of varying sulphate content in some of the natural environments and has considerable environmental and geochemical interest. Short communication. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Exceptional Morphology-Preserving Evolution of Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Thin Films via Organic-Cation Displacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Pang, Shuping; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P.


    Here we demonstrate a radically different chemical route for the creation of HC(NH2)2PbI3 (FAPbI3) perovskite thin films. This approach entails a simple exposure of as-synthesized CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite thin films to HC(=NH)NH2 (formamidine or FA) gas at 150 degrees C, which leads to rapid displacement of the MA+ cations by FA+ cations in the perovskite structure. The resultant FAPbI3 perovskite thin films preserve the microstructural morphology of the original MAPbI3 thin films exceptionally well. Importantly, the myriad processing innovations that have led to the creation of high-quality MAPbI3 perovskite thin films are directly adaptable to FAPbI3 through this simple, rapid chemical-conversion route. Accordingly, we show that efficiencies of perovskite solar cells fabricated with FAPbI3 thin films created using this route can reach -18%.

  12. Exceptional Morphology-Preserving Evolution of Formamidinium Lead Triiodide Perovskite Thin Films via Organic-Cation Displacement. (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Yang, Mengjin; Pang, Shuping; Zhu, Kai; Padture, Nitin P


    Here we demonstrate a radically different chemical route for the creation of HC(NH2)2PbI3 (FAPbI3) perovskite thin films. This approach entails a simple exposure of as-synthesized CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) perovskite thin films to HC(═NH)NH2 (formamidine or FA) gas at 150 °C, which leads to rapid displacement of the MA(+) cations by FA(+) cations in the perovskite structure. The resultant FAPbI3 perovskite thin films preserve the microstructural morphology of the original MAPbI3 thin films exceptionally well. Importantly, the myriad processing innovations that have led to the creation of high-quality MAPbI3 perovskite thin films are directly adaptable to FAPbI3 through this simple, rapid chemical-conversion route. Accordingly, we show that efficiencies of perovskite solar cells fabricated with FAPbI3 thin films created using this route can reach ∼18%.

  13. Lipase catalyzed synthesis of organic acid esters of lactic acid in non-aqueous media. (United States)

    Kiran, K R; Divakar, S


    Lipases from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM20) and porcine pancreas (PPL) were employed as catalysts for the esterification reaction between the hydroxyl group of lactic acid and the carboxyl group of organic acids. Reactions were carried out at both shake-flask and bench-scale levels. Various parameters, such as solvent, temperature, substrate and enzyme concentrations, effect of buffer volume, buffer pH and water volume, were investigated for optimization of yields. While ethylmethyl ketone (EMK) was found to be the best solvent for shake-flask reactions, chloroform gave higher yields at bench-scale level. Detailed studies were carried out with respect to the synthesis of palmitoyl and stearoyl lactic acids. At shake-flask level, maximum yields of 37.5 and 40% were observed in case of palmitoyl and stearoyl lactic acids, respectively, with Lipozyme IM20; at bench-scale level, the maximum yields were 85.1 and 99% respectively, when PPL was employed. Of all the organic acids employed (C(2)--C(18)), only lauric, palmitic and stearic acids gave yields above 50%. At bench-scale level, PPL could be reused for up to three cycles with yields above 40%. Esters prepared were found to conform to Food Chemical Codex (FCC) specifications in terms of acid value, ester value, sodium and lactic acid contents.

  14. The mechanism of excretion of trientine from the rat kidney: trientine is not recognized by the H+/organic cation transporter. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Tanabe, R; Sugawara, M; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, K


    Trientine dihydrochloride is used to treat Wilson's disease by chelating copper and increasing its urinary excretion. The mechanism of renal excretion of trientine has been investigated in-vivo and in-vitro. Trientine clearance in the rat-was significantly faster than creatinine clearance. When trientine and the same number of moles of copper ions were administered simultaneously to the rat, however, trientine clearance decreased to almost the same level as the creatinine clearance. To clarify this active excretion system for trientine, the uptake of trientine and a physiological polyamine compound, spermine, was investigated using rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles. Although, because trientine and spermine are organic cations, the H+/organic cation transporter is expected to recognize these compounds, neither an outwardly directed H+ gradient nor an inward Na+ gradient stimulated trientine uptake. [14C]Spermine uptake was, nevertheless, trans-stimulated by both unlabelled spermine and trientine and the trans-stimulating effect of spermine on trientine uptake was, furthermore, completely abolished by addition of copper ions to the incubation medium. These results suggest that there is a specific transport system for spermine and trientine on the renal brushborder membrane. This transport system contributes to the secretion of trientine in the kidney proximal tubule but does not recognize the trientine-copper complex.

  15. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties. (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand


    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  16. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference on ruminal metabolism, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal acid-base regulation in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Martins, C M M R; Arcari, M A; Welter, K C; Gonçalves, J L; Santos, M V


    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal fermentation, total apparent digestibility, blood and renal metabolism of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows were distributed in four contemporary 4×4 Latin Square designs, which consisted of four periods of 21 days and four treatments according to DCAD: +290; +192; +98 and -71 milliequivalent (mEq)/kg dry matter (DM). Ruminal pH and concentrations of acetic and butyric acid increased linearly according to the increase of DCAD. Similarly, NDF total apparent digestibility linearly increased by 6.38% when DCAD increased from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM [Y=65.90 (SE=2.37)+0.0167 (SE=0.0068)×DCAD (mEq/kg DM)]. Blood pH was also increased according to DCAD, which resulted in reduction of serum concentrations of Na, K and ionic calcium (iCa). To maintain the blood acid-base homeostasis, renal metabolism played an important role in controlling serum concentrations of Na and K, since the Na and K urinary excretion increased linearly by 89.69% and 46.06%, respectively, from -71 to 290 mEq/kg DM. Changes in acid-base balance of biological fluids may directly affect the mineral composition of milk, as milk concentrations of Na, K, iCa and chlorides were reduced according to blood pH increased. Thus, it can be concluded that the increase of DCAD raises the pH of ruminal fluid, NDF total apparent digestibility, and blood pH, and decreases the milk concentration of cationic minerals, as well as the efficiency of Na utilization to milk production.

  17. Assessment of bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by organic acid extraction and phosphatase hydrolysis. (United States)

    Darch, Tegan; Blackwell, Martin S A; Chadwick, David; Haygarth, Philip M; Hawkins, Jane M B; Turner, Benjamin L


    Soil organic phosphorus contributes to the nutrition of tropical trees, but is not accounted for in standard soil phosphorus tests. Plants and microbes can release organic anions to solubilize organic phosphorus from soil surfaces, and synthesize phosphatases to release inorganic phosphate from the solubilized compounds. We developed a procedure to estimate bioavailable organic phosphorus in tropical forest soils by simulating the secretion processes of organic acids and phosphatases. Five lowland tropical forest soils with contrasting properties (pH 4.4-6.1, total P 86-429 mg P kg(- 1)) were extracted with 2 mM citric acid (i.e., 10 μmol g(- 1), approximating rhizosphere concentrations) adjusted to soil pH in a 4:1 solution to soil ratio for 1 h. Three phosphatase enzymes were then added to the soil extract to determine the forms of hydrolysable organic phosphorus. Total phosphorus extracted by the procedure ranged between 3.22 and 8.06 mg P kg(- 1) (mean 5.55 ± 0.42 mg P kg(- 1)), of which on average three quarters was unreactive phosphorus (i.e., organic phosphorus plus inorganic polyphosphate). Of the enzyme-hydrolysable unreactive phosphorus, 28% was simple phosphomonoesters hydrolyzed by phosphomonoesterase from bovine intestinal mucosa, a further 18% was phosphodiesters hydrolyzed by a combination of nuclease from Penicillium citrinum and phosphomonoesterase, and the remaining 51% was hydrolyzed by a broad-spectrum phytase from wheat. We conclude that soil organic phosphorus can be solubilized and hydrolyzed by a combination of organic acids and phosphatase enzymes in lowland tropical forest soils, indicating that this pathway could make a significant contribution to biological phosphorus acquisition in tropical forests. Furthermore, we have developed a method that can be used to assess the bioavailability of this soil organic phosphorus.

  18. Cadmium Release in Contaminated Soils due to Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; XIE Xiao-Mei


    There is limited information on the release behavior of heavy metals from natural soils by organic acids. Thus,cadmium release,due to two organic acids (tartrate and citrate) that are common in the rhizosphere,from soils polluted by metal smelters or tailings and soils artificially contaminated by adding Cd were analyzed. The presence of tartrate or citrate at a low concentration (≤6mmol L-1 for tartrate and ≤0.5 mmol L-1 for citrate) inhibited Cd release,whereas the presence of organic acids in high concentrations (≥2 mmol L-1 for citrate and ≥15 mmol L-1 for tartrate)apparently promoted Cd release. Under the same conditions,the Cd release in naturally polluted soils was less than that of artificially contaminated soils. Additionally,as the initial pH rose from 2 to 8 in the presence of citrate,a sequential valley and then peak appeared in the Cd release curve,while in the presence of tartrate the Cd release steadily decreased.In addition,Cd release was clearly enhanced as the electrolyte concentration of KNO3 or KC1 increased in the presence of 2 mmol L-1 tartrate. Moreover,a higher desorption of Cd was shown with the KC1 electrolyte compared to KNO3 for the same concentration levels. This implied that the bioavailability of heavy metals could be promoted with the addition of suitable types and concentrations of organic acids as well as reasonable field conditions.

  19. Peracetic acid products expand sanitizing, organic water treatment options


    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Jokumsen, Alfred; Larsen, Villy J.; Henriksen, Niels Henrik


    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. PAA is among the few disinfectants approved for organic aquaculture

  20. Low phytic acid 1 mutation in maize modifies density, starch properties, cations, and fiber contents in the seed. (United States)

    Landoni, Michela; Cerino Badone, Francesco; Haman, Nabil; Schiraldi, Alberto; Fessas, Dimitrios; Cesari, Valentina; Toschi, Ivan; Cremona, Roberta; Delogu, Chiara; Villa, Daniela; Cassani, Elena; Pilu, Roberto


    Monogastric animals are unable to digest phytic acid, so it represents an antinutritional factor and also an environmental problem. One strategy to solve this problem is the utilization of low phytic acid (lpa) mutants that accumulate low levels of phytic P and high levels of free phosphate in the seeds; among the lpa maize mutants lpa1 exhibited the highest reduction of phytic acid in the seed. This study indicated that the low phytic acid mutations exerted pleiotropic effects not directly connected to the phytic acid pathway, such as on seed density, content of ions, and the antioxidant compounds present in the kernels. Furthermore some nutritional properties of the flour were altered by the lpa1 mutations, in particular lignin and protein content, while the starch does not seem to be modified as to the total amount and in the amylose/amylopectin ratio, but alterations were noticed in the structure and size of granules.

  1. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia. (United States)

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini


    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR.

  2. Influence of organic matter, cations and surfactants on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V


    The effect of some potentially interfering substances and conditions on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated. Agar and broth dilution methods were used to determine minimum inhibitory and cidal concentrations of tea tree oil in the presence and absence of each potentially interfering substance. Activity was determined against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. Minimum inhibitory or cidal concentrations differed from controls by two or more dilutions, for one or more organisms, where Tween-20, Tween-80, skim-milk powder and bovine serum albumin were assessed. These differences were not seen when assays were performed in anaerobic conditions, or in the presence of calcium and magnesium ions. The effect of organic matter on the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil was also investigated by an organic soil neutralization test. Organisms were exposed to lethal concentrations of tea tree oil ranging from 1-10% (v/v), in the presence of 1-30% (w/v) dry bakers' yeast. After 10 min contact time, viability was determined. At > or = 1%, organic matter compromised the activity of each concentration of tea tree oil against Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans. At 10% or more, organic matter compromised the activity of each tea tree oil concentration against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Organic matter affected 1 and 2% tea tree oil, but not 4 and 8%, against Escherichia coli. In conclusion, organic matter and surfactants compromise the antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil, although these effects vary between organisms.

  3. A New Approach to Non-Coordinating Anions: Lewis Acid Enhancement of Porphyrin Metal Centers in a Zwitterionic Metal$-$Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jacob A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Petersen, Brenna M. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Kormos, Attila [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Echeverría, Elena [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Chen, Yu-Sheng [Univ. of Chicago, Argonne, IL (United States). ChemMatCARS, Center for Advanced Radiation Sources; Zhang, Jian [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Here, we describe a new strategy to generate non-coordinating anions using zwitterionic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). By assembly of anionic inorganic secondary building blocks (SBUs) ([In(CO2)4]$-$) with cationic metalloporphyrin-based organic linkers, we prepared zwitterionic MOFs in which the complete internal charge separation effectively prevents the potential binding of the counteranion to the cationic metal center. We demonstrate the enhanced Lewis acidity of MnIII- and FeIII-porphyrins in the zwitterionic MOFs in three representative electrocyclization reactions: [2 + 1] cycloisomerization of enynes, [3 + 2] cycloaddition of aziridines and alkenes, and [4 + 2] hetero-Diels–Alder cycloaddition of aldehydes with dienes. Lastly, this work paves a new way to design functional MOFs for tunable chemical catalysis.

  4. Ion-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aliphatic Organic Acids Using a Surfactant-Modified C18 Column. (United States)

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Mansour, Fotouh R; Danielson, Neil D


    Ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids is normally done using a cation exchange column under standard HPLC conditions but not in the ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) mode. A novel IELC method for the separation of this class of carboxylic acids by either HPLC or UHPLC utilizing a C18 column dynamically modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been developed. The sample capacity is estimated to be near 10 mM for a 20 µL injection or 0.2 µmol using a 150 × 4.6 mm column. The optimum mobile phase determined for three standard mixtures of organic acids is 1.84 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.43 and a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Under optimized conditions, a HPLC separation of four aliphatic carboxylic acids such as tartaric, malonic, lactic and acetic can be achieved in under 4 min and in column as measured by the retention order of maleic and fumaric acid is estimated to be ∼4,000 column volumes using HPLC and 600 by UHPLC. Reproducible chromatograms are achieved over at least a 2-month period. This study shows that the utility of a C18 column can be easily extended when needed to IELC under either standard or UHPLC conditions.

  5. Organic acid effect on calcium uptake by the wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrize Caroline Nunes


    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of the natural organic acids on the uptake of Ca by the wheat roots in a hydroponic solution. The following organic acids were evaluated: citric, oxalic, tartaric, malic, malonic, maleic, DL-malic, p-hydroxybenzoic, aconitic, and salicilic. The organic acids neither enhanced the root growth nor increased Ca uptake. The salicilic and malic acids were highly toxic and decreased the root growth. The citric, tartaric, maleic, aconitic, and salicilic decreased the Ca uptake by the roots due to their higher capacity to form the stable complexes with Ca in solution at pH 6.0. Decreasing the Ca valence from Ca++ to CaL+ or CaL2(0 through the organic ligand complexation reactions decreased the Ca uptake. The results suggested that the wheat roots do not absorb Ca-organic complexes.Ácidos orgânicos possuem grupos funcionais com cargas negativas que complexam íons metálicos em solução. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito de ácidos orgânicos naturais na absorção de Ca pelas raízes de trigo. Foram avaliados os seguintes ácidos orgânicos: cítrico, oxálico, tartarico, málico, malônico, maleico, DL-málico, p-hidroxibenzoico, aconítico e salicílico. Os ácidos orgânicos não estimularam o crescimento das raízes e não aumentaram a absorção de Ca. Os ácidos salicílico e maleico diminuíram drasticamente o crescimento radicular. Os ácidos cítrico, tartárico, maleico, aconítico e salicílico diminuíram a absorção de Ca pelas raízes devido à maior capacidade de formar complexos estáveis com Ca em solução no pH 6,0. A redução da valência de Ca++ para CaL+ e CaL2(0, através das reações de complexação, diminuiu a absorção de Ca pelas raízes. Os resultados sugerem que os complexos de Ca-orgânico não são absorvidos pelas raízes de trigo.

  6. Influence of nucleotides, cations and nucleoside triphosphatase inhibitors on the release of ribonucleic acid from isolated rat liver nuclei. (United States)

    Agutter, P S


    The reasons underlying reported discrepancies in the effects of ATP, ADP, adenosine 5'-[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate, AMP + PPi, P-chloromercuribenzoate and F- on RNA efflux from isolated rat liver nuclei and on nuclear envelope nucleoside triphosphatase activity were investigated. The stimulatory effect of ADP was attributed to myokinase activity associated with the nuclei; this activity was eluted on repeated washing with nuclear incubation medium. In the absence of Ca2+ and Mn2+, ATP, adenosine 5'[beta gamma-methylene]triphosphate and AMP +PPi were found to promote release of both DNA and RNA. In the presence of 0.5 mM-Ca2+ and 9.3 mM-Mn2+, only ATP promoted RNA efflux to a significant extent. In the absence of spermidine, Ca2+ and Mn2+, nuclei released large quantities of DNA and RNA into the medium; this effect was promoted by p-chloromereuribenzoate. In the presence of the three cations, however, p-chloromercuribenzoate inhibited RNA efflux. F- caused a slight leakage of DNA from nuclei. The results are discussed in terms of models for the effects of ATP and analogues on RNA efflux and nuclear stability.

  7. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids (United States)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek


    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  8. Subnanomolar antisense activity of phosphonate-peptide nucleic acid (PNA) conjugates delivered by cationic lipids to HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiraishi, Takehiko; Hamzavi, Ramin; Nielsen, Peter E


    oligomer. This modification of the PNA does not interfere with the nucleic acid target binding affinity based on thermal stability of the PNA/RNA duplexes. When delivered to cultured HeLa pLuc705 cells by Lipofectamine, the PNAs showed dose-dependent nuclear antisense activity in the nanomolar range...

  9. Elucidation and identification of amino acid containing membrane lipids using liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, E.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Villanueva, L.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    RATIONALE: Intact polar lipids (IPLs) are the building blocks of cell membranes, and amino acid containing IPLs havebeen observed to be involved in response to changing environmental conditions in various species of bacteri a. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) has be

  10. Effect of substrate and cation requirement on anaerobic volatile fatty acid conversion rates at elevated biogas pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, R.E.F.; Ferrer, I.; Weijma, J.; Lier, van J.B.


    This work studied the anaerobic conversion of neutralized volatile fatty acids (VFA) into biogas under Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) conditions. The effects of the operating conditions on the biogas quality, and the substrate utilisation rates were evaluated using 3 AHPD reactors (0.

  11. Organic derivatives of Mg(BH4)2 as precursors towards MgB2 and novel inorganic mixed-cation borohydrides. (United States)

    Wegner, W; Jaroń, T; Dobrowolski, M A; Dobrzycki, Ł; Cyrański, M K; Grochala, W


    A series of organic derivatives of magnesium borohydride, including Mg(BH4)2·1.5DME (DME = 1,2-dimethoxyethane) and Mg(BH4)2·3THF (THF = tetrahydrofuran) solvates and three mixed-cation borohydrides, [Cat]2[Mg(BH4)4], [Cat] = [Me4N], [nBu4N], [Ph4P], have been characterized. The phosphonium derivative has been tested as a precursor for synthesis of inorganic mixed-metal borohydrides of magnesium, Mx[Mg(BH4)2+x], M = Li-Cs, via a metathetic method. The synthetic procedure has yielded two new derivatives of heavier alkali metals M3Mg(BH4)5 (M = Rb, Cs) mixed with amorphous Mg(BH4)2. Thermal decomposition has been studied for both the organic and inorganic magnesium borohydride derivatives. Amorphous MgB2 has been detected among the products of the thermal decomposition of the solvates studied, together with organic and inorganic impurities.

  12. Iminodiacetic acid functionalized cation exchange resin for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI), Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Misra, R K; Jain, S K; Khatri, P K


    Iminodiacetic acid functionality has been introduced on styrene-divinyl benzene co-polymeric beads and characterized by FT-IR in order to develop weak acid based cation exchange resin. This resin was evaluated for the removal of different heavy metal ions namely Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from their aqueous solutions. The results showed greater affinity of resin towards Cr(VI) for which 99.7% removal achieved in optimal conditions following the order Ni(II)>Pb(II)>Cd(II) with 65%, 59% and 28% removal. Experiments were also directed towards kinetic studies of adsorption and found to follow first order reversible kinetic model with the overall rate constants 0.3250, 0.2393, 0.4290 and 0.2968 for Cr(VI), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal respectively. Detailed studies of Cr(VI) removal has been carried out to see the effect of pH, resin dose and metal ion concentration on adsorption and concluded that complexation enhanced the chromium removal efficacy of resin drastically, which is strongly pH dependent. The findings were also supported by the comparison of FT-IR spectra of neat resin with the chromium-adsorbed resin.

  13. Extracellular acid block and acid-enhanced inactivation of the Ca2+-activated cation channel TRPM5 involve residues in the S3-S4 and S5-S6 extracellular domains. (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Zhang, Zheng; Liman, Emily R


    TRPM5, a member of the superfamily of transient receptor potential ion channels, is essential for the detection of bitter, sweet, and amino acid tastes. In heterologous cell types it forms a nonselective cation channel that is activated by intracellular Ca(2+). TRPM5 is likely to be part of the taste transduction cascade, and regulators of TRPM5 are likely to affect taste sensation. In this report we show that TRPM5, but not the related channel TRPM4b, is potently blocked by extracellular acidification. External acidification has two effects, a fast reversible block of the current (IC(50) pH = 6.2) and a slower irreversible enhancement of current inactivation. Mutation of a single Glu residue in the S3-S4 linker and a His residue in the pore region each reduced sensitivity of TRPM5 currents to fast acid block (IC(50) pH = 5.8 for both), and the double mutant was nearly insensitive to acidic pH (IC(50) pH = 5.0). Prolonged exposure to acidic pH enhanced inactivation of TRPM5 currents, and mutant channels that were less sensitive to acid block were also less sensitive to acid-enhanced inactivation, suggesting an intimate association between the two processes. These processes are, however, distinct because the pore mutant H896N, which has normal sensitivity to acid block, shows significant recovery from acid-enhanced inactivation. These data show that extracellular acidification acts through specific residues on TRPM5 to block conduction through two distinct but related mechanisms and suggest a possible interaction between extracellular pH and activation and adaptation of bitter, sweet, and amino acid taste transduction.

  14. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China. (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing


    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  15. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang


    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  16. Extended metal-organic solids based on benzenepolycarboxylic and aminobenzoic acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugavel; G Anantharaman; D Krishnamurthy; M Sathiyendiran; M G Walawalkar


    This article describes the recent results obtained in our laboratory on the interaction of polyfunctional ligands with divalent alkaline earth metal ions and a few divalent transition metal ions. Treatment of MCl2$\\cdot$ H2O (M = Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba) with 2-amino benzoic acid leads to the formation of complexes [Mg(2-aba)2] (1), [Ca(2-aba)2(OH2)3]∞ (2), [{Sr(2-aba)2(OH2)2}2$\\cdot$H2O)]∞ (3), [Ba(2-aba)2(OH2)]∞ (4), respectively. While the calcium ions in 2 are hepta-coordinated, the strontium and barium ions in 3 and 4 reveal a coordination number of nine apart from additional metal-metal interactions. Apart from the carboxylate functionality, the amino group also binds to the metal centres in the case of strontium and barium complexes 3 and 4. Complexes [{Mg(H2O)6}(4-aba)2$\\cdot$2H2O] (5), [Ca(4-aba)2(H2O)2] (6) prepared from 4-aminobenzoic acid reveal more open or layered structures. Interaction of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid with MCl2$\\cdot$6H2O (M = Mg, Ca), however, leads to the.oxidation of the thiol group resulting in the disulphide 2,2'-dithiobis(benzoic acid). New metal-organic framework based hydrogen-bonded porous solids [{M(btec)(OH2)4} $\\cdot$ (C4H12N2) 4H2O] (btec = 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylate) (M = Co 9; Ni 10; Zn 11) have been synthesized from 1,2,4,5-benzene tetracarboxylic acid in the presence of piperazine. These compounds are made up of extensively hydrogenbonded alternating layers of anionic M-btec co-ordination polymer and piperazinium cations. Compounds 2-11 described herein form polymeric networks in the solid-state with the aid of different coordinating capabilities of the carboxylate anions hydrogen bonding interactions.

  17. Aqueous sulfuric acid as the mobile phase in cation ion chromatography for determination of histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine in fish samples. (United States)

    Liao, Benjamin S; Sram, Jackie; Cain, Teresa T; Halcrow, Kenneth R


    Aqueous sulfuric acid can be used as the mobile phase in cation ion chromatography to separate the three biogenic amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine, from fish. Various concentrations of aqueous sulfuric acid were investigated to optimize the separation of these three biogenic amines. Aqueous sulfuric acid (5.0 mM) was found to be optimum for the separation and was used to determine the three biogenic amines in fish. The LOQ, defined as the lowest level of the standard calibration curve, was 0.055 ppm (equivalent to 0.55 microg/g sample) for putrescine, 0.05 ppm (equivalent to 0.5 microg/g sample) for cadaverine, and 1.0 ppm (equivalent to 10 microg/g sample) for histamine. From statistical analysis of the LOQ, the method detection limit was 0.003 ppm for putrescine, 0.009 ppm for cadaverine, and 0.16 ppm for histamine. For sample preparation, the fish was composited, homogenized in methanol-water (75 + 25, v/v), incubated for 15 min at 60 degrees C, and centrifuged. The sample solution was micron-filtered before injection. The mobile phase flow rate was 0.8 mL/min under isocratic conditions at room temperature (15-25 degrees C). The three biogenic amines were separated in the order of increasing retention time, i.e., putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine, within 30 min. The chromatograms showed complete peak separation of the three amines regardless of the difference in fish matrixes.

  18. The Geometry and Structural Properties of the 4,8,12-Trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene System in the Cationic State. Structures of a Planar Organic Cation with Various Monovalent- and Divalent Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Laursen, Bo W.; Johannsen, Ib


    The geometry of the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c- tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyrene system in the cationic state was established by X-ray structural resolution of the salts formed between the cationand various anions. The geometry was found to be planar for the 4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c- tetrahydrodibenzo...... [cd,mn]pyrenylium and 2,6,10-tri (tert-butyl)-4,8,12-trioxa-4,8,12,12c-tetrahydrodibenzo[cd,mn]pyre nylium cations with the monovalentanions I-, BF4-, PF6- AsF6-, HNO3. NO3- and CF3SO3-, and the divalent anions S2O62- and Mo6Cl142-. The salts were found to crystallize in distinct space groups...... following a characteristic pattern. Mixed cation-anion stacking resulted in space groups with high symmetry: Pbca in three cases and R (3) over bar c in one; a temperature study of the latter was made at ten different temperatures. The formation of dimers of anions and cations resulted in lower...

  19. Dissolution of Aluminum in Variably Charged Soils as Affected by Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-Yu; XU Ren-Kou; JI Guo-Liang


    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids exist widely in soils and play an important role in soil processes such as mineral weathering, nutrient mobilization and Al detoxification. In this research, a batch experiment was conducted to examine the effects of LMW organic acids on dissolution of aluminum in two variably charged soils, an Ultisol and an Oxisol. The results showed that the LMW organic acids enhanced the dissolution of Al in the two investigated soils in the following order: citric > oxalic > malonic > malic > tartaric > salicylic > lactic > maleic. This was generally in agreement with the magnitude of the stability constants for the Al-organic complexes. The effects of LMW organic acids on Al dissolution were greater in the Ultisol than in the Oxisol as compared to their controls. Also, the accelerating effects of citric and oxalic acids on dissolution of Al increased with an increase in pH, while the effects of lactic and salicylic acids decreased. Additionally, when the organic acid concentration was less than 0.2 mmol L-1, the dissolution of Al changed little with increase in acid concentration. However, when the organic acid concentration was greater than 0.2 mmol L-1,the dissolution of Al increased with increase in acid concentration. In addition to the acid first dissociation constant and stability constant of Al-organic complexes, the promoting effects of LMW organic acids on dissolution of Al were also related to their sorption-desorption equilibrium in the soils.

  20. Effect of substrate and cation requirement on anaerobic volatile fatty acid conversion rates at elevated biogas pressure. (United States)

    Lindeboom, Ralph E F; Ferrer, Ivet; Weijma, Jan; van Lier, Jules B


    This work studied the anaerobic conversion of neutralized volatile fatty acids (VFA) into biogas under Autogenerative High Pressure Digestion (AHPD) conditions. The effects of the operating conditions on the biogas quality, and the substrate utilisation rates were evaluated using 3 AHPD reactors (0.6 L); feeding a concentration of acetate and VFA (1-10 g COD/L) corresponding to an expected pressure increase of 1-20 bar. The biogas composition improved with pressure up to 4.5 bar (>93% CH4), and stabilized at 10 and 20 bar. Both, acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity was observed. Substrate utilisation rates of 0.2, 0.1 and 0.1 g CODCH4/g VSS/d for acetate, propionate and butyrate were found to decrease by up to 50% with increasing final pressure. Most likely increased Na(+)-requirement to achieve CO2 sequestration at higher pressure rather than end-product inhibition was responsible.

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence of cationic dyes covalently bound to poly(methacrylic acid) in rigid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulo Moises de Oliveira, Hueder [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Atactic poly(methacrylic acid) labeled with acridine and Nile blue (NB) were studied by photophysical techniques in bulk solid state and in solution-cast films over different surfaces (glass, ITO, and polymethylmethacrylate). In the systems with both dyes, energy transfer from acridine to NB occurs with an efficiency depending on the type of substrate (solid or film). The films are more disordered fluorescent rigid media than the bulk chromophoric or bichromophoric polymers, and this effect is ascribed to inhomogeneous distribution of the dyes in the film. This effect enhances dye bimolecular interactions and increases the energy transfer rates between acridine donor and NB acceptor. Bimodal distributions of donor fluorescence lifetimes are observed.

  2. Synthesis of Hydrophobically Modified Poly(acrylic acid) Gels and Interaction of the Gels with Cationic/Anionic Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN,Qin(田琴); TANG,Xiao-Zhen(唐小真); ZHUANG,Dong-Qing(庄东青); ZHANG,Yun-Xiang(章云祥)


    Poly( acrylic acid) (PAA) gel network with only chemical crosslinking and hydrophobically modified PAA (HM-PAA)gels with both chemical and physical crosslinking were synthesized by radical polymerization in tert-butanol, using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinker, and 2-(Nethylperfiuorooctanesulfoamido) ethyl methacrylate ( FMA ),stearyl acrylate (SA) or lauryl acrylate (LA) as hydrophobic comonomer respectively. The effect of the fractions and the species of the hydrophobes on swelling properties of HM-PAA gels and the interaction of gels and surfactants were studied.The results showed that the swelling ratio of HM-PAA gels exhibited a sharp decrease with increasing hydrophobic comonomer concentration, which could be ascribed to the formation of strong hydrophobic association among hydrophobic groups. It was proved that two kinds of binding mechanisms of surfactant/gel and different kinds of hydrophobic dusters existed in gels containing both physical and chemical networks.

  3. Zeolite-type metal organic frameworks immobilized Eu³⁺ for cation sensing in aqueous environment. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Yan, Bing


    A novel luminescent lanthanide metal organic framework (Ln-MOF) is synthesized by in situ encapsulating Eu(3+) ions to partial replace the transition-metal clusters in the channels of CPM-17-Zn nanocrystals. The Eu(3+) functionalized zeolite-type MOF hybrid system shows excellent luminescence property and photo-stability in aqueous environment for the sensitization and protection from the host framework. Subsequently, as a highly selective and sensitive sensor, its nanocrystals can be used to detect Cd(2+) in aqueous solution. In addition, the possible sensing mechanism based on ion exchange is discussed in detail. This work is one of the few cases for detecting Cd(2+) in aqueous solution based on a zeolite-type MOF. The good fluorescence stability, low detection limit and broad linear range in aqueous environment make this probe to be expected to have potential application in intracellular sensing and imaging of Cd(2+) potentially.

  4. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Chloride Solutions Containing Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Giordano, C M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B


    Alloy 22 (N06022) is a nickel based alloy containing alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum and tungsten. It is highly corrosion resistant both under reducing and under oxidizing conditions. Electrochemical studies such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed to determine the corrosion behavior of Alloy 22 in 1M NaCl solutions at various pH values from acidic to neutral at 90 C. Tests were also carried out in NaCl solutions containing oxalic acid or acetic acid. It is shown that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 was higher in a solution containing oxalic acid than in a solution of the same pH acidified with HCl. Acetic acid was not corrosive to Alloy 22. The corrosivity of oxalic acid was attributed to its capacity to form stable complex species with metallic cations from Alloy 22.

  5. Effects of organic acid pickling on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Blawert, C.; Scharnagl, N.;


    mu m of the contaminated surface was required to reach corrosion rates less than 1 mm/year in salt spray condition. Among the three organic acids examined, acetic acid is the best choice. Oxalic acid can be an alternative while citric acid is not suitable for cleaning AZ31 sheet, because......Organic acids were used to clean AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet and the effect of the cleaning processes on the surface condition and corrosion performance of the alloy was investigated. Organic acid cleanings reduced the surface impurities and enhanced the corrosion resistance. Removal of at least 4...

  6. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.


    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  7. Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformations by designed multi-component structures and assemblies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Amit P Singh; Rajeev Gupta


    This paper presents the recent developments in designing multi-component structures including metal-organic frameworks containing Lewis acidic metal ions. The emphasis has been given to understand the design elements adopted to synthesize such structures bearing Lewis acidic metal ion. Further, few important Lewis acidic metal catalysed organic transformation reactions have been discussed demonstrating the importance of such materials for practical purposes.

  8. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process. (United States)

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang


    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane.

  9. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal


    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of organic acids, free amino acids, and lactose in cheese by capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Jiménez-Flores, R


    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the simultaneous separation of 11 metabolically important organic acids (oxalic, formic, citric, succinic, orotic, uric, acetic, pyruvic, propionic, lactic, and butyric), 10 amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tyr, Gly, Ala, Ser, Leu, Phe, Lys, and Trp), and lactose has been optimized, validated, and tested in dairy products. Repeatability and linearity were calculated for each compound, with detection limit values as low as 0.2 x 10(-2) mM for citric acid and Gly. The method was applied to analyze yogurt and different varieties of commercial cheeses. This method yielded specific CE patterns for different varieties of cheese. Also, it has been shown to be sensitive enough to measure small changes in composition of some of those compounds in fresh cheese stored under accelerated ripening conditions for 2 d at 32 degrees C (e.g., from 1728.3 +/- 45.0 to 1166.7 +/- 4.5 mg/100 g of DM in the case of lactose, or from 23.5 +/- 0.6 to 76.8 +/- 16.7 mg/100 g of DM in the case of acetic acid).

  11. Effects of organic and inorganic acids on phosphorus release from municipal sludge. (United States)

    Pakdil, N B; Filibeli, A


    This paper reports on the effects of inorganic acids (sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid) and organic acids (citric acid, oxalic acids) for phosphorus recovery from sludge and struvite precipitation results. It was observed that both inorganic acid and organic acids were effective at phosphorus release. The studies on precipitation of released phosphorus from sludge as magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) were also done using nitric and oxalic acids. Phosphorus and heavy metals of leachate were analyzed before and after precipitation. It was observed that heavy metal concentrations in the extracted samples decrease after precipitation. Precipitation was accomplished by using extract derived with nitric acid; however, in oxalic acid applications, it was not achieved. When the chemical constituents of the dried material were examined oxygen, sodium and nitrogen were found to be the major elements.

  12. Dynamic change of organic acids secreted from wheat roots in Mn deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng FANG; Zhenfeng AN; Yingli LI


    Through solution culture experiment and liquid chromatogram technique, two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes with different tolerances to Mn deficiency were used to study the dynamic change of organic acids secreted from wheat root in the conditions of no Mn, low Mn and normal Mn supply. Nine kinds of organic acids were measured in wheat root exudate. The results showed that there were significant differences of organic acids in root exudate between tolerant genotype and susceptible genotype under Mn-stressed conditions. Tolerant genotype 9023 secreted more organic acids from the plant roots than susceptible genotype CM28. The main organic acid exudate included tartaric acid, malic acid, acetic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid. Of all these acids, the amounts of tartaric acid and malic acid in root exudate showed significant differences between the tolerant genotype and susceptible genotype under Mn-stressed conditions. The results also indicated that secreting organic acids into root rhizosphere was an active response to Mn deficiency for the tolerant genotype of wheat.

  13. Poly-cross-linked PEI through aromatically conjugated imine linkages as a new class of pH-responsive nucleic acids packing cationic polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun eChen


    Full Text Available Cationic polyimines polymerized through aromatically conjugated bis-imine linkages and intra-molecular cross-linking were found to be a new class of effective transfection materials for their flexibility in structural optimization, responsiveness to intracellular environment, the ability to facilitate endosome escape and cytosol release of the nucleic acids, as well as self-metabolism. When three phthalaldehydes of different substitution positions were used to polymerize highly branched low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI-1.8K, the product through ortho-phthalimines (named PPOP showed significantly higher transfection activity than its two tere- and iso-analogues (named PPTP and PPIP. Physicochemical characterization confirmed the similarity of three polyimines in pH-responded degradability, buffer capacity, as well as the size and Zeta potential of the polyplexes formed from the polymers. A mechanistic speculation may be that the ortho-positioned bis-imine linkage of PPOP may only lead to the straight trans-configuration due to steric hindrance, resulting in larger loops of intra-polymer cross-linking and more flexible backbone.

  14. A comparative study of chelating and cationic ion exchange resins for the removal of palladium(II) complexes from acidic chloride media. (United States)

    Hubicki, Zbigniew; Wołowicz, Anna


    The increasing demand for palladium for technological application requires the development of ion exchange chromatography. Recently ion exchange chromatography has developed largely as a result of new types of ion exchangers available on the market of which two types are widely applied. One of them are selective (chelating) and modified ion exchangers and the other one are liquid exchangers. Two types of ion exchange resins such as chelating (Lewatit TP 214, Purolite S 920) and cationic (Chelite S, Duolite GT 73) ion exchangers are used for the recovery of palladium(II) complexes from chloride media (0.1-2.0M HCl-1.0M NaCl-0.0011 M Pd(II); 0.1-2.0M HCl-2.0M NaCl-0.0011M Pd(II)). The influence of concentration of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride as well as the phase contact time on the degree of recovery of palladium(II) complexes was studied. Moreover, the amount of palladium(II) chlorocomplexes sorbed onto ion exchangers, the working ion exchange capacities and the weight and bed distribution coefficients were calculated in order to judge which of two types of resins possesses the best performance towards palladium(II) complexes.

  15. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: Permeant cations chaperoned by anions (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho


    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  16. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2 (United States)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.


    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  17. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius. (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S


    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants.

  18. Further studies on the formation of cardiolipin and phosphatidylglycerol in rat liver mitochondria. Effect of divalent cations and the fatty acid composition of CDP-diglyceride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hostetler, Karl Y.; Galesloot, J.M.; Boer, P.; Bosch, H. van den


    The divalent cation requirement for mitochondrial cardiolipin biosynthesis has been further investigated. The relative order of divalent cation activity was Co2+ > Mn2+ > Mg2+. Cardiolipin was not formed in the incubations with Zn2+, Fe2+, Cu2+, Hg2+, and Ca2+. Cardiolipin synthesis in the presence

  19. Beneficiation of Iraqi Akash at Phosphate Ore Using Organic Acids for the Production of Wet Process Phosphoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Y. Eisa


    Full Text Available In the present work, leaching process studiedusing organic acids (acetic acid and lactic acid to extract phosphate from the Iraqi Akashat phosphate ore by separation of calcareous materials (mainly calcite. This approach characterized by energy conservation, environmental enhancement by recovery of calcite as calcium sulfate (gypsum, keeping the physical and chemical properties of apatite. Samples were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectrophotometer. From the obtained experimental data it was found that using the two organic acids yields closed purity values of the produced apatite at the optimum conditions, while at different acid concentrations, it was found that the efficiency of acetic acid is higher at the low acid concentration (2 wt%, and that lactic acid gives the higher efficiency at high acid concentration (10 wt%.Concerning the ratio of acid volume to ore weight ratio, it was found that reducing this ratio to 5 ml/gm cause an increase in the purity of apatite at the optimum concentrations of the two acids. In addition, it was found that the reaction ofthe two organic acids with the calcareous material are fast and that the optimum reaction time, in which high purity apatite produced is 10 minutes.

  20. Biocompatible cationic pullulan-g-desoxycholic acid-g-PEI micelles used to co-deliver drug and gene for cancer therapy. (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Ji, Fangling; Bao, Yongming; Xia, Jing; Guo, Lianying; Wang, Jingyun; Li, Yachen


    The greatest crux in the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy is the construction of a feasible and biocompatible carrier for loading the therapeutic drug and gene simultaneously. Here, a new amphiphilic bifunctional pullulan derivative (named as PDP) synthesized by grafting lipophilic desoxycholic acid and low-molecular weight (1kDa) branched polyethylenimine onto the backbone of pullulan was evaluated as a nano-carrier for the co-delivery of drug and gene for potential cancer therapy. PDP exhibited good blood compatibility and low cytotoxicity in the hemolysis and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively. By self-assembly process, the amphiphilic PDP polymer formed cationic core-shell nanomicelles in aqueous solution with an average diameter of 160.8nm and a zeta potential of approximate 28mV. The PDP micelles had relative higher drug encapsulation efficiency (84.05%) and loading capacity (7.64%) for doxorubicin (DOX), an effective anti-tumor drug, demonstrating sustained drug release profile and good DNA-binding ability. The flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that PDP/DOX micelles could be successfully internalized by MCF-7 cells, and presenting higher cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells than that of free DOX. Furthermore, PDP micelles could efficiently transport tumor suppressor gene p53 into MCF-7 cells, and the expressed exogenous p53 protein induced MCF-7 cells to die. More excitedly, in comparison with single DOX or p53 delivery, the co-delivery of DOX and gene p53 using PDP micelles displayed higher cytotoxicity, induced higher apoptosis rate of tumor cells and blocked more effectively the migration of cancer cells in vitro. In tumor-bearing mice, co-delivery of DOX and p53 also exhibited enhanced antitumor efficacy as compared with single delivery of DOX or p53 alone. In summary, these results demonstrated that it is highly promising to use cationic PDP micelles for effectively

  1. Renoprotective Effects of Metformin are Independent of Organic Cation Transporters 1 &2 and AMP-activated Protein Kinase in the Kidney. (United States)

    Christensen, Michael; Jensen, Jonas B; Jakobsen, Steen; Jessen, Niels; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Kemp, Bruce E; Marciszyn, Allison L; Li, Hui; Pastor-Soler, Núria M; Hallows, Kenneth R; Nørregaard, Rikke


    The type-2 diabetes drug metformin has proven to have protective effects in several renal disease models. Here, we investigated the protective effects in a 3-day unilateral ureteral obstruction (3dUUO) mouse model. Compared with controls, ureteral obstructed animals displayed increased tubular damage and inflammation. Metformin treatment attenuated inflammation, increased the anti-oxidative response and decreased tubular damage. Hepatic metformin uptake depends on the expression of organic cation transporters (OCTs). To test whether the effects of metformin in the kidney are dependent on these transporters, we tested metformin treatment in OCT1/2(-/-) mice. Even though exposure of metformin in the kidney was severely decreased in OCT1/2(-/-) mice when evaluated with [(11)C]-Metformin and PET/MRI, we found that the protective effects of metformin were OCT1/2 independent when tested in this model. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested as a key mediator of the effects of metformin. When using an AMPK-β1 KO mouse model, the protective effects of metformin still occurred in the 3dUUO model. In conclusion, these results show that metformin has a beneficial effect in early stages of renal disease induced by 3dUUO. Furthermore, these effects appear to be independent of the expression of OCT1/2 and AMPK-β1, the most abundant AMPK-β isoform in the kidney.

  2. Small-angle X-ray scattering study of self-assembling lipophilic guanines in organic solvents: G-quadruplex formation and cation effects in cyclohexane. (United States)

    Gonnelli, A; Ortore, M G; Baldassarri, E J; Spada, G P; Pieraccini, S; Perone, R C; Funari, S S; Mariani, P


    Lipophilic guanilic derivatives (lipoGs) dissolved in organic solvents can undergo different self-assembly pathways based on different H-bonded motifs, e.g., the cyclic discrete G-quartet, which forms in the presence of alkali-metal ions, and the "infinite" tape-like G-ribbon observed in the absence of ions. Using in-solution small-angle X-ray scattering, we analyzed a series of lipoGs dissolved in cyclohexane in the presence of different salts. The formation of G-quartet based supramolecular aggregates has been confirmed, evidencing the coexistence equilibrium of octamers and noncovalent molecular nanowires (the so-called G-quadruplexes). By global fitting the scattering data, the concentration of the two kinds of particles as well as the nanowire length have been derived as a function of temperature for the different compounds and salts. The thermodynamic parameters show that the self-assembly aggregation process is enthalpy driven, while the observed enthalpy-entropy compensation suggests that similar stacking interactions control the self-assembly of the different compounds. However, the strength of the stacking interactions, and then the nanowire stability, depends on the nature of templating cations and on their capacity to fill the central cavity of quadruplexes, with the order Sr(+) < Na(+) ≲ K(+).

  3. Inhibition of Gene Expression of Organic Cation/Carnitine Transporter and Antioxidant Enzymes in Oxazaphosphorines-Induced Acute Cardiomyopathic Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Sayed-Ahmed


    Full Text Available It is well documented that high therapeutic doses of oxazaphosphorines, cyclophosphamide (CP and ifosfamide (IFO, are associated with cardiomyopathy. This study investigated whether oxazaphosphorines alter the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter (OCTN2 and antioxidant genes and if so, whether these alterations contribute to CP and IFO-induced cardiotoxicity. Adult male Wistar albino rats were assigned to one of six treatment groups namely, control, L carnitine, CP, IFO, CP plus L carnitine and IFO plus L carnitine. In cardiac and kidney tissues, CP and IFO significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of OCTN2. Oxazaphosphorines significantly increased serum acyl-carnitine/free carnitine ratio and urinary carnitine excretion and significantly decreased total carnitine in cardiac tissues. Interestingly, carnitine supplementation completely reversed the biochemical and gene expression changes-induced by oxazaphosphorines to the control values, except OCTN2 expression remained inhibited by IFO. Data from this study suggest that: (1 Oxazaphosphorines decreased myocardial carnitine content following the inhibition of OCTN2 mRNA and protein expression in cardiac tissues. (2 Oxazaphosphorine therapy increased urinary loss of carnitine secondary to the inhibition of OCTN2 mRNA and protein expression in proximal tubules of the kidney. (3 Carnitine supplementation attenuates CP but not IFO-induced inhibition of OCTN2 mRNA and protein expression in heart and kidney tissues.

  4. Different involvement of promoter methylation in the expression of organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2 in cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Qu

    Full Text Available Organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2 is responsible for the cellular uptake of the antineoplastic agent, oxaliplatin. Epigenetic modification is a possible mechanism of altered drug-transporter expression in cancers, leading to altered efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the mechanisms governing OCTN2 regulation are not completely understood. In this study, the low levels of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells were elevated by the demethylating reagent, decitabine (DCA. To further reveal the epigenetic mechanism of down-regulation of OCTN2, we found that Region-1 within the OCTN2 promoter (spanning -354 to +85 was a determinant of OCTN2 expression in a luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, methylation-specific PCR (MSP and bisulfite genomic sequencing showed that the degree of individual methylated CpG sites within this region was inversely correlated with the levels of OCTN2 in different cancer cells. Application of DCA to HepG2 and LS174T cells reversed the hypermethylation status of the OCTN2 promoter and increased OCTN2 expression, enhancing cellular uptake of oxaliplatin. Thus, we identified that promoter methylation is responsible for epigenetic down-regulation of OCTN2 in HepG2 and LS174T cells. Given the essential role of OCTN2 in cancer cell uptake of chemotherapeutics, and thus treatment efficacy, pretreatment with a demethylating reagent is a possible strategy for optimizing pharmacotherapies against cancers.

  5. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead. (United States)

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng


    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  6. Determination of organic acids evolution during apple cider fermentation using an improved HPLC analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, F.; Ji, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Fang, Q.; Zhang, Z.


    An efficient method for analyzing ten organic acids in food, namely citric, pyruvic, malic, lactic, succinic, formic, acetic, adipic, propionic and butyric acids, using HPLC was developed. Boric acid was added into the mobile phase to separate lactic and succinic acids, and a post-column buffer solu

  7. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity. (United States)

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M


    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  8. Nonaqueous preparation of stable silver nano particles dispersions from organic sulfonic acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Glushko


    Full Text Available The conditions for stable silver nano particles dispersions synthesis from organic sulfonic acids in an anhydrous medium of ethylene glycol and its methyl ester were studied. Ascorbic acid and potassium citrate were used as reducing agents.

  9. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Lund Myhre


    Full Text Available Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  10. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Lund Myhre


    Full Text Available Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  11. Efficient and Selective Uptake of TcO4(-) by a Cationic Metal-Organic Framework Material with Open Ag(+) Sites. (United States)

    Sheng, Daopeng; Zhu, Lin; Xu, Chao; Xiao, Chengliang; Wang, Yanlong; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chen, Jing; Chai, Zhifang; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E; Wang, Shuao


    (99)Tc is one of the most problematic radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel owing to its combined features of high fission yield, long half-life, and high environmental mobility. There are only a handful of functional materials that can remove TcO4(-) anion from aqueous solution and identifying for new, stable materials with high anion-exchange capacities, fast kinetics, and good selectivity remains a challenge. We report here an 8-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cationic metal-organic framework material, SCU-100, which is assembled from a tetradentate neutral nitrogen-donor ligand and two-coordinate Ag(+) cations as potential open metal sites. The structure also contains a series of 1D channels filled with unbound nitrate anions. SCU-100 maintains its crystallinity in aqueous solution over a wide pH range from 1 to 13 and exhibits excellent β and γ radiation-resistance. Initial anion exchange studies show that SCU-100 is able to both quantitatively and rapidly remove TcO4(-) from water within 30 min. The exchange capacity for the surrogate ReO4(-) reaches up to 541 mg/g and the distribution coefficient Kd is up to 1.9 × 10(5) mL/g, which are significantly higher than all previously tested inorganic anion sorbent materials. More importantly, SCU-100 can selectively capture TcO4(-) in the presence of large excess of competitive anions (NO3(-), SO4(2-), CO3(2-), and PO4(3-)) and remove as much as 87% of TcO4(-) from the Hanford low-level waste melter off-gas scrubber simulant stream within 2 h. The sorption mechanism is well elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction, showing that the sorbed ReO4(-) anion is able to selectively coordinate to the open Ag(+) sites forming Ag-O-Re bonds and a series of hydrogen bonds. This further leads to a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation from an 8-fold interpenetrated framework with disordered nitrate anions to a 4-fold interpenetrated framework with fully ordered ReO4(-) anions. This work represents a

  12. Reversible CO binding enables tunable CO/H₂ and CO/N₂ separations in metal-organic frameworks with exposed divalent metal cations. (United States)

    Bloch, Eric D; Hudson, Matthew R; Mason, Jarad A; Chavan, Sachin; Crocellà, Valentina; Howe, Joshua D; Lee, Kyuho; Dzubak, Allison L; Queen, Wendy L; Zadrozny, Joseph M; Geier, Stephen J; Lin, Li-Chiang; Gagliardi, Laura; Smit, Berend; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Bordiga, Silvia; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R


    Six metal-organic frameworks of the M2(dobdc) (M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn; dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) structure type are demonstrated to bind carbon monoxide reversibly and at high capacity. Infrared spectra indicate that, upon coordination of CO to the divalent metal cations lining the pores within these frameworks, the C-O stretching frequency is blue-shifted, consistent with nonclassical metal-CO interactions. Structure determinations reveal M-CO distances ranging from 2.09(2) Å for M = Ni to 2.49(1) Å for M = Zn and M-C-O angles ranging from 161.2(7)° for M = Mg to 176.9(6)° for M = Fe. Electronic structure calculations employing density functional theory (DFT) resulted in good agreement with the trends apparent in the infrared spectra and crystal structures. These results represent the first crystallographically characterized magnesium and zinc carbonyl compounds and the first high-spin manganese(II), iron(II), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) carbonyl species. Adsorption isotherms indicate reversible adsorption, with capacities for the Fe, Co, and Ni frameworks approaching one CO per metal cation site at 1 bar, corresponding to loadings as high as 6.0 mmol/g and 157 cm(3)/cm(3). The six frameworks display (negative) isosteric heats of CO adsorption ranging from 52.7 to 27.2 kJ/mol along the series Ni > Co > Fe > Mg > Mn > Zn, following the Irving-Williams stability order. The reversible CO binding suggests that these frameworks may be of utility for the separation of CO from various industrial gas mixtures, including CO/H2 and CO/N2. Selectivities determined from gas adsorption isotherm data using ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) over a range of gas compositions at 1 bar and 298 K indicate that all six M2(dobdc) frameworks could potentially be used as solid adsorbents to replace current cryogenic distillation technologies, with the choice of M dictating adsorbent regeneration energy and the level of purity of the resulting gases.

  13. Organic Acids, Sugars, and Anthocyanins Contents in Juices of Tunisian Pomegranate Fruits


    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Jbir, Rania; Mars, Messaoud; TRIFI, Mokhtar; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Melgarejo, Pablo; Hernandez, Francisca


    Juices made from fruits of 30 Tunisian accessions of pomegranate were studied for their organic acids, sugars, and anthocyanin contents, using high performance liquid chromatography. Among the detected organic acids, malic acid was the major one (>50%) followed by citric acid (>22%), while among sugars, fructose and glucose were most present in pomegranate juice contributing 53.9 and 43.4% of the total sugar content, respectively. The total anthocyanin content ranged from 9-115 mg per litre o...

  14. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su


    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  15. Reactions between water-soluble organic acids and nitrates in atmospheric aerosols: Recycling of nitric acid and formation of organic salts (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander


    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) occurs when nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (HNO3) react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory-generated particles composed of water-soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e., NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates and release gaseous HNO3 during the dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase because of its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that, in turn, may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling that may further affect concentrations of gas and condensed phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  16. Unconventional hydrogen bonding to organic ions in the gas phase: stepwise association of hydrogen cyanide with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations and protonated pyridine. (United States)

    Hamid, Ahmed M; El-Shall, M Samy; Hilal, Rifaat; Elroby, Shaaban; Aziz, Saadullah G


    Equilibrium thermochemical measurements using the ion mobility drift cell technique have been utilized to investigate the binding energies and entropy changes for the stepwise association of HCN molecules with the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations forming the C5H5N(+·)(HCN)n and C4H4N2 (+·)(HCN)n clusters, respectively, with n = 1-4. For comparison, the binding of 1-4 HCN molecules to the protonated pyridine C5H5NH(+)(HCN)n has also been investigated. The binding energies of HCN to the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations are nearly equal (11.4 and 12.0 kcal/mol, respectively) but weaker than the HCN binding to the protonated pyridine (14.0 kcal/mol). The pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations form unconventional carbon-based ionic hydrogen bonds with HCN (CH(δ+)⋯NCH). Protonated pyridine forms a stronger ionic hydrogen bond with HCN (NH(+)⋯NCH) which can be extended to a linear chain with the clustering of additional HCN molecules (NH(+)⋯NCH··NCH⋯NCH) leading to a rapid decrease in the bond strength as the length of the chain increases. The lowest energy structures of the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cation clusters containing 3-4 HCN molecules show a strong tendency for the internal solvation of the radical cation by the HCN molecules where bifurcated structures involving multiple hydrogen bonding sites with the ring hydrogen atoms are formed. The unconventional H-bonds (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) formed between the pyridine or the pyrimidine radical cations and HCN molecules (11-12 kcal/mol) are stronger than the similar (CH(δ+)⋯NCH) bonds formed between the benzene radical cation and HCN molecules (9 kcal/mol) indicating that the CH(δ+) centers in the pyridine and pyrimidine radical cations have more effective charges than in the benzene radical cation.

  17. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyejeong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sangyong [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwoo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soohyun [Glycomics Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Joong-Ho [Department of Food Science and Technology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent.

  18. Novel cationic surfactants from fatty acids and their corrosion inhibition efficiency for carbon steel pipelines in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Al-Sabagh


    Full Text Available Four fatty acids were used as a source of alkyl halides. Untraditionally tertiary amines were prepared by ethoxylation of aromatic and aliphatic fatty amines. These alkyl halide and tertiary amines were used to prepare 20 cationic quaternary ammonium surfactants (QASS. Their chemical structures were characterized and they tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl solution. The corrosion inhibition efficiency was measured using, weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from the two employed methods are nearly closed. From the obtained data it was found that, the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration until the optimum one. Also, it was found that the inhibition efficiency of QASs which based on ethoxylated aromatic tertiary amine is greater than the obtained efficiencies by the QASs which based on ethoxylated aliphatic tertiary amines. The QASs based on alkyl halide C16 exhibited the maximum inhibition efficiency 98.8%. Adsorption of the inhibitors on the carbon steel surface was found to obey Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm. The quantum chemical calculations were done for some selected quaternary ammonium compounds based on their chemical structures QL1,4,5–QP3,4,5. The following quantum chemical indices such as the bond length, bond angle, charge density distribution, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO, energy gap ΔE = HOMO − LUMO, and dipole moment (u were considered. The relation between these parameters and the inhibition efficiencies was explained on the light of the chemical structure of the used inhibitors.

  19. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko


    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  20. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwao Sugimoto


    Full Text Available Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  1. Effect of organic acids on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids have drawn increasing attention in recent years as promising raw materials for biodiesel production, and the use of lignocellulosic hydrolysates as carbon sources seems to be a feasible strategy for cost-effective lipid fermentation with oleaginous microorganisms on a large scale. During the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials with dilute acid, however, various kinds of inhibitors, especially large amounts of organic acids, will be produced, which substantially decrease the fermentability of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. To overcome the inhibitory effects of organic acids, it is critical to understand their impact on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous microorganisms. Results In our present work, we investigated for the first time the effect of ten representative organic acids in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans cells. In contrast to previous reports, we found that the toxicity of the organic acids to the cells was not directly related to their hydrophobicity. It is worth noting that most organic acids tested were less toxic than aldehydes to the cells, and some could even stimulate the growth and lipid accumulation at a low concentration. Unlike aldehydes, most binary combinations of organic acids exerted no synergistic inhibitory effects on lipid production. The presence of organic acids decelerated the consumption of glucose, whereas it influenced the utilization of xylose in a different and complicated way. In addition, all the organic acids tested, except furoic acid, inhibited the malic activity of T. fermentans. Furthermore, the inhibition of organic acids on cell growth was dependent more on inoculum size, temperature and initial pH than on lipid content. Conclusions This work provides some meaningful information about the effect of organic acid in lignocellulosic hydrolysates on the lipid production of

  2. Effect of Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids on Cl- Adsorption by Variable Charge Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-Kou; ANG Ma-Li; WANG Qiang-Sheng; JI Guo-Liang1


    Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids exist widely in soils and have been implicated in many soil processes.The objective of the present paper was to evaluate effect of two LMW organic acids, citric acid and oxalic acid, on Cl- adsorption by three variable charge soils, a latosol, a lateritic red soil and a red soil, using a batch method. The results showed that the presence of citric acid and oxalic acid led to a decrease in Cl- adsorption with larger decreases for citric acid. Among the different soils Gl- adsorption in the lateritic red soil and the red soil was more affected by both the LMW organic acids than that in the latosol.

  3. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species. (United States)

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z


    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  4. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl


    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  5. Rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography using a monolithic column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Huang; Hong Yu; Ying Jie Dong


    A method for rapid and simultaneous determination of imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquid cations by ion-pair chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed.Chromatographic separations were performed on a reversed-phase silica-based monolithic column using 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium-acetonitrile as mobile phase.The effects of ion-pair reagent and acetonitrile concentration on retention of the cations were investigated.The retention times of the cations accord with carbon number rule.The method has been successfully applied to the determination of four ionic liquids synthesized by organic chemistry laboratory.

  6. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye


    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  7. A series of three-dimensional architectures constructed from lanthanide-substituted polyoxometalosilicates and lanthanide cations or lanthanide-organic complexes as linkers. (United States)

    An, Haiyan; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Zhaofei; Li, Yangguang; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Hao


    Six 3D architectures based on lanthanide-substituted polyoxometalosilicates, KLn[(H(2)O)(6)Ln](2)[(H(2)O)(4)LnSiW(11)O(39)](2)·nH(2)O (Ln = La 1, n = 42; Ce 2, n = 40), H[(H(2)O)(6)Nd](2)[(H(2)O)(7)Nd][(H(2)O)(4)NdSiW(11)O(39)][(H(2)O)(3)NdSiW(11)O(39)]·13H(2)O (3), H(2)K(2)[(Hpic)(H(2)O)(5)Ln](2)[(H(2)O)(4)LnSiW(11)O(39)](2)·nH(2)O (Ln = La 4, n = 18.5; Ce 5, n = 35; Nd 6, n = 36; Hpic = 4-picolinic acid), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, TG analysis, powder X-ray diffraction and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural, built up of lanthanide-substituted polyoxoanions [{(H(2)O)(4)Ln(SiW(11)O(39))}(2)](10-) linked by Ln(3+) cations to form a 3D open framework with 1D channels. The polyoxoanion [{(H(2)O)(4)Ln(SiW(11)O(39))}(2)](10-) consists of two α(1)-type mono-Ln-substituted Keggin anions. When Nd(3+) ion was used instead of La(3+) or Ce(3+) ions, compound 3 with a different structure was obtained, containing two kinds of polyoxoanions [{(H(2)O)(4)Nd(SiW(11)O(39))}(2)](10-) and [{(H(2)O)(3)Nd(SiW(11)O(39))}(2)](10-) which are connected together by Nd(3+) ions to yield a 3D framework. When 4-picolinic acid was added to the reaction system of 1-3, isostructural compounds 4-6 were obtained, constructed from the polyoxoanions [{(H(2)O)(4)Ln(SiW(11)O(39))}(2)](10-) linked by picolinate-chelated lanthanide centers to form a 3D channel framework. From a topological viewpoint, the 3D nets of 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 exhibit a (3,6)-connected rutile topology, whereas the 3D structure of 3 possesses a rare (3,3,6,10)-connected topology. The magnetic properties of 2, 3, 5 and 6 have been studied by measuring their magnetic susceptibilities in the temperature range 2-300 K.

  8. Separation study of some heavy metal cations through a bulk liquid membrane containing 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Rounaghi


    Full Text Available Competitive permeation of seven metal cations from an aqueous source phase containing equimolar concentrations of Co2+, Fe3+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ag+ and Pb2+ metal ions at pH 5 into an aqueous receiving phase at pH 3 through an organic phase facilitated by 1,13-bis(8-quinolyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxatridecane (Kryptofix5 as a carrier was studied as bulk liquid membrane transport. The obtained results show that the carrier is highly selective for Ag+ cation and under the employed experimental conditions, it transports only this metal cation among the seven studied metal cations. The effects of various organic solvents on cation transport rates have been demonstrated. Among the organic solvents involving nitrobenzene (NB, chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (DCM and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE which were used as liquid membrane, the most transport rate was obtained for silver (I cation in DCM. The sequence of transport rate for this cation in organic solvents was: DCM > CHCl3 > 1,2-DCE > NB. The competitive transport of these seven metal cations was also studied in CHCl3–NB and CHCl3–DCM binary solvents as membrane phase. The results show that the transport rate of Ag+ cation is sensitive to the solvent composition and a non-linear relationship was observed between the transport rate of Ag+ and the composition of these binary mixed non-aqueous solvents. The influence of the stearic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid as surfactant in the membrane phase on the transport of the metal cations was also investigated.

  9. Research on removal of metal impurities from wet-process phosphoric acid with macroporous strong acid cation exchange resin%大孔阳离子树脂脱除湿法磷酸中阳离子的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊祥祖; 徐彪; 王威; 杜文; 胡利锋


    采用D001大孔强酸性阳离子交换树脂三级处理湿法磷酸中的金属杂质,考察了搅拌速度、温度、树脂用量及反应时间对金属阳离子去除率的影响.结果表明,在搅拌速度为200 r/min、树脂质量磷酸质量为12、反应温度为400 ℃、反应时间为10 min时,效果最好,铁的去除率可达到86.75%、铝的去除率可达到76.13%、镁的去除率可到达40.38%、钙的去除率可到达47.49%.%The removal rate of metal impurities in Wet-Process Phosphoric Acid with D001 macroporous strong acid cation exchange resin was researched.Some important factors which affect the removal rate of metal impurities such as stirring speed, temperature, the mass ratio of resin to phosphoric acid and reaction time were studied respectively.The results show that the removal efficiency of iron,aluminum,magnesium,calcium can be up to 86.75%, 76.13%, 40.38%, 47.49%, respectively, when the stirring speed was 200 r/min, the mass ratio of resin to phosphoric acid was 1:2, the temperature was 40 ℃,the reaction time was 10min.

  10. Downregulation of organic cation transporters OCT1 (SLC22A1 and OCT3 (SLC22A3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma and their prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic cation transporters (OCT are responsible for the uptake and intracellular inactivation of a broad spectrum of endogenous substrates and detoxification of xenobiotics and chemotherapeutics. The transporters became pharmaceutically interesting, because OCTs are determinants of the cytotoxicity of platin derivates and the transport activity has been shown to correlate with the sensitivity of tumors towards tyrosine kinase inhibitors. No data exist about the relevance of OCTs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods OCT1 (SLC22A1 and OCT3 (SLC22A3 mRNA expression was measured in primary human HCC and corresponding non neoplastic tumor surrounding tissue (TST by real time PCR (n = 53. Protein expression was determined by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Data were correlated with the clinicopathological parameters of HCCs. Results Real time PCR showed a downregulation of SLC22A1 and SLC22A3 in HCC compared to TST (p ≤ 0.001. A low SLC22A1 expression was associated with a worse patient survival (p SLC22A1 was less frequently downregulated in tumors with lower stages who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (p SLC22A1 expression (SLC22A3 expression compared to HCC with high SLC22A1 expression (p SLC22A3 expression. In the western blot analysis we found a different protein expression pattern in tumor samples with a more diffuse staining in the immunofluorescence suggesting that especially OCT1 is not functional in advanced HCC. Conclusion The downregulation of OCT1 is associated with tumor progression and a worse patient survival.

  11. Role of organic cation transporter OCT2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K for transport and drug interactions of the antiviral lamivudine. (United States)

    Müller, Fabian; König, Jörg; Hoier, Eva; Mandery, Kathrin; Fromm, Martin F


    The antiviral lamivudine is cleared predominantly by the kidney with a relevant contribution of renal tubular secretion. It is not clear which drug transporters mediate lamivudine renal secretion. Our aim was to investigate lamivudine as substrate of the renal drug transporters organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) and multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins MATE1 and MATE2-K. Uptake experiments were performed in OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K single-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells. Transcellular transport experiments were performed in OCT2 and/or MATE1 single- or double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCK) cells grown on transwell filters. Lamivudine uptake was significantly increased in HEK-OCT2, HEK-MATE1, and HEK-MATE2-K cells compared to control cells. In transcellular experiments, OCT2 located in the basolateral membrane had no effect on transcellular lamivudine transport. MATE1 located in the apical membrane decreased intracellular concentrations and increased transcellular transport of lamivudine from the basal to the apical compartment. MATE1- or MATE2-K-mediated transport was increased by an oppositely directed pH gradient. Several simultaneously administered drugs inhibited OCT2- or MATE2-K-mediated lamivudine uptake. The strongest inhibitors were carvedilol for OCT2 and trimethoprim for MATE2-K (inhibition by 96.3 and 83.7% at 15 μM, respectively, ptransport in OCT2-MATE1 double-transfected cells was inhibited by trimethoprim with an IC₅₀ value of 6.9 μM. Lamivudine is a substrate of renal drug transporters OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K. Concomitant administration of drugs that inhibit these transporters could decrease renal clearance of lamivudine.

  12. Expression of organic cation transporter SLC22A16 in human epithelial ovarian cancer: a possible role of the adriamycin importer. (United States)

    Ota, Kyoko; Ito, Kiyoshi; Akahira, Jun-ichi; Sato, Naoko; Onogawa, Tohru; Moriya, Takuya; Unno, Michiaki; Abe, Takaaki; Niikura, Hitoshi; Takano, Tadao; Yaegashi, Nobuo


    The SLC22A16 is one of the newly isolated organic cation transporters, which is responsible for uptake and transport of adriamycin into cells. Adriamycin is considered to be an active agent for ovarian cancer. Recently, the benefit of adding adriamycin to the current standard regimen, paclitaxel and platinum, is evaluated to improve the outcome of patients with ovarian cancer. Therefore, we examined the expression of SLC22A16 in ovarian cancers. Twelve ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used for immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to confirm the expression of SLC22A16 mRNA and protein. Five normal ovaries, 12 ovarian adenomas, and 94 ovarian cancer cases were obtained from patients after surgical therapy. The specimens were used for immunohistochemistry. The median value of relative SLC22A16 gene expression in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in cell lines from other histologies (P < 0.001). Expression of SLC22A16 protein was also detected in cell lines derived from clear-cell adenocarcinoma. The SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 15 (16%) of 94 epithelial ovarian cancer, 1 (8.3%) of 12 benign adenomas, but 0 (0%) of 5 normal ovary cases. In ovarian cancer tissues, SLC22A16 immunoreactivity was detected in 2 (5%) of 38 serous adenocarcinoma, 1 (6.7%) of 15 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 0 (0%) of 14 mucinous adenocarcinoma, and 12 (46.2%) of 26 clear-cell adenocarcinoma (P < 0.0001, clear-cell vs other histologies). In conclusion, SLC22A16 was abundantly expressed in clear-cell adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that adriamycin-related chemicals that are taken up via SLC22A16 may have the potential to be effective against clear-cell adenocarcinoma.

  13. Strong Inhibition of O-Atom Transfer Reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(π-Radical-Cation)(Lewis Acid) versus Mn(V)(O) Porphyrinoid Complexes. (United States)

    Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Baglia, Regina A; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P


    The oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity of two valence tautomers of a Mn(V)(O) porphyrinoid complex was compared. The OAT kinetics of Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato(3-)) reacting with a series of triarylphosphine (PAr3) substrates were monitored by stopped-flow UV-vis spectroscopy, and revealed second-order rate constants ranging from 16(1) to 1.43(6) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Characterization of the OAT transition state analogues Mn(III)(OPPh3)(TBP8Cz) and Mn(III)(OP(o-tolyl)3)(TBP8Cz) was carried out by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). A valence tautomer of the closed-shell Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) can be stabilized by the addition of Lewis and Brønsted acids, resulting in the open-shell Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA (LA = Zn(II), B(C6F5)3, H(+)) complexes. These Mn(IV)(O)(π-radical-cation) derivatives exhibit dramatically inhibited rates of OAT with the PAr3 substrates (k = 8.5(2) × 10(-3) - 8.7 M(-1) s(-1)), contrasting the previously observed rate increase of H-atom transfer (HAT) for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA with phenols. A Hammett analysis showed that the OAT reactivity for Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):LA is influenced by the Lewis acid strength. Spectral redox titration of Mn(IV)(O)(TBP8Cz(•+)):Zn(II) gives Ered = 0.69 V vs SCE, which is nearly +700 mV above its valence tautomer Mn(V)(O)(TBP8Cz) (Ered = -0.05 V). These data suggest that the two-electron electrophilicity of the Mn(O) valence tautomers dominate OAT reactivity and do not follow the trend in one-electron redox potentials, which appear to dominate HAT reactivity. This study provides new fundamental insights regarding the relative OAT and HAT reactivity of valence tautomers such as M(V)(O)(porph) versus M(IV)(O)(porph(•+)) (M = Mn or Fe) found in heme enzymes.

  14. Organic compounds as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acidic media: correlation between inhibition efficiency and chemical structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Elizandra C.S.; Chrisman, Erika C.A.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica


    The use of inhibitors for mild steels corrosion control which are in contact with aggressive environment is an accepted practice in acid treatment of oil-wells. Organic compounds have been studied to evaluate their corrosion inhibition potential. Film-forming corrosion inhibitors, commonly used to protect oil-field equipment, can be absorbed on the steel surface to give structurally ordered layers. Therefore, the electrons should act as an important role for this adsorption. Studies reveal that organic compounds show significant inhibition efficiency. For this purpose, their molecules should contain N, O and S heteroatoms in various functional groups, long hydrocarbon linear or branched radical and anion and cation active components. However, most of these compounds are not only expensive but also toxic to living beings. According to the 'Green Chemistry' rules, corrosion inhibitors based on organic compounds should be cheap, with low toxicity and have high inhibition efficiency. In this study, the effects of some organic compounds with different groups such as amide, ether, phenyldiamine, anime and aminophenol on the corrosion behavior of mild steel in acidic media have been investigated. The experimental data were obtained by gravimetric measurements. The results show that these compounds reveal a promising corrosion inhibition where phenyldiamine is the most efficient. The effect of molecular structure on the corrosion inhibition efficiency was investigated by semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The electronic properties such as highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels, and LUMO-HOMO energy gap orbital density were calculated. The relations between the inhibition efficiency and some quantum parameters are discussed and correlations are proposed. The highest values for the HOMO densities were found in the vicinity nitrogen atom, indicating that it is the most probable adsorption center

  15. Effects of Organic Acids on Adsorption of Cadmium onto Kaolinite, Goethite, and Bayerite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Effects of organic acids (oxalic, acetic, and citric) on adsorption characteristics of Cadmium (Cd) on soil clay minerals(kaolinite, goethite, and bayerite) were studied under different concentrations and different pH values. Although the types of organic acids and minerals were different, the effects of the organic acids on the adsorption of Cd on the minerals were similar, i.e., the amount of adsorbed Cd with an initial solution pH of 5.0 and initial Cd concentration of 35 mg L-1increased with increasing concentration of the organic acid in solution at lower concentrations, and decreased at higher concentrations. The percentage of Cd adsorbed on the minerals in the presence of the organic acids increased considerably with increasing pH of the solution. Meanwhile, different Cd adsorption in the presence of the organic acids, due to different properties on both organic acids and clay minerals, on kaolinite, goethite, or bayerite for different pHs or organic acid concentrations was found.

  16. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.


    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  17. Self-Assembled Cationic Biodegradable Nanoparticles from pH-Responsive Amino-Acid-Based Poly(Ester Urea Urethane)s and Their Application As a Drug Delivery Vehicle. (United States)

    He, Mingyu; Potuck, Alicia; Kohn, Julie C; Fung, Katharina; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Chu, Chih-Chang


    The objective of this study is to develop a new family of biodegradable and biologically active copolymers and their subsequent self-assembled cationic nanoparticles as better delivery vehicles for anticancer drugs to achieve the synergism between the cytotoxicity effects of the loaded drugs and the macrophage inflammatory response of the delivery vehicle. This family of cationic nanoparticles was formulated from a new family of amphiphilic cationic Arginine-Leucine (Arg-Leu)-based poly(ester urea urethane) (Arg-Leu PEUU) synthesized from four building blocks (amino acids, diols, glycerol α-monoallyl ether, and 1,6 hexamethylene diisocyanate). The chemical, physical, and biological properties of Arg-Leu PEUU biomaterials can be tuned by controlling the feed ratio of the four building blocks. The Arg-Leu PEUU copolymers have weight-average molecular weights from 13.4 to 16.8 kDa and glass-transition temperatures from -3.4 to -4.6 °C. The self-assembled cationic nanoparticles (Arg-Leu PEUU NPs) were prepared using a facile dialysis method. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs have average diameters ranging from 187 to 272 nm, show good biocompatibility with 3T3 fibroblasts, and they support bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation and adhesion. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs also enhanced the macrophages' production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), but produced relatively low levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), and therefore, the antitumor activity of macrophages might be enhanced. Arg-Leu PEUU NPs were taken up by HeLa cells after 4 h of incubation. The in vitro hemolysis assay showed the cationic Arg-Leu PEUU NPs increased their chance of endosomal escape at a more acidic pH. Doxorubicin (DOX) was successfully incorporated into the Arg-Leu PEUU NPs, and the DOX-loaded Arg-Leu PEUU NPs exhibited a pH-dependent drug release profile with accelerated release kinetics in a mild acidic condition. The DOX-loaded 6-Arg-4-Leu-4 A/L-2/1 NPs showed higher HeLa cell

  18. Phosphorus release from phosphate rock and iron phosphate by low-molecular-weight organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ren-kou; ZHU Yong-guan; David Chittleborough


    Low-molecular-weight(LMW) organic acids widely exist in soils, particularly in the rhizosphere. A series of batch experiments were carried out to investigate the phosphorus release from rock phosphate and iron phosphate by Iow-molecular-weight organic acids.Results showed that citric acid had the highest capacity to solubilize P from both rock and iron phosphate. P solubilization from rock phosphate and iron phosphate resulted in net proton consumption. P release from rock phosphate was positively correlated with the pKa values. P release from iron phosphate was positively correlated with Fe-organic acid stability constants except for aromatic acids, but was not correlated with PKa. Increase in the concentrations of organic acids enhanced P solubilization from both rock and iron phosphate almost linearrly. Addition of phenolic compounds further increased the P release from iron phosphate. Initial solution pH had much more substantial effect on P release from rock phosphate than from iron phosphate.

  19. Organic Acid Concentrations in Rivers Within the Amazon River Drainage Basin (United States)

    Skoog, A.


    The composition of the dissolved organic matter pool in both fresh and marine waters is largely unknown. Concentrations of low-molecular-weight organic acids (oxalate, citrate, glycolate, formate, acetate, succinate) have been determined in Brasilian (18 rivers sampled) and Peruvian (19 rivers sampled) rivers within the Amazon River drainage basin. Succinate concentrations were below the detection limit in all rivers. The dominant acid varied among the sampled rivers, indicating that organic acid concentrations depend on river basin characteristics. Organic-acid carbon comprised a highly significant, but variable, fraction of total dissolved carbon, with a range of 3-90%, indicating that organic-acid-derived carbon may be an important source of biologically labile carbon within the Amazon River drainage basin.

  20. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters (United States)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  1. Surface functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles with cationic polymers via the combination of mussel inspired chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Characterization and enhanced removal of organic dye. (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Xu, Dazhuang; Zeng, Guangjian; Huang, Hongye; Jiang, Ruming; Deng, Fengjie; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen


    Monodispersed SiO2 particles functionalized with cationic polymers poly-((3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) (PAPTCl) were prepared using mussel inspired surface modification strategy and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and zeta potential were employed to characterize these SiO2 samples. The adsorption performance of the functionalized SiO2 (donated as SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl) towards anionic organic dye Congo red (CR) was investigated to evaluate their potential environmental applications. We demonstrated that the surface of SiO2 particles can be successfully functionalized with cationic PAPTCl. The adsorption capability of as-prepared SiO2 was found to increases from 28.70 and 106.65mg/g after surface grafted with cationic polymers. The significant enhancement in the adsorption capability of SiO2-PDA-PAPTCl is mainly attributed to the introduction of cationic polymers. More importantly, this strategy is expected to be promising for fabrication of many other functional polymer nanocomposites for environmental applications due to the universality of mussel inspired chemistry and well designability and good monomer adaptability of SI-ATRP.

  2. Effect of fermentation period on the organic acid and amino acid contents of Ogiri from castor oil bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojinnaka, M-T. C.


    Full Text Available Aims: To monitor the changes in the concentration of organic acid and amino acid contents during the fermentation of castor oil bean seed into ogiri.Methodology and results: In this study, ogiri, a Nigerian fermented food condiment was prepared from castor oil bean using Bacillus subtilis as a monoculture starter for the production of three different fermented castor oil bean condiment samples: B1 (0% NaCl/lime, B2 (2% NaCl, B3 (3% lime. Variations in the composition of the castor oil bean with fermentation over 96 h periods were evaluated for organic acid and amino acid contents using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Organic acids were detected in the fermented castor oil bean samples as fermentation period increased to 96 h. Organic acids identified were oxalic, citric, tartaric, malic, succinic, lactic, formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The lactic acid contents in sample B1 (0% NaCl/lime decreased initially and then increased as the fermentation period progressed. The value at 96 h fermentation was 1.336 µg/mL as against 0.775 µg/mL at 0 h fermentation. Sample B3 (3% lime had lactic acid content that increased as fermentation period increased with lactic acid content of 1.298 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation. The acetic acid content of sample B1 increased as fermentation progressed and at 96 h fermentation, its value was 1.204 µg/mL while those of B2 and B3 were 0.677 µg/mL and 1.401 µg/mL respectively. The three fermented castor oil bean samples also contained sufficient amount of amino acids. Sample B1 had the highest values in isoleucine glycine and histidine with values 1.382 µg/mL, 0.814 µg/mL and 1.022 µg/mL respectively while sample B2 had the highest value in leucine content with 0.915 µg/mL at 96 h fermentation, closely followed by sample B3 and B1 with 0.798 µg/mL and 0.205 µg/mL respectively. The results of amino acid analysis indicated a high concentration of all amino acids at 96 h of fermentation

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of amino acid precursors in interstellar complex organics by circularly polarized light


    Takano, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Kaneko, Takeo; Marumo, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Kensei


    The asymmetric synthesis of amino acid precursors from complex organics have been performed. A gaseous mixture of carbon monoxide, ammonia and water (molecules which are among those identified in the interstellar medium) was irradiated with 3.0 MeV protons to obtain amino acid precursors within high-molecular-weight complex organics of up to 3,000 Da. The amino acid precursor products synthesized were then irradiated with right (R-) or left (L-) ultraviolet circularly polarized light (UV-CPL)...

  4. Production of sulfonated cation-exchangers from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Vinogradov, M.V.


    Continuing our studies of the preparation of products of practical value from asphaltite, a new by-product of oil refining, we obtained sulfonated cation-exchangers from a mixture of asphaltite and acid tar. It is shown that these cation-exchangers have good kinetic properties and are superior in thermal and thermohydrolytic stability to the commercial cation-exchange resin KU-2.

  5. Analysis of the effect of dietary protected organic acid blend on lactating sows and their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of blends of dietary protected organic acid supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microflora, and gas emission on sows and piglets with emphasis on their modes of action to improve pig performance. A total of 12 sows with an average initial body weight (BW of 252.40±11.7 kg were used in this trial. Growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets fed protected organic acid were evaluated. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (CON; CON + 0.1% protected organic acid; and CON + 0.2% protected organic acid. The BW and back fat of sows was checked four days prior to farrowing and at the weaning day to calculate BW loss and back fat loss during that period. Inclusion of 0.2% protected organic acid provided a greater digestibility than CON diets throughout the experimental period in lactating sows. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% protected organic acid led to a higher white blood cell and lymphocyte concentration than CON treatment in sucking piglets. Immunoglobulin G concentration observed was greater in protected organic acid groups in lactating sow and sucking piglets. Increased faecal Lactobacillus counts with decreased E. coli concentrations were observed with the diets of protected organic acid fed to lactating sows. The E. coli counts were decreased in weaning piglets. The faecal H2S contents were decreased in 0.2% protected organic acid diets during farrowing on day 1. Dietary supplementation with protected organic acid blends beneficially affects the nutrient digestibility, ileal noxious gas (NH3 and H2S emission, as well as intestinal microbial balance in lactating sows.

  6. Précipitation sélective de cations métalliques au moyen d'acide azélaïque issu de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Meux, E.; Oget, N.; Lecuire, J. M.; Mieloszynski, J. L.


    Actuellement, les métaux présents dans les effluents liquides industriels sont précipités sous forme d'hydroxydes métalliques par ajout de lait de chaux. Les boues obtenues sont dirigées vers des centres de stockage de déchets ultimes sans possibilité de valorisation. Cette étude propose comme alternative au traitement actuel, une précipitation sélective par des réactifs qui peuvent être préparés à partir d'acides carboxyliques résultant de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique présent dans les huiles végétales. Cette publication présente dans un premier temps l'oxydation de l'acide oléique par le système oxydant NaIO4/RuO4 pour l'obtention de deux acides carboxyliques. Le rendement de l'oxydation de l'acide oléique est de 100% avec production des acides pélargonïque et azélaïque qui sont facilement purifiés par recristallisation dans l’eau. Dans un deuxième temps, cette étude présente la caractérisation de différents azélates métalliques. La détermination de leur stœchiométrie conduit à des composés de type MAz pour les cations divalents et M2Az3 pour les trivalents. Des mesures de solubilités ont été réalisées pour les azélates de Fe(III), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) et Ca(II). La gamme de solubilité s'étend de 1,17.10-2 M pour CaAz à 1,58.10-6 M pour Fe2Az3.

  7. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds. (United States)

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P


    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  8. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.


    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  9. Effect of water coordination on competition between π and non-π cation binding sites in aromatic amino acids: L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, and L-tryptophan Li+, Na +, and K+ complexes. (United States)

    Remko, Milan; Šoralová, Stanislava


    Quantum chemistry methods have been applied to charged complexes of the alkali metals Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) with the aromatic amino acids (AAAs) phenylalanine (Phe), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp). The geometries of 72 different complexes (Phe·M, Tyr·M, Trp·M, M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were completely optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) level of density functional theory. The solvent effect on the geometry and stability of individual complexes was studied by making use of a microsolvation model. The interaction enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of nine different complexes of the systems Phe·M, Tyr·M, and Trp·M (M is Li(+), Na(+), or K(+)) were also determined at the B3LYP density functional level of theory. The calculated Gibbs binding energies of the M(+)-AAA complexes follow the order Phe < Tyr < Trp for all three metal cations studied. Among the three AAAs studied, the indole ring of Trp is the best π donor for alkali metal cations. Our calculations demonstrated the existence of strong cation-π interactions between the alkali metals and the aromatic side chains of the three AAAs. These AAAs comprise about 8% of all known protein sequences. Thus, besides the potential for hydrogen-bond interaction, aromatic residues of Phe, Tyr, and Trp show great potential for π-donor interactions. The existence of cation-π interaction in proteins has also been demonstrated experimentally. However, more complex experimental studies of metal cation-π interaction in diverse biological systems will no doubt lead to more exact validation of these investigations.

  10. Organic Acid Metabolism by Isolated Rhizobium japonicum Bacteroids (United States)

    Stovall, Iris; Cole, Michael


    Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) nodules oxidized 14C-labeled succinate, pyruvate, and acetate in a manner consistent with operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a partial glyoxylate cycle. Substrate carbon was incorporated into all major cellular components (cell wall + membrane, nucleic acids, and protein). PMID:16660386

  11. Use of organic acids for prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms on food contact surfaces. (United States)

    Akbas, Meltem Yesilcimen; Cag, Seyda


    The efficacies of organic acid (citric, malic, and gallic acids) treatments at 1% and 2% concentrations on prevention and removal of Bacillus subtilis biofilms were investigated in this study. The analyses were conducted on microtitration plates and stainless steel coupons. The biofilm removal activities of these organic acids were compared with chlorine on both surfaces. The results showed that citric acid treatments were as powerful as chlorine treatments for prevention and removal of biofilms. The antibiofilm effects of malic acid treatments were higher than gallic acid and less than citric acid treatment. When the antibiofilm effects of these acids and chlorine on the two surfaces were compared, the prevention and removal of biofilms were measured higher on microtitration plates than those on stainless steel coupons. Higher reductions were obtained by increasing concentrations of sanitizers on 24-hour biofilm with 20-minute sanitizer treatments for removal of biofilms.

  12. Study of conformational and acid-base properties of norbadione A and pulvinic derivatives: Consequences on their complexation properties of alkaline and alkaline earth cations; Etude des proprietes conformationnelles et acido-basiques de la norbadione A et de derives pulviniques: consequences sur leurs proprietes complexantes de cations alcalins et alcalino-terreux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuad, P


    This work deals with the study of norbadione A, a pigment extracted from mushrooms and known to complex cesium cations. The study of the acid-base properties of norbadione A has allowed to determine the relative acidity of the seven protonable functions of the molecule and to reveal a reversible isomerization of the double exocyclic bond of the pulvinic moieties. The observed change of configuration is induced by a hydrogen bond of the H-O-H type and by electrostatic interactions. Moreover, the microscopic protonation mechanism of the norbadione A has been analyzed, considering three different study media where the acid-base properties of the norbadione A are compared. In the presence of 0.15 mol.l{sup -1} of NaCl, it has been observed a remarkable cooperativity in the protonation of the enol groups. At last, the use of different analytical methods (NMR, potentiometry and calorimetry) has allowed to study the complexing properties of the norbadione A towards cesium and other alkaline and rare earth cations. (O.M.)

  13. Adsorption of organic acids from dilute aqueous solution onto activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.W.


    The radioisotope technique was used to study the removal of organic acid contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions onto activated carbon. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, n-hexanoic acid and n-heptanoic acid were studied at 278, 298, and 313/sup 0/K. Three bi-solute acid mixtures (acetic and propionic acids, acetic and butanoic acids, and propionic and butanoic acids) were studied at 278 and 298/sup 0/K. Isotherms of the single-solute systems were obtained at three different temperatures in the very dilute concentration region (less than 1% by weight). These data are very important in the prediction of bi-solute equilibrium data. A Polanyi-based competitive adsorption potential theory was used to predict the bi-solute equilibrium uptakes. Average errors between calculated and experimental data ranges from 4% to 14%. It was found that the competitive adsorption potential theory gives slightly better results than the ideal adsorbed solution theory.

  14. Heterogeneous uptake of the C1 to C4 organic acids on a swelling clay mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tolbert


    Full Text Available Mineral aerosol is of interest due to its physiochemical impacts on the Earth's atmosphere. However, adsorbed organics could influence the chemical and physical properties of atmospheric mineral particles and alter their impact on the biosphere and climate. In this work, the heterogeneous uptake of a series of small organic acids on the swelling clay, Na-montmorillonite, was studied at 212 K as a function of relative humidity (RH, organic acid pressure and clay mass. A high vacuum chamber equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a transmission Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to detect the gas and condensed phases, respectively. Our results show that while the initial uptake efficiency was found to be independent of organic acid pressure, it increased linearly with increasing clay mass. Thus, the small masses studied allow access to the entire surface area of the clay sample with minimal effects due to surface saturation. Additionally, results from this study show that the initial uptake efficiency for butanoic (butyric acid on the clay increases by an order of magnitude as the RH is raised from 0% to 45% RH at 212 K while the initial uptake efficiency of formic, acetic and propanoic (propionic acids increases only slightly at higher humidities. However, the initial uptake efficiency decreases significantly in a short amount of time due to surface saturation effects. Thus, although the initial uptake efficiencies are appropriate for initial times, the fact that the uptake efficiency will decrease over time as the surface saturates should be considered in atmospheric models. Surface saturation results in sub-monolayer coverage of organic acid on montmorillonite under dry conditions and relevant organic acid pressures that increases with increasing humidity for all organic acids studied. Additionally, the presence of large organic acids may slightly enhance the water content of the clay above 45% RH. Our results indicate

  15. Reducing Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Acid-Base Balance, Plasma Minerals Level and Anti-Oxidative Stress of Female Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-xuan; YANG Yi; ZHANG Ji-kun; LI Sheng-li


    Reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been proved an effective way to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. Based on the similar physiological gastro-intestinal tract anatomy and metabolic process between female goats and dairy cows, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying DCAD on fluid acid-base status, plasma minerals concentration and anti-oxidative stress capacity of female goats. Urinary pH, plasma Ca, P and Mg;and anti-oxidative stress indices of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate the effect. Forty-eight Guizhou black female goats ((15±1.9) mon of old, (22.3±3.75) kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 4 blocks of 12 goats each and were fed 1 of 4 diets differed in DCAD level (calculated as Na+K-Cl-S, mEq kg-1 DM). Levels of DCAD were preliminarily designed to be control (+150 mEq kg-1 DM, CON), high DCAD (+300 mEq kg-1 DM, HD), low DCAD (0 mEq kg-1 DM, LD) and negative DCAD (-150 mEq kg-1 DM, ND), respectively. A commercial anionic salts (Animate) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were supplemented to reduce and increase DCAD level, respectively. There was no difference in dry matter intake for 4 groups of goats. Urine pH was aggressively decreased (P0.05) plasma Mg level. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma GSH-Px activity and H2O2, but anionic salts supplementation in LD and ND significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma T-SOD activity and tended to reduce MDA (P<0.1) over HD and CON. Results from this study indicated that reducing DCAD could decrease urine pH and increase plasma Ca concentration of female goats. Additionally, reducing DCAD was helpful to enhance anti-oxidative stress capability of female goats.

  16. 强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid using strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 谢志融; 陈靠山


    目的:探讨001×7强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的方法和最佳工艺.方法:通过正交试验探讨了乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量和反应温度对乙酰水杨酸产率的影响,并探讨催化剂的催化能力与使用次数的关系.结果:乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比为3:1、催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的14.50%、反应时间120 min、反应温度60 ℃时,乙酰水杨酸产率最高,为77.93%.结论:001×7强酸性苯乙烯系阳离子交换树脂对酯化反应催化效果好,副反应少,对环境污染小,能重复使用,值得大力推广.%Objective:To optimize the technology of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid using 001 × 7 strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst . Methods : Orthogonal experiment was performed to examine the effect of molar ratio of reactants,reaction time, dosage of catalyst, and reaction temperature on the yield of product as well as the efficiency and frequencies of the resin recycled and shifted on the synthesis. Results :The optimal reaction conditions were 3:1 (the ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid,n:n),in a dosage of the resin 14. 50% of salicylic acid,for the reaction time of 120 min at temperature of 60 ℃ , which led to a yield of 77.93 % . Conclusion: 001 × 7 strong-acidic cat ion-exchange resin works well on esterification reaction as a environmentally friendly catalyst and is worthy of wider use, for it has efficient activity, less adverse reaction and recyclable advantages.

  17. [Simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass using high performance liquid chromatography]. (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Ouyang, Jia; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Cai, Cong


    Abstract: A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass was developed. A Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column was used at 55 degrees C. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The samples were detected by a refractive index detector (RID). The results showed that six organic acids and three saccharides in fermentation broth were completely separated and determined in 17 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 8 in the range of 0.15-5.19 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the organic acids and saccharides in Rhizopus oryzae fermentation broth at two spiked levels were in the range of 96.91%-103.11% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0.81%-4.61%. This method is fast and accurate for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids and saccharides in microbial fermentation broths.

  18. Development of gas chromatography analysis of fatty acids in marine organisms. (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho


    The gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids has attracted considerable interest. In this analysis, the common derivatives of fatty acids, such as fatty acid methyl esters, can be detected using a flame ionization detector and the mass spectra can indicate the true structure of fatty acids. This paper reviews gas chromatographic methods for obtaining fatty acids from marine organisms. The stationary phase and detector for applications in gas chromatography are discussed. This article also reviews the components of fatty acids in marine animals, marine plants and marine microorganisms.

  19. D-Amino Acids in Organisms ―Mainly in Mammals―


    長田, 洋子


    It has long been believed that D-amino acids are not natural, i. e., D-amino acids are not synthesized nor do they exist in mammals. Nowadays, however, the existence of some D-amino acids originating from mammals is known. In this paper an overview of the distribution of D-amino acids from the lower organisms to the higher animals, and plants is given based on an present knowledge, and then, D-aspartic acid and, with special emphasis, other neutral D-amino acids in mammals are described. Meta...

  20. Determination of an organic-acid analog of DOC for use in copper toxicity studies on salmonids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacRae, R.K.; Meyer, J.S.; Hansen, J.A.; Bergman, H.L. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Maest, A.; Marr, J.; Beltman, D.; Lipton, J. [Hagler Bailly, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)


    Concentrations of dissolved copper in streams draining mine sites often exceed concentrations shown to cause acute and chronic mortality in salmonids. However, toxicity and impaired behaviors may be modified by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and other inorganic components present in the site water. The effects of DOC on copper speciation, and thus bioavailability and toxicity, were determined by titrating stream waters with copper, using a cupric ion-specific electrode to detect free copper concentrations. Effects of various competing cations (e.g., Ca{sup +2}, Co{sup +2}) on copper-DOC binding were also evaluated. Titration results were evaluated using Scatchard and non-linear regression analyses to quantify the strength and capacity of copper-DOC binding. Inorganic speciation was determined using the geochemical model MINEQL{sup +}. Results of these titrations indicated the presence of two or three distinct copper binding components in site water DOC. Three commercially available organic acids where then chosen to mimic the binding characteristics of natural DOC. This DOC-analog was used successfully in fish toxicity studies to evaluate the influence of DOC on copper bioavailability. Geochemical models were developed to predict copper speciation in both laboratory test waters and site waters, for any typical combination of water chemistry parameters (pH, alkalinity, [DOC], etc.). A combined interpretation of fish toxicity and modeling results indicate that some DOC-bound copper was bioavailable.

  1. Rapid Method To Determine Intracellular Drug Concentrations in Cellular Uptake Assays: Application to Metformin in Organic Cation Transporter 1-Transfected Human Embryonic Kidney 293 Cells. (United States)

    Chien, Huan-Chieh; Zur, Arik A; Maurer, Tristan S; Yee, Sook Wah; Tolsma, John; Jasper, Paul; Scott, Dennis O; Giacomini, Kathleen M


    Because of the importance of intracellular unbound drug concentrations in the prediction of in vivo concentrations that are determinants of drug efficacy and toxicity, a number of assays have been developed to assess in vitro unbound concentrations of drugs. Here we present a rapid method to determine the intracellular unbound drug concentrations in cultured cells, and we apply the method along with a mechanistic model to predict concentrations of metformin in subcellular compartments of stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Intracellular space (ICS) was calculated by subtracting the [(3)H]-inulin distribution volume (extracellular space, ECS) from the [(14)C]-urea distribution volume (total water space, TWS). Values obtained for intracellular space (mean ± S.E.M.; μl/10(6) cells) of monolayers of HEK cells (HEK-empty vector [EV]) and cells overexpressing human organic cation transporter 1 (HEK-OCT1), 1.21± 0.07 and 1.25±0.06, respectively, were used to determine the intracellular metformin concentrations. After incubation of the cells with 5 µM metformin, the intracellular concentrations were 26.4 ± 7.8 μM and 268 ± 11.0 μM, respectively, in HEK-EV and HEK-OCT1. In addition, intracellular metformin concentrations were lower in high K(+) buffer (140 mM KCl) compared with normal K(+) buffer (5.4 mM KCl) in HEK-OCT1 cells (54.8 ± 3.8 μM and 198.1 ± 11.2 μM, respectively; P < 0.05). Our mechanistic model suggests that, depending on the credible range of assumed physiologic values, the positively charged metformin accumulates to particularly high levels in endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria. This method together with the computational model can be used to determine intracellular unbound concentrations and to predict subcellular accumulation of drugs in other complex systems such as primary cells.

  2. Effects of Land Use Practices on the Organic Carbon Content, Cation Exchange Capacity and Aggregate Stability of Soils in the Catchment Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosayeb Heshmati


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Land use practice leads to changes in the physico-chemical properties of soils, such as Soil Organic Carbon (SOC, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC and Soil Aggregate Stability (SAS that cause soil erosion. Approach: Merek catchment, Iran suffers from land degradation due to poor land use practice. A study was carried out with the objectives: (i to determine soil nutrient status in different agro-ecological zones in Merek catchment; and (ii to evaluate the influence of land use practices on SOC, CEC and SAS. Results: It was found that soil texture was silty and clay, while soil reaction was alkaline (pH was 7.75. The respective amount of carbonates was 32 and 36% in the top-soil and sub-soil respectively, indicating high level of alkalinity in the soils of the study area. The mean SAS of the surface soil layer for agriculture, rangeland and forest was 53, 61 and 64%, respectively with its mean in the topsoil of agriculture is significantly lower (P≤0.05 than the other zones. SOC level in the agriculture, rangeland and forest were 1.35, 1.56, 2.14 % in the topsoil and 1.03, 1.33 and 1.45%, in the subsoil of the respective areas. The results of t-test and ANOVA analyses showed that SOC means are significantly different from each other within soil depth and among agro-ecological zones. The CEC in the agriculture, rangeland and forest areas were 25.8, 24.6 and 35.1 cmolckg-1 for the top-soil and 31.1, 26.8 and 26.9 cmolckg-1 in the sub-soil, respectively. All the above changes are due to the negative effects of agricultural activities. Conclusion: Improper tillage practice (up-down the slope, conversion of the rangeland and forest to rain-fed areas, crop residue burning, over grazing and forest clearance contribute to reduction in SOC and SAS in the Merek catchment, Iran.

  3. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. K. Hansen


    Full Text Available Sources, composition and occurrence of secondary organic aerosols (SOA in the Arctic were investigated at Zeppelin Mountain, Svalbard, and Station Nord, northeast Greenland, during the full annual cycle of 2008 and 2010 respectively. We focused on the speciation of three types of SOA tracers: organic acids, organosulfates and nitrooxy organosulfates from both anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, here presenting organosulfate concentrations and compositions during a full annual cycle and chemical speciation of organosulfates in Arctic aerosols for the first time. Aerosol samples were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled to a quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometer (HPLC-q-TOF-MS. A total of 11 organic acids (terpenylic acid, benzoic acid, phthalic acid, pinic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, pinonic acid, diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA and 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA, 12 organosulfates and one nitrooxy organosulfate were identified at the two sites. Six out of the 12 organosulfates are reported for the first time. Concentrations of organosulfates follow a distinct annual pattern at Station Nord, where high concentration were observed in late winter and early spring, with a mean total concentration of 47 (±14 ng m−3, accounting for 7 (±2% of total organic matter, contrary to a considerably lower organosulfate mean concentration of 2 (±3 ng m−3 (accounting for 1 (±1% of total organic matter observed during the rest of the year. The organic acids followed the same temporal trend as the organosulfates at Station Nord; however the variations in organic acid concentrations were less pronounced, with a total mean organic acid concentration of 11.5 (±4 ng m−3 (accounting for 1.7 (±0.6% of total organic matter in late winter and early spring, and 2.2 (±1 ng m−3 (accounting for 0.9 (±0.4% of total organic matter during the rest of the year. At Zeppelin Mountain

  4. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain. (United States)

    Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A


    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.

  5. Respiratory adaptations in carp blood. Influences of hypoxia, red cell organic phosphates, divalent cations and CO2 on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Lykkeboe, G.


    This study concerns the adaptation of oxygen transporting function of carp blood to environment hypoxia, tracing the roles played by erythrocytic cofactors, inorganic cations, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin multiplicity. Carp acclimated to hypoxia ( 30 mmHg) display striking increases in blood...

  6. Performance, digesta characteristics, nutrient flux, plasma composition and organ weight in pigs as effected by dietary cation anion difference and non starch polysaccharide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Schulze, H.; Zandstra, T.; Boer, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.


    Two dietary cation anion difference (CAD) levels (-100 and 200 mEq/kg) and two dietary nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) levels (10 and 15€were used in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in two randomized blocks (trials) to evaluate performance, digesta pH and buffer capacity, apparent digestibility, plasma

  7. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources. (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim


    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  8. Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation. (United States)

    Beppu, T

    Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and characterized. Spontaneous mutations at high frequencies in the acetic acid bacteria to cause the deficiency in ethanol oxidation were analyzed. A new insertion sequence element, IS1380, was identified as a major factor of the genetic instability, which causes insertional inactivation of the gene encoding cytochrome c, an essential component of the functional alcohol dehydrogenase complex. Several genes including the citrate synthase gene of A. aceti were identified to confer acetic acid resistance, and the histidinolphosphate aminotransferase gene was cloned as a multicopy suppressor of an ethanol sensitive mutant. Improvement of the acetic acid productivity of an A. aceti strain was achieved through amplification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene with a multicopy vector. In addition, spheroplast fusion of the Acetobacter strains was developed and applied to improve their properties.

  9. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung Nguyen; Thierry Talou; Mureil Cerny; Philippe Evon; Othmane Merah


    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  10. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung; Nguyen; Thierry; Talou; Mureil; Cerny; Philippe; Evon; Othmane; Merah


    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch(near Toulouse,southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages(two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages(2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage,petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  11. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang-Hung Nguyen


    Full Text Available To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF. Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF, but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  12. Structure and Reactivity of the Glutathione Radical Cation: Radical Rearrangement from the Cysteine Sulfur to the Glutamic Acid alpha-Carbon Atom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Gulyuz, K.; Polfer, N.C.; O'Hair, R.A.J.; Ryzhov, V.


    A gas-phase radical rearrangement through intramolecular hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) was studied in the glutathione radical cation, [-ECG](+.), which was generated by a homolytic cleavage of the protonated S-nitrosoglutathione. Ion-molecule reactions suggested that the radical migrates from the ori

  13. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments]. (United States)

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu


    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  14. Liver function and bacteriology of organs in broiler inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium and treated with organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Rocha


    Full Text Available AbAns etxrpaecritment was carried out with 630 one-day-old chicks to evaluate the effects of organic acids when birds were experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium. Liver damage and the persistence of the bacterium in the organs were evaluated as well. Broilers were distributed in a completely randomised experimental design in a 3×2 factorial arrangement of six treatments with seven replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were inoculated with saline solution or the bacterium via gavage at 1 day of age, or were offered a feed containing or not the organic acid blend for the period of 7 to 14 days of age. A dose of 5.0x102 colony-forming units (CFU/0.5 mL of Salmonella Typhimurium was used for inoculation both via gavage and feed. The parameters evaluated are weight, liver histopathology, liver and serum biochemistry, and bacteriological analyses of the caeca, crop, spleen, and liver and heart pool. At 21 and 28 days of age, the liver of the non-inoculated groups was significantly lighter as compared to the other treatments. Birds fed organic acids presented lower bacterial isolation rates in all organs tested. Birds inoculated in the crop and treated with organic acids presented lower E. coli CFU counts (P<0.05. Birds inoculated with Salmonella presented significant changes (P<0.05 in liver enzymes, as detected by serum biochemistry, and in liver histopathology. It was concluded that organic acids effectively controlled Salmonella Typhimurium and did not cause any liver damage.

  15. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Laxman Bagal


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10. Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1% along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline without affecting growth performance of birds.

  16. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review. (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel


    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  17. Screening of organic halogens and identification of chlorinated benzoic acids in carbonaceous meteorites. (United States)

    Schöler, Heinz F; Nkusi, Gerard; Niedan, Volker W; Müller, German; Spitthoff, Bianca


    The occurrence of halogenated organic compounds measured as a sum parameter and the evidence of chlorinated benzoic acids in four carbonaceous meteorites (Cold Bokkeveld, Murray, Murchison and Orgueil) from four independent fall events is reported. After AOX (Adsorbable organic halogen) and EOX (Extractable organic halogen) screening to quantify organically bound halogens, chlorinated organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. AOX concentrations varying from 124 to 209 microg Cl/g d.w. were observed in carbonaceous meteorites. Ion chromatographic analysis of the distribution of organically bound halogens performed on the Cold Bokkeveld meteorite revealed that chlorinated and brominated organic compounds were extractable, up to 70%, whereas only trace amounts of organofluorines could be extracted. Chlorinated benzoic acids have been identified in carbonaceous meteorite extracts. Their presence and concentrations raise the question concerning the origin of halogenated, especially chlorinated, organic compounds in primitive planetary matter.

  18. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives. (United States)

    Piper, Peter W


    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell.

  19. Pattern of aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids differs between rye and wheat. (United States)

    Li, X F; Ma, J F; Matsumoto, H


    Al-Induced secretion of organic acids from the roots has been considered as a mechanism of Al tolerance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In this study, the secretion pattern and alteration in the metabolism of organic acids under Al stress were examined in rye (Secale cereale L. cv King) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Atlas 66). Al induced rapid secretion of malate in the wheat, but a lag (6 and 10 h for malic and citric acids, respectively) between the exposure to Al and the secretion of organic acids was observed in the rye. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malate dehydrogenase were not affected by Al in either plant. The activity of citrate synthase was increased by the exposure to Al in the rye, but not in the wheat. The secretion of malate was not suppressed at low temperature in the wheat, but that of citrate was stopped in the rye. The Al-induced secretion of citrate from roots of the rye was inhibited by the inhibitors of a citrate carrier, which transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. All of these results suggest that alteration in the metabolism of organic acids is involved in the Al-induced secretion of organic acids in rye, but only activation of an anion channel seems to be responsible for the rapid secretion of malate in the wheat.

  20. The Use of Supported Acidic Ionic Liquids in Organic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Skoda-Földes


    Full Text Available Catalysts obtained by the immobilisation of acidic ionic liquids (ILs on solid supports offer several advantages compared to the use of catalytically active ILs themselves. Immobilisation may result in an increase in the number of accessible active sites of the catalyst and a reduction of the amount of the IL required. The ionic liquid films on the carrier surfaces provide a homogeneous environment for catalytic reactions but the catalyst appears macroscopically as a dry solid, so it can simply be separated from the reaction mixture. As another advantage, it can easily be applied in a continuous fixed bed reactor. In the present review the main synthetic strategies towards the preparation of supported Lewis acidic and Brønsted acidic ILs are summarised. The most important characterisation methods and structural features of the supported ionic liquids are presented. Their efficiency in catalytic reactions is discussed with special emphasis on their recyclability.

  1. High-speed ion-exclusion chromatography of dissolved carbon dioxide on a small weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column with ion-exchange enhancement columns of conductivity detection. (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Ikedo, Mikaru; Hu, Wenzhi; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    The high-speed ion-exclusion chromatographic determination of dissolved carbon dioxide, i.e., carbonic acid, hydrogencarbonate or carbonate, with conductivity detection was obtained using a small column packed with a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+-form (40 mm long x 4.6 mm i.d., 3 microm-particle and 0.1 meq./ml-capacity). Two different ion-exchange resin columns, which were a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the K+-form and a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the OH- -form, were connected after the separation column. The sequence of columns could convert dissolved carbon dioxide to KOH having high conductivity response. The enhancement effect for dissolved carbon dioxide could retain even on the vast chromatographic runs, by using the enhancement columns with high ion-exchange capacity above 1.0 meq./ml. The retention time was in 60 s at flow-rate of 1.2 ml/min. The calibration graph of dissolved carbon dioxide estimated as H2CO3- was linear in the range of 0.005-10 mM. The detection limit at signal to noise of 3 was 0.15 microM as H2CO3-. This method was applicable to several rainwater and tap water samples.

  2. [Sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by organo-mineral complexes with different bridge cations]. (United States)

    Ni, Jin-zhi; Luo, Yong-ming; Wei, Ran; Li, Xiu-hua; Qian, Wei


    Sorption and desorption of phenanthrene by organo-mineral complexes with Ca2+, Fe3+ and Al3+ as bridge cations were studied according to the association type between organic matter and minerals in natural soils. The results showed that the data of phenanthrene sorption and desorption by different cation saturated montmorillonite and their corresponding humic acid and mineral complexes could be fitted with Freundlich model, and the order of the sorption capacities (Kf) were Ca-Mont (0.184) > Fe-Mont (0.028) > Al-Mont (0.015) and Fe-Mont-HA (2.341) > Ca-Mont-HA (1.557) > Al-Mont-HA (1.136), respectively. The Kf values of humic acid and mineral complexes were far greater than those of minerals, which demonstrated that humic acid made great contributions to the sorption of phenanthrene in the organo-mineral complexes. However, the Kf values of the organo-mineral complexes with different bridge cations were not consistent with their organic carbon content, which indicated that both the organic carbon content and the combined types between organic matter and mineral could affect the sorption capacity of phenanthrene by the organo-mineral complexes. The desorption hysteresis of phenanthrene was significant for Ca2+ and Al3+ bridged organo-mineral complexes. Desorption hysteresis of phenanthrene was mainly from the sorption of phenanthrene by organic matter, and the contributions of mineral to the desorption hysteresis were not significant.

  3. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid; Mecanismo de la elucion del erbio en un cambiador cationico con el acido n-hidroxietil-etilen-diamono-triacetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer Amezaga, S.


    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs.

  4. Release of Soil Nonexchangeable K by Organic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The amounts of soil nonexchangeable K extracted with 0.01mL/L oxalic acid and citric acid solutions and that with boiling 1mL/L HNO3 for ten minutes were remarkably significantly correlated with each other,and the amount extracted with the oxalic acid solution was higher than that with the citric acid solution.The soil nonexchangeable K release was comprised of two first-order kinetic processes.The faster one was ascribed to the interlayer K in outer sphere,while the slower one to that in inner sphere.The rate constants of the soil nonexchageable K were significantly correlated with the amounts of nonexchangeable K ex tracted with boiling 1mL/L HNO3 for ten minutes.Study on the fitness of different kinetic equations indicated that the first-order,parabolic diffusion and zero-order equations could all describe the release of soil nonexchangeable K well,but Elovich equation was not suitable to describe it.

  5. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts (United States)

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.


    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  6. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar



    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  7. Crystal structure of a compact three-dimensional metal-organic framework based on Cs(+) and (4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)bis-(phospho-nic acid). (United States)

    Mendes, Ricardo F; Venkatramaiah, Nutalapati; Tomé, João P C; Almeida Paz, Filipe A


    A new metal-organic framework compound, poly[[μ7-dihydrogen (4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)diphospho-nato]-(oxonium)caesium], [Cs(C8H4N2O6P2)(H3O)] n (I), based on Cs(+) and the organic linker 4,5-di-cyano-1,2-phenyl-ene)bis-(phospho-nic acid, (H4cpp), containing two distinct coordinating functional groups, has been prepared by a simple diffusion method and its crystal structure is reported. The coordination polymeric structure is based on a CsO8N2 complex unit comprising a monodentate hydro-nium cation, seven O-atom donors from two phospho-nium groups of the (H2cpp)(2-) ligand, and two N-atom donors from bridging cyano groups. The high level of connectivity from both the metal cation and the organic linker allow the formation of a compact and dense three-dimensional network without any crystallization solvent. Topologically (I) is a seven-connected uninodal network with an overall Schäfli symbol of {4(17).6(4)}. Metal cations form an undulating inorganic layer, which is linked by strong and highly directional O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions. These metallic layers are, in turn, connected by the organic ligands along the [010] direction to form the overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  8. Determination of organic acids during the fermentation and cold storage of yogurt. (United States)

    Fernandez-Garcia, E; McGregor, J U


    The objective of the present study was the separation and quantification of orotic, citric, pyruvic, lactic, uric, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and hippuric acids in a single isocratic analysis by HPLC. Two methods of extraction were compared: 1) acetonitrile and water and 2) .01N H2SO4. Recoveries of orotic, lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were 90% for both methods. Recoveries of citric, pyruvic, uric, butyric, and hippuric acids were not satisfactory with the acetonitrile method, but were acceptable using the H2SO4 extraction procedure. Yogurts were manufactured under laboratory-scale conditions, and samples were analyzed during fermentation and after storage at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed for pH and organic acids. All of the organic acids exhibited varying degrees of increases and decreases during fermentation and storage. Formic and butyric acids were not detected under the conditions of this study.

  9. Fast pyrolysis of organic acid leached wood, straw, hay and bagasse: Improved oil and sugar yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhoven, S.R.G; Westerhof, R.J.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.


    Organic acid leaching of pine wood, straw, bagasse and hay effectively reduced the amount of catalytically active alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs). Using the (acetic) acid produced by pyrolysis as leaching agent, the AAEMs content could be reduced to 90–600 mg/kg. Tests with AAEMs impregnate

  10. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils. (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen


    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  11. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: Fatty acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Ittekkot, V.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R.

    ., 1980), rarely found in aquatic organisms (Chuecas and Ri- ley, 1969), they are indicative of the input of terrigenous plant fatty acids (Eglinton and Hamilton, 1967 ). Monounsaturated fatty acids from 14:1 to 26:1 were detectable. 18:1o)9, 16:1o)7...

  12. Preparation, spectroscopic and acidity properties of two hydrazones: an organic lab experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Pizarro, Claudia; Millan, Daniela [Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Quimica y Biologia]. E-mail:


    An undergraduate organic lab experiment is described based on the preparation of two readily accessible hydrazones. The UVvisible spectra of these N-H acids and of their conjugate bases are employed to illustrate the importance of through-conjugation in determining their acid strength and their internal charge-transfer-band transitions. (auth0008.

  13. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles of urinary organic acids in healthy captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). (United States)

    Tordiffe, Adrian Stephen Wolferstan; van Reenen, Mari; Reyers, Fred; Mienie, Lodewyk Jacobus


    In captivity, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) frequently suffer from several unusual chronic diseases that rarely occur in their free-ranging counterparts. In order to develop a better understanding of their metabolism and health we documented the urine organic acids of 41 apparently healthy captive cheetahs, in an untargeted metabolomic study, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 339 organic acids were detected and annotated. Phenolic compounds, thought to be produced by the anaerobic fermentation of aromatic amino acids in the distal colon, as well as their corresponding glycine conjugates, were present in high concentrations. The most abundant organic acids in the cheetahs' urine were an as yet unidentified compound and a novel cadaverine metabolite, tentatively identified as N(1),N(5)-dimethylpentane-1,5-diamine. Pantothenic acid and citramalic acid concentrations correlated negatively with age, while glutaric acid concentrations correlated positively with age, suggesting possible dysregulation of coenzyme A metabolism in older cheetahs. This study provides a baseline of urine organic acid reference values in captive cheetahs and suggests important avenues for future research in this species.

  14. Phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of organic and conventional grown pecan kernels (United States)

    In this study, differences in contents of phenolic compounds and fatty acids in pecan kernels of organically versus conventionally grown pecan cultivars (‘Desirable’, ‘Cheyenne’, and ‘Wichita’) were evaluated. Although we were able to identify nine phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechol, catechin...

  15. Analysis of organic acids in selected forest litters of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONGJin-feng; CUIXiao-yang


    Larch (Larix olgensis), Manchurian ash (Fraxinus mandshurica), Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) and White birch (Betula platyphylla) are the major planting species in northeast China. The samples of forest litters were collected from the stands of the above 4 species in Laoyeling and Jianlagou experiment stations of Maorshan Exp. Forest Farm (45°12′-45°30′N,127°30′-127°48′E), Northeast Forestry University, in early October 2002. Quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis were carried out on the organic acids existing in freshly fallen litters (L layer) and hemi-decomposed litters (F layer) of the four forest species by using Gas Chromatogram system. A wide variety of organic acids were identified, including oxalic, malonic, fumaric,succinic, maleic, malic, citric, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C20:0 acids. In respect of L litters of all samples, the oxalic acid content (over 30 mg/g) was the highest of the seven low-molecular-weight organic acids identified, while the content of oleic or linoleic (above 40 mg/g) was found to be highest among the six high aliphatic acids identified. As to F litters, oxalic acid content was also the highest, followed by linoleic and oleic. For the same tree species or the same forest, the kinds and contents of organic acids in L litters were more abundant than that in F litters.

  16. Resource recovery from waste LCD panel by hydrothermal transformation of polarizer into organic acids. (United States)

    Li, Feng; Bai, Lan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen


    Based on the significant advantages of hydrothermal technology, it was applied to treat polarizer from the waste LCD panel with the aim of transforming it into organic acids (mainly acetic acid and lactic acid). Investigation was done to evaluate the effects of different factors on yields of organic acids, including the reaction temperature, reaction time and H2O2 supply, and the degradation process of polarizer was analyzed. Liquid samples were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC, and solid-phase products were characterized by SEM and FTIR. Results showed that at the condition of temperature 300 °C and reaction time 5 min, the organic materials reached its highest conversion rate of 71.47% by adding 0.2 mL H2O2 and acetic acid was dominant in the products of organic acids with the yield of 6.78%. When not adding H2O2 to the system, the yields of lactic and acetic acid were respectively 4.24% and 3.80% at a nearly equal degree, they are suitable for esterification to form ethyl lactate instead of separating them for this case. In the hydrothermal process, polarizer was first decomposed to monosaccharides, alkane, etc., and then furfural and acids are produced with further decomposition.

  17. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols (United States)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.


    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  18. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols (United States)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.


    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  19. Preparation, spectroscopic and acidity properties of two hydrazones: an organic lab experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Caroli Rezende


    Full Text Available An undergraduate organic lab experiment is described based on the preparation of two readily accessible hydrazones. The UV-visible spectra of these N-H acids and of their conjugate bases are employed to illustrate the importance of through-conjugation in determining their acid strength and their internal charge-transfer-band transitions.

  20. Adsorptive Separation and Recovery of Organic Compounds from Purified Terephthalic Acid Plant Effluent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachane, P.K.; Heesink, A. Bert M.; Versteeg, G.F.; Pangarkar, V.G.


    Several organic impurities formed in the p-xylene oxidation process for manufacture of terephthalic acid are carried into the aqueous effluent from the crystallization section of PTA plant of crystallizers for purified terephthalic acid (PTA). These compounds impose a burden on the effluent treatmen

  1. Crystal Structure of Ethanolamine 5-Nitrosalicylic Acid Organic Adduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金轶; 车云霞; 魏荣敏; 郑吉民


    The title adduct (C18H24N4O12, Mr = 488.41) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 4.0514(19), b = 25.193(11), c = 10.751(5)(A), β = 95.070(8)o, V = 1093.0(9)(A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.484 g/cm3, F(000) = 512, μ(MoKα) = 1.26 cm-1, T = 293 K, the final R = 0.0593 and wR = 0.0862 for 956 observed reflections with I > 2(I). The compound is a 1:1 adduct of ethanolamine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid. The nitrogen atom of ethanolamine is protonated. In this crystal there exist a number of hydrogen bonds which link the ethanolamine and 5-nitrosalicylic acid molecules to form a three-dimensional infinite network structure.

  2. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw]. (United States)

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong


    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  3. Verification of Organic Feed Identity by Fatty Acid Fingerprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tres, A.; Ruth, van S.M.


    The origin and authenticity of feed for laying hens is an important and fraud-susceptible aspect in the production of organic eggs. Chemical fingerprinting in combination with chemometric methods is increasingly used in conjunction with administrative controls to verify and safeguard the authenticit

  4. Effects of organic acids on Cd adsorption and desorption by two anthropic soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingui WANG; Jialong LV; Yaolong FU


    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of malic, tartaric, oxalic, and citric acid on the adsorption and desorption characteristics of Cd by two typical anthropic soils (lou soil and irrigation-silted soil) in North-west China. Cadmium adsorption and desorption were studied under a range of temperatures (25℃, 30℃, 35℃, 40℃), organic acid concentrations (0.5-5.0 mmol·L-1), and pH values (2-8). The results showed that the Cd adsorption capacity of the lou soil was significantly greater than that of the irrigation-silted soil. Generally, Cd adsorption increased as the temperature increased. In the presence of NaNO3, the adsorption of Cd was endothermic with △H values of 31.365 kJ·mo1-1 for lou soil and 28.278 kJ·mol-1 for irrigation-silted soil. The endothermic reaction indicated that H bonds were the main driving force for Cd adsorption in both soils. However, different concentrations of organic acids showed various influences on the two soils. In the presence of citric acid, chemical adsorption and van der Waals interactions were the main driving forces for Cd adsorption rather than H bonds. Although the types of organic acids and soil properties were different, the effects of the organic acids on the adsorption and desorption of Cd were similar in the two soils. The adsorption percentage of Cd generally decreased as organic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the adsorption percentage increased as the pH of the initial solution increased. The exception was that adsorption percentage of Cd increased slightly as oxalic acid concentrations increased. In contrast, the desorption percentage of Cd increased with increasing concentrations of organic acids but decreased as the initial solution pH increased.

  5. The relationship between gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos and chick breed, development, sex, and egg amino acid concentration. (United States)

    Zeng, P L; Li, X G; Wang, X Q; Zhang, D X; Shu, G; Luo, Q B


    This study was conducted to investigate the gene expression of cationic and neutral amino acid (AA) transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos with different genetic backgrounds [Wenshi Yellow-Feathered chick (WYFC) and White Recessive Rock chick (WRRC)]. The study also investigated the correlation between the abundance of AA transporter mRNA and the AA content of fertilized eggs. Intestinal samples were collected on embryonic d 9, 12, 14, 17, and 19 and the day of hatch. The results showed that, before incubation, the AA content of WRRC eggs was lower (P CAT-1 [solute carrier (SLC) family 7 member 1], CAT-4 (SLC family 7 member 4), rBAT (SLC family 3 member 1), y(+)LAT-1 (SLC family 7 member 7), y(+)LAT-2 (SLC family 7 member 6), LAT-4 (SLC family 43 member 2), and SNAT-2 (SLC family 38 member 2), as detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, was greater (P CAT-1, CAT-4, y(+)LAT-2, and LAT-4 in WYFC and on CAT-4 and B(0)AT-1 (SLC family 6 member 19) mRNA expression in WRRC. In WYFC, only CAT-1 mRNA expression was negatively correlated (r = -0.68 to -0.84, P < 0.05) with all AA content. However, few correlations were detected between AA content and the mRNA expression of multiple transporters in WRRC. These findings provide a comprehensive profile of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression of AA transporters in the small intestine of chick embryos. Few correlations were detected between the AA content of the eggs and mRNA expression of specific AA transporters in the small intestine.

  6. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation. (United States)

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S


    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  7. Acid-Base Learning Outcomes for Students in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course (United States)

    Stoyanovich, Carlee; Gandhi, Aneri; Flynn, Alison B.


    An outcome-based approach to teaching and learning focuses on what the student demonstrably knows and can do after instruction, rather than on what the instructor teaches. This outcome-focused approach can then guide the alignment of teaching strategies, learning activities, and assessment. In organic chemistry, mastery of organic acid-base…

  8. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Turkey Deli Loaves using Organic Acids as Formulation Ingredients (United States)

    The growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in further processed meat products has become a major concern and an important food safety issue. The meat and poultry industries have incorporated interventions such as organic acids in marinades in order to inhibit the growth of LM. In this study, organic...

  9. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch


    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  10. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle. (United States)

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P


    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern.

  11. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids (United States)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.


    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  12. Mobilization of Phosphorus by Naturally Occurring Organic Acids in Oxisols and Ultisols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Citric and malic acids at concentrations of 0.1,1.0,10,and 100 mmol/L were added to three Ultisols and one Oxisol,The amount of P in solution increased with increasing organic acid concentrations,while the amount of Fe-and Al-bound P decreased.This result suggested that naturally occurring products of organicmatter decomposition could increase the P availability to plants in soils where there is a relatively large pool of Fe-and Al-bound P.The interactions between citric and malic acids at the above concentrations,and p added at rates of 10,20,40,and 80mg/kg were determined.At zero levels of organic acids,all added P became either labile or bound ,and greater proportions remained soluble as the concentration of orgaic acids increased,which suggested that organic acids reduced fixation of dissolved P in Fe-and AL-rich soils .Agricultural practices which increase organic matter input on P-deficient acid soild could decrease P deficiency,This would be important in many tropical and subtropical regions where these soils are common,and where the costs of fertilizers and lime are relatively high.

  13. Single-stage separation and esterification of cation salt carboxylates using electrodeionization (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael; Hestekin, Jamie; Snyder, Seth W.; St. Martin, Edward J.


    A method of and apparatus for continuously making an organic ester from a lower alcohol and an organic acid is disclosed. An organic acid or salt is introduced or produced in an electrode ionization (EDI) stack with a plurality of reaction chambers each formed from a porous solid ion exchange resin wafer interleaved between anion exchange membranes or an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane or an anion exchange membrane and a bipolar exchange membranes. At least some reaction chambers are esterification chambers and/or bioreactor chambers and/or chambers containing an organic acid or salt. A lower alcohol in the esterification chamber reacts with an anion to form an organic ester and water with at least some of the water splitting with the ions leaving the chamber to drive the reaction.

  14. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl


    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...... knowledge on chemical and physical degradation mechanisms is required, and that improvements in resistance to elevated temperatures and abrasion would decrease the risk of use and increase the potential application areas of organic coatings exposed to acidic environments in the chemical industry....

  15. Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Susan Lisette; Nielsen, Michael Lynge; Olsson, Lisbeth


    With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell...... factory platform for production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering of A. niger to manipulate its organic acid production in the direction of succinic acid. The gene target for complete gene deletion was cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase (acl), which...... the acl gene. Additionally, the total amount of organic acids produced in the deletion strain was significantly increased. Genome-scale stoichiometric metabolic model predictions can be used for identifying gene targets. Deletion of the acl led to increased succinic acid production by A. niger....

  16. Organosulfates and organic acids in Arctic aerosols: Speciation, annual variation and concentration levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Maria Kaldal; Kristensen, Kasper; Nguyen, Quynh;


    (-3)) and total organic acids (7-10 ngm(-3)) were observed. Elevated organosulfate and organic acid concentrations coincided with the Arctic haze period at both stations, where northern Eurasia was identified as the main source region. Air mass transport from northern Eurasia to Zeppelin Mountain......-range transport, whereas indications of local sources were found for some compounds at Zeppelin Mountain. Furthermore, organosulfates contributed significantly to organic matter throughout the year at Zeppelin Mountain (annual mean of 13 +/- 8 %) and during Arctic haze at Station Nord (7 +/- 2 %), suggesting...

  17. Cation locations and dislocations in zeolites (United States)

    Smith, Luis James

    The focus of this dissertation is the extra-framework cation sites in a particular structural family of zeolites, chabazite. Cation sites play a particularly important role in the application of these sieves for ion exchange, gas separation, catalysis, and, when the cation is a proton, acid catalysis. Structural characterization is commonly performed through the use of powder diffraction and Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. Use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, in the study of the local order of the various constituent nuclei of zeolites, complements well the long-range order information produced by diffraction. Recent developments in solid state NMR techniques allow for increased study of disorder in zeolites particularly when such phenomena test the detection limits of diffraction. These two powerful characterization techniques, powder diffraction and NMR, offer many insights into the complex interaction of cations with the zeolite framework. The acids site locations in SSZ-13, a high silica chabazite, and SAPO-34, a silicoaluminophosphate with the chabazite structure, were determined. The structure of SAPO-34 upon selective hydration was also determined. The insensitivity of X-rays to hydrogen was avoided through deuteration of the acid zeolites and neutron powder diffraction methods. Protons at inequivalent positions were found to have different acid strengths in both SSZ-13 and SAPO-34. Other light elements are incorporated into zeolites in the form of extra-framework cations, among these are lithium, sodium, and calcium. Not amenable by X-ray powder diffraction methods, the positions of such light cations in fully ion-exchanged versions of synthetic chabazite were determined through neutron powder diffraction methods. The study of more complex binary cation systems were conducted. Powder diffraction and solid state NMR methods (MAS, MQMAS) were used to examine cation site preferences and dislocations in these mixed-akali chabazites

  18. Characterization of an organic acid analog model in Adirondack, New York, surface waters (United States)

    Fakhraei, H.; Driscoll, C. T.


    Natural waters include a variety of organic matter that differs in composition and functional groups. Dissolved organic matter is important but difficult to characterize acidic and metal binding (e.g., Al) functional groups in chemical equilibrium models. In this study data from Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate an organic acid analog model in order to quantify the influence of organic acids on surface water chemistry. The study sites in the Adirondack region of New York have diverse levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), used as a surrogate for organic acids. DOC in 55 Adirondack surface waters varies from 180 μmol C/l (in Little Echo Pond) to 1263 μmol C/l (in Sunday Pond). To reduce the variability inherited in the large raw data set, suite of mean observations was constructed by grouping and averaging measured data into pH intervals of 0.05 pH units from pH 4.15 to 7.3. A chemical equilibrium model, which includes major solutes in natural waters, was linked to an optimization algorithm (genetic algorithm) to calibrate a triprotic organic analog model which includes proton and aluminum binding by adjusting the dissociation constants and site density of DOC. The object of fitting procedure was to simultaneously minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), organic monomeric aluminum and inorganic monomeric aluminum. A sensitivity analysis on calibrated values indicate that the speciation of the modeled solutes are most responsive to the dissociation constant of AlOrg= Al3+ + Org3- reaction (Org3- represents organic anion), the site density of DOC and the second H+ dissociation constant of the triprotic organic analog (i.e. H2Org- = 2H+ + Org3- reaction).

  19. Effect of root derived organic acids on the activation of nutrients in the rhizosphere soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Four types of soils, including brown coniferous forest soil, dark brown soil, black soil, and black calic soil, sampled from three different places in northeast China were used in this test. The functions of two root-derived organic acids and water were simulated and compared in the activation of mineral nutrients from the rhizosphere soil. The results showed that the organic acids could activate the nutrients and the activated degree of the nutrient elements highly depended on the amount and types of the organic acid excreted and on the physiochemical and biochemical properties of the soil tested. The activation effect of the citric acid was obviously higher than that of malic acid in extracting Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn for all the tested soil types. However, the activation efficiencies of P, K, Ca, and Mg extracting by the citric acid were not much higher, sometimes even lower, than those by malic acid. The solution concentration of all elements increased with increase of amount of the citric acid added.

  20. Design of homo-organic acid producing strains using multi-objective optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Tae Yong; Park, Jong Myoung; Kim, Hyun Uk


    acids, while maintaining sufficiently high growth rate and minimizing the secretion of undesired byproducts. Homo-productions of acetic, lactic and succinic acids were targeted as examples. Engineered E. coli strains capable of producing homo-acetic and homo-lactic acids could be developed by taking...... this systems approach for the minimal identification of gene knockout targets. Also, failure to predict effective gene knockout targets for the homo-succinic acid production suggests that the multi-objective optimization is useful in assessing the suitability of a microorganism as a host strain......Production of homo-organic acids without byproducts is an important challenge in bioprocess engineering to minimize operation cost for separation processes. In this study, we used multi-objective optimization to design Escherichia coli strains with the goals of maximally producing target organic...

  1. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers. (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J


    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  2. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids (United States)

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.


    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  3. Expanding the modular ester fermentative pathways for combinatorial biosynthesis of esters from volatile organic acids. (United States)

    Layton, Donovan S; Trinh, Cong T


    Volatile organic acids are byproducts of fermentative metabolism, for example, anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes, and are often times undesired inhibiting cell growth and reducing directed formation of the desired products. Here, we devised a general framework for upgrading these volatile organic acids to high-value esters that can be used as flavors, fragrances, solvents, and biofuels. This framework employs the acid-to-ester modules, consisting of an AAT (alcohol acyltransferase) plus ACT (acyl CoA transferase) submodule and an alcohol submodule, for co-fermentation of sugars and organic acids to acyl CoAs and alcohols to form a combinatorial library of esters. By assembling these modules with the engineered Escherichia coli modular chassis cell, we developed microbial manufacturing platforms to perform the following functions: (i) rapid in vivo screening of novel AATs for their catalytic activities; (ii) expanding combinatorial biosynthesis of unique fermentative esters; and (iii) upgrading volatile organic acids to esters using single or mixed cell cultures. To demonstrate this framework, we screened for a set of five unique and divergent AATs from multiple species, and were able to determine their novel activities as well as produce a library of 12 out of the 13 expected esters from co-fermentation of sugars and (C2-C6) volatile organic acids. We envision the developed framework to be valuable for in vivo characterization of a repertoire of not-well-characterized natural AATs, expanding the combinatorial biosynthesis of fermentative esters, and upgrading volatile organic acids to high-value esters. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1764-1776. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The drying method affects the organic acid content of alfalfa forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pezzi


    Full Text Available Malic acid (the main organic acid contained in alfalfa; Callaway et al., 1997 is an important metabolite for ruminal microbial population since it improves the uptake of lactic acid by Selenomonas ruminantium (Evans and Martin, 1997 and Megasphaera elsdenii (Rossi and Piva, 1999. Several studies have shown the effect of adding malic acid to the diet of steers and dairy cows on ruminal fermentation (Martin et al., 1999; Martin et al., 2000 and animal performances (Krummrey et al., 1979; Stallcup, 1979; Kung et al., 1982. Aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of drying method.......

  5. Comparison of complexation properties of humic acids and simple organic ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Klucakova*


    Full Text Available Simple organic compounds as citric acid, phthalic acid, salicylicacid, EDTA, hydroquinone and pyrocatechol were used as structural models of active sites of humic acids. Combination of high resolution ultrasound spectrometry with potentiometry,conductometry and UV/VIS spectrometry were utilized forcomplexation of copper (II ions by humic acids and modelcompounds. Changes in the slope of measured quantities were used to find the saturation of binding. Ultrasound spectrometry showed follow changes of hydration of interacting species. The differences observed for individual model compounds show that there are active centres not only with various strength and stability of formed complexes but also with their various rigidity and ability of conformational changes.

  6. Synthesis and characterisation of Gd2O3 nanocrystals functionalised by organic acids. (United States)

    Söderlind, Fredrik; Pedersen, Henrik; Petoral, Rodrigo M; Käll, Per-Olov; Uvdal, Kajsa


    Nanocrystals of Gd2O3 have been prepared by various methods, using, e.g., trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), diethylene glycol (DEG) or glycine. The crystalline particles were of sizes 5 to 15 nm. Different carboxylic acids, e.g., oleic acid or citric acid, were adsorbed onto the surface of the particles made with DEG. IR measurements show that the molecules coordinate to the Gd2O3 surface via the carboxylate group in a bidentate or bridging manner. The organic-acid/particle complexes were characterised by XRPD, TEM, FTIR, Raman, and XPS.

  7. A note on the prebiotic synthesis of organic acids in carbonaceous meteorites (United States)

    Kerridge, John F.


    Strong similarities between monocarboxylic and hydrocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite suggest corresponding similarities in their origins. However, various lines of evidence apparently implicate quite different precursor compounds in the synthesis of the different acids. These seeming inconsistencies can be resolved by postulating that the apparent precursors also share a related origin. Pervasive D enrichment indicates that this origin was in a presolar molecular cloud. The organic acids themselves were probably synthesized in an aqueous environment on an asteroidal parent body, the hydroxy (and amino) acids by means of the Strecker cyanohydrin reaction.

  8. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments (United States)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.


    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an

  9. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses (United States)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.


    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  10. Crystal Structure of Nicotinic Acid(3,5-dinitrobenzoic Acid Organic Adduct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 郑吉民


    The title compound nicotinic acid(3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid(NDNT)has been obtained by the reaction of nicotinic acid with 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in deionic water at room temperature.The crystal is of monoclinic,space group P21/n with a=14.053(6),b=5.046(2),c=20.105(8)A,β=103.573(8)°,C13H9N3O8,Mr=335.23,Z=4,V=1385.8(10)A3,Dc=1.607g/cm3,μ(MoKα)=0.137 mm-1,F(000)=688,R=0.0435 and wR=0.0993 for 1239 observed reflections (I>2σ(I)).In the crystals,the asymmetric unit contains one nicotinic acid (C6H5NO2)and one 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid (C7H4N2O6)molecules which are linked by some hydrogen bonds to form a twenty-membered hydrogen-bonded ring and an extended linear structure.

  11. "Stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework: Design, synthesis and selective sorption towards uranium at high acidic condition. (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Zhao, Xiaosheng; Li, Bo; Bai, Chiyao; Li, Yang; Wang, Lei; Wen, Rui; Zhang, Meicheng; Ma, Lijian; Li, Shoujian


    So far, only five primary elements (C, H, O, N and B) and two types of spatial configuration (C2-C4, C6 and Td) are reported to build the monomers for synthesis of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), which have partially limited the route selection for accessing COFs with new topological structure and novel properties. Here, we reported the design and synthesis of a new "stereoscopic" 2D super-microporous phosphazene-based covalent organic framework (MPCOF) by using hexachorocyclotriphosphazene (a P-containing monomer in a C3-like spatial configuration) and p-phenylenediamine (a linker). The as-synthesized MPCOF shows high crystallinity, relatively high heat and acid stability and distinctive super-microporous structure with narrow pore-size distributions ranging from 1.0-2.1nm. The results of batch sorption experiments with a multi-ion solution containing 12 co-existing cations show that in the pH range of 1-2.5, MPCOF exhibits excellent separation efficiency for uranium with adsorption capacity more than 71mg/g and selectivity up to record-breaking 92%, and furthermore, an unreported sorption capacity (>50mg/g) and selectivity (>60%) were obtained under strong acidic condition (1M HNO3). Studies on sorption mechanism indicate that the uranium separation by MPCOF in acidic solution is realized mainly through both intra-particle diffusion and size-sieving effect.

  12. The effect of cocoa fermentation and weak organic acids on growth and ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Mororó, Raimundo C.


    The acidic characteristics of cocoa beans have influence on flavor development in chocolate. Cocoa cotyledons are not naturally acidic, the acidity comes from organic acids produced by the fermentative microorganisms which grow during the processing of cocoa. Different concentrations...... by Aspergillus carbonarius in cocoa, and the effect of weak organic acids such as acetic, lactic and citric at different pH values on growth and ochratoxin A production by A. carbonarius and Aspergillus niger in culture media. A statistical difference (ρ...

  13. Polarizing a hydrophobic cavity for the efficient binding of organic guests: the case of calix[6]tren, a highly efficient and versatile receptor for neutral or cationic species. (United States)

    Darbost, Ulrich; Rager, Marie-Noëlle; Petit, Samuel; Jabin, Ivan; Reinaud, Olivia


    The host-guest properties of calix[6]tren 1 have been evaluated. The receptor is based on a calix[6]arene that is covalently capped at the narrow rim by a tren unit. As a result, the system presents a concave hydrophobic cavity with, at its bottom, a grid-like nitrogenous core. Despite its well-defined cavity and opening to the outside at the large rim, 1 did not behave as a good receptor for neutral molecules in chloroform. However, it exhibited efficient endo-complexation of ammonium guests. By contrast, the per-protonated host, 1.4H(+), behaved as a remarkable receptor for small organic molecules. The complexation is driven by a strong charge-dipole interaction and hydrogen bonds between the polar guest and the tetracationic cap of the calixarene. Finally, coordination of Zn(2+) to the tren core led to the asymmetrization of calixarene cavity and to the strong but selective endo-binding of neutral ligands. This study emphasizes the efficiency of a receptor presenting a concave hydrophobic cavity that is polarized at its bottom. The resulting combination of charge-dipole, hydrogen bonding, CH-pi, and van der Waals interactions highly stabilizes the supramolecular architectures. Also, importantly, the tren cap allows the tuning of the polarization, offering either a basic (1), a highly charged and acidic (1.4H(+)), or a coordination (1.Zn(2+)) site. As a result, the system proved to be highly versatile, tunable, and interconvertible in solution by simple addition of protons, bases, or metal ions.

  14. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch


    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  15. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium. (United States)

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana


    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium th