Sample records for cationic polybutyl cyanoacrylate

  1. Cationic Polybutyl Cyanoacrylate Nanoparticles for DNA Delivery

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    Jinghua Duan


    Full Text Available To enhance the intracellular delivery potential of plasmid DNA using nonviral vectors, we used polybutyl cyanoacrylate (PBCA and chitosan to prepare PBCA nanoparticles (NPs by emulsion polymerization and prepared NP/DNA complexes through the complex coacervation of nanoparticles with the DNA. The object of our work is to evaluate the characterization and transfection efficiency of PBCA-NPs. The NPs have a zeta potential of 25.53 mV at pH 7.4 and size about 200 nm. Electrophoretic analysis suggested that the NPs with positive charges could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation and cell viability assay showed that the NPs exhibit a low cytotoxicity to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of transfection in HepG2 cells by the nanoparticles carrying plasmid DNA encoding for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-N1 was done by digital fluorescence imaging microscopy system and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. Qualitative results showed highly efficient expression of GFP that remained stable for up to 96 hours. Quantitative results from FACS showed that PBCA-NPs were significantly more effective in transfecting HepG2 cells after 72 hours postincubation. The results of this study suggested that PBCA-NPs have favorable properties for nonviral delivery.

  2. Irradiation Initiated Grafting of Poly(butyl acrylate) onto Nano-sized Calcium Carbonate Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Guo MA; Min Zhi RONG; Ming Qiu ZHANG


    The present work reports the irradiation induced grafting polymerization onto nano-sized CaCO3 particles, mainly focusing on the effects of pretreatment with silane coupling agent. It is proved that poly(butyl acrylate) can be grafted onto the nanoparticles using the technical route suggested by the authors, and the silane treatment of the nanoparticles promotes the grafting polymerization.

  3. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J


    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were l

  4. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility?

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    Parimala Sagar


    Full Text Available Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated.

  5. Endoscopic treatment of duodenal varices with cyanoacrylate

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    Ana Mora-Soler


    Full Text Available Background: the duodenum is the most common location for ectopic varices. Bleeding is rare, but when it appears, it is massive and difficult to control. Material and methods: retrospective description of five clinical cases of digestive bleeding secondary to duodenal varices that we observed between the years 2011 and 2012, together with their clinical characteristics, endoscopic diagnosis, endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate injection and the posterior follow-up and assessment of new bleeding. Results: all five patients were treated with an endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection and two of the patients experienced a digestive rebleeding. Three of the patients died during the follow-up period, only one due to cause digestive bleeding. Conclusion: in conclusion we can state that endoscopic treatment of duodenal varices with cyanoacrylate is technically possible, and it permits us to control the first bleeding before doing other definitive treatments, if the patient condition allows it.

  6. Effect of cyanoacrylate treatment of cavity walls. (United States)

    Fukushi, Y; Fusayama, T


    Cyanoacrylate treatment of the cavity wall for composite resin restoration failed to keep adhesion when set, but the marginal closure improved markedly both in vivo and vitro, even when thermal-cycled. It irritated the pulp slightly only at the beginning. Ethylcyanoacrylate was superior to methylcyanoacrylate in regard to adhesion, leakage and pulp response.

  7. Folate-decorated chitosan/doxorubicin poly(butyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles for tumor-targeted drug delivery

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    Duan Jinghua [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center (China); Liu Mujun [Central South University, School of Biological Science and Technology (China); Zhang Yangde; Zhao Jinfeng; Pan Yifeng [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hepatobiliary and Enteric Surgery Research Center (China); Yang Xiyun, E-mail: [Central South University, School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering (China)


    A novel chitosan coated poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles loaded doxorubicin (DOX) were synthesized and then conjugated with folic acid to produce a folate-targeted drug carrier for tumor-specific drug delivery. Prepared nanoparticles were surface modified by folate for targeting cancer cells, which is confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and characterized for shape, size, and zeta potential measurements. The size and zeta potential of prepared DOX-PBCA nanoparticles (DOX-PBCA NPs) were almost 174 {+-} 8.23 nm and +23.14 {+-} 4.25 mV, respectively with 46.8 {+-} 3.32% encapsulation capacity. The transmission electron microscopy study revealed that preparation allowed the formation of spherical nanometric and homogeneous. Fluorescent microscopy imaging and flow cytometry analysis revealed that DOX-PBCA NPs were endocytosed into MCF-7 cells through the interaction with overexpressed folate receptors on the surface of the cancer cells. The results demonstrate that folate-conjugated DOX-PBCA NPs drug delivery system could provide increased therapeutic benefit by delivering the encapsulated drug to the folate receptor positive cancer cells.

  8. Evaluation of one-step luminescent cyanoacrylate fuming. (United States)

    Khuu, Alicia; Chadwick, Scott; Spindler, Xanthe; Lam, Rolanda; Moret, Sébastien; Roux, Claude


    One-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have recently been introduced as an alternative to the conventional cyanoacrylate fuming methods. These new techniques do not require the application of a luminescent post-treatment in order to enhance cyanoacrylate-developed fingermarks. In this study, three one-step polymer cyanoacrylates: CN Yellow Crystals (Aneval Inc.), PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) and PECA Multiband (BVDA), and one monomer cyanoacrylate: Lumikit™ (Crime Scene Technology), were evaluated against a conventional two-step cyanoacrylate fuming method (Cyanobloom (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) with rhodamine 6G stain). The manufacturers' recommended conditions or conditions compatible with the MVC™ 1000/D (Foster+Freeman Ltd.) were assessed with fingermarks aged for up to 8 weeks on non-porous and semi-porous substrates. Under white light, Cyanobloom generally gave better development than the one-step treatments across the substrates. Similarly when viewed under the respective luminescent conditions, Cyanobloom with rhodamine 6G stain resulted in improved contrast against the one-step treatments except on polystyrene, where PolyCyano UV and PECA Multiband gave better visualisation. Rhodamine 6G post-treatment of one-step samples did not significantly enhance the contrast of any of the one-step treatments against Cyanobloom/rhodamine 6G-treated samples.

  9. Reactions Involved in Fingerprint Development Using the Cyanoacrylate - Fuming Method

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    Lewis, L.A.


    The Learning Objective is to present the basic chemistry research findings to the forensic community regarding development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method. Chemical processes involved in the development of latent fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming method have been studied, and will be presented. Two major types of latent prints have been investigated--clean (eccrine) and oily (sebaceous) prints. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used as a tool for determining the morphology of the polymer developed separately on clean and oily prints after cyanoacrylate fuming. A correlation between the chemical composition of an aged latent fingerprint, prior to development, and the quality of a developed fingerprint was observed in the morphology. The moisture in the print prior to fuming was found to be a critical factor for the development of a useful latent print. In addition, the amount of time required to develop a high quality latent print was found to be minimal. The cyanoacrylate polymerization process is extremely rapid. When heat is used to accelerate the fuming process, typically a period of 2 minutes is required to develop the print. The optimum development time is dependent upon the concentration of cyanoacrylate vapors within the enclosure.

  10. Cyanoacrylic tissue glues: Biochemical properties and their usage in urology (United States)

    Ayyıldız, Sema Nur; Ayyıldız, Ali


    Tissue adhesives are being used in medical and cosmetic industries and first aid for a long time. But their everyday usage has not been widespread. Only case report information is available about their usage. Despite good and meaningful results after they were used, there is lack of standard information that gives idea of about in which cases they could be helpful. Nowadays, cyanoacrylates are used in the surgery more frequently. In this review, we wanted to oversee the biochemical properties and the urological utilisation areas of cyanoacrylates. PMID:28270946


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    Elly Munadziroh


    Full Text Available The use of acrylic resin restoration basen on methyl methacrylate material in the dentistry, has already been replaced by composite because of certain poor characteristics. Recently, the restoration materials of methyl methacrylate have been re-developed, and made commercially available with cyanoacrylates added. The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of cyanoacrylate veneer materials by 3-(3,4-dimethylthyazol-2yl-2,5-diphenyl retrazolium biomide (MTT assay methods. Cyanoacrylate veneer specimens were immersed in eppendorf microtubes with cell culture media for 1, 12, 24 or 48 hour. Culture media were immersed and used to investigate the cytotoxic effect to BHK 21 cell lines by MTT assay method. The density of optic formazan was live indicate a cell. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and HSD Tukey. The results show that the cytotoxic effects between the five immersion were similar but higher than control cell. In conclusion Immersion in cyanoacrylate veneer has a cytotoxic effect to BHK 21 cell lines. The lowest percentage of cells a live after immersion was 86,95%.

  12. Bleeding gastric varices: Results of endoscopic injection with cyanoacrylate at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital

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    Phadet Noophun; Pradermchai Kongkam; Sutep Gonlachanvit; Rungsun Rerknimitr


    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gastric varices injection with cyanoacrylate in patients with gastric variceal bleeding.METHODS: Twenty-four patients (15 males, 9 females) with gastric variceal bleeding underwent endoscopic treatment with cyanoacrylate injection. Successful hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and complications were retrospectively reviewed. Followed up endoscopy was performed and repeat cyanoacrylate injection was given until gastric varices were obliterated. RESULTS: Seventeen patients achieved definite hemostasis. Of these, 14 patients had primary success after initial endoscopic therapy. Ten patients developed recurrent bleeding. Repeated cyanoacrylate injection stopped rebleeding in three patients. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed to control rebleeding in one patient which occured after repeat endoscopic therapy. Six patients died (three from uncontrolled bleeding, two from sepsis, and one from mesenteric vein thrombosis). Minor complications occurred in 11 patients (six epigastric discomfort and five post injection ulcers). Cyanoacrylate embolism developed in two patients. One of these patients died from mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other had pulmonary embolism which resolved spontaneously. Advanced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were major risk factors for uncontrolled bleeding.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic treatment for bleeding gastric varices with cyanoacrylate injection is effective for immediate hemostasis. Repeat cyanoacrylate injection has a lower success rate than the initial injection.Cyanoacrylate embolism is not a common serious complication.

  13. Study on Modification of Octyl-α-Cyanoacrylate Medical Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective:In order that the adhesive character could be improved to modify the octyl-α-cyanoacrylate(OCA) medical adhesive.Methods:Suitable modifiers involving polycaprolactone(PCL),dibutyl phthalate (DBP),dioctyl phthalate(DOP) and poly octyl methacrylat(POMA) have been chosen to modify the OCA adhesive,then tensile shear strength and adhesive strength are tested to evaluate the bond character of adhesives.Results:The PCL group's tensile shear strength and adhesive strength in normal temperature are descen...

  14. Diagnosis of gynecological pseudoaneurysms and embolization with cyanoacrylate. (United States)

    Fernández Bermúdez, M J; Fernández Martínez, A M; Domitrovic, L A; Balboa Arregui, Ó


    Pseudoaneurysms of the uterine artery are an uncommon cause of severe gynecological bleeding secondary to surgical manipulation of the pelvis or to instrumental delivery. The different imaging techniques are of vital importance in the diagnosis. Angiography is the technique used for confirmation and also for treatment in many cases. Endovascular treatment by embolizing the pseudoaneurysm has become established as the treatment of choice, making it possible to avoid hysterectomy in women of childbearing age. This article presents two cases of gynecological bleeding due to pseudoaneurysms (one secondary to surgery and one secondary to childbirth) that were embolized in a novel way using cyanoacrylate.

  15. Preparation and Performance of Poly(butyl fumarate-Based Material for Potential Application in LED Encapsulation

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    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available A UV-curable poly(butyl fumarate (PBF/poly(propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF-DA hybrid material with good performance for LED encapsulation is introduced in the paper. They have been prepared by radical polymerization using PBF and PPF-DA macromers with a UV curing system. PBF and PPF-DA were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The thermal behavior, optical and mechanical properties of the material were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis, and a material testing system mechanical testing machine, respectively. The results indicated that the hybrid material has a suitable refractive index (n = 1.537 and high transmittance (99.64% in visible range before/after thermal aging. With the increasing of the double bond ratio from 0.5 to 2, the water absorption ratios of the prepared encapsulation material were 1.22%, 1.87% and 2.88%, respectively. The mechanical property experiments showed that bonding strength was in the range of 1.86–3.40 MPa, tensile-shear strength ranged from 0.84 MPa to 1.57 MPa, and compression strength was in the range of 5.10–27.65 MPa. The cured PBF/PPF-DA hybrid material can be used as a light-emitting diode (LED encapsulant, owing to its suitable refractive index, high transparency, excellent thermal stability, lower water absorption, and good mechanical properties.

  16. The detection of drugs of abuse in fingerprints using Raman spectroscopy II: cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints (United States)

    Day, Joanna S.; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Dobrowski, Steven A.; Voice, Alison M.


    This paper describes the application of Raman spectroscopy to the detection of exogenous substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints. The scenario considered was that of an individual handling a substance and subsequently depositing a contaminated fingerprint. These fingerprints were enhanced by cyanoacrylate fuming, a process in which a layer of white cyanoacrylate polymer is deposited on the fingerprint material, enabling visual detection. Five drugs of abuse (codeine phosphate, cocaine hydrochloride, amphetamine sulphate, barbital and nitrazepam) and five non-controlled substances of similar appearance, which may be used in the adulteration of drugs of abuse (caffeine, aspirin, paracetamol, starch and talc), were used. The substances studied could be clearly distinguished using their Raman spectra and were all successfully detected in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints. Photobleaching was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background in the spectra of some substances. Raman spectra obtained from the substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints were of a similar quality to spectra obtained from the substances under normal sampling conditions, however, interfering Raman bands arising from the cyanoacrylate polymer were present in the spectra. In most cases the only interfering band was the CN stretching mode of the polymer, and there were no cases where the interfering bands prevented identification of the substances. If necessary, the interfering bands could be successfully removed by spectral subtraction. The most difficult aspect of the detection of these substances in cyanoacrylate-fumed fingerprints was visually locating the substance in the fingerprint beneath the polymer layer in order to obtain a Raman spectrum.

  17. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate, iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate andhypertonic glucose with 72% chromated glycerin in gastricvarices

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    Reda Elwakil; Mohamed Fawzy Montasser; Sara M Abdelhakam; Wesam A Ibrahim


    cyanoacrylate and a mixture of 72% chromated glycerinwith hypertonic glucose solution in management ofgastric varices.METHODS: Ninety patients with gastric varicespresented to Endoscopy Unit of Ain Shams UniversityHospital were included. They were randomly allocatedinto three groups; each group included 30 patients treatedwith intravariceal sclerosant injections in biweeklysessions till complete obturation of gastric varices;Group I (n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Histoacryl?), GroupII (iso-amyl-2-cyanoacrylate; Amcrylate?) and GroupIII (mixture of 72% chromated glycerin; Scleremo?with glucose solution 25%). All the procedures wereperformed electively without active bleeding. Recruitedpatients were followed up for 3 mo.RESULTS: 26% of Scleremo group had bleeding duringpuncture vs 3.3% in each of the other two groups withsignificant difference, (P 〈 0.05). None of Scleremogroup had needle obstruction vs 13.3% in each of theother two groups with no significant difference, (P 〉0.05). Rebleeding occurred in 13.3% of Histoacryl andAmcrylate groups vs 0% in Scleremo group with nosignificant difference. The in hospital mortality was 6.6%in both Histoacryl and Amcrylate groups, while it was0% in Scleremo group with no significant difference. Inthe first and second sessions, the amount of Scleremoneeded for obturation was significantly high, while the amount of Histoacryl was significantly low. Scleremo was the less costly of the two treatments. CONCLUSION: All used sclerosant substances showed efficacy and success in management of gastric varices with no significant differences except in total amount,cost and bleeding during puncture.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of PEG-coated poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-hua; SUN Duo-xian


    Injectable nanoparticle carrier, poly (ethylene glycol)-coated poly (ethyl cyanoacrylate) has been prepared by a simple method. At First, synthesizing PEG macromonomer of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether with acryloyl chlo ride, then graft copolymer of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) and poly(ethylene glycol)was yield by free radical polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate with PEG macromonomer in toluene solvent. Characterization of the copolymer has been per formed by FTIR, 1H-NMR and GPC analysis. Nanoparticles were easily prepared from the obtained amphiphilic copolymer.

  19. Cyanoacrylate Associated Foreign Body Granulomatous Gastritis: A Report of Three Cases (United States)

    Guner, Gunes; Kurtulan, Olcay; Sokmensuer, Cenk; Gedikoglu, Gokhan


    Granulomas are rarely seen in gastric biopsies mostly as an involvement of granulomatous diseases like sarcoidosis, Crohn's disease, infections, neoplasms, and vasculitis. Here, we claim cyanoacrylate as a foreign body type granuloma-causing agent in the stomach after vascular embolisation. We present cyanoacrylate associated gastric changes of three cases: two endoscopic biopsies and one gastric resection. In two cases, cyanoacrylate associated ulcers and granulomatous inflammation were observed in gastric mucosal biopsies following endoscopic examination after 7 months and 6 years of the glue injections, respectively. In the third case, the cyanoacrylate injection was performed 2 months prior to the surgery. Then the patient underwent distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma and during the operation a gastric mass was resected with a suspicion of tumoral infiltration. These three cases demonstrated that glue exposure causes active chronic inflammation with foreign body type granulomas, mucosal ulceration, and bleeding in the gastric mucosa. Even further, it can induce mass formation in the injection sites. PMID:28203472

  20. Validation of Cyanoacrylate Method for Collection of Stratum Corneum in Human Skin for Lipid Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, JM; Hellgren, Lars; Drachmann, Tue


    Background and Objective: Lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) are of major importance for the skin barrier function. Many different methods have been used for the collection of SC for the analysis of SC lipids. The objective of the present study was to validate the cyanoacrylate method...... for the collection of SC in relation to lipid analysis. Methods: The results of the lipid analysis (ceramide/cholesterol and ceramide profile) of SC samples obtained by the cyanoacrylate method were compared to the results of the lipid analysis of mechanically removed SC samples. The intra- and interindividual...... variations in lipid composition were assessed when using the cyanoacrylate method, and lipid compositions in cyanoacrylate samples and samples taken from different depths of SC were compared. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between mean values of lipids from the mechanically...

  1. Endoscopic Injection of a Ruptured Duodenal Varix with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

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    Paulo Salgueiro


    Conclusions: The presented case supports endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a treatment option for ruptured duodenal varices that, despite being a rare event, when it occurs, is often fatal.

  2. Cyanoacrylate ("superglue") injury to the nasal cavity: case report and a proposed management algorithm. (United States)

    Sira, James; Uppal, Sandeep; Dezso, Atilla


    We report the case of a deliberate application of cyanoacrylate adhesive (commonly called "superglue") to the nose of a 9-year-old boy during a fight. The glue was successfully removed under general anesthesia without causing trauma to the nasal mucosa. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 other case of cyanoacrylate injury to the nasal cavity has been published in the literature. We also provide an algorithm to guide clinicians in the future management of this unusual circumstance.

  3. In vivo qualitative analysis of the biocompatibility of different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives

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    Rafael Tobias Moretti Neto


    Full Text Available Cyanocrylates have been widely used in the medical and dental fields for several years. In Dentistry, cyanoacrylates have been used for suturing, pulp capping, as retrofilling material in endodontic surgeries, and as cervical plug for pulpless teeth bleaching. The biocompatibility of these adhesives has been the topic of many researches and subcutaneous implantation is an effective methodology for these studies. The present study evaluated the biocompatibility of three different cyanoacrylate-based adhesives. Thirty-six Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups of 9 animals each: A (control - distilled water, B - cyanoacrylate ester (Super Bonder, C - n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl and D - alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond. The materials were dispensed in sponges of polyvinyl chloride, the animals were incised and the sponges were inserted in the subcutaneous tissue and sutured. Each group was sub-divided according to the time of sacrifice of the animals: 7, 21 and 45 days. Subjective analysis of the histologic material showed that all groups presented some degree of irritability, but the inflammatory reaction decreased with the experimental time in all groups. Group D showed an inflammatory reaction which was closer to that of the control group and was considered to have good biocompatibility. Groups B and C were similar and presented more aggressive inflammatory reactions when compared to the control group. Based on the results, it was concluded that alpha-cyanoacrylate (Three Bond was the most biocompatible adhesive because it caused the lowest levels of inflammation.

  4. Biomimetic Adhesive Materials Containing Cyanoacryl Group for Medical Application

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    Sueng Hwan Jo


    Full Text Available For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  5. Biomimetic adhesive materials containing cyanoacryl group for medical application. (United States)

    Jo, Sueng Hwan; Sohn, Jeong Sun


    For underwater adhesives with biocompatible and more flexible bonds using biomimetic adhesive groups, DOPA-like adhesive molecules were modified with cyanoacrylates to obtain different repeating units and chain length copolymers. The goal of this work is to copy the mechanisms of underwater bonding to create synthetic water-borne underwater medical adhesives through blending of the modified DOPA and a triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO) for practical application to repair wet living tissues and bones, and in turn, to use the synthetic adhesives to test mechanistic hypotheses about the natural adhesive. The highest values in stress and modulus of the biomimetic adhesives prepared in wet state were 165 kPa and 33 MPa, respectively.

  6. Cyanoacrylate medical adhesives--a new era Colgate ORABASE Soothe.N.Seal Liquid Protectant for canker sore relief. (United States)

    Narang, U


    Cyanoacrylate, a synthetic adhesive, is a fast polymerizable liquid monomer. Serendipity led to the discovery of cyanoacrylate adhesives in 1951. Today, a specific cyanoacrylate monomer, 2-octyl cyanoacrylate, is being used in a topical medical adhesive formulation. The only over-the-counter cyanoacrylate-based product cleared by the Food and Drug Administration is Colgate ORABASE Soothe.N. Seal Liquid Protectant. Upon application, this liquid monomer formulation polymerizes instantly into a thin, flexible polymer film that adheres tenaciously to mucosal tissue. This polymer film creates a mechanical barrier that provides immediate and long-term pain relief of oral ulcerations and irritations, and maintains a natural healing environment for the area to heal.

  7. Infiltrated Embolization of Meningioma with Dilute Cyanoacrylate Glue (United States)

    OHNISHI, Hiroyuki; MIYACHI, Shigeru; MURAO, Kenichi; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; TAKAHASHI, Kenkichi; OHNISHI, Hideyuki; KUROIWA, Toshihiko


    We describe the efficacy and technical aspects of infiltrated preoperative embolization of meningioma by penetration of very dilute glue. In this method, a 13% n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture is injected extremely slowly from the middle meningeal artery (MMA) in a similar manner to plug and push injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed with tantalum and dimethyl sulfoxide (Onyx®) after the tortuous side feeders are proximally embolized. The glue is infiltrated into small tumor arteries and extends to inaccessible feeders from deep meningeal arteries. Since 2011, we have used this technique in the embolization of 32 cases preoperatively diagnosed with meningioma. Intratumoral embolization was possible in 30 cases (94%), and a greater than 50% reduction in contrast area of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging (T1-WI) was achieved in 18 cases (56%). Two cases achieved complete devascularization, showing a remarkable shrinkage in tumor size after embolization. If excessive reflux of embolization and the resulting migration of glue into normal arteries is achieved, this method provides extremely effective devascularization on surgical extirpation. It might also be applicable to surgically untreatable meningiomas as a semi-radical treatment option. PMID:27646010

  8. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

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    Choi, Young Ho; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Cha, Joo Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding.

  9. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects

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    Carmen L Mueller Storrer


    Full Text Available The guided bone regeneration (GBR is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2 associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is an option in the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defects and cyanoacrylate surgical glue, acting as a mechanic barrier and providing an efficient stability for the graft.

  10. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

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    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  11. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

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    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  12. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail:; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail:; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)


    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  13. Temporary occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum and canaliculi of dogs with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate

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    Cristiane dos Santos Honsho


    Full Text Available The occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum limits tear drainage and thus keeps it over the ocular surface, prolongs lubrication and minimizes the need of ocular lubricants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate and 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives in the occlusion of the inferior lacrimal punctum and canaliculi of dogs and their clinical repercussions over 180 days. Eleven dogs, were divided into two groups: occlusion with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (GB, n=6 and with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate (GO, n=5. Tear production, blepharospasm, ocular discharge, epiphora and conjunctival hyperemia were analyzed before the procedure and on days (T 3,7,15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 after the procedure. Tear production of GB was significantly higher at T90 (P=0.0282 than its control. Variations between days showed that T7 (P=0.0069 and T180 (P=0.0207 varied significantly from T0. In the GO group, when treatment was compared to control, T15 (P<0.001 was significantly different from the rest. Variations between days showed that T15 was significantly different than T0 (P=0.0044, T3 (P=0.0234, T60 (P=0.0207 and T90 (P=0.0482. No significant difference was observed between the treatment groups at any given time. It was concluded that both adhesives were effective in occluding lacrimal drainage for long periods and could thus be considered as therapeutic options in treating animals with lacrimal deficiency

  14. Antibacterial properties of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive: Does the polymerization reaction play a role?

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    Romero Ivana


    Full Text Available Purpose: To ascertain if the polymerization reaction also contributes additionally to the antibacterial effects of two commonly used cyanoacrylate tissue adhesives. Materials and Methods: Fresh liquid ethyl-cyanoacrylate (EC and N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (BC adhesives were applied onto 6-mm sterile filter paper discs. In the first group, the adhesive-soaked discs were immediately placed onto confluent monolayer cultures of bacteria, allowing the polymerization reaction to proceed while in culture. In the second group, the adhesive-soaked disc was allowed to first polymerize prior to being placed onto the bacterial cultures. Four types of bacteria were studied: Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Immediately after the discs were applied, the cultures were incubated at 35° C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibitory halos were measured in the cultures at the end of the incubation period. Results: For EC, exposure of the bacteria to the cyanoacrylate polymerization reaction increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Streptococcus pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. For BC, it increased the bacterial inhibitory halos in Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae . No inhibitory halos were observed in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bactericidal effect was higher in actively polymerizing EC, compared to previously polymerized EC in Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli ; however, no such differences were observed for BC. Conclusions: The polymerization reaction may also be an important factor in the antibacterial properties of EC and BC.

  15. A Case of Successful Ablation of a Gastrophrenic Fistula with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate

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    Ashish Mahajan


    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a fistula between a subphrenic abscess and the fundus of the stomach was successfully treated with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Conservative management had failed. Clinical presentation, treatment progress and imaging findings by computed tomography scan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and fluoroscopy are presented, along with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  16. Production of BSA-poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles as a coating material that improves wetting property (United States)

    Alkyl cyanoacrylates have long been used for the synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles. In the involved polymerization reaction, OH- ions derived from dissociation of water have been used as an initiator. In the current research, an animal protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules were utilized a...

  17. Evaluation of a cyanoacrylate protectant to manage skin tears in the acute care population. (United States)

    Mamrosh, Martha A; Valk, Debbie L; Milne, Catherine T


    Skin tears are a common problem that can impact the quality of life due to pain and the potential of becoming complicated wounds if not treated properly. The use of a cyanoacrylate skin protectant to manage skin tears was evaluated in 30 patients in an acute care setting.

  18. Preoperative embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas: The role of direct percutaneous injection of cyanoacrylate glue in conjunction with particulate endovascular approach

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    Mohamed Abdel Hakim Osman Kasem


    Conclusion: The embolization of nasopharyngeal angiofibromas before surgery using percutaneous cyanoacrylate glue with endovascular particulate material proved to efficiently devascularize these tumours with lower blood loss during surgery and no major procedural complications.

  19. Is there an alternative therapy to cyanoacrylate injection for safe and effective obliteration of bleeding gastric varices?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroo Imazu; Kuniyuki Kojima; Masahiko Katsumura; Salem Omar


    @@ TO THE EDITOR We read with interest the article entitled "Bleeding gastric varices: Results of endoscopic injection with cyanoacrylate at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital" by Noophun et al[1]. They performed n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CA) injection therapy for bleeding gastric varices in twentyfour patients, and hemostasis was achieved in seventeen (71%) patients. They concluded that CA injection therapy was effective and safe for bleeding gastric varices. However, we disagreed with the author's conclusion.

  20. Pulmonary embolism after endoscopic injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric varices

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    Gabriela Robaina


    Full Text Available Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis

  1. Accelerated Curing Speed of Ethyl a-Cyanoacrylate by Polymer with Catecholamine Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张峰; 刘四委; 张艺; 许家瑞; 危岩


    Four kinds of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) derivatives with the similar backbone and different side groups have been synthesized successfully. When both catecholamine and double bond are tethered to polymer backbone, i.e., the PEG backbone, simultaneously, the polymer can accelerate the curing speed of ethyl a-cyanoacrylate (commer- cially available as 502) greatly under the same conditions (the curing time of such system is no more than 5 s). Probably this is due to the autoxidation of catecholamines. Through the redox-cycling, catecholamines can produce, collect free radicals, and thus initiate the free radical polymerization. Due to the fast-curing of such material when mixed with a-cyanoacrylate, we could design and develop a new bicomponent super bioglue used in the dentistry or other bioenvironment requiring super fast settlement for further surgical operations.

  2. Octyl-a-cyanoacrylate adhesive in the treatment of tibial transverse fracture in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Bo; TU Zhong-qi; PEI Fu-xing; LIU Lei


    Objective: To observe the effect of octyl-a-cyanoacrylate upon bone healing and its degradation in vitro after middle tibial transverse fracture in rabbits, and to establish treatment of higher efficacy with the application of octyl-a-cyanoacrylate.Methods: Middle tibial transverse fracture model of New Zealand rabbits was established. In the experimental group, internal fixation with 2 mm Kirschner wires was performed and the broken ends were fixed with octyl-a-cyanoacrylate. In the control group, only internal fixation with 2 mm Kirschner wires was conducted. Animals were killed at preset time intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks postoperatively and samples were harvested.Results: Two weeks after operation, clear fracture lines were observed in both the experimental and the control groups. Fibrous soft tissue connection was noted between the broken ends and there was soft tissue adhesion around the fracture site. There was no callus formation and the broken ends were surrounded by adhesive soft tissues. Obvious external callus formation was confirmed at 8 weeks after operation in both groups with partial disappearance of fracture lines. Ten and twelve weeks after the operation, fracture lines disappeared completely and there was obvious external callus formation and bone union. In the fourth week, fibrous cells and chondrocytes were found to grow into the colloid and surround it at the 6th week. The adhesive material was degraded and gradually absorbed at the 8th week. Chondrification was observed.Conclusions: Two weeks after fixation for tibial fracture in rabbits, octyl-a-cyanoacrylate begins in vivo degradation. Chondrocytes and fibrocytes gradually grow into the degradation area and surround the adhesive material, which broke into pieces at 8 weeks. Complete degradation and disappearance of the adhesive material is present between 10 and12 weeks. No barrier effect hampering fracture healing is noted.

  3. Use of cyanoacrylate as barrier in guided tissue regeneration in class II furcation defects


    Carmen L Mueller Storrer; Gabriela dos Santos Kummer; Shaban Mirco; Joao Cesar Zielak


    The guided bone regeneration (GBR) is a technique that uses resorbable and non-resorbable membranes in association with other filling biomaterials. GBR is one of the optional treatments for therapy of class II furcation defects. The current case report evaluates clinically and radiographically the use of the cyanoacrylate membrane (Glubran ®2) associated with organic bovine bone (GenOx) for the treatment of vestibular class II furcation defect on the lower left molar. Conclusion: The GBR is a...

  4. Cyanoacrylate spray as treatment in difficult-to-manage gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liz; Toapanta-Yanchapaxi; Norberto; Chavez-Tapia; Félix; Téllez-ávila


    Gastrointestinal bleeding can be a life-treating event that is managed with standard endoscopic therapy in the majority of cases. However, up to 5%-10% of patients may have persistent bleeding that does not respond to conventional measures. Several endoscopic treatment techniques have been proposed as strategies to control such cases, such as epinephrine injection, hemoclips or argon plasma coagulation, but there are certain clinical scenarios where it is difficult to achieve hemostasis even though adequate use of the available resources is made. Reasons for these failures can be associated with the lesion features, such as extent or location. The use of long-standing techniques in nontraditional scenarios, such as with cyanoacrylate for gastric varices sclerosis, has been reported with favorable results. Although new products such as TC-325 or Ankaferd Blood Stopper hemosprays may be useful, their formulations are not available worldwide. Here we present two clinical cases with very different scenarios of gastrointestinal bleeding, where the use of cyanoac-rylate in spray had favorable results in uncommon indications. Cyanoacrylate used as a spray is a technique that can be used as an alternative method in emergent settings.

  5. Body distribution and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by macrophages of long-circulating poly (ethylene glycol) cyanoacrylate-co-nhexadecyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min HUANG; Wei WU; Jun QIAN; Dan-jing WAN; Xiu-li WEI; Jian-hua ZHU


    Aim: To investigate the body distribution in mice of [14C]-labeled poly methoxyethyleneglycol cyanoacrylate-co-n-hexadecyl cyanoacrylate (PEGPHDCA) nanoparticles and in situ evading of phagocytic uptake by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Methods: PEG-PHDCA copolymers were synthesized by condensation of methoxypolyethylene glycol cyanoacetate with [14C]-hexadecylcyanoacetate. [14C]-nanoparticles were prepared using the nanoprecipitation/solvent diffusion method, while fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by incorporating rhodamine B. In situ phagocytic uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry. Body distribution in mice was evaluated by determining radioactivity in tissues using a scintillation method. Results: Phagocytic uptake by macrophages can be efficiently evaded by fluorescent PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles. After 48 h, 31% of the radioactivity of the stealth [14C]-PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles after iv injection was still found in blood, whereas non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticles were cleaned up from the bloodstream in a short time. The distribution of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles and non-stealth PHDCA nanoparticals in mice was poor in lung, kidney, and brain, and a little higher in hearts. Lymphatic accumulation was unusually high for both stealth and non-stealth nanoparticles, typical of lymphatic capture. The accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the spleen was 1.7 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P<0.01). But the accumulation of stealth PEG-PHDCA nanoparticles in the liver was 0.8 times as much as that of non-stealth PHDCA (P<0.05). Conclusion: PEGylation leads to long-circulation of nanoparticles in the bloodstream, and splenotropic accumulation opens up the potential for further development of spleen-targeted drug delivery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young


    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  7. Successful endoscopic sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Shi; Wei Wu; Hui Zhu; Yun-Lin Wu


    Two patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension related to hepatitis infection were admitted to Shanghai Ruijin Hospital due to recurrent melena and hematemesis. Isolated gastric varices were observed in the gastric fundus during the retroflexion of gastroscope. We carried out endoscopic sclerotherapy successfully for bleeding gastric varices with combined cyanoacrylate and aethoxysklerol, which disappeared dramatically several months after two courses of sclerotherapy for each patient. No complication and clinical signs of gastrointestinal re-bleeding were observed during the 6-mo endoscopic follow-up. CT portal angiography (CTPA) has been widely used in the assessment of variceal treatment and improves the results of endoscopic injection therapy.

  8. Enhancing dry adhesives and replica molding with ethyl cyano-acrylate (United States)

    Bovero, E.; Menon, C.


    The use of cyano-acrylate to improve the performance of dry adhesives and their method of fabrication is investigated. Specifically, the contributions of this work are: (1) a new adhesion method to adhere to a large variety of surfaces, (2) a strategy to increase the compliance of dry adhesives, and (3) an improved fabrication process for micro-structured dry adhesives based on replica molding. For the first contribution, the adhesion method consists of anchoring a micro-structured dry adhesive to a surface through a layer of hardened ethyl cyano-acrylate (ECA). This method increases the adhesion of the orders of magnitude at the expense of leaving residue after detachment. However, this method preserves reusability. For the second contribution, a double-sided dry adhesive is obtained by introducing a substrate with a millimeter-sized pillar structure, which enabled further increasing adhesion. For the third contribution, an ECA layer is used as a mold for the fabrication of new adhesives. These new types of molds proved able to produce dry adhesives with high reproducibility and low degradation.

  9. Improved Bond Strength of Cyanoacrylate Adhesives Through Nanostructured Chromium Adhesion Layers (United States)

    Gobble, Kyle; Stark, Amelia; Stagon, Stephen P.


    The performance of many consumer products suffers due to weak and inconsistent bonds formed to low surface energy polymer materials, such as polyolefin-based high-density polyethylene (HDPE), with adhesives, such as cyanoacrylate. In this letter, we present an industrially relevant means of increasing bond shear strength and consistency through vacuum metallization of chromium thin films and nanorods, using HDPE as a prototype material and cyanoacrylate as a prototype adhesive. For the as received HDPE surfaces, unmodified bond shear strength is shown to be only 0.20 MPa with a standard deviation of 14 %. When Cr metallization layers are added onto the HDPE at thicknesses of 50 nm or less, nanorod-structured coatings outperform continuous films and have a maximum bond shear strength of 0.96 MPa with a standard deviation of 7 %. When the metallization layer is greater than 50 nm thick, continuous films demonstrate greater performance than nanorod coatings and have a maximum shear strength of 1.03 MPa with a standard deviation of 6 %. Further, when the combination of surface roughening with P400 grit sandpaper and metallization is used, 100-nm-thick nanorod coatings show a tenfold increase in shear strength over the baseline, reaching a maximum of 2.03 MPa with a standard deviation of only 3 %. The substantial increase in shear strength through metallization, and the combination of roughening with metallization, may have wide-reaching implications in consumer products which utilize low surface energy plastics.

  10. Degradation of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Yang, Xichuan; Cheng, Ming; Zhang, Fuguo; Sun, Licheng


    Organic dyes have become widely used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their good performance, flexible structural modifications, and low costs. To increase the photostability of organic dye-based DSSCs, we conducted a full study on the degradation mechanism of cyanoacrylic acid-based organic sensitizers in DSSCs. The results showed that with the synergy between water and UV light, the sensitizer could desorb from the TiO2 surface and the cyanoacrylic acid unit of the sensitizer was transformed into the aldehyde group. It was also observed that the water content had a great effect on the degradation process. Our experiments conducted using (18) O-labeled water demonstrated that the oxygen atom of the aldehyde group identified in the degraded dye came from the solvent water in the DSSCs. Therefore, controlling the water content during DSSC fabrication, good sealing of cells, and filtering the UV light are crucial to produce DSSCs that are more durable and robust.

  11. Healing of periodontal flaps when closed with silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate: A clinical and histological study

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    Kulkarni Sudhindra


    Full Text Available Background: The closure of the periodontal flaps post-surgery is a necessity for attainment of a primary union between the flap margins and the establishment of a healthy dentogingival junction. N-butyl cyanoacrylate is a tissue adhesive, which can be used for the closure of the incised wounds to overcome the problems associated with conventional suture materials like silk. Objective: The present study was carried out to assess the healing of the periodontal flaps when closed with the conventional silk sutures and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 patients who needed flap surgical procedure for pocket therapy. Results: It was found that healing with the cyanoacrylate is associated with less amount of inflammation during the first week when compared with silk. However, over a period of 21 days to 6 weeks, the sites treated with both the materials showed similar healing patterns. Conclusion: It can be concluded that cyanoacrylate aids in early initial healing.

  12. Study of glue extrusion after endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection on gastric variceal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Mei Wang; Liu-Fang Cheng; Nan Li; Kai Wu; Jun-Shan Zhai; Ya-Wen Wang


    AIM: To investigate glue extrusion after endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection on gastric variceal bleeding and to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of this therapy.METHODS: A total of 148 cirrhotic patients in our hospital with esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EGVB) were included in this study. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate was mixed with lipiodol in a 1:1 ratio and injected as a bolus of 1-3 mL according to variceal size. Patients underwent endoscopic follow-up the next week, fourth week, second month, fourth month, and seventh month after injection and then every 6 mo to determine the cast shape. An abdominal X-ray film and ultrasound or computed tomographic scan were also carried out in order to evaluate the time of variceal disappearance and complete extrusion of the cast. The average follow-up time was 13.1 mo.RESULTS: The instantaneous hemostatic rate was 96.2%. Early re-bleeding after injection in 9 cases (6.2%) was estimated from rejection of adhesive. Late re-bleeding occurred in 12 patients (8.1%) at 2-18 mo. The glue cast was extruded into the lumen within one month in 86.1% of patients and eliminated within one year. Light erosion was seen at the injection position and mucosa edema in the second week. The glue casts were extruded in 18 patients (12.1%) after one week and in 64 patients (42.8%) after two weeks. All kinds of glue clumping shapes and colors on endoscopic examination were observed in 127 patients (86.1%) within one month, including punctiform, globular, pillar and variform. Forty one patients (27.9%) had glue extrusion after 3 mo and 28 patients (28.9%) after six months. The extrusion time was not related to the injection volume of histoacryl. Obliteration was seen in 70.2% (104 cases) endoscopically. The main complication was re-bleeding resulting from extrusion. The prognosis of the patients depended on the severity of the underlying liver disease.CONCLUSION: Endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is highly effective for

  13. A novel method of defective vascular reconstruction using 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and homemade prosthetic component

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Xiangdang; Cai Hongfei; Sun Geng; Liu Zihao; Chen Wen; Tang Peifu


    Background Currently,adhesive technique is popular in vascular repair but not widely used for defective vessels.This study aimed to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of repairing defective vessels with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and a homemade prosthetic component.Methods Homemade prosthetic component consisting of expanded polytetrofluoroethylene (ePTFE),terylene film,and homemade soluble hollow stent mixed with adhesive can replace autologous graft and suture in repairing defective vessels,can fix vessels better using the stent without occlusive bleeding.Forty male mongrel dogs were used,20 for biomechanical tests and 20 for animal experiments.In the biomechanical test,dogs were randomly divided into two groups (n=10 each),one group repaired on the two sides of the carotid arteries with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and homemade component and another group repaired with suture and ePTFE.Of the 40 specimens,10 were used for adhesive and 10 for suture specimens for tension strength test,whereas the remaining specimens were used for bursting pressure test.In animal experiments,dogs were also divided into adhesive and suture groups (n=10),only of the left carotid artery.Recording the operational time,bleeding or not.Vessels were tested using color Doppler ultrasound,the inner diameter was measured,and the degree of stenosis at 8 weeks was evaluated digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were also performed.Specimens were then analyzed histologically.Results In the adhesive and suture groups,the specimens could afford atension strength of (23.80±1.51) N versus (24.60±1.08) N (P >0.05),the bursting pressure was (52.03±.2.43) kPa versus (50.04±3.51) kPa (P >0.05),and the mean time of anastomosis was (15.20±0.55) minutes versus (25.97±0.58) minutes (P <0.05).One dog in the adhesive group was bleeding from the suture.One dog from each group presented with thrombosis at 1 week.After measuring using ultrasound,the stenosis degree of all dogs were no more than 30

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Herbicidal Activities of 2-Cyanoacrylates Containing 1,3,4-Thiadiazole Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tingting; Miao Wenke; Wu Shanshan; Bing Guifang; Zhang Xin; Qin Zhenfang; Yu Haibo; Qin Xue; Fang Jianxin


    Three series of novel 2-cyanoacrylates 7a-7f, 9a-9f, 10a-10f containing 1,3,4-thiadiazole ring moieties were synthesized as herbicidal inhibitors of photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ) electron transportation. Their structures were clearly verified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis (or HRMS analysis) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay showed that a suitable group at the 3-position of acrylates was essential for high herbicidal activ-ity. In particular, compound 7e showed the best herbicidal activities and gave 100% inhibitory activity against rape and amaranth pigweed at a dose of 1.5 kg/ha. Introduction of substituent with higher polarity such as sulfinyl or sulfonyl to the 5-position of 1,3,4-thiadiazole decreased herbicidal activities.

  15. Tolerance of glue embolization under local anesthesia in varicoceles: A comparative study of two different cyanoacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Everaert, Karel [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Maele, Georges [Department of Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    Purpose: To find out whether in varicocele embolization the copolymer cyanoacrylate glue (NBCA-MS) has a better patient tolerance compared to the monomer n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Materials and methods: N = 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left sided N = 84, right sided N = 28) diagnosed in N = 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with either NBCA N = 54 (Histoacryl) or with NBCA-MS N = 58 (Glubran2). Before, during and up to one week after embolization, patient discomfort was assessed by a standardized pain scale. Type, location and side of discomfort were noted. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann–Whitney U-test, the McNemar test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Embolization caused discomfort in N = 48/112 (43%) spermatic veins, comprising N = 26/54 (48%) in the NBCA group and N = 22/58 (38%) in the NBCA-MS group. During the week after embolization, the overall number of discomfort reports rose to N = 62/106 (59%), with an increase to N = 30/53 (57%) in the NBCA group and to N = 32/53 (60%) in the NBCA-MS group. The number of immediate grade 2 to 4 pain reactions was N = 22/112 (20%), and rose to N = 37/106 (35%) after one week. No difference in discomfort during embolization and at 1 week after treatment was noted. Characteristics, severity grading, and location of discomfort were similar in both NBCA groups, regardless the time point of observation. Conclusion: Discomfort after glue embolization of varicocele is a common side effect, which might evolve to pain. The assumed lower inflammatory reaction on NBCA-MS was not translated in an improved tolerance.

  16. Effects of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate on experimental corneal lesions in rabbits Efeitos do etil-cianoacrilato ou do octil-cianoacrilato sobre lesões corneais experimentais em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Barbosa


    Full Text Available The use of ethyl-cyanoacrylate and octyl-cyanoacrylate were clinically and histopathologically compared on the corneas of 36 rabbits after lamellar keratectomy (standardized diameter and depth. The animals were distributed into two groups, one for each type of adhesive. From each group, six subgroups were histopathologically evaluated on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 30th, and 60th day post-operative. General (daily and ophthalmic (days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44, and 60 evaluations clinically indicated that there were significant differences for the variables water intake, attitude, blepharitis, corneal edema, and fluorescein test. The adhesive permanence time for octyl-cyanoacrylate (17.22 days was greater than that for ethyl-cyanoacrylate (7.66 days. With respect to the histopathological evaluation, corneal epithelization and collagen organization occurred without severe complications. However, treatment with ethyl-cyanoacrylate led to a moderate inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. With octyl-cyanoacrylate, re-epithelization and collagen organization proceeded more slowly with a discrete inflammatory reaction in the initial phases. From clinical and histopathologic points of view, octyl-cyanoacrylate showed advantages over ethyl-cyanoacrylate, whereas wound healing was achieved in both groups without major complications.Comparou-se o uso do etil-cianoacrilato e do octil-cianoacrilato em córneas de 36 coelhos após ceratectomia lamelar (diâmetro e profundidade padronizados. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos, segundo o tipo de adesivo, e redistribuídos em seis subgrupos com três animais cada, para as avaliações histológicas aos 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As avaliações clínicas gerais (diárias e as oftálmicas (dias 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 30, 44 e 60, indicaram diferença entre os dois grupos, quanto ao consumo de água, atitude, blefarite, edema da córnea e teste da fluoresceína. O Tempo de

  17. Sitotoksisitas bahan restorasi cyanoacrylate pada variasi perbandingan powder dan liquid menggunakan MTT assay (Cytotoxicity of the cyanoacrylate restoration material with variation of powder and liquid ratio by using MTT assay

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    Asti Meizarini


    Full Text Available The requirements for dental material include not toxic, not irritant, no carcinogenic potential, nor cause an allergic response with the use in oral cavity. The cyanoacrylate restoration material has certain substance that can be toxic. Because of the ratio amount of powder and liquid is not known, it can lead the restoration more toxic. The purpose of this study was to know the cytotoxicity of the cyanoacrylate restoration material with different variation of powder and liquid ratio using MTT assay. Six cylinder samples of 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were used for each group of 1:1.00; 1:0.75; 1:0.50 powder and liquid ratio of cyanoacrylate restoration materials. Each of samples was immersed in eppendorf micro tubes consisting of media culture. After 24 hour, the immersion of media culture was used to investigate the cytotoxic effect to BHK-21 cell lines by MTT assay method. The density of optic formazan indicated the amount of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and HSD. The results showed that the percentage of living cells amount of powder and liquid ratio 1:1.00; 1:0.75; 1:0.50 were 98.59%; 95.76%; 94.92% respectively. There was a significant difference between 1:1.00 and 1:0.50 group ratio. The conclusion was that the cytotoxicity between 1:1.00 and 1:0.50 powder and liquid ratio of cyanoacrylate restoration materials in this study decreased.

  18. 阿霉素-姜黄素聚氰基丙烯酸正丁酯复方纳米粒的研制及逆转MCF-7/ADR细胞多药耐药的研究%Study of Co-encapsulated Doxorubicin and Curcumin Poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles and Reversion of Multidrug Resistance in MCF/ADR Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 严新; 邵荣; 段菁华


    采用乳化聚合法制备阿霉素-姜黄素聚氰基丙烯酸正丁酯复方纳米粒(DOX-CUR-PBCA-NPs),该纳米粒平均粒径为133±5.34nm,Zeta电位为+32.23±4.56 mV,阿霉素(DOX)和姜黄素(CUR)的包封率分别为49.98±3.32%,94.52±3.14%.MTT实验结果和Western blott实验结果均表明,DOX-CUR-PBCA-NPs与CUR-PBCA-NPs+DOX-PBCA-NPs体外对MCF-7/ADR细胞的生长抑制活性相当,下调MCF-7/ADR细胞中P-糖蛋白(P-gp)的表达也相当,较没有用PBCA纳米粒包载的游离药物、单一药物的纳米制剂及其他形式的制剂联用的抗肿瘤活性及逆转多药耐药的性能都显著增强.说明利用PBCA纳米粒同时包裹抗癌药物阿霉素与中药逆转剂姜黄素协同用药可以增强克服多药耐药(MDR)的疗效.

  19. Medial meniscus transplantation using cyanoacrylate in rabbits Transplante de menisco medial utilizando cianoacrilato em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Reckers


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate meniscal transplantation using as fixation method a synthetic glue derived from cyanoacrylate acid. METHODS: Twenty rabbits were used, of which 10 for autologous transplantation and 10 for homologous transplantation. For the autologous transplantation the meniscus was removed, and then transplanted in the same animal, using the synthetic glue. For the homologous transplantation, the study was divided into two stages: 1- Removal of the meniscus which was maintained at a temperature of 73ºC. 2- Use of cyanoacrylate acid-derived surgical adhesive for meniscal retransplantation in a different rabbit 30 days after the transplant. RESULTS: Due to complications, euthanasia had to be anticipated to the 15th day in the homologous group and to the 18th day in the autologous group. Macroscopically, knees submitted to transplantation presented whitish secretions from the surgical incision up to deep planes. Necrosis was observed in both groups. Statistical analysis has shown that mild (p=0.043 and moderate (p=0.001 complications emerged in a significantly earlier way in the homologous group, where euthanasia was also performed earlier (p=0,005. CONCLUSION: Synthetic surgical adhesives derived from cyanoacrylate acid promoted cortical to medullary bone necrosis bone in both groups.OBJETIVO: Avaliar macroscópica e histologicamente o transplante meniscal, utilizando-se a cola sintética derivada do ácido cianoacrilato como método de fixação. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 20 coelhos, tendo 10 realizado transplante autólogo e 10, homólogo. Para o transplante autólogo, o menisco foi retirado e em seguida transplantado no mesmo animal, sendo fixado com a cola sintética. Para o transplante homólogo o estudo foi dividido em duas etapas: 1- retirada do menisco e manutenção a uma temperatura de 73°C negativos. 2- Utilização do adesivo cirúrgico derivado do ácido cianoacrilato para reimplantar num coelho diferente 30 dias após o

  20. Evaluation of Lumicyano™ cyanoacrylate fuming process for the development of latent fingermarks on plastic carrier bags by means of a pseudo operational comparative trial. (United States)

    Farrugia, Kevin J; Deacon, Paul; Fraser, Joanna


    There are a number of studies discussing recent developments of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate process. This study is a pseudo operational trial to compare an example of a one-step fluorescent cyanoacrylate product, Lumicyano™, with the two recommended techniques for plastic carrier bags; cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 (BY40) dyeing and powder suspensions. 100 plastic carrier bags were collected from the place of work and the items were treated as found without any additional fingermark deposition. The bags were split into three and after treatment with the three techniques a comparable number of fingermarks were detected by each technique (average of 300 fingermarks). The items treated with Lumicyano™ were sequentially processed with BY40 and an additional 43 new fingermarks were detected. Lumicyano™ appears to be a suitable technique for the development of fingermarks on plastic carrier bags and it can help save lab space and time as it does not require dyeing or drying procedures. Furthermore, contrary to other one-step cyanoacrylate products, existing cyanoacrylate cabinets do not require any modification for the treatment of articles with Lumicyano™. To date, there is little peer reviewed articles in the literature on trials related to Lumicyano™ and this study aims to contribute to fill this gap.

  1. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  2. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

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    Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding. Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications. The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedurerelated complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study. NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.

  3. Studying the Kinetics of n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive and Its Oily Mixtures (United States)

    Nedvedova, Marie; Kresalek, Vojtech; Vaskova, Hana; Provaznik, Ivo


    This study deals with the measurement of the kinetics of tissue adhesives used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are available several types of adhesives of different composition which is closely related with their application. When selecting an appropriate adhesive, the time of curing could play an important role because some applications may require very fast polymerization for prompt vessel or wound closure; conversely, some situations need slower solidification because of longer manipulation with the glue during surgery. The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the kinetics of the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue in this study. An oily substance is added to the glue samples to slow the reaction rate. The technique of attenuated total reflection is used in this application; the defined amount of glue sample or its mixture is applied on the silicon crystal and the terahertz response is measured in time. This time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the glue kinetics. Further, the investigated samples were analyzed using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for description of the structures and compositions.

  4. Removal of Separated Endodontic K-File with the Aid of Hypodermic Needle and Cyanoacrylate (United States)

    Frota, Luciana Maria Arcanjo; Aguiar, Bernardo Almeida; Aragão, Maria Gerusa Brito


    A wide range of accidents might happen during the treatment of the root canal system, where the instrument separation is one of the most unpleasant occurrences. Several techniques have been developed to facilitate the removal of the fragments; however, they generally require specific devices that not always are available to the clinician. The aim of this case report is to present a simple alternative technique to remove from the root canals manual instruments fractured during the treatment. The case has its outline based on a 31-year-old patient who sought the clinic to have her maxillary first left premolar rehabilitated. The clinic and radiographic examinations revealed the need of endodontic retreatment and the presence of a fragment of a K-file instrument localized at the apical third of the palatine canal. The retreatment was initiated by the removal of the obturation materials followed by several unsuccessful attempts to take out the fractured instrument. Hence, it was chosen to perform the fragment removal using a hypodermic needle and cyanoacrylate adhesive. The fragment easily came out, which reinforces the technique adopted as a safe, simple, and low cost mean to solve the problem of fractured instruments using only items already present in the endodontic arsenal.

  5. Emergency wounds treated with cyanoacrylate and long-term results in pediatrics: a series of cases; what are the advantages and boards?

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    Gursoy Sonnur


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (ECA is a tissue adhesive material applied to close superficial wounds. The aim of this study was to explore the benefits of cyanoacrylates in the emergency department in children with current application with regard to cost-effectiveness, satisfaction and long follow up. Findings Patients were treated after assignment of the consent with an explanation by the relatives in a tertiary emergency department (ED, 2007. The evaluation was based on different superficial wound repairs due to blunt trauma within a 2-hour time period ( A total of 9 patients were evaluated and followed for 6 months. Except for one, all children were treated without any serious complications. ECA was cost-effective, time-saving, and provided successful repair satisfaction by a blinded plastic surgeon and patient/parents. Conclusion This report displayed the pediatric effective use of cyanoacrylates, even in non- traditional repairs in the emergency departments.

  6. 3D-Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationships of Cyanoacrylate Inhibitors%氰基丙烯酸酯类化合物的3D-QSAR研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3D-Quantitative Structure—Activity Relationships of a series of cyanoacrylate inhibitors which are known to act by blocking photosynthetic electron transport close to photosystem II reaction center in the thylakoid membranes of plant chloroplasts have been investigated using comparative molecular field analysis(CoMFA). The active conformations of the title compounds were obtained by constrained systematic search program. The resulting CoMFA model with considerable predictive ability shows that the contribution of steric effects for activities of cyanoacrylate inhibitors is more important than electrostatic effects.

  7. Preparation of poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) monolithic column modified with β-cyclodextrin and nano-cuprous oxide and its application in polymer monolithic microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls. (United States)

    Zheng, Haijiao; Liu, Qingwen; Jia, Qiong


    A poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethyleneglyceldimethacrylate) (poly(BMA-EDMA)) monolithic column was prepared with in situ polymerization method and modified with allylamine-β-cyclodextrin (ALA-β-CD) and nano-cuprous oxide (Cu2O). A polymer monolith microextraction method was developed with the modified monolithic column for the preconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, we obtained acceptable linearities, low limits of detection, and good intra-day/inter-day relative standard deviations. Because of the hydrophobic properties of β-CD and the porous nano structure of Cu2O, the enrichment capacity of the poly(BMA-EDMA) monolithic column was significantly improved. The extraction efficiency followed the order: poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD-Cu2O)>poly(BMA-EDMA-ALA-β-CD)>poly(BMA-EDMA)>direct GC analysis. When applied to the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in wine samples, low limits of detection (0.09ngmL(-1)) were obtained under the preoptimized conditions (sample volume 1.0mL, sample flow rate 0.1mLmin(-1), eluent volume 0.1mL, and eluent flow rate 0.05mLmin(-1)). In addition, the present method was employed to determine polychlorinated biphenyls in red wine samples and the accuracy was assessed through recovery experiments. The obtained recovery values were in the range of 78.8-104.1% with relative standard deviations less than 9.0%.

  8. Biocompatibility of a novel cyanoacrylate based tissue adhesive: cytotoxicity and biochemical property evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ju Lee

    Full Text Available Cyanoacrylate (CA is most widely used as a medical and commercial tissue adhesive because of easier wound closure, good cosmetic results and little discomfort. But, CA-based tissue adhesives have some limitations including the release of cytotoxic chemicals during biodegradation. In previous study, we made prepolymerized allyl 2-CA (PACA based tissue adhesive, resulting in longer chain structure. In this study, we investigated a biocompatibility of PACA as alternative tissue adhesive for medical application, comparing with that of Dermabond® as commercial tissue adhesive. The biocompatibility of PACA was evaluated for short-term (24 hr and long-term (3 and 7 days using conventional cytotoxicity (WST, neutral red, LIVE/DEAD and TUNEL assays, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E and Masson trichrome (MT staining. Besides we examined the biochemical changes in cells and DNA induced by PACA and Dermabond® utilizing Raman spectroscopy which could observe the denaturation and conformational changes in protein, as well as disintegration of the DNA/RNA by cell death. In particular, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical methods including principal component analysis (PCA and support vector machine (SVM. As a result, PACA and Dermabond® tissue adhesive treated cells and tissues showed no difference of the cell viability values, histological analysis and Raman spectral intensity. Also, the classification analysis by means of PCA-SVM classifier could not discriminate the difference between the PACA and Dermabond® treated cells and DNA. Therefore we suggest that novel PACA might be useful as potential tissue adhesive with effective biocompatibility.

  9. Percutaneous Transportal Sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Gastric Varices: Technique and Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was deigned to evaluate the technique and clinical efficacy of the use of percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for patients with gastric varices. Seven patients were treated by transportal sclerotherapy with the use of NBCA. For transportal sclerotherapy, portal vein catheterization was performed with a 6-Fr sheath by the transhepatic approach. A 5-Fr catheter was introduced into the afferent gastric vein and a microcatheter was advanced through the 5-Fr catheter into the varices. NBCA was injected through the microcatheter in the varices by use of the continuous single-column injection technique. After the procedure, postcontrast computed tomography (CT) was performed on the next day and then every six months. Gastroendoscopy was performed at one week, three months, and then every six months after the procedure. The technical success rate of the procedure was 88%. In six patients, gastric varices were successfully obliterated with 1-8 mL (mean, 5.4 mL) of a NBCA-Lipiodol mixture injected via a microcatheter. No complications related to the procedure were encountered. As seen on the follow-up endoscopy and CT imaging performed after six months, the presence of gastric varcies was not seen in any of the patients after treatment with the NBCA-Lipiodol mixture and the use of microcoils. Recurrence of gastric varices was not observed during the followup period. Worsening of esophageal varices occurred in four patients after transportal sclerotherapy. The serum albumin level increased, the ammonia level decreased and the prothrombin time increased at six months after the procedure (p < 0.05). Percutaneous transportal sclerotherapy with NBCA is useful to obliterate gastric varices if it is not possible to perform balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration.

  10. A comparative study of the effects of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin and cyanoacrylate on wound healing of skin defects. (United States)

    Kidokoro, Ryo; Nakajima, Kei; Kobayashi, Fumitaka; Takeda, Yukihiro; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Katakura, Akira; Inoue, Takashi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the healing process of wounded skin following the application of cyanoacrylate or a 4-(2-methacryloxyethyl) trimellitic anhydride/methyl methacrylate-tributylborane resin (4-META resin). Those materials were applied to skin wound areas in rats, and the regenerating tissues were biopsied and examined at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. Paraffin-embedded specimens were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or with Azan-Mallory stain. Sections were also immunohistochemically stained with Pan-cytokeratin and CD68 antibodies. In cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells were observed in the connective tissue and their number increased up to day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 14. In 4-META resin-treated wounds, CD68-positive cells appeared in the soft-tissue hybrid layer (STHL) and epithelial tissue had migrated under the STHL by day 5. The wound surface was completely covered by epithelial tissue at day 7. CD68-positive cells were distributed over the entire area of the cyanoacrylate-treated wounds, but accumulated under the STHL in the 4-META resin-treated wounds. In conclusion, the results suggest that covering skin defects with a 4-META resin is an effective strategy to promote wound healing compared to cyanoacrylate.

  11. Cola terapêutica de cianoacrilato nas perfurações corneanas Therapeutic cyanoacrylate glue for corneal perforations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garrido


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar indicações, evolução e complicações do uso do adesivo de cianoacrilato no tratamento dos afinamentos e perfurações corneanas. Material e Métodos: Vinte e seis olhos de 26 pacientes portadores de afinamento ou perfuração corneana (£ 2,5 mm de diâmetro receberam adesivo tecidual à base de metil 2-cianoacrilato e, a seguir, lente de contato terapêutica hidrofílica sobre a área colada. Resultados: Entre as indicações para aplicação do adesivo de cianoacrilato, detectaram-se 12 (46% casos de perfuração corneana causada por úlcera de córnea infecciosa. Dos 26 olhos que receberam adesivo, 15 (57,7% necessitaram de uma única aplicação e 11 (42,3% de duas aplicações. Houve evolução para leucoma corneano após desprendimento da cola em 13 (50% olhos; necessidade de intervenção cirúrgica em 4 (15% e permanência da cola em 9 (35%. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 15 (57,7% olhos, melhorou em 7 (27% e diminuiu em 4 (15,3%. Conclusões: O adesivo de cianoacrilato pode ser usado com sucesso no tratamento imediato dos afinamentos e perfurações corneanas, prorrogando ou até mesmo dispensando um futuro procedimento cirúrgico.Purpose: To investigate the indications, outcomes and complications of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive for stromal thinning and corneal perforations. Methods: Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with stromal thinning or corneal perforations (£ 2.5 mm received methyl 2-cya-noacrylate adhesive and bandage contact lens. Results: Twelve cases (46% of corneal perforation were caused by infectious ulcer. For the 26 eyes that received adhesive, 15 (57.7% needed only one application of the glue and 11 (42.3% needed two applications. Thirteen eyes (50% developed for leukoma; 4 (15% needed surgery and 9 (35% eyes remained sealed. Visual acuity remained unaltered in 15 eyes (57.7%, improved in 7 (27% and got worse in 4 (15.3% eyes. Conclusion: The cyanoacrylate adhesive is available to all

  12. Comparison of scaffold-enhanced albumin and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesives for joining of tissue in a porcine model (United States)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Riley, Jill N.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.


    An ex vivo study was conducted to compare the tensile strength of tissue samples repaired using three different techniques: (i) application of a scaffold-enhanced light-activated albumin protein solder, (ii) application of a scaffold-enhanced n-butyl-cyanoacrylate adhesive, and (iii) repair via conventional suture technique. Biodegradable polymer scaffolds of controlled porosity were fabricated with poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and salt particles using a solvent-casting and particulate-leaching technique. Group I porous scaffolds were doped with protein solder composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. Group II scaffolds were doped with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate, and required no light-activation. No stay sutures were required for Group I or II experiments. Group III repairs were performed using a single 4-0 suture. Thirteen organs were tested ranging from skin to liver to the small intestine, as well as the coronary, pulmonary, carotid, femoral and splenic arteries. Acute breaking strengths were measured and the data were analyzed by Student"s T-test. Using the protein solder of Group I, repairs formed on the ureter were most successful followed by small intestine, sciatic nerve, spleen, atrium, kidney, muscle, skin and ventricle. The strongest vascular repairs were achieved in the carotid artery and femoral artery. Overall, the tensile strength of Group III repairs performed via suture techniques were equivalent in magnitude to that of Group I repairs, however, a larger variance was observed in the suture repair group. Group II repairs utilizing the cyanoacrylate-doped scaffold all performed extremely well. Bonds formed using the Group II adhesive were approximately 30% stronger than Group I and III organ repairs and approximately 20% stronger than Group I and III vascular repairs. Application of the polymer scaffold assists in tissue alignment and reduces

  13. Enhancement of aged and denatured fingerprints using the cyanoacrylate fuming technique following dusting with amino acid-containing powders. (United States)

    Nixon, Carly; Almond, Matthew J; Baum, John V; Bond, John W


    We have carried out experiments to investigate the aging of latent fingerprints deposited on black PVC over a period of 4-15 weeks. A thumbprint was used in each case and before deposition of the print the donor rubbed their thumb around their nose to add sebaceous deposits. We have studied the effect of heat, light, and moisture and we find that moisture is the most significant factor in the degradation of the latent print. We have attempted to enhance these latent prints by dusting with valine powder or powders composed of valine mixed with gold or red fluorescent commercial fingerprint powders. To make a direct comparison between "treated" and "untreated" prints, the prints were cut in half with one-half being "treated" and one-half not. Our studies show the best results being obtained when powders of valine and red fluorescent powders are applied prior to cyanoacrylate fuming.

  14. Enhanced bioavailability of orally administered flurbiprofen by combined use of hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin and poly(alkyl-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyun; Li, Wei; Luo, Qiuhua; Zhang, Xiangrong


    Flurbiprofen was formulated into nanoparticle suspension to improve its oral bioavailability. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion-flurbiprofen complex (HP-β-CD-FP) was prepared, then incorporating this complex into poly(alkyl-cyanoacrylate) (PACA) nanoparticles. HP-β-CD-FP-PACA nanoparticle was prepared by the emulsion solvent polymerization method. The zeta potential was -26.8 mV, the mean volume particle diameter was 134 nm, drug encapsulation efficiency was 53.3 ± 3.6 % and concentration was 1.5 mg/mL. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen from optimized nanoparticles was assessed in male Wistar rats at a dose of 15 mg/kg. As compared to the flurbiprofen suspension, 211.6 % relative bioavailability was observed for flurbiprofen nanoparticles. The reduced particle size and increased surface area may contribute to improve oral bioavailability of flurbiprofen.

  15. Dosimetric measurements of an n-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization material for arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labby, Zacariah E., E-mail: [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Chaudhary, Neeraj [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology and Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Gemmete, Joseph J. [Division of Neurointerventional Radiology, Departments of Radiology, Neurosurgery, and Otolaryngology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Pandey, Aditya S. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Roberts, Donald A. [Radiation Physics Division, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)


    Purpose: The therapeutic regimen for cranial arteriovenous malformations often involves both stereotactic radiosurgery and endovascular embolization. Embolization agents may contain tantalum or other contrast agents to assist the neurointerventionalists, leading to concerns regarding the dosimetric effects of these agents. This study investigated dosimetric properties of n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) plus lipiodol with and without tantalum powder. Methods: The embolization agents were provided cured from the manufacturer with and without added tantalum. Attenuation measurements were made for the samples and compared to the attenuation of a solid water substitute using a 6 MV photon beam. Effective linear attenuation coefficients (ELAC) were derived from attenuation measurements made using a portal imager and derived sample thickness maps projected in an identical geometry. Probable dosimetric errors for calculations in which the embolized regions are overridden with the properties of water were calculated using the ELAC values. Interface effects were investigated using a parallel plate ion chamber placed at set distances below fixed samples. Finally, Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using a stereotactic radiosurgery CT protocol, and more appropriate HU values were derived from the ELAC results and the CT scanner’s HU calibration curve. Results: The ELAC was 0.0516 ± 0.0063 cm{sup −1} and 0.0580 ± 0.0091 cm{sup −1} for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively, compared to 0.0487 ± 0.0009 cm{sup −1} for the water substitute. Dose calculations with the embolized region set to be water equivalent in the treatment planning system would result in errors of −0.29% and −0.93% per cm thickness of n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively. Interface effects compared to water were small in magnitude and limited in distance for both embolization materials. CT values at 120 kVp were 2082 and 2358 HU for n-BCA without and with tantalum, respectively

  16. Cyanoacrylate skin surface strippings and the 3S-Bioket advent in tropical dermatology. A look from Liège.


    Pierard, Gérald; Franchimont, Claudine; Paquet, Philippe; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Radermacher, Jean; Delvenne, Philippe


    In the dermatopathology field, some simple available laboratory tests require minimum equipment for establishing a diagnosis. Among them, the cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS), formerly named skin surface biopsy or follicular biopsy, represents a convenient low cost procedure. It is a minimally invasive method collecting a continuous sheet of stratum corneum and horny follicular casts. In the vast majority of cases, it is painless and is unassociated with adverse events. CS...

  17. Cyanoacrylate Skin Surface Stripping and the 3S-Biokit Advent in Tropical Dermatology: A Look from Liège


    Piérard, Gérald E; Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Philippe Paquet; Trinh Hermanns-Lê; Jean Radermacher; Philippe Delvenne


    In the dermatopathology field, some simple available laboratory tests require minimum equipment for establishing a diagnosis. Among them, the cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS), formerly named skin surface biopsy or follicular biopsy, represents a convenient low cost procedure. It is a minimally invasive method collecting a continuous sheet of stratum corneum and horny follicular casts. In the vast majority of cases, it is painless and is unassociated with adverse events. CSSS can be...

  18. Clinical and histological effects of the temporary occlusion of the rabbit nasolacrimal duct and point using cyanoacrylate adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C.F. Cardoso


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical and histological effects of occluding the nasolacrimal ducts and points of rabbits. For this study, 20 adult New Zealand rabbits, both males and females, weighing 3.2±0.4kg were allocated into two groups for n-butyl-cyanoacrylate occlusion (GB, n=10 or 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate occlusion (GO, n=10. The contralateral eyes served as the controls. The persistence of tears was evaluated daily using the Schirmer I test. Discomfort, eye discharge, epiphora, and conjunctival hyperemia were assessed prior to the procedure (T0 and during the 14 subsequent days (T1-T14. On days seven and 14, five animals from each group were euthanized, and their nasolacrimal ducts were collected, processed and analyzed by histology. In the GB group, the Schirmer test values differed from that at T0 at all of the subsequent time points, whereas there was no difference in the values observed from the GO group. Compared with the corresponding controls, the GO and GB groups differed significantly at almost all of the time points. When comparing the treatment groups, differences were found at T6, T7, T9, T10, T11, T12 and T14, with higher Schirmer values in the GB group. Epiphora was observed in the GB group from T1 to T8 and in the GO group from T1 to T6. Within seven days post-occlusion, histology revealed a moderate foreign body reaction, with marked necrosis and sloughing of the canalicular epithelium, in the GO group, which was absent at day 14. In the GB group, a marked inflammatory reaction and a mild foreign body reaction were found at day seven, and the foreign body reaction was prevalent at day 14. This study demonstrated that both adhesives were effective in obstructing the nasolacrimal ducts and points of rabbits and that their application and handling are easy and free of complications. However, both adhesives promoted inflammatory and foreign body reactions that evolved to repair and regeneration at day 14 of

  19. Airflow-directed in situ electrospinning of a medical glue of cyanoacrylate for rapid hemostasis in liver resection (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Long, Yun-Ze; Chen, Zhao-Jun; Liu, Shu-Liang; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xingyu; Huang, Zhi-Qiang


    Rapid hemostasis of solitary organs is still a big challenge in surgical procedures or after major trauma in both civilians and on the battlefield. Here, we report the first use of an airflow-directed in situ electrospinning method to precisely and homogeneously deposit a medical glue of n-octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (OCA) ultrathin fibers onto a wound surface to realize rapid hemostasis in dozens of seconds. In vivo and in vitro experiments on pig liver resection demonstrate that the self-assembled electrospun OCA membrane with high strength, good flexibility and integrity is very compact and no fluid seeping is observed even under a pressure of 147 mm Hg. A similar effect has been achieved in an in vivo experiment on pig lung resection. The results provide a very promising alternative for rapid hemostasis of solitary organs as well as other traumas, providing evidence that the postoperative drainage tube may not be always necessary for surgery in the near future.Rapid hemostasis of solitary organs is still a big challenge in surgical procedures or after major trauma in both civilians and on the battlefield. Here, we report the first use of an airflow-directed in situ electrospinning method to precisely and homogeneously deposit a medical glue of n-octyl-2-cyanoacrylate (OCA) ultrathin fibers onto a wound surface to realize rapid hemostasis in dozens of seconds. In vivo and in vitro experiments on pig liver resection demonstrate that the self-assembled electrospun OCA membrane with high strength, good flexibility and integrity is very compact and no fluid seeping is observed even under a pressure of 147 mm Hg. A similar effect has been achieved in an in vivo experiment on pig lung resection. The results provide a very promising alternative for rapid hemostasis of solitary organs as well as other traumas, providing evidence that the postoperative drainage tube may not be always necessary for surgery in the near future. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available

  20. Synthetic cation-selective nanotube: Permeant cations chaperoned by anions (United States)

    Hilder, Tamsyn A.; Gordon, Dan; Chung, Shin-Ho


    The ability to design ion-selective, synthetic nanotubes which mimic biological ion channels may have significant implications for the future treatment of bacteria, diseases, and as ultrasensitive biosensors. We present the design of a synthetic nanotube made from carbon atoms that selectively allows monovalent cations to move across and rejects all anions. The cation-selective nanotube mimics some of the salient properties of biological ion channels. Before practical nanodevices are successfully fabricated it is vital that proof-of-concept computational studies are performed. With this in mind we use molecular and stochastic dynamics simulations to characterize the dynamics of ion permeation across a single-walled (10, 10), 36 Å long, carbon nanotube terminated with carboxylic acid with an effective radius of 5.08 Å. Although cations encounter a high energy barrier of 7 kT, its height is drastically reduced by a chloride ion in the nanotube. The presence of a chloride ion near the pore entrance thus enables a cation to enter the pore and, once in the pore, it is chaperoned by the resident counterion across the narrow pore. The moment the chaperoned cation transits the pore, the counterion moves back to the entrance to ferry another ion. The synthetic nanotube has a high sodium conductance of 124 pS and shows linear current-voltage and current-concentration profiles. The cation-anion selectivity ratio ranges from 8 to 25, depending on the ionic concentrations in the reservoirs.

  1. The role of CT in evaluation of the effectiveness of embolisation of spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae with N -butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognard, C. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Miaux, Y. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Pierot, L. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Weill, A. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Martin, N. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France); Chiras, J. [Service de Neuroradiologie Charcot, Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)


    A failed embolisation of a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF), because a pedicular injection has not reached the initial venous compartment, must be identified immediately, to allow prompt surgery and thus avoid clinical deterioration. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of CT in confirming a complete cure just after embolisation with N -butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Seven patients embolised for spinal dural AVFs with perimedullary venous drainage had an immediate postembolisation CT scan. In six patients a complete cure was achieved, with a normal postembolisation angiogram in five cases. Just after injection of NBCA, we were unable to determine on plain films whether or not the glue had reached the draining vein in six of seven cases. The postembolisation CT showed various patterns: in two cured patients, the glue was visible in the inner surface of the dura mater and therefore on the venous side. In five cases, the glue was approaching the dura mater around the cord or seemed to reach its surface: in the four patients cured, the glue column was 7-18 mm high, whereas it was less than 2 mm high in the patient with angiographic proof of recurrent fistula. The follow-up angiogram remains the only way to confirm a durable cure. We suggest that immediate postembolisation CT may help in assessing endovascular treatment of spinal dural AVFs. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...... solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...

  3. Organic compounds containing methoxy and cyanoacrylic acid: Synthesis, characterization, crystal structures, and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaji, A. D., E-mail: [Golestan University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maddahi, E. [Iran University of Science & Technology, Ms.C Educated, Department of Chemistry (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dusek, M.; Fejfarova, K. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic); Chow, T. J. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Chemistry (China)


    Metal-free organic compounds 24-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid) and 34-SC ((E)-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid), containing methoxy groups as a donor and the acrylic acid as an acceptor were synthesized and characterized by CHN, FT-IR, UV-Vis, {sup 1}H-NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction and used as photosensitizers for the application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The sensitizing characteristics of them were evaluated. Both compounds contain the natural molecule, its anionic form and the piperidinium cation and they differ by number of these molecules in the asymmetric unit. To get further insight into the effect of molecular structure on the performance of DSSC, their geometry and energies of HOMO and LUMO were optimized by density functional theory calculation at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level with Gaussian 03. Overall conversion efficiencies of 0.78 under full sunlight irradiation are obtained for DSSCs based on the new metal-free organic dyes 24-SC and 34-SC.

  4. A New Flow Control Technique Using Diluted Epinephrine in the N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Embolization of Visceral Artery Pseudoaneurysms Secondary to Chronic Pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Hiroyuki, E-mail: [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Yamagami, Takuji [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan); Takeuchi, Yoshito [National Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Asai, Shunsuke; Masui, Koji [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sato, Hideki [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Taniguchi, Fumihiro [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Surgery (Japan); Sato, Osamu [Japan Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science (Japan)


    Although n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) has been used as an effective liquid embolization material, its indication for pseudoaneurysms has seemingly been limited because of the technical difficulties of using NBCA, such as reflux to the parent artery and causing significant infarction. Thus, considerable skill in using NBCA or a device to control blood flow during its polymerization is required to achieve embolization without severe complications. We report our new technique for controlling blood flow using diluted epinephrine in transcatheter arterial NBCA embolization of five pseudoaneurysms in four cases secondary to hemosuccus pancreaticus.

  5. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolization with blood flow control of an arterioportal shunt that developed after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kishi, Kazushi [Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); and others


    We present a case of a patient with rapid deterioration of esophageal varices caused by portal hypertension accompanied by a large arterioportal shunt that developed after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. We used n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as an embolic material to achieve pinpoint embolization of the shunt, because the microcatheter tip was 2 cm away from the shunt site. Under hepatic arterial flow control using a balloon catheter, the arterioportal shunt was successfully embolized with NBCA, which caused an improvement in the esophageal varices.

  6. Delayed, life-threatening lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in an infant after serial transverse enteroplasty: treatment with transcatheter n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogue, Conor O.; Alzahrani, Amin I.; John, Philip R.; Amaral, Joao G. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Image Guided Therapy, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Wales, Paul W. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery and the Group for Improvement of Intestinal Function and Treatment (GIFT), Toronto (Canada)


    We report a case of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate glue embolization of life-threatening lower gastrointestinal (LGI) hemorrhage in a 10-month-old boy. The child had a history of gastroschisis and short-bowel syndrome. Six months prior to the LGI bleed, he had undergone a serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) to lengthen his intestine. To the best of our knowledge this is both the first report of successful glue embolization for LGI bleeding in a child and also the first report of severe hemorrhage after the STEP procedure. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of gastric varices and results of sclerotherapy with N-butyl 2 cyanoacrylate for controlling acute gastric variceal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Mumtaz; Shahid Majid; Hasnain A Shah; Kashif Hameed; Ashfaq Ahmed; Saeed Hamid; Wasim Jafri


    AIM: To study the prevalence, predictors and control of bleeding following N-butyl 2 cyanoacrylate (NBC)sclerotherapy of gastric varix (GV).METHODS: We analyzed case records of 1436 patients with portal hypertension, who underwent endoscopy during the past five years for variceal screening or upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Fifty patients with bleeding GV underwent sclerotherapy with a mean of 2 mL NBC for control of bleeding. Outcome parameters were primary hemostasis (bleeding control within the first 48 h), recurrent bleeding (after 48 h of esophagogastro-duodenoscopy) and in-hospital mortality were analyzed.RESULTS: The prevalence of GV in patients with portal hypertension was 15% (220/1436) and the incidence of bleeding was 22.7% (50/220). Out of the 50 bleeding GV patients, isolated gastric varices (IGV-Ⅰ) were seen in 22 (44%), gastro-oesophageal varices (GOV) on lesser curvature (GOV-Ⅰ ) in 16 (32%), and GOV on greater curvature (GOV-Ⅱ) in 15 (30%). IGV- Ⅰ was seen in 44% (22/50) patients who had bleeding as compared to 23% (39/170) who did not have bleeding (P <0.003). Primary hemostasis was achieved with NBC in all patients. Re-bleeding occurred in 7 (14%) patients after 48 h of initial sclerotherapy. Secondary hemostasis was achieved with repeat NBC sclerotherapy in 4/7(57%). Three patients died after repeat sclerotherapy,one during transjugular intrahepatic portosysternic stem shunt (TIPSS), one during surgery and one due to uncontrolled bleeding. Treatment failure-related mortality rate was 6% (3/50).CONCLUSION: GV can be seen in 15% of patients with portal hypertension and the incidence of bleeding is 22.7%. NBC is highly effective in controlling GV bleeding.In hospital mortality of patients with bleeding GV is 6%.

  8. Detection of drugs in lifted cyanoacrylate-developed latent fingermarks using two laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric methods. (United States)

    Sundar, Latha; Rowell, Frederick


    This paper describes a method for lifting cyanoacrylate (CNA)-developed latent fingermarks from a glass surface and the detection of five drugs in lifted marks from fingers that had been in contact with the drugs, using Surface Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation TOF-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two drugs of abuse (cocaine and methadone) and three therapeutic drugs (aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine) were used as contact residues. Latent fingermarks spiked with the drugs were subjected to CNA fuming followed by dusting with ARRO SupraNano™ MS black magnetic powder (SALDI-TOF-MS) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) (MALDI-TOF-MS). The dusted mark was then exposed to solvent vapour before lifting with a commercial fingerprint lifting tape following established procedures. The presence of the drugs was then confirmed by direct analysis on the tape without further processing using SALDI- or MALDI-TOF-MS. The black magnetic fingerprint powder provided visual enhancement of the CNA-fingermark while no visual enhancement was observed for marks dusted with DHB powder. Similar [M + H](+) peaks for all the drug analytes were observed for both methods along with some sodium and potassium adducts for SALDI-MS and some major fragment ions but the SALDI signals were generally more intense. Simple exposure to acetone vapour of the CNA-developed marks enabled their effective transfer onto the tape which was crucial for subsequent MS detection of the analytes.

  9. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris, E-mail:; Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Digestive and Oncologic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Department of Visceral Surgery (Switzerland); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Digestive and Oncologic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)


    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  10. Composites containing albumin protein or cyanoacrylate adhesives and biodegradable scaffolds: I. Acute wound closure study in a rat model (United States)

    Hoffman, Grant T.; Soller, Eric C.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Gonnerman, Krista N.; McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.


    Composite adhesives composed of biodegradable scaffolds impregnated with a biological or synthetic adhesive were investigated for use in wound closure as an alternative to using either one of the adhesives alone. Two different scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biological material, small intestinal sub mucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. The biological adhesive was composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser. The synthetic adhesive was Ethicon's Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength of skin incisions repaired ex vivo in a rat model, by adhesive alone or in combination with a scaffold, as well as the time-to-failure, were measured and compared. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the scaffold-enhanced biological adhesives were on average, 80% stronger than their non-enhanced counterparts, with an accompanying increase in the time-to-failure of the repairs. These results support the theory that a scaffold material with an irregular surface that bridges the wound provides a stronger, more durable and consistent adhesion, due to the distribution of the tensile stress forces over the many micro-adhesions provided by the irregular surface, rather than the one large continuous adhesive contact. This theory is also supported by several previous ex vivo experiments demonstrating enhanced tensile strength of irregular versus smooth scaffold surfaces in identical tissue repairs performed on bovine thoracic aorta, liver, spleen, small intestine and lung tissue.

  11. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system,which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force,as being compared with the classical interactions(e.g. hydrogen bonding,electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper,we present an overview of the typical cation-π interactions in biological systems,the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions,as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  12. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG JiaGao; LUO XiaoMin; YAN XiuHua; LI Zhong; TANG Yun; JIANG HuaLiang; ZHU WeiLiang


    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system, which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force, as being compared with the classical interac-tions (e.g. hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper, we present an overview of the typi-cal cation-π interactions in biological systems, the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions, as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  13. Heavy metal cations permeate the TRPV6 epithelial cation channel. (United States)

    Kovacs, Gergely; Danko, Tamas; Bergeron, Marc J; Balazs, Bernadett; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Zsembery, Akos; Hediger, Matthias A


    TRPV6 belongs to the vanilloid family of the transient receptor potential channel (TRP) superfamily. This calcium-selective channel is highly expressed in the duodenum and the placenta, being responsible for calcium absorption in the body and fetus. Previous observations have suggested that TRPV6 is not only permeable to calcium but also to other divalent cations in epithelial tissues. In this study, we tested whether TRPV6 is indeed also permeable to cations such as zinc and cadmium. We found that the basal intracellular calcium concentration was higher in HEK293 cells transfected with hTRPV6 than in non-transfected cells, and that this difference almost disappeared in nominally calcium-free solution. Live cell imaging experiments with Fura-2 and NewPort Green DCF showed that overexpression of human TRPV6 increased the permeability for Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), and interestingly also for La(3+) and Gd(3+). These results were confirmed using the patch clamp technique. (45)Ca uptake experiments showed that cadmium, lanthanum and gadolinium were also highly efficient inhibitors of TRPV6-mediated calcium influx at higher micromolar concentrations. Our results suggest that TRPV6 is not only involved in calcium transport but also in the transport of other divalent cations, including heavy metal ions, which may have toxicological implications.

  14. The adjuvant mechanism of cationic dimethyldioctadecylammonium liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Karen Smith; Agger, Else Marie; Foged, Camilla;


    Cationic liposomes are being used increasingly as efficient adjuvants for subunit vaccines but their precise mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we investigated the adjuvant mechanism of cationic liposomes based on the synthetic amphiphile dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA). The liposomes ...

  15. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman,; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.


    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing

  16. Theranastic USPIO-loaded microbubbles for mediating and monitoring blood-brain barrier permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan; Koczera, Patrick; Fokong, Stanley; Gremse, Felix; Ehling, Josef; Vogt, Michael; Pich, Andrij; Storm, Gert; Zandvoort, van Marc; Kiessling, Fabian


    Efficient and safe drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains one of the major challenges of biomedical and (nano-) pharmaceutical research. Here, it is demonstrated that poly(butyl cyanoacrylate)-based microbubbles (MB), carrying ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanop

  17. Theranostic USPIO-loaded microbubbles for mediating and monitoring blood-brain barrier permeation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan; Koczera, Patrick; Fokong, Stanley; Gremse, Felix; Ehling, Josef; Vogt, Michael; Pich, Andrij; Storm, G; Van Zandvoort, Marc; Kiessling, Fabian


    Efficient and safe drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) remains one of the major challenges of biomedical and (nano-) pharmaceutical research. Here, it is demonstrated that poly(butyl cyanoacrylate)-based microbubbles (MB), carrying ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanop

  18. Composites containing albumin protein or cyanoacrylate adhesives and biodegradable scaffolds: II. In vivo wound closure study in a rat model (United States)

    McNally-Heintzelman, Karen M.; Heintzelman, Douglas L.; Duffy, Mark T.; Bloom, Jeffrey N.; Soller, Eric C.; Gilmour, Travis M.; Hoffman, Grant T.; Edward, Deepak


    Our Scaffold-Enhanced Biological Adhesive (SEBA) system was investigated as an alternative to sutures or adhesives alone for repair of wounds. Two scaffold materials were investigated: (i) a synthetic biodegradable material fabricated from poly(L-lactic-co-glycolic acid); and (ii) a biologic material, small intestinal submucosa, manufactured by Cook BioTech. Two adhesive materials were also investigated: (i) a biologic adhesive composed of 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder and 0.5mg/ml indocyanine green dye mixed in deionized water, and activated with an 808-nm diode laser; and (ii) Ethicon"s Dermabond, a 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate. The tensile strength and time-to-failure of skin incisions repaired in vivo in a rat model were measured at seven days postoperative. Incisions closed by protein solder alone, by Dermabond alone, or by suture, were also tested for comparison. The tensile strength of repairs formed using the SEBA system were 50% to 65% stronger than repairs formed by suture or either adhesive alone, with significantly less variations within each experimental group (average standard deviations of 15% for SEBA versus 38% for suture and 28% for adhesive alone). In addition, the time-to-failure curves showed a longevity not previously seen with the suture or adhesive alone techniques. The SEBA system acts to keep the dermis in tight apposition during the critical early phase of wound healing when tissue gaps are bridged by scar and granulation tissue. It has the property of being more flexible than either of the adhesives alone and may allow the apposed edges to move in conjunction with each other as a unit for a longer period of time and over a greater range of stresses than adhesives alone. This permits more rapid healing and establishment of integrity since the microgaps between the dermis edges are significantly reduced. By the time the scaffolds are sloughed from the wound site, there is greater strength and healing than that produced by adhesive alone or

  19. 氰基丙烯酸酯-纳米药物骨的靶向治疗*☆%Cyanoacrylate-nano drug:A bone-targeted therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蔚; 刘明


      背景:以α-氰基丙烯酸酯为主体的医用胶黏剂经过改性研究,在湿性环境中能产生较大粘接强度,如承载不同种类的药物,利用其能在体内自然降解的性能,不仅可以实现药物的缓释,还可以诱导新生骨组织的爬行替代。目的:分析氰基丙烯酸酯和纳米给药系统各自的理化特性及优缺点,阐明其将来的临床应用前景及尚待解决的问题。方法:检索PubMed数据库、中国期刊全文数据库2004年1月至2012年10月有关氰基丙烯酸酯和纳米药物骨靶向治疗的文献,检索英文关键词为“Cyanoacrylate;nanoparticle drug delivery system;Targeted therapy”,中文关键词为“氰基丙烯酸酯;纳米给药系统;靶向治疗”。结果与结论:将氰基丙烯酸酯黏合胶复合纳米药物进行骨靶向治疗,是鉴于氰基丙烯酸酯及其衍生物具有在骨髓腔等湿性条件下能迅速黏合,强度较大,能生物降解等诸多优点。FDA已将氰基丙烯酸酯的适用级别从Ⅲ级提升至Ⅱ级,今后的课题若能充分利用纳米药物靶向治疗的特点优势,实现药物的高载荷和药物控释,通过交叉学科的互相渗透,针对提高骨-假体界面黏合强度、生物力学强度和弹性模量,研发复合型生物材料,改善单一材料在性能上的缺陷,靶向长效纳米药物黏合胶将是治疗骨肿瘤、骨结核和骨髓炎等疾病的一种重要手段。%  BACKGROUND: Modified medical adhesives with α-cyanoacrylate as the main component can produce a large adhesive strength in a moist environment, such as carrying different types of drugs, achieving a sustained release of drug and inducing the creeping substitution of new bone tissue. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of cyanoacrylate-nano drug delivery system so as to clarify its clinical prospect in the future and problems to be solved. METHODS: A

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of onyx compared with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate in the subarachnoid space of a rabbit model: an experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Bulent [Kirikkale University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Kirikkale University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Oruckaptan, Hakan H.; Hazer, Burcu D. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, Isil [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Atilla, Pergin; Muftuoglu, Sevda F. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embriology, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Kamer [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara (Turkey)


    The toxic effects of onyx, its solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) were evaluated after infusion into the subaracnoid space of a rabbit model. Each of the two various concentrations of onyx, pure DMSO, NBCA, and normal saline solution were percutaneously infused into the pontocerebellar cisternae of 39 domestic male albino rabbits, after which, the brain stems and medial cerebellar tissues were harvested for biochemical and histopathological studies. The specimens infused in various concentration of onyx, DMSO, and NBCA showed neural tissue necrosis and edema with inflammatory cell infiltration in the acute stage. Although the mean values of the lipid peroxidase in the control, saline, and NBCA groups were found to be almost similar, they were found to be low in the onyx and DMSO groups. This experimental study suggests that NBCA, and various concentrations of onyx and DMSO have toxic effects on the neural tissues of rabbits when infused into the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  1. Cyanoacrylate Skin Surface Stripping and the 3S-Biokit Advent in Tropical Dermatology: A Look from Liège

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard


    Full Text Available In the dermatopathology field, some simple available laboratory tests require minimum equipment for establishing a diagnosis. Among them, the cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS, formerly named skin surface biopsy or follicular biopsy, represents a convenient low cost procedure. It is a minimally invasive method collecting a continuous sheet of stratum corneum and horny follicular casts. In the vast majority of cases, it is painless and is unassociated with adverse events. CSSS can be performed in subjects of any age. The method has a number of applications in diagnostic dermatopathology and cosmetology, as well as in experimental dermatology settings. A series of derived analytic procedures include xerosis grading, comedometry, corneofungimetry, corneodynamics of stratum corneum renewal, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, and corneoxenometry.

  2. Cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping and the 3S-Biokit advent in tropical dermatology: a look from Liège. (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Paquet, Philippe; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Radermacher, Jean; Delvenne, Philippe


    In the dermatopathology field, some simple available laboratory tests require minimum equipment for establishing a diagnosis. Among them, the cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS), formerly named skin surface biopsy or follicular biopsy, represents a convenient low cost procedure. It is a minimally invasive method collecting a continuous sheet of stratum corneum and horny follicular casts. In the vast majority of cases, it is painless and is unassociated with adverse events. CSSS can be performed in subjects of any age. The method has a number of applications in diagnostic dermatopathology and cosmetology, as well as in experimental dermatology settings. A series of derived analytic procedures include xerosis grading, comedometry, corneofungimetry, corneodynamics of stratum corneum renewal, corneomelametry, corneosurfametry, and corneoxenometry.

  3. The stability and controlled release of I-ascorbic acid encapsulated in poly (ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanocapsules prepared by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil microemulsions. (United States)

    Zhang, Su-Ning; Chen, Tao; Guo, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Jian; Song, Xiaoqiu; Zhou, Lei


    The L-ascorbic acid (AA) was encapsulated into biodegradable and biocompatible poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) (PECA) nanocapsules by interfacial polymerization of water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsions. The influences of surfactant concentration, pH value of the dispersed aqueous phase, and W/O ratio on nanocapsule size were discussed. The stability and in vitro release of encapsulated AA were also investigated. The results show that nanocapsules could be obtained under the conditions with low pH value, high fraction of aqueous phase, and appropriate surfactant concentration. The encapsulated AA was protected by nanocapsules from oxidation and presented superior storage stability in aqueous medium than pure AA. Releasing AA from the inner core of nanocapsules could be controlled by adjusting the enzyme hydrolysis extent of the PECA wall.

  4. Prospective study of bacteremia rate after elective band ligation and sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate for esophageal varices in patients with advanced liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Queiroz Bonilha


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Band ligation (BL is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients submitted to diagnostic endoscopy, CY and BL for treatment of esophageal varices. METHODS: A prospective study comprising the period from 2004 to 2007 was conducted at Hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil. Cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according treatment: BL Group (patients undergoing band ligation, n = 20 and CY Group (patients receiving cyanoacrylate injection for esophageal variceal, n = 18. Cirrhotic patients with no esophageal varices or without indication for endoscopic treatment were recruited as control (diagnostic group n = 20. Bacteremia was evaluated by blood culture at baseline and 30 minutes after the procedure. RESULTS: After 137 scheduled endoscopic procedures, none of the 58 patients had fever or any sign suggestive of infection. All baseline cultures were negative. No positive cultures were observed after CY or in the control group - diagnostic endoscopy. Three (4.6 % positive cultures were found out of the 65 sessions of band ligation (P = 0.187. Two of these samples were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which could be regarded as a contaminant. The isolated microorganism in the other case was Klebsiella oxytoca. The patient in this case presented no evidence of immunodeficiency except liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in bacteremia rate between these three groups. BL or CY

  5. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičak, H.


    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  6. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick


    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  7. Localization versus delocalization in diamine radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wiering, P.G.; Zwier, J.M.;


    The optical absorption spectrum of the radical cation of 1,4-diphenylpiperazine 2a shows a strong transition in the near-IR, and only a weak band at 445 nm, in the region where aniline radical cations normally absorb strongly. This indicates that the charge and spin are delocalized over the two...

  8. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, Hai [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Park, Andrew M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  9. Cation diffusion in the natural zeolite clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, A.; White, K.J. [Science Research Institute, Chemistry Division, Cockcroft Building, University of Salford, Salford (United Kingdom)


    The natural zeolite clinoptilolite is mined commercially in many parts of the world. It is a selective exchanger for the ammonium cation and this has prompted its use in waste water treatment, swimming pools and in fish farming. It is also used to scavenge radioisotopes in nuclear waste clean-up. Further potential uses for clinoptilolite are in soil amendment and remediation. The work described herein provides thermodynamic data on cation exchange processes in clinoptilolite involving the NH{sub 4}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations. The data includes estimates of interdiffusion coefficients together with free energies, entropies and energies of activation for the cation exchanges studied. Suggestions are made as to the mechanisms of cation-exchanges involved.

  10. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad


    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  11. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.


    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  12. Percutaneous Transhepatic Bile Duct Ablation with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate in the Treatment of a Biliary Complication after Split Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lauterio


    Full Text Available Biliary complications continue to be a major cause of morbidity after split-liver transplantation (SLT. In this report we describe an uncommon late biliary complication. One year after SLT the patient showed an intrahepatic bile dicy dilatation with severe cholangitis episodes. The segmentary bile duct of hepatic segment VI-VII draining in the left duct was unidentified and tied at the time of the in situ split-liver procedure. We perform a permanent obliteration of the dilated intrahepatic ducts by a percutaneous embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NABC. The management of biliary complications after SLT requires a multidisciplinary approach. The use of NBCA in obliteration of a dilated bile duct seems to be a safe procedure with good results providing a less invasive option than hepatic resection and decreasing the morbidity associated with chronic external biliary drainage. Further studies are needed to determine whether this approach is effective and safe and whether it could reduce hospital stay and cost.

  13. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands. (United States)

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H


    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bearing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(i) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions provided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported catalysts feature unique geometries caused by ligation of the bulky phosphine ligands. Their activities and selectivities in standard metathesis reactions were also investigated. These cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts reported here showed moderate activity and very similar stereoselectivity when compared to the second generation ruthenium dichloride catalyst in ring-closing metathesis, cross metathesis, and ring-opening metathesis polymerization assays.

  14. Cation locations and dislocations in zeolites (United States)

    Smith, Luis James

    The focus of this dissertation is the extra-framework cation sites in a particular structural family of zeolites, chabazite. Cation sites play a particularly important role in the application of these sieves for ion exchange, gas separation, catalysis, and, when the cation is a proton, acid catalysis. Structural characterization is commonly performed through the use of powder diffraction and Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. Use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, in the study of the local order of the various constituent nuclei of zeolites, complements well the long-range order information produced by diffraction. Recent developments in solid state NMR techniques allow for increased study of disorder in zeolites particularly when such phenomena test the detection limits of diffraction. These two powerful characterization techniques, powder diffraction and NMR, offer many insights into the complex interaction of cations with the zeolite framework. The acids site locations in SSZ-13, a high silica chabazite, and SAPO-34, a silicoaluminophosphate with the chabazite structure, were determined. The structure of SAPO-34 upon selective hydration was also determined. The insensitivity of X-rays to hydrogen was avoided through deuteration of the acid zeolites and neutron powder diffraction methods. Protons at inequivalent positions were found to have different acid strengths in both SSZ-13 and SAPO-34. Other light elements are incorporated into zeolites in the form of extra-framework cations, among these are lithium, sodium, and calcium. Not amenable by X-ray powder diffraction methods, the positions of such light cations in fully ion-exchanged versions of synthetic chabazite were determined through neutron powder diffraction methods. The study of more complex binary cation systems were conducted. Powder diffraction and solid state NMR methods (MAS, MQMAS) were used to examine cation site preferences and dislocations in these mixed-akali chabazites

  15. Cationized Carbohydrate Gas-Phase Fragmentation Chemistry (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J.; Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Wagoner, Ashley R.; Guan, Shanshan; Rabus, Jordan M.


    We investigate the fragmentation chemistry of cationized carbohydrates using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry, regioselective labeling, and computational methods. Our model system is D-lactose. Barriers to the fundamental glyosidic bond cleavage reactions, neutral loss pathways, and structurally informative cross-ring cleavages are investigated. The most energetically favorable conformations of cationized D-lactose were found to be similar. In agreement with the literature, larger group I cations result in structures with increased cation coordination number which require greater collision energy to dissociate. In contrast with earlier proposals, the B n -Y m fragmentation pathways of both protonated and sodium-cationized analytes proceed via protonation of the glycosidic oxygen with concerted glycosidic bond cleavage. Additionally, for the sodiated congeners our calculations support sodiated 1,6-anhydrogalactose B n ion structures, unlike the preceding literature. This affects the subsequent propensity of formation and prediction of B n /Y m branching ratio. The nature of the anomeric center (α/β) affects the relative energies of these processes, but not the overall ranking. Low-energy cross-ring cleavages are observed for the metal-cationized analytes with a retro-aldol mechanism producing the 0,2 A 2 ion from the sodiated forms. Theory and experiment support the importance of consecutive fragmentation processes, particularly for the protonated congeners at higher collision energies.

  16. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation (United States)

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi


    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  17. Epineurial Window Is More Efficient in Attracting Axons than Simple Coaptation in a Sutureless (Cyanoacrylate-Bound) Model of End-to-Side Nerve Repair in the Rat Upper Limb: Functional and Morphometric Evidences and Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Papalia, Igor; Magaudda, Ludovico; Righi, Maria; Ronchi, Giulia; Viano, Nicoletta; Geuna, Stefano; Colonna, Michele Rosario


    End-to-side nerve coaptation brings regenerating axons from the donor to the recipient nerve. Several techniques have been used to perform coaptation: microsurgical sutures with and without opening a window into the epi(peri)neurial connective tissue; among these, window techniques have been proven more effective in inducing axonal regeneration. The authors developed a sutureless model of end-to-side coaptation in the rat upper limb. In 19 adult Wistar rats, the median and the ulnar nerves of the left arm were approached from the axillary region, the median nerve transected and the proximal stump sutured to the pectoral muscle to prevent regeneration. Animals were then randomly divided in two experimental groups (7 animals each, 5 animals acting as control): Group 1: the distal stump of the transected median nerve was fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution; Group 2: a small epineurial window was opened into the epineurium of the ulnar nerve, caring to avoid damage to the nerve fibres; the distal stump of the transected median nerve was then fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution. The grasping test for functional evaluation was repeated every 10-11 weeks starting from week-15, up to the sacrifice (week 36). At week 36, the animals were sacrificed and the regenerated nerves harvested and processed for morphological investigations (high-resolution light microscopy as well as stereological and morphometrical analysis). This study shows that a) cyanoacrylate in end-to-side coaptation produces scarless axon regeneration without toxic effects; b) axonal regeneration and myelination occur even without opening an epineurial window, but c) the window is related to a larger number of regenerating fibres, especially myelinated and mature, and better functional outcomes.

  18. Epineurial Window Is More Efficient in Attracting Axons than Simple Coaptation in a Sutureless (Cyanoacrylate-Bound Model of End-to-Side Nerve Repair in the Rat Upper Limb: Functional and Morphometric Evidences and Review of the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Papalia

    Full Text Available End-to-side nerve coaptation brings regenerating axons from the donor to the recipient nerve. Several techniques have been used to perform coaptation: microsurgical sutures with and without opening a window into the epi(perineurial connective tissue; among these, window techniques have been proven more effective in inducing axonal regeneration. The authors developed a sutureless model of end-to-side coaptation in the rat upper limb. In 19 adult Wistar rats, the median and the ulnar nerves of the left arm were approached from the axillary region, the median nerve transected and the proximal stump sutured to the pectoral muscle to prevent regeneration. Animals were then randomly divided in two experimental groups (7 animals each, 5 animals acting as control: Group 1: the distal stump of the transected median nerve was fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution; Group 2: a small epineurial window was opened into the epineurium of the ulnar nerve, caring to avoid damage to the nerve fibres; the distal stump of the transected median nerve was then fixed to the ulnar nerve by applying cyanoacrylate solution. The grasping test for functional evaluation was repeated every 10-11 weeks starting from week-15, up to the sacrifice (week 36. At week 36, the animals were sacrificed and the regenerated nerves harvested and processed for morphological investigations (high-resolution light microscopy as well as stereological and morphometrical analysis. This study shows that a cyanoacrylate in end-to-side coaptation produces scarless axon regeneration without toxic effects; b axonal regeneration and myelination occur even without opening an epineurial window, but c the window is related to a larger number of regenerating fibres, especially myelinated and mature, and better functional outcomes.

  19. Cyst Ablation Using a Mixture of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Iodized Oil in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: the Long-Term Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Cho, Jeong Yeon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We wanted to assess the long-term results of cyst ablation with using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) and iodized oil in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and symptomatic cysts. Cyst ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil was performed in 99 cysts from 21 patients who had such symptoms as abdominal distension and pain. The collapse or reaccumulation of the ablated cysts after the procedure was assessed during the follow-up period of 36 to 90 months. The treatment effects, including symptom relief, and the clinical data such as the blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were also assessed, together with the complications. The procedure was technically successful in all 99 cysts from the 21 patients. Any procedure-related significant complications were not detected. Seventy-seven of 99 cysts (78%) were successfully collapsed on the follow-up CT. Twenty-two cysts showed reaccumulation during long-term follow-up period. The clinical symptoms were relieved in 17 of the 21 patients (76%). Four of 12 patients (33%) with hypertension and two of six patients (33%) with azotemia were improved. End stage renal disease (ESRD) occurred in six of the 21 patients (28%) during the follow-up period. The mean age of ESRD in our patients was 57 years. The mean time interval for the development of ESRD was 19 months. Ablation using a mixture of NBCA and iodized oil may be an effective, safe method for obtaining symptom relief in patients with ADPKD.

  20. Cation Effect on Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-Yong; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin


    We examine the effect of cations in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) and H2O2 on copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). On the base of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and material removal rate (MRR) results, it is found that ammonia shows the highest MRR as well as good surface after CMP, while KOH demon-strates the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that sma//molecules with lone-pairs rather than molecules with steric effect and common inorganic cations are better for copper CMP process, which is indirectly confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP).

  1. Cation Effect on Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Yong; Liu, Bo; Song, Zhi-Tang; Feng, Song-Lin


    We examine the effect of cations in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) and H2O2 on copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). On the base of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and material removal rate (MRR) results, it is found that ammonia shows the highest MRR as well as good surface after CMP, while KOH demonstrates the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that small molecules with lone-pairs rather than molecules with steric effect and common inorganic cations are better for copper CMP process, which is indirectly confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP).

  2. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.


    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  3. Cationic dialkylarylphosphates: a new family of bio-inspired cationic lipids for gene delivery. (United States)

    Le Corre, Stéphanie S; Belmadi, Nawal; Berchel, Mathieu; Le Gall, Tony; Haelters, Jean-Pierre; Lehn, Pierre; Montier, Tristan; Jaffrès, Paul-Alain


    In this work that aims to synthesize and evaluate new cationic lipids as vectors for gene delivery, we report the synthesis of a series of cationic lipids in which a phosphate functional group acts as a linker to assemble on a molecular scale, two lipid chains and one cationic polar head. The mono or dicationic moiety is connected to the phosphate group by an aryl spacer. In this work, two synthesis strategies were evaluated. The first used the Atherton-Todd coupling reaction to introduce a phenolic derivative to dioleylphosphite. The second strategy used a sequential addition of lipid alcohol and a phenolic derivative on POCl3. The two methods are efficient, but the latter allows larger yields. Different polar head groups were introduced, thus producing amphiphilic compounds possessing either one permanent (N-methyl-imidazolium, pyridinium, trimethylammonium) or two permanent cationic charges. All these cationic lipids were formulated as liposomal solutions and characterized (size and zeta potential). They formed stable liposomal solutions both in water (at pH 7.0) and in a weakly acidic medium (at pH 5.5). Finally, this new generation of cationic lipids was used to deliver DNA into various human-derived epithelial cells cultured in vitro. Compared with Lipofectamine used as a reference commercial lipofection reagent, some cationic dialkylarylphosphates were able to demonstrate potent gene transfer abilities, and noteworthily, monocationic derivatives were much more efficient than dicationic analogues.

  4. Cytotoxic effects of cyanoacrylates used as retrograde filling materials: an in vitro analysis Efeitos citotóxicos de cianoacrilatos usados como material de obturação retrógrada: uma análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledson Lima de Azevedo


    Full Text Available Cyanoacrylate has been used in medicine and dentistry for many years. It has been used as a postextraction dressing and retrograde filling material in endodontic surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Histoacryl and other two homologue ethyl cyanoacrylates, Super Bonder and Ultrabond, on cultured fibroblasts, using the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The cyanoacrylates were applied to round glass coverslips, which were placed in contact with NIH 3T3 cells. After 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (short-term assay; viability and 1, 3, 5 and 7 days (long-term assay; survival, the cells were examined under phase light microscopy and counted. The data were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. In the short-term experiments, only the cultures of the Ultrabond group (GIV presented significant smaller percentages of cell viability than the cultures of the other groups (GI: control; GII: Super Bonder; GIII: Histoacryl. Although the cultures of the Super Bonder group (GII presented smaller percentages of cell viability than cultures of the other groups (GI, GIII, GIV at the long-term assay, this group was the only experimental group presenting a continuous and progressive cell growth. Our results have shown an in vitro biocompatibility of Histoacryl and ethyl cyanoacrylate homologues. These cyanoacrylates could therefore be of importance for endodontic purposes.Os cianoacrilatos tem encontrado aplicabilidade tanto na Medicina como na Odontologia há muitos anos. Têm sido usados como curativo após exodontias, bem como para obturação retrógrada em cirurgia parendodôntica. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar o efeito citotóxico do Histoacryl e outros dois homólogos etil cianoacrilatos: SuperBonder e Ultrabond, em cultura de fibroblastos, empregando ensaios de viabilidade pela exclusão de células coradas pelo azul de Trypan. Os cianoacrilatos foram aplicados em lamínulas de vidro circulares, que foram colocadas sobre cultura

  5. Cation Selectivity in Biological Cation Channels Using Experimental Structural Information and Statistical Mechanical Simulation. (United States)

    Finnerty, Justin John; Peyser, Alexander; Carloni, Paolo


    Cation selective channels constitute the gate for ion currents through the cell membrane. Here we present an improved statistical mechanical model based on atomistic structural information, cation hydration state and without tuned parameters that reproduces the selectivity of biological Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. The importance of the inclusion of step-wise cation hydration in these results confirms the essential role partial dehydration plays in the bacterial Na+ channels. The model, proven reliable against experimental data, could be straightforwardly used for designing Na+ and Ca2+ selective nanopores.

  6. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural...

  7. Resonance raman studies of phenylcyclopropane radical cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godbout, J.T.; Zuilhof, H.; Heim, G.; Gould, I.R.; Goodman, J.L.; Dinnocenzo, J.P.; Myers Kelley, A.


    Resonance Raman spectra of the radical cations of phenylcyclopropane and trans-1-phenyl-2-methylcyclopropane are reported. A near-UV pump pulse excites a photosensitizer which oxidizes the species of interest, and a visible probe pulse delayed by 35 ns obtains the spectrum of the radical ion. The tr

  8. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.;


    Polypyrrole (PPy) polymer films permanently doped with large, immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS) have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry in order to clarify the roles of cations and anions in the aqueous electrolyte as mobile ions in the film. Aqueous solutions of 0.05-0.1 M...... alkali metal chlorides as well as BaCl2, NaBr and (CH3CH2CH2)(4)NBr were used to investigate the effects of both the ionic charge, size and shape. In 1: 1 electrolytes using small ions only three peaks are present: a sharp cathodic peak at ca. - 0.6 V vs, SCE representing both the insertion of cations...... complicating reproducibility when employing PPy(DBS) polymers as actuators. When the cation is doubly charged, it enters the film less readily, and anions dominate the mobility. Using a large and bulky cation switches the mechanism to apparently total anion motion. The changes in area of the three peaks...

  9. Anionic/cationic complexes in hair care. (United States)

    O'Lenick, Tony


    The formulation of cosmetic products is always more complicated than studying the individual components in aqueous solution. This is because there are numerous interactions between the components, which make the formulation truly more than the sum of the parts. This article will look at interactions between anionic and cationic surfactants and offer insights into how to use these interactions advantageously in making formulations.

  10. Controlled Cationic Polymerization of N-Vinylcarbazol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuyken, O.; Rieß, G.; Loontjens, J.A.


    Cationic polymerization of N-Vinylcarbazol (NVC) was initiated with 1-iodo-1-(2-methylpropyloxy)ethane in the presence of N(n-Bu)4ClO4 and without addition of this activator. Furthermore, 1-chloro-1-(2-methylpropyloxy) ethane, with and without activator has been applied as initiator for NVC. These i

  11. Cationic lipids and cationic ligands induce DNA helix denaturation: detection of single stranded regions by KMnO4 probing. (United States)

    Prasad, T K; Gopal, Vijaya; Rao, N Madhusudhana


    Cationic lipids and cationic polymers are widely used in gene delivery. Using 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as a cationic lipid, we have investigated the stability of the DNA in DOTAP:DNA complexes by probing with potassium permanganate (KMnO4). Interestingly, thymidines followed by a purine showed higher susceptibility to cationic ligand-mediated melting. Similar studies performed with other water-soluble cationic ligands such as polylysine, protamine sulfate and polyethyleneimine also demonstrated melting of the DNA but with variations. Small cations such as spermine and spermidine and a cationic detergent, cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, also rendered the DNA susceptible to modification by KMnO4. The data presented here provide direct proof for melting of DNA upon interaction with cationic lipids. Structural changes subsequent to binding of cationic lipids/ligands to DNA may lead to instability and formation of DNA bubbles in double-stranded DNA.

  12. Dendritic Cells Stimulated by Cationic Liposomes. (United States)

    Vitor, Micaela Tamara; Bergami-Santos, Patrícia Cruz; Cruz, Karen Steponavicius Piedade; Pinho, Mariana Pereira; Barbuto, José Alexandre Marzagão; De La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola


    Immunotherapy of cancer aims to harness the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells. To induce an immune response against cancer, activated dendritic cells (DCs) must present tumor antigens to T lymphocytes of patients. However, cancer patients' DCs are frequently defective, therefore, they are prone to induce rather tolerance than immune responses. In this context, loading tumor antigens into DCs and, at the same time, activating these cells, is a tempting goal within the field. Thus, we investigated the effects of cationic liposomes on the DCs differentiation/maturation, evaluating their surface phenotype and ability to stimulate T lymphocytes proliferation in vitro. The cationic liposomes composed by egg phosphatidylcholine, 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane and 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (50/25/25% molar) were prepared by the thin film method followed by extrusion (65 nm, polydispersity of 0.13) and by the dehydration-rehydration method (95% of the population 107 nm, polydispersity of 0.52). The phenotypic analysis of dendritic cells and the analysis of T lymphocyte proliferation were performed by flow cytometry and showed that both cationic liposomes were incorporated and activated dendritic cells. Extruded liposomes were better incorporated and induced higher CD86 expression for dendritic cells than dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles. Furthermore, dendritic cells which internalized extruded liposomes also provided stronger T lymphocyte stimulation. Thus, cationic liposomes with a smaller size and polydispersity seem to be better incorporated by dendritic cells. Hence, these cationic liposomes could be used as a potential tool in further cancer immunotherapy strategies and contribute to new strategies in immunotherapy.

  13. Comparação dos gastos com material para reparação de perfurações de córnea com cola de cianoacrilato e sutura de córnea Comparative cost evaluation in corneal perforation repair with cyanoacrylate adhesive versus corneal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Lioji Ueda


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação comparativa de custos de reparação de pequenas perfurações oculares utilizando a técnica da cola de cianoacrilato Super Bonder® (2-metil-cianoacrilato comparada à técnica de sutura de córnea. MÉTODOS: A fim de avaliar comparativamente os custos do uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato com a técnica de sutura de córnea, realizou-se análise dos materiais usados em ambas técnicas. RESULTADOS: A análise de custos comparativos entre o uso da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato em pequenas perfurações, versus a técnica de sutura de córnea demonstrou menor gasto com uso do adesivo. CONCLUSÃO: A utilização da técnica de cola de cianoacrilato, para reparação de perfuração de córnea, apresentou custos menores quando comparada com a técnica de sutura de córnea.PURPOSE: The aim of this study was performing a comparative evaluation of cost in small ocular perforation repair using cyanoacrylate adhesive technique Super BonderTM (methyl-2-cyanoacrylate as compared with corneal suture technique. METHODS: In order to compare evaluations of cost a cost analysis in "reais" (R$ was conducted for both techniques according to the materials used in cyanoacrylate glue technique and the corneal suture. RESULTS: The analysis of comparative cost of the cyanoacrylate adhesive technique in small perforations versus corneal suture showed a lower cost of the former. CONCLUSION: Lower cost was found for the cyanoacrylate glue technique for corneal perforation repair when compared to the corneal suture technique.

  14. Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.


    The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution a...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Yu; Chuanshan Zhao; Kefu Chen


    This study investigated the effects of several different cationic additives on the viscosity 、zeta potential and printing properties of the ink-jet coating. The cationic additives have greatly improved sheet's gloss and printabilities.

  16. Ion dynamics in cationic lipid bilayer systems in saline solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Markus S; Gurtovenko, Andrey A; Vattulainen, Ilpo


    mixture of cationic dimyristoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DMTAP) and zwitterionic (neutral) dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipids. Using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we address the effects of bilayer composition (cationic to zwitterionic lipid fraction) and of NaCl electrolyte...

  17. Production of sulfonated cation-exchangers from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Vinogradov, M.V.


    Continuing our studies of the preparation of products of practical value from asphaltite, a new by-product of oil refining, we obtained sulfonated cation-exchangers from a mixture of asphaltite and acid tar. It is shown that these cation-exchangers have good kinetic properties and are superior in thermal and thermohydrolytic stability to the commercial cation-exchange resin KU-2.

  18. Cation Permeability in Soybean Aleurone Layer


    Noda, Hiroko; Fukuda, Mitsuru


    The permeation of water and ions into bean seeds is essential for processing and cooking of beans. The permeability of cations, K, Na, Ca, and Mg ions, into soybean seed tissue, especially aleurone layer, during water uptake was investigated to characterize the ion permeation into soybeans. Aleurone layers and seed coats contained relatively high concentration of endogenous K and Ca ions, and endogenous Ca ion, respectively. The amounts of Ca ion entered seed coats and aleurone layers were gr...

  19. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayanna; S R Mahadeva Prasanna


    In this paper, the task of identifying the speaker using limited training and testing data is addressed. Speaker identification system is viewed as four stages namely, analysis, feature extraction, modelling and testing. The speaker identification performance depends on the techniques employed in these stages. As demonstrated by different experiments, in case of limited training and testing data condition, owing to less data, existing techniques in each stage will not provide good performance. This work demonstrates the following: multiple frame size and rate (MFSR) analysis provides improvement in the analysis stage, combination of mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), its temporal derivatives $(\\Delta,\\Delta \\Delta)$, linear prediction residual (LPR) and linear prediction residual phase (LPRP) features provides improvement in the feature extraction stage and combination of learning vector quantization (LVQ) and gaussian mixture model – universal background model (GMM–UBM) provides improvement in the modelling stage. The performance is further improved by integrating the proposed techniques at the respective stages and combining the evidences from them at the testing stage. To achieve this, we propose strength voting (SV), weighted borda count (WBC) and supporting systems (SS) as combining methods at the abstract, rank and measurement levels, respectively. Finally, the proposed hierarchical combination (HC) method integrating these three methods provides significant improvement in the performance. Based on these explorations, this work proposes a scheme for speaker identification under limited training and testing data.

  20. Controlling chemistry with cations: photochemistry within zeolites. (United States)

    Ramamurthy, V; Shailaja, J; Kaanumalle, Lakshmi S; Sunoj, R B; Chandrasekhar, J


    The alkali ions present in the supercages of zeolites X and Y interact with included guest molecules through quadrupolar (cation-pi), and dipolar (cation-carbonyl) interactions. The presence of such interactions can be inferred through solid-state NMR spectra of the guest molecules. Alkali ions, as illustrated in this article, can be exploited to control the photochemical and photophysical behaviors of the guest molecules. For example, molecules that rarely phosphoresce can be induced to do so within heavy cation-exchanged zeolites. The nature (electronic configuration) of the lowest triplet state of carbonyl compounds can be altered with the help of light alkali metal ions. This state switch (n pi*-pi pi*) helps to bring out reactivity that normally remains dormant. Selectivity obtained during the singlet oxygen oxidation of olefins within zeolites illustrates the remarkable control that can be exerted on photoreactions with the help of a confined medium that also has active sites. The reaction cavities of zeolites, like enzymes, are not only well-defined and confined, but also have active sites that closely guide the reactant molecule from start to finish. The examples provided here illustrate that zeolites are far more useful than simple shape-selective catalysts.

  1. Cell volume-regulated cation channels. (United States)

    Wehner, Frank


    Considering the enormous turnover rates of ion channels when compared to carriers it is quite obvious that channel-mediated ion transport may serve as a rapid and efficient mechanism of cell volume regulation. Whenever studied in a quantitative fashion the hypertonic activation of non-selective cation channels is found to be the main mechanism of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Some channels are inhibited by amiloride (and may be related to the ENaC), others are blocked by Gd(3) and flufenamate (and possibly linked to the group of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels). Nevertheless, the actual architecture of hypertonicity-induced cation channels remains to be defined. In some preparations, hypertonic stress decreases K(+) channel activity so reducing the continuous K(+) leak out of the cell; this is equivalent to a net gain of cell osmolytes facilitating RVI. The hypotonic activation of K(+) selective channels appears to be one of the most common principles of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and, in most instances, the actual channels involved could be identified on the molecular level. These are BKCa (or maxi K(+)) channels, IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels (of intermediate and small conductance, respectively), the group of voltage-gated (Kv) channels including their Beta (or Kv ancilliary) subunits, two-pore K(2P) channels, as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels (also contributing to K(ATP) channels). In some cells, hypotonicity activates non-selective cation channels. This is surprising, at first sight, because of the inside negative membrane voltage and the sum of driving forces for Na(+) and K(+) diffusion across the cell membrane rather favouring net cation uptake. Some of these channels, however, exhibit a P(K)/P(Na) significantly higher than 1, whereas others are Ca(++) permeable linking hypotonic stress to the activation of Ca(++) dependent ion channels. In particular, the latter holds for the group of TRPs which are specialised in the

  2. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate]. (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A


    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  3. Alkali cation specific adsorption onto fcc(111) transition metal electrodes. (United States)

    Mills, J N; McCrum, I T; Janik, M J


    The presence of alkali cations in electrolyte solutions is known to impact the rate of electrocatalytic reactions, though the mechanism of such impact is not conclusively determined. We use density functional theory (DFT) to examine the specific adsorption of alkali cations to fcc(111) electrode surfaces, as specific adsorption may block catalyst sites or otherwise impact surface catalytic chemistry. Solvation of the cation-metal surface structure was investigated using explicit water models. Computed equilibrium potentials for alkali cation adsorption suggest that alkali and alkaline earth cations will specifically adsorb onto Pt(111) and Pd(111) surfaces in the potential range of hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen evolution catalysis in alkaline solutions.

  4. Hair follicle targeting, penetration enhancement and Langerhans cell activation make cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping a promising delivery technique for transcutaneous immunization with large molecules and particle-based vaccines. (United States)

    Vogt, Annika; Hadam, Sabrina; Deckert, Iliane; Schmidt, Julia; Stroux, Andrea; Afraz, Zahra; Rancan, Fiorenza; Lademann, Jürgen; Combadiere, Behazine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike


    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) requires targeting of a maximum number of skin antigen-presenting cells as non-invasive as possible on small skin areas. In two clinical trials, we introduced cyanoacrylate skin surface stripping (CSSS) as a safe method for TCI. Here, using ex vivo human skin, we demonstrate that one CSSS procedure removed only 30% of stratum corneum, but significantly increased the penetration of 200 nm polystyrene particles deep into vellus and intermediate hair follicles from where they could not been retrieved by conventional tape stripping. Two subsequent CSSS had no striking additional effect. CSSS increased particle penetration in superficial stratum corneum and induced Langerhans cell activation. Formulation in amphiphilic ointment or massage did not substantially influences the interfollicular penetration profiles. Hair follicle (HF) targeting by CSSS could become a highly effective tool for TCI when combined with carrier-based delivery and is gaining new attention as our understanding on the HF immune system increases.

  5. Interaction between alginates and manganese cations: identification of preferred cation binding sites. (United States)

    Emmerichs, N; Wingender, J; Flemming, H-C; Mayer, C


    Algal and bacterial alginates have been studied by means of 13C NMR spectroscopy in presence of paramagnetic manganese ions in order to reveal the nature of their interaction with bivalent cations. It is found that the mannuronate blocks bind manganese cations externally near their carboxylate groups, while guluronate blocks show the capability to integrate Mn2+ into pocket-like structures formed by adjacent guluronate residues. In alternating mannuronate-guluronate blocks, manganese ions preferentially locate in a concave structure formed by guluronate-mannuronate pairs. Partial acetylation of the alginate generally reduces its capability to interact with bivalent cations, however, the selectivity of the binding geometry is conserved. The results may serve as a hint for the better understanding of the alginate gelation in presence of calcium ions.

  6. Treatment of hemodialysis vascular access rupture irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade: Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of N-butyl cyanoacrylate seal-off technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Mei Jul; Liang, Huei Lung; Pan, Huay Ben [Dept. of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China); Chen, Matt Chiung Yu [Dept. of Radiology, Yuan' s General Hospital, Kaohsiung (China)


    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether the percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) seal-off technique is an effective treatment for controlling the angioplasty-related ruptures, which are irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade, during interventions for failed or failing hemodialysis vascular accesses. We reviewed 1588 interventions performed during a 2-year period for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites in 1569 patients. For the angioplasty-related ruptures, which could not be controlled with repeated prolonged balloon tamponade, the rupture sites were sealed off with an injection of a glue mixture (NBCA and lipiodol), via a needle/needle sheath to the rupture site, under a sonographic guidance. Technical success rate, complications and clinical success rate were reported. The post-seal-off primary and secondary functional patency rates were calculated by a survival analysis with the Kaplan-Meier method. Twenty ruptures irresponsive to prolonged balloon tamponade occurred in 1588 interventions (1.3%). Two technical failures were noted; one was salvaged with a bailout stent-graft insertion and the other was lost after access embolization. Eighteen accesses (90.0%) were salvaged with the seal-off technique; of them, 16 ruptures were completely sealed off, and two lesions were controlled as acute pseudoaneurysms. Acute pseudoaneurysms were corrected with stentgraft insertion in one patient, and access ligation in the other. The most significant complication during the follow-up was delayed pseudoaneurysm, which occurred in 43.8% (7 of 16) of the completely sealed off accesses. Delayed pseudoaneurysms were treated with surgical revision (n = 2), access ligation (n = 2) and observation (n = 3). During the follow-up, despite the presence of pseudoaneurysms (acute = 1, delayed = 7), a high clinical success rate of 94.4% (17 of 18) was achieved, and they were utilized for hemodialysis at the mean of 411.0 days. The post

  7. Adesivos à base de cianoacrilato para síntese de tecido mole Cyanoacrylate adhesives for the synthesis of soft tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybele Saska


    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - Adesivos teciduais têm sido muito usados para síntese de ferida, em função de ser um método indolor, rápido e de fácil execução. OBJETIVOS -Analisar e comparar compatibilidade dos adesivos, etil- cianoacrilato (Super Bonder e butilcianoacrilato (Histoacryl, e a reparação de incisões em dorso de ratos entre o fio de sutura e os respectivos adesivos. MÉTODOS - Foram usados 15 ratos. Realizaram-se duas lojas cirúrgicas no dorso. Em cada uma, foi implantado um tubo de polietileno (10mm x 1mm, os quais foram preenchidos com os adesivos Super Bonder (lado direito e Histoacryl (lado esquerdo. As incisões, do lado esquerdo, foram coaptadas com Super Bonder, e as do lado direito, com Histoacryl. Uma incisão mediana, entre as duas incisões,foi realizada e suturada com fio de seda. Os animais foram mortos, depois de 7(sete, 35(trinta e 120 (cento e vinte dia dias. RESULTADOS: Os adesivos usados, no presente estudo, não promoveram reação inflamatória, quando usados para síntese das incisões. Porém, estes adesivos, quando implantados no subcutâneo, promoveram reação inflamatória até 120 (cento e vinte dia dias, no entanto, a reação é mais intensa com Histoacryl. CONCLUSÕES: Super Bonder e Histoacryl permitem o processo cicatricial dos tecidos incisados; facilitam a sutura das incisões. Desta forma, estes podem ser utilizados para sínteses de feridas, lacerações ou incisões cutâneas.BACKGROUND: Tissue adhesives have been used for the synthesis of wound due to their painless application and quick and easy handling. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the compatibility of the adhesives ethylcyanoacrylate (Super Bonder and butyl-cyanoacrylate (Histoacryl, and to compare the reparation of incisions in the dorsum of rats with suture and the respective adhesives. METHODS: Fifteen rats were used. Two surgical pockets were created in their dorsum. A polyethylene tube (10mm x 1mm was

  8. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen


    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  9. Complex Macromolecular Architectures by Living Cationic Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Alghamdi, Reem D.


    Poly (vinyl ether)-based graft polymers have been synthesized by the combination of living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers with other living or controlled/ living polymerization techniques (anionic and ATRP). The process involves the synthesis of well-defined homopolymers (PnBVE) and co/terpolymers [PnBVE-b-PCEVE-b-PSiDEGVE (ABC type) and PSiDEGVE-b-PnBVE-b-PSiDEGVE (CAC type)] by sequential living cationic polymerization of n-butyl vinyl ether (nBVE), 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (CEVE) and tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethylene glycol vinyl ether (SiDEGVE), using mono-functional {[n-butoxyethyl acetate (nBEA)], [1-(2-chloroethoxy) ethyl acetate (CEEA)], [1-(2-(2-(t-butyldimethylsilyloxy)ethoxy) ethoxy) ethyl acetate (SiDEGEA)]} or di-functional [1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol di(1-ethyl acetate) (cHMDEA), (VEMOA)] initiators. The living cationic polymerizations of those monomers were conducted in hexane at -20 0C using Et3Al2Cl3 (catalyst) in the presence of 1 M AcOEt base.[1] The PCEVE segments of the synthesized block terpolymers were then used to react with living macroanions (PS-DPE-Li; poly styrene diphenyl ethylene lithium) to afford graft polymers. The quantitative desilylation of PSiDEGVE segments by n-Bu4N+F- in THF at 0 °C led to graft co- and terpolymers in which the polyalcohol is the outer block. These co-/terpolymers were subsequently subjected to “grafting-from” reactions by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene to afford more complex macromolecular architectures. The base assisted living cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers were also used to synthesize well-defined α-hydroxyl polyvinylether (PnBVE-OH). The resulting polymers were then modified into an ATRP macro-initiator for the synthesis of well-defined block copolymers (PnBVE-b-PS). Bifunctional PnBVE with terminal malonate groups was also synthesized and used as a precursor for more complex architectures such as H-shaped block copolymer by “grafting-from” or

  10. Heart imaging with cationic complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, E.; Bushong, W.; Glavan, K.A.; Elder, R.C.; Sodd, V.J.; Scholz, K.L.; Fortman, D.L.; Lukes, S.J.


    The cationic technetium-99 complex trans-(99TC(dmpe)2Cl2)+, where dmpe is bis(1,2-dimethylphosphino)ethane or (CH3)2P-CH2-P(CH3)2, has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal, x-ray structural analysis. The technetium-99m analog, trans-(99mTc(dmpe) 2Cl2)+, has also been prepared and shown to yield excellent gamma-ray images of the heart. The purposeful design, characterization, and synthesis of this technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical represents a striking application of fundamental inorganic chemistry to a problem in applied nuclear medicine.

  11. Preparation of nano composite latex of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) P (BA-co-MMA) and layered double hydroxide (LDH) by mini emulsion polymerization; Preparacao de latex nanocomposito de poli(acrilato de butila-co-metacrilato de metila) P (BA-co-MMA) e hidroxido duplo lamelar (HDL) por meio da tecnica de polimerizacao em miniemulsao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rodrigo D.; Lona, Liliane M.F., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicamp, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, SP (Brazil); Dube, Marc A. [Universidade de Ottawa. Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e Biologica, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    In the present work, the synthesis of polymeric nonconsumption (PNCs) of P(BA-coMMA) and layered LDH through mini emulsion polymerization (MEP) was studied. The commercial organically modified LDH Perkalite F100S was used as filler and octadecyl acrylate (ODA) as costabilizer of the mini emulsions. Two types of surfactant, a cationic and nonionic one, were investigated and the cationic one could not stabilize the system when the LDH was present. The polymerization kinetics was not significantly affected by the presence of LDH which kept the pH of the system constant during the reaction. The dispersion of the inorganic material in the polymeric matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction which suggested exfoliation of the LDH. (author)

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Geminized Amphiphilic Cationic Homopolymers. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Xuefeng; Yu, Danfeng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Cui, Yingxian; Sun, Keji; Wang, Jinben; Yan, Haike


    The current study is aimed at investigating the effect of cationic charge density and hydrophobicity on the antibacterial and hemolytic activities. Two kinds of cationic surfmers, containing single or double hydrophobic tails (octyl chains or benzyl groups), and the corresponding homopolymers were synthesized. The antimicrobial activity of these candidate antibacterials was studied by microbial growth inhibition assays against Escherichia coli, and hemolysis activity was carried out using human red blood cells. It was interestingly found that the homopolymers were much more effective in antibacterial property than their corresponding monomers. Furthermore, the geminized homopolymers had significantly higher antibacterial activity than that of their counterparts but with single amphiphilic side chains in each repeated unit. Geminized homopolymers, with high positive charge density and moderate hydrophobicity (such as benzyl groups), combine both advantages of efficient antibacterial property and prominently high selectivity. To further explain the antibacterial performance of the novel polymer series, the molecular interaction mechanism is proposed according to experimental data which shows that these specimens are likely to kill microbes by disrupting bacterial membranes, leading them unlikely to induce resistance.

  13. Photodissociation of Cerium Oxide Nanocluster Cations. (United States)

    Akin, S T; Ard, S G; Dye, B E; Schaefer, H F; Duncan, M A


    Cerium oxide cluster cations, CexOy(+), are produced via laser vaporization in a pulsed nozzle source and detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The mass spectrum displays a strongly preferred oxide stoichiometry for each cluster with a specific number of metal atoms x, with x ≤ y. Specifically, the most prominent clusters correspond to the formula CeO(CeO2)n(+). The cluster cations are mass selected and photodissociated with a Nd:YAG laser at either 532 or 355 nm. The prominent clusters dissociate to produce smaller species also having a similar CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula, always with apparent leaving groups of (CeO2). The production of CeO(CeO2)n(+) from the dissociation of many cluster sizes establishes the relative stability of these clusters. Furthermore, the consistent loss of neutral CeO2 shows that the smallest neutral clusters adopt the same oxidation state (IV) as the most common form of bulk cerium oxide. Clusters with higher oxygen content than the CeO(CeO2)n(+) masses are present with much lower abundance. These species dissociate by the loss of O2, leaving surviving clusters with the CeO(CeO2)n(+) formula. Density functional theory calculations on these clusters suggest structures composed of stable CeO(CeO2)n(+) cores with excess oxygen bound to the surface as a superoxide unit (O2(-)).

  14. Electronic absorptions of the benzylium cation (United States)

    Dryza, Viktoras; Chalyavi, Nahid; Sanelli, Julian A.; Bieske, Evan J.


    The electronic transitions of the benzylium cation (Bz+) are investigated over the 250-550 nm range by monitoring the photodissociation of mass-selected C7H7+-Arn (n = 1, 2) complexes in a tandem mass spectrometer. The Bz+-Ar spectrum displays two distinct band systems, the S1←S0 band system extending from 370 to 530 nm with an origin at 19 067 ± 15 cm-1, and a much stronger S3←S0 band system extending from 270 to 320 nm with an origin at 32 035 ± 15 cm-1. Whereas the S1←S0 absorption exhibits well resolved vibrational progressions, the S3←S0 absorption is broad and relatively structureless. Vibronic structure of the S1←S0 system, which is interpreted with the aid of time-dependent density functional theory and Franck-Condon simulations, reflects the activity of four totally symmetric ring deformation modes (ν5, ν6, ν9, ν13). We find no evidence for the ultraviolet absorption of the tropylium cation, which according to the neon matrix spectrum should occur over the 260 - 275 nm range [A. Nagy, J. Fulara, I. Garkusha, and J. Maier, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 50, 3022 (2011)], 10.1002/anie.201008036.

  15. Transition-Metal Hydride Radical Cations. (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Shaw, Anthony P; Estes, Deven P; Norton, Jack R


    Transition-metal hydride radical cations (TMHRCs) are involved in a variety of chemical and biochemical reactions, making a more thorough understanding of their properties essential for explaining observed reactivity and for the eventual development of new applications. Generally, these species may be treated as the ones formed by one-electron oxidation of diamagnetic analogues that are neutral or cationic. Despite the importance of TMHRCs, the generally sensitive nature of these complexes has hindered their development. However, over the last four decades, many more TMHRCs have been synthesized, characterized, isolated, or hypothesized as reaction intermediates. This comprehensive review focuses on experimental studies of TMHRCs reported through the year 2014, with an emphasis on isolated and observed species. The methods used for the generation or synthesis of TMHRCs are surveyed, followed by a discussion about the stability of these complexes. The fundamental properties of TMHRCs, especially those pertaining to the M-H bond, are described, followed by a detailed treatment of decomposition pathways. Finally, reactions involving TMHRCs as intermediates are described.

  16. Cationic Antimicrobial Polymers and Their Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carmona-Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Cationic compounds are promising candidates for development of antimicrobial agents. Positive charges attached to surfaces, particles, polymers, peptides or bilayers have been used as antimicrobial agents by themselves or in sophisticated formulations. The main positively charged moieties in these natural or synthetic structures are quaternary ammonium groups, resulting in quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs. The advantage of amphiphilic cationic polymers when compared to small amphiphilic molecules is their enhanced microbicidal activity. Besides, many of these polymeric structures also show low toxicity to human cells; a major requirement for biomedical applications. Determination of the specific elements in polymers, which affect their antimicrobial activity, has been previously difficult due to broad molecular weight distributions and random sequences characteristic of radical polymerization. With the advances in polymerization control, selection of well defined polymers and structures are allowing greater insight into their structure-antimicrobial activity relationship. On the other hand, antimicrobial polymers grafted or self-assembled to inert or non inert vehicles can yield hybrid antimicrobial nanostructures or films, which can act as antimicrobials by themselves or deliver bioactive molecules for a variety of applications, such as wound dressing, photodynamic antimicrobial therapy, food packing and preservation and antifouling applications.

  17. Nature as a source of inspiration for cationic lipid synthesis. (United States)

    Labas, Romain; Beilvert, Fanny; Barteau, Benoit; David, Stéphanie; Chèvre, Raphaël; Pitard, Bruno


    Synthetic gene delivery systems represent an attractive alternative to viral vectors for DNA transfection. Cationic lipids are one of the most widely used non-viral vectors for the delivery of DNA into cultured cells and are easily synthesized, leading to a large variety of well-characterized molecules. This review discusses strategies for the design of efficient cationic lipids that overcome the critical barriers of in vitro transfection. A particular focus is placed on natural hydrophilic headgroups and lipophilic tails that have been used to synthesize biocompatible and non-toxic cationic lipids. We also present chemical features that have been investigated to enhance the transfection efficiency of cationic lipids by promoting the escape of lipoplexes from the endosomal compartment and DNA release from DNA-liposome complexes. Transfection efficiency studies using these strategies are likely to improve the understanding of the mechanism of cationic lipid-mediated gene delivery and to help the rational design of novel cationic lipids.

  18. Cation-π interaction of the univalent silver cation with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole: Experimental and theoretical study (United States)

    Polášek, Miroslav; Kvíčala, Jaroslav; Makrlík, Emanuel; Křížová, Věra; Vaňura, Petr


    By using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), it was proven experimentally that the univalent silver cation Ag+ forms with meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (abbrev. 1) the cationic complex species 1·Ag+. Further, applying quantum chemical DFT calculations, four different conformations of the resulting complex 1·Ag+ were derived. It means that under the present experimental conditions, this ligand 1 can be considered as a macrocyclic receptor for the silver cation.

  19. Capturing dynamic cation hopping in cubic pyrochlores (United States)

    Brooks Hinojosa, Beverly; Asthagiri, Aravind; Nino, Juan C.


    In direct contrast to recent reports, density functional theory predicts that the most stable structure of Bi2Ti2O7 pyrochlore is a cubic Fd3¯m space group by accounting for atomic displacements. The displaced Bi occupies the 96g(x,x,z) Wyckoff position with six equivalent sites, which create multiple local minima. Using nudged elastic band method, the transition states of Bi cation hopping between equivalent minima were investigated and an energy barrier between 0.11 and 0.21 eV was determined. Energy barriers associated with the motion of Bi between equivalent sites within the 96g Wyckoff position suggest the presence of dielectric relaxation in Bi2Ti2O7.

  20. Retention of Cationic Starch onto Cellulose Fibres (United States)

    Missaoui, Mohamed; Mauret, Evelyne; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur


    Three methods of cationic starch titration were used to quantify its retention on cellulose fibres, namely: (i) the complexation of CS with iodine and measurement of the absorbency of the ensuing blue solution by UV-vis spectroscopy; (ii) hydrolysis of the starch macromolecules followed by the conversion of the resulting sugars to furan-based molecules and quantifying the ensuing mixture by measuring their absorbance at a Ι of 490 nm, using the same technique as previous one and; finally (iii) hydrolysis of starch macromolecules by trifluoro-acetic acid and quantification of the sugars in the resulting hydrolysates by high performance liquid chromatography. The three methods were found to give similar results within the range of CS addition from 0 to 50 mg per g of cellulose fibres.

  1. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Anne-Marie; Dehlendorff, Christian; Vind, Anna C.;


    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We...... then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients...... with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any...

  2. Heart imaging with cationic complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, E. (Univ. of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH); Bushong, W.; Glavan, K.A.; Elder, R.C.; Sodd, V.J.; Scholz, K.L.; Fortman, D.L.; Lukes, S.J.


    The cationic technetium-99 complex trans-(/sup 99/Tc(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/)/sup +/, where dmpe is bis(1,2-dimethylphosphino)ethane or (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/P-CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/-P(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/, has been prepared and characterized by single-crystal, x-ray structural analysis. The technetium-99m analog, trans-(/sup 99m/Tc (dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/)/sup +/, has also been prepared and shown to yield excellent gamma-ray images of the heart. The purposeful design, characterization, and synthesis of this technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical represents a striking application of fundamental inorganic chemistry to a problem in applied nuclear medicine.

  3. Electron spectra of radical cations of heteroanalogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrushenko, K.B.; Turchaninov, V.K.; Vokin, A.I.; Ermikov, A.F.; Frolov, Yu.L.


    Radical cation spectra of indazole and benzothiophene in the visible region were obtained by laser photolysis during the reaction of photoexcited quinones with these compounds in acetonitrile. The charge transfer bands of the complexes of the test compounds with p-chloranil and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane in dioxane were recorded on a Specord M-40. Photoelectron spectra were obtained on a ES-3201 electron spectrometer. The He(I) resonance band (21.21 eV) was used for excitation. Measurements were carried out in the 60-120/sup 0/C range. The energy scale was calibrated form the first ionization potentials of Ar (15.76 eV) and chlorobenzene (9.06 eV). The error in the determination of the ionization potentials for the first four photoelectron bands was 0.05 eV.

  4. Hydration Structure of the Quaternary Ammonium Cations

    KAUST Repository

    Babiaczyk, Wojtek Iwo


    Two indicators of the hydropathicity of small solutes are introduced and tested by molecular dynamics simulations. These indicators are defined as probabilities of the orientation of water molecules\\' dipoles and hydrogen bond vectors, conditional on a generalized distance from the solute suitable for arbitrarily shaped molecules. Using conditional probabilities, it is possible to distinguish features of the distributions in close proximity of the solute. These regions contain the most significant information on the hydration structure but cannot be adequately represented by using, as is usually done, joint distance-angle probability densities. Our calculations show that using our indicators a relative hydropathicity scale for the interesting test set of the quaternary ammonium cations can be roughly determined. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Antiviral effect of cationic compounds on bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Huong eChatain-Ly


    Full Text Available The antiviral activity of several cationic compounds - cetytrimethylammonium (CTAB, chitosan, nisin and lysozyme - was investigated on the bacteriophage c2 (DNA head and non-contractile tail infecting Lactococcus strains and the bacteriophage MS2 (F-specific RNA infecting E.coli. Firstly, these activities were evaluated in a phosphate buffer pH 7- 10 mM. The CTAB had a virucidal effect on the Lactococcus bacteriophages, but not on the MS2. After 1 min of contact with 0.125 mM CTAB, the c2 population was reduced from 6 log(pfu/mL to 1,5 log(pfu/mL and completely deactivated at 1 mM. On the contrary, chitosan inhibited the MS2 more than it did the bacteriophages c2. No antiviral effect was observed for the nisin or the lysozyme on bacteriophages after 1 min of treatment. A 1 and 2.5 log reduction was respectively observed for nisin and lysozyme when the treatment time increased (5 or 10 min. These results showed that the antiviral effect depended both on the virus and structure of the antimicrobial compounds. The antiviral activity of these compounds was also evaluated in different physico-chemical conditions and in complex matrices. The antiviral activity of CTAB was impaired in acid pH and with an increase of the ionic strength. These results might be explained by the electrostatic interactions between cationic compounds and negatively charged particles such as bacteriophages or other compounds in a matrix. Milk proved to be protective suggesting the components of food could interfere with antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Role of extracellular cations in cell motility, polarity, and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soll D


    Full Text Available David R Soll1, Deborah Wessels1, Daniel F Lusche1, Spencer Kuhl1, Amanda Scherer1, Shawna Grimm1,21Monoclonal Antibody Research Institute, Developmental Studies, Hybridoma Bank, Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City; 2Mercy Medical Center, Surgical Residency Program, Des Moines, Iowa, USAAbstract: The concentration of cations in the aqueous environment of free living organisms and cells within the human body influence motility, shape, and chemotaxis. The role of extracellular cations is usually perceived to be the source for intracellular cations in the process of homeostasis. The role of surface molecules that interact with extracellular cations is believed to be that of channels, transporters, and exchangers. However, the role of Ca2+ as a signal and chemoattractant and the discovery of the Ca2+ receptor have demonstrated that extracellular cations can function as signals at the cell surface, and the plasma membrane molecules they interact with can function as bona fide receptors that activate coupled signal transduction pathways, associated molecules in the plasma membrane, or the cytoskeleton. With this perspective in mind, we have reviewed the cationic composition of aqueous environments of free living cells and cells that move in multicellular organisms, most notably humans, the range of molecules interacting with cations at the cell surface, the concept of a cell surface cation receptor, and the roles extracellular cations and plasma membrane proteins that interact with them play in the regulation of motility, shape, and chemotaxis. Hopefully, the perspective of this review will increase awareness of the roles extracellular cations play and the possibility that many of the plasma membrane proteins that interact with them could also play roles as receptors.Keywords: extracellular cations, chemotaxis, transporters, calcium, receptors

  7. The Effect of Hydration on the Cation-π Interaction Between Benzene and Various Cations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    The effect of hydration on cation-π interaction in Mq+ BmWn (B = benzene; W = water; Mq+ =Na⁺, K⁺, Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, Al³⁺, 0 ≤ n,m ≤ 4, 1≤ m + n ≤ 4) complexes has been investigated using ab initio quantum chemical methods. Interaction energy values computed at the MP2 level of theory using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set reveal a qualitative trend in the relative affinity of different cations for benzene and water in these complexes. The π–cloud thickness values for benzene have also been estimated for these systems.

  8. 新型粉末状荧光502熏显手印荧光波段研究%Selection of Fluorescence Band Using Novel Fluorescent Cyanoacrylate Powder for Latent Fingerprint Visualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李康; 涂霓; 李孝君; 郝翔; 关晨


    Objective This study aims to select the appropriate exciting light source and filter to visualize latent fingerprints on non-porous surface fumed with the novel fluorescent cyanoacrylate powder. Methods The appropriate light source and filter were selected by means of the fluorescence spectrometer along with both the excitation and emission spectrums decided. Results The analysis of new fluorescent cyanoacrylate powder by fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the excitation wavelength of light source was 235~580nm with the maximum peak at 530nm where the fluorescent intensity was the biggest, and also quite strong absorbance peaks were obtained at 450nm and 360nm, with 45nm Stokes shift. Verification experiments indicated that the effect of developing fingerprints was good in the range of 235~580nm. Conclusions The fingerprints fumed with the new fluorescent cyanoacrylate powder can be visualized under the light of UV, violet, blue, yellow, and green with the merits of large Stokes shift and high fluorescent intensity, easy to eliminate the interference of background fluorescence, and facilitative to select filters. The fingerprints can be visualized clearly with the fluorescence selected by comprehensive consideration of the above factors. Besides the property of fluorescent powder, the effect of developing fingerprint with fluorescence relies on the exciting light source, the filter, and the inherent luminescence characteristics of submitted exhibits and the conditions of exhibit surface.%目的:运用新型粉末状荧光502可一步显现非渗透性光滑客体表面潜手印。为了选择最佳的激发光源和滤光镜来观察熏显后荧光效果,本文对该粉末的荧光性能进行研究。方法使用荧光光谱仪对新型粉末状荧光502进行激发光谱和发射光谱的测试,进而选择合适的激发光源及滤光镜来进行观察和拍照。结果新型粉末状荧光502的光谱范围较宽,在波长为235nm~580nm 范围内

  9. Histologic evaluation of pulpotomy performed with ethyl-cyanoacrylate and calcium hydroxide Avaliação histológica de pulpotomia realizada com etil-cianoacrilato e com hidróxido de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Santana de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate histological aspects of the pulp-dentin complex of dogs submitted to pulpotomy and capped with ethyl-cyanoacrylate and calcium hydroxide. Thirty dog teeth were divided into 2 groups of 15 as follows: Group 1 - ethyl-cyanoacrylate; Group 2 - calcium hydroxide. The pulpotomies were carried out following all of the treatment precautions recommended for dogs. After 30 days the specimens were submitted to histological preparation and were then blindly evaluated by a histologist. Data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, comparing the two groups. After 30 days, the presence of a hard tissue barrier was observed in 83.3% of Group 1, and in 100% of Group 2 (p = 0.478. A continuous hard tissue barrier was observed in 50% of the ethyl-cyanoacrylate group and 75% of the calcium hydroxide group (p = 0.652. It can be concluded that both materials induced hard tissue barrier formation, but Group 2 had a higher percentage than Group 1, with no significant statistical differences; the differences observed between the different barriers (continuous/non-continuous were not significant between groups and there was no pulpal necrosis in either group.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o aspecto histológico do complexo dentino-pulpar de cachorros quando capeado após a pulpotomia com etil-cianoacrilato e hidróxido de cálcio. Trinta dentes de cães foram divididos em 2 grupos de 15 da seguinte forma: Grupo 1 - Etil-cianoacrilato; Grupo 2 - Hidróxido de cálcio. A pesquisa foi realizada tomando-se todos os cuidados recomendados para o tratamento com os cães. Após 30 dias do procedimento realizado os espécimes foram submetidos ao preparo histológico e logo após foram avaliados de forma cega por um histologista. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente através do Teste Exato de Fisher. No grupo 1, 83,3% e no grupo 2, 100% dos dentes apresentaram a barreira de tecido duro (p = 0,478. A barreira

  10. Estudo do reparo do ferimento de colon com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno, utilizando cianoacrilato e cola de fibrina Study of repair of rat's colon wound whith serosal of jejunal wall using cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Rodrigues Fontes


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do cianoacrilato e da cola de fibrina como adesivo das bordas do ferimento de cólon reparado com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 45 ratos wistar adultos jovens, machos , com peso médio de 260 gramas procedentes do Biotério Central da Universidade Estadual de Maringá.Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob sedação com thiopental para produção de ferimento pradonizado de 0,5 cm distante caudalmente a 2 cm do ceco que foi reparado no grupo I pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e sutura, no grupo II, pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cola de fibrina, e o grupo III pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cianoacrilato. No 4º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a um enema opaco, para estudo o de estenose. No 7º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a laparotomia sob sedação para estudo macroscópico da cavidade , e coleta dos segmentos que foram processados para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A cola de fibrina teve uma tendência de ser melhor reparadora, estimulando a proliferação de fibras de colágeno a partir da borda da ferida. CONCLUSÃO: O experimento demonstrou que o ferimento em cólon de rato pode ser reparado pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno colado às bordas da ferida por cola de fibrina ou cianoacrilato.BACKGROUND: The present experiment aimed to compare the effect of the use of cyanoacrylate and fibrine glue as adesive on repared colon's wounds with the serosal side of jejuno's wall. METHODS: Forty five male, young adult Wister rats, weighting about 260 g , from the University of Maringá were used.After having been deeply anaesthetized (thiopental was used, the animals underwent a surgery, and a pattern 0,5 cm wound was made, 2 cm away from the cecum, in the caudal location. Group one the wound was repaired by using the jejunal serosal wall and suture.On group two the jejunal serosal wall and fibrine glue

  11. An Antimicrobial Study on Cyanoacrylate Antimicrobial Adhesive Modified by 6% Nano-silica%应用6%纳米二氧化硅改性氰基丙烯酸酯抗菌胶的抗菌性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文; 梁向党; 孙赓; 蔡宏飞; 刘诗滦; 房卓群


    目的:研究应用6%纳米二氧化硅改性氰基丙烯酸酯抗菌胶的抗菌性能。方法采用滤纸片法测试6%纳米二氧化硅/抗菌胶对金黄色葡萄球菌( ATCC29213)的抑菌性能,以未改性的抗菌胶作为对照,测量抑菌圈直径。制作大鼠外伤动物模型,分别用6%纳米二氧化硅抗菌胶及纱布包扎处理伤口,观察伤口的大体情况,并做动脉血常规及创面组织病理切片检测白细胞计数。结果6%纳米二氧化硅/抗菌胶组第5天的抑菌圈直径为(28.61±0.91)mm,抗菌胶组为(28.24±2.69)mm,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。动物实验方面,在血常规及创面组织病理切片中,6%纳米二氧化硅/抗菌胶处理创面的感染情况均低于纱布包扎组(P<0.05)。结论6%纳米二氧化硅改性的抗菌胶具有较好的抗菌性能(抗金黄色葡萄球菌)。%Objective To study the antimicrobial function of Cyanoacrylate antimicrobial adhesive modified by modified. Methods Antimicrobial function to staphylococcus aureus ( ATCC29213 ) of cyanoacrylate antimicrobial ad-hesive modified 6% nano-silica was examined with filter paper method, while unmodified antimicrobial adhesive was used as a control group, and the diameter of the inhibition zone was detected. The rat models of external injury were estab-lished, and then the wounds were treated with 6% nano-silica antimicrobial adhesive and gauze bandage respectively. The general conditions of wounds were observed, and routine blood tests and pathological sections were performed to cal-culate white blood cell count ( WBC) . Results The diameter of inhibition zone in antimicrobial adhesive modified 6%nano-silica group on 5th d after treatment was (28. 61 ± 0. 91) mm, while the diameter in control group was (28. 24 ± 2. 69) mm, but the difference was not statistically significant (P<0. 05). The blood routine tests and pathological sec-tions showed that 6% nano-silica or antimicrobial adhesive had a lower

  12. In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Northeved, Helle; Ek, Pramod Kumar


    This study investigated toxicity of nanocarriers comprised of cationic polymer and lipid components often used in gene and drug delivery, formulated as cationic micelles and liposomes. Rats were injected intravenously with 10, 25 or 100 mg/kg and sacrificed after 24 or 48 h, or 24 h after the last...

  13. How mobile are sorbed cations in clays and clay rocks? (United States)

    Gimmi, T; Kosakowski, G


    Diffusion of cations and other contaminants through clays is of central interest, because clays and clay rocks are widely considered as barrier materials for waste disposal sites. An intriguing experimental observation has been made in this context: Often, the diffusive flux of cations at trace concentrations is much larger and the retardation smaller than expected based on their sorption coefficients. So-called surface diffusion of sorbed cations has been invoked to explain the observations but remains a controversial issue. Moreover, the corresponding surface diffusion coefficients are largely unknown. Here we show that, by an appropriate scaling, published diffusion data covering a broad range of cations, clays, and chemical conditions can all be modeled satisfactorily by a surface diffusion model. The average mobility of sorbed cations seems to be primarily an intrinsic property of each cation that follows inversely its sorption affinity. With these surface mobilities, cation diffusion coefficients can now be estimated from those of water tracers. In pure clays at low salinities, surface diffusion can reduce the cation retardation by a factor of more than 1000.

  14. Interactions between cationic liposomes and drugs or biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Multiple uses for synthetic cationic liposomes composed of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB bilayer vesicles are presented. Drugs or biomolecules can be solubilized or incorporated in the cationic bilayers. The cationic liposomes themselves can act as antimicrobial agents causing death of bacteria and fungi at concentrations that barely affect mammalian cells in culture. Silica particles or polystyrene microspheres can be functionalized by coverage with DODAB bilayers or phospholipid monolayers. Negatively charged antigenic proteins can be carried by the cationic liposomes which generate a remarkable immunoadjuvant action. Nucleotides or DNA can be physically adsorbed to the cationic liposomes to be transferred to mammalian cells for gene therapy. An overview of the interactions between DODAB vesicles and some biomolecules or drugs clearly points out their versatility for useful applications in a near future.

  15. Interactions between cationic liposomes and drugs or biomolecules. (United States)

    Carmona-Ribeiro, A M


    Multiple uses for synthetic cationic liposomes composed of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer vesicles are presented. Drugs or biomolecules can be solubilized or incorporated in the cationic bilayers. The cationic liposomes themselves can act as antimicrobial agents causing death of bacteria and fungi at concentrations that barely affect mammalian cells in culture. Silica particles or polystyrene microspheres can be functionalized by coverage with DODAB bilayers or phospholipid monolayers. Negatively charged antigenic proteins can be carried by the cationic liposomes which generate a remarkable immunoadjuvant action. Nucleotides or DNA can be physically adsorbed to the cationic liposomes to be transferred to mammalian cells for gene therapy. An overview of the interactions between DODAB vesicles and some biomolecules or drugs clearly points out their versatility for useful applications in a near future.

  16. Do Cation-π Interactions Exist in Bacteriorhodopsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Kun-Sheng; WANG Guang-Yu; HE Jin-An


    Metal ions are essential to the structure and physiological functions of bacteriorhodopsin. Experimental evidence suggests the existence of specific cation binding to the negatively charged groups of Asp85 and Asp212 via an electrostatic interaction. However, only using electrostatic force is not enough to explain the role of the metal cations because the carboxylate of Asp85 is well known to be protonated in the M intermediate. Considering the presence of some aromatic amino acid residues in the vicinity of the retinal pocket, the existence of cation-π interactions between the metal cation and aromatic amino acid residues is suggested. Obviously, introduction of this kind of interaction is conducive to understanding the effects of the metal cations and aromatic amino acid residues inside the protein on the structural stability and proton pumping of bacteriorhodopsin.

  17. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  18. IRMPD Action Spectroscopy of Alkali Metal Cation-Cytosine Complexes: Effects of Alkali Metal Cation Size on Gas Phase Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Wu, R.R.; Polfer, N.C.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both simi

  19. Cation Defects and Conductivity in Transparent Oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exarhos, Gregory J.; Windisch, Charles F.; Ferris, Kim F.; Owings, Robert R.


    High quality doped zinc oxide and mixed transition metal spinel oxide films have been deposited by means of sputter deposition from metal and metal oxide targets, and by spin casting from aqueous or alcoholic precursor solutions. Deposition conditions and post-deposition processing are found to alter cation oxidation states and their distributions in both oxide materials resulting in marked changes to both optical transmission and electrical response. For ZnO, partial reduction of the neat or doped material by hydrogen treatment of the heated film or by electrochemical processing renders the oxide n-type conducting. Continued reduction was found to diminish conductivity. In contrast, oxidation of the infrared transparent p-type spinel conductors typified by NiCo2O4 was found to increase conductivity. The disparate behavior of these two materials is caused in part by the sign of the charge carrier and by the existence of two different charge transport mechanisms that are identified as free carrier conduction and polaron hopping. While much work has been reported concerning structure/property relationships in the free carrier conducting oxides, there is a significantly smaller body of information on transparent polaron conductors. In this paper, we identify key parameters that promote conductivity in mixed metal spinel oxides and compare their behavior with that of the free carrier TCO’s.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Orblin


    Full Text Available Papermaking pulps are a mixture of fibres, fibre fragments, and small cells (parenchyma or ray cells, usually called pulp fines. The interactions between pulp fines and a cationic copolymer of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride were investigated based on solid-liquid isotherms prepared under different turbulence, and subsequent advanced surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS. The surface charge and surface area of pulp fine substrates were measured by methylene blue sorption-XPS analysis and nitrogen adsorption combined with mercury porosimetry, respectively. The driving force behind polyelectrolyte adsorption was the amount of the surface anionic charge, whereas surface area appeared to be of less importance. Based on a comparison of solid-liquid and XPS sorption isotherms, different polyelectrolyte conformations were suggested, depending on the types of fines: A flatter conformation and partial cell-wall penetration of polyelectrolytes on kraft fines from freshly prepared pulp, and a more free conformation with extended loops and tails on lignocellulosic fines from recycled pulp. Additionally, ToF-SIMS imaging proved that recycled pulp fines contained residual de-inking chemicals (primarily palmitic acid salts that possibly hinder the electrostatic interactions with polyelectrolytes.

  1. Cationic Noncovalent Interactions: Energetics and Periodic Trends. (United States)

    Rodgers, M T; Armentrout, P B


    In this review, noncovalent interactions of ions with neutral molecules are discussed. After defining the scope of the article, which excludes anionic and most protonated systems, methods associated with measuring thermodynamic information for such systems are briefly recounted. An extensive set of tables detailing available thermodynamic information for the noncovalent interactions of metal cations with a host of ligands is provided. Ligands include small molecules (H2, NH3, CO, CS, H2O, CH3CN, and others), organic ligands (O- and N-donors, crown ethers and related molecules, MALDI matrix molecules), π-ligands (alkenes, alkynes, benzene, and substituted benzenes), miscellaneous inorganic ligands, and biological systems (amino acids, peptides, sugars, nucleobases, nucleosides, and nucleotides). Hydration of metalated biological systems is also included along with selected proton-based systems: 18-crown-6 polyether with protonated peptides and base-pairing energies of nucleobases. In all cases, the literature thermochemistry is evaluated and, in many cases, reanchored or adjusted to 0 K bond dissociation energies. Trends in these values are discussed and related to a variety of simple molecular concepts.

  2. Repurposing Cationic Amphiphilic Antihistamines for Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Ellegaard


    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In search for new NSCLC treatment options, we screened a cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD library for cytotoxicity against NSCLC cells and identified several CAD antihistamines as inducers of lysosomal cell death. We then performed a cohort study on the effect of CAD antihistamine use on mortality of patients diagnosed with non-localized cancer in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. The use of the most commonly prescribed CAD antihistamine, loratadine, was associated with significantly reduced all-cause mortality among patients with non-localized NSCLC or any non-localized cancer when compared with use of non-CAD antihistamines and adjusted for potential confounders. Of the less frequently described CAD antihistamines, astemizole showed a similar significant association with reduced mortality as loratadine among patients with any non-localized cancer, and ebastine use showed a similar tendency. The association between CAD antihistamine use and reduced mortality was stronger among patients with records of concurrent chemotherapy than among those without such records. In line with this, sub-micromolar concentrations of loratadine, astemizole and ebastine sensitized NSCLC cells to chemotherapy and reverted multidrug resistance in NSCLC, breast and prostate cancer cells. Thus, CAD antihistamines may improve the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Cation exchange properties of zeolites in hyper alkaline aqueous media. (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; de Blochouse, Benny; Dom, Dirk; Vancluysen, Jacqueline; Snellings, Ruben; Martens, Johan A; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Maes, André; Breynaert, Eric


    Construction of multibarrier concrete based waste disposal sites and management of alkaline mine drainage water requires cation exchangers combining excellent sorption properties with a high stability and predictable performance in hyper alkaline media. Though highly selective organic cation exchange resins have been developed for most pollutants, they can serve as a growth medium for bacterial proliferation, impairing their long-term stability and introducing unpredictable parameters into the evolution of the system. Zeolites represent a family of inorganic cation exchangers, which naturally occur in hyper alkaline conditions and cannot serve as an electron donor or carbon source for microbial proliferation. Despite their successful application as industrial cation exchangers under near neutral conditions, their performance in hyper alkaline, saline water remains highly undocumented. Using Cs(+) as a benchmark element, this study aims to assess the long-term cation exchange performance of zeolites in concrete derived aqueous solutions. Comparison of their exchange properties in alkaline media with data obtained in near neutral solutions demonstrated that the cation exchange selectivity remains unaffected by the increased hydroxyl concentration; the cation exchange capacity did however show an unexpected increase in hyper alkaline media.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide Neutralization by Cationic-Amphiphilic Polymers through Pseudoaggregate Formation. (United States)

    Uppu, Divakara S S M; Haldar, Jayanta


    Synthetic polymers incorporating the cationic charge and hydrophobicity to mimic the function of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been developed. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind to bacterial membranes that generally contain negatively charged phospholipids and cause membrane disintegration resulting in cell death; however, cationic-amphiphilic antibacterial polymers with endotoxin neutralization properties, to the best of our knowledge, have not been reported. Bacterial endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) cause sepsis that is responsible for a great amount of mortality worldwide. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers can also bind to negatively charged and hydrophobic LPS and cause detoxification. Hence, we envisaged that cationic-amphiphilic polymers can have both antibacterial as well as LPS binding properties. Here we report synthetic amphiphilic polymers with both antibacterial as well as endotoxin neutralizing properties. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes caused by LPS stimulation were inhibited by >80% when coincubated with these polymers. These reductions were found to be dependent on concentration and, more importantly, on the side-chain chemical structure due to variations in the hydrophobicity profiles of these polymers. These cationic-amphiphilic polymers bind and cause LPS neutralization and detoxification. Investigations of polymer interaction with LPS using fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these polymers bind but neither dissociate nor promote LPS aggregation. We show that polymer binding to LPS leads to sort of a pseudoaggregate formation resulting in LPS neutralization/detoxification. These findings provide an unusual mechanism of LPS neutralization using novel synthetic cationic-amphiphilic polymers.

  5. Neutron diffraction investigations of kesterites: cation order and disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorr, Susan [Free University Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences (Germany); Tovar, Michael [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie (Germany); Levcenco, Sergej; Napetrov, Alexander; Arushanov, Ernest [Academy of Sciences of Moldova Republic, Institute of Applied Physics, Chisinau (Moldova)


    The quaternary chalcogenides Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} have newly attracted attention as possible absorber materials in thin film solar cells. They crystallize in the kesterite type (space group I anti 4) or stannite type structure (space group I anti 42m), which are described as an ordered distribution of the cations on different structural sites. Cation disorder may cause site defects and hence influences the electronic properties of the material. Thus the degree of cation order/disorder plays a crucial role and was therefor in the focus of the presented investigations. A differentiation between the isoelectronic cations Cu{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} is not possible using X-ray diffraction due to their similar scattering power. But their neutron scattering lengths are different, thus neutron diffraction opens the possibility to determine the cation distribution in these compounds. A simultaneous Rietveld analysis of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that in dependence on the thermal history of the samples cation disorder appears. The correlation trend between cation order/disorder and the sample growth method (solid state synthesis, Bridgman method) are discussed.

  6. Competitive Effects of 2+ and 3+ Cations on DNA Compaction

    CERN Document Server

    Tongu, C; Yoshikawa, Y; Zinchenko, A A; Chen, N; Yoshikawa, K


    By using single-DNA observation with fluorescence microscopy, we observed the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA with 166 kbp). It was found that divalent cations, such as Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. These experimental observations are inconsistent with the well-established Debye-Huckel scheme regarding the shielding effect of counter ions, which is given as the additivity of contributions of cations with different valences. We interpreted the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counter ions before and after the folding transition of DNA. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we considered the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly-charged polyelectrolyte, double-st...

  7. Atmospheric CO2 enrichment facilitates cation release from soil. (United States)

    Cheng, L; Zhu, J; Chen, G; Zheng, X; Oh, N-H; Rufty, T W; Richter, D deB; Hu, S


    Atmospheric CO(2) enrichment generally stimulates plant photosynthesis and nutrient uptake, modifying the local and global cycling of bioactive elements. Although nutrient cations affect the long-term productivity and carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems, little is known about the effect of CO(2) enrichment on cation availability in soil. In this study, we present evidence for a novel mechanism of CO(2)-enhancement of cation release from soil in rice agricultural systems. Elevated CO(2) increased organic C allocation belowground and net H(+) excretion from roots, and stimulated root and microbial respiration, reducing soil redox potential and increasing Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) in soil solutions. Increased H(+), Fe(2+), and Mn(2+) promoted Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) release from soil cation exchange sites. These results indicate that over the short term, elevated CO(2) may stimulate cation release from soil and enhance plant growth. Over the long-term, however, CO(2)-induced cation release may facilitate cation losses and soil acidification, negatively feeding back to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems.

  8. Cations bind only weakly to amides in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Okur, Halil I; Kherb, Jaibir; Cremer, Paul S


    We investigated salt interactions with butyramide as a simple mimic of cation interactions with protein backbones. The experiments were performed in aqueous metal chloride solutions using two spectroscopic techniques. In the first, which provided information about contact pair formation, the response of the amide I band to the nature and concentration of salt was monitored in bulk aqueous solutions via attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was found that molar concentrations of well-hydrated metal cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Li(+)) led to the rise of a peak assigned to metal cation-bound amides (1645 cm(-1)) and a decrease in the peak associated with purely water-bound amides (1620 cm(-1)). In a complementary set of experiments, the effect of cation identity and concentration was investigated at the air/butyramide/water interface via vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy. In these studies, metal ion-amide binding led to the ordering of the adjacent water layer. Such experiments were sensitive to the interfacial partitioning of cations in either a contact pair with the amide or as a solvent separated pair. In both experiments, the ordering of the interactions of the cations was: Ca(2+) > Mg(2+) > Li(+) > Na(+) ≈ K(+). This is a direct cationic Hofmeister series. Even for Ca(2+), however, the apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of the cation with the amide carbonyl oxygen was no tighter than ∼8.5 M. For Na(+) and K(+), no evidence was found for any binding. As such, the interactions of metal cations with amides are far weaker than the analogous binding of weakly hydrated anions.

  9. Cationic starches on cellulose surfaces. A study of polyelectrolyte adsorption.


    Steeg, van der, P.A.H.


    Cationic starches are used on a large scale in paper industry as wet-end additives. They improve dry strength. retention of fines and fillers, and drainage. Closure of the white water systems in the paper mills hase increased the concentration of detrimental substances. This might be the reason for the poor retention of cationic starches observed in the last few years.The purpose of the research described in this thesis was to obtain a better understanding of the adsorption of cationic starch...

  10. Electrostatic charge confinement using bulky tetraoctylammonium cation and four anions (United States)

    Andreeva, Nadezhda A.; Chaban, Vitaly V.


    Thanks to large opposite electrostatic charges, cations and anions establish strong ionic bonds. However, applications of ionic systems - electrolytes, gas capture, solubilization, etc. - benefit from weaker non-covalent bonds. The common approaches are addition of cosolvents and delocalization of electron charge density via functionalization of ions. We report fine tuning of closest-approach distances, effective radii, and cation geometry by different anions using the semi-empirical molecular dynamics simulations. We found that long fatty acid chains employed in the tetraalkylammonium cation are largely inefficient and new substituents must be developed. The reported results foster progress of task-specific ionic liquids.

  11. Competitive Solvation of the Imidazolium Cation by Water and Methanol

    CERN Document Server

    Chaban, Vitaly


    Imidazolium-based ionic liquids are widely used in conjunction with molecular liquids for various applications. Solvation, miscibility and similar properties are of fundamental importance for successful implementation of theoretical schemes. This work reports competitive solvation of the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation by water and methanol. Employing molecular dynamics simulations powered by semiempirical Hamiltonian (electronic structure level of description), the local structure nearly imidazolium cation is described in terms of radial distribution functions. Although water and methanol are chemically similar, water appears systematically more successful in solvating the 1,3-dimethylimidazolium cation. This result fosters construction of future applications of the ternary ion-molecular systems.

  12. Pyridine radical cation and its fluorine substituted derivatives (United States)

    Bondybey, V.E.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.


    The spectra and relaxation of the pyridine cation and of several of its fluorinated derivatives are studied in low temperature Ne matrices. The ions are generated by direct photoionization of the parent compounds. Of the compounds studied, laser induced → and → fluorescence is observed only for the 2, 6‐difluoropyridine cation. The analysis of the spectrum indicates that the ion is planar both in the and states. The large variety in the spectroscopic and relaxation behavior of fluoropyridine radical cations is explained in terms of their electronic structure and of the differential shifts of the individual electronic states caused by the fluorine substitution.

  13. Novel cationic polyelectrolyte coatings for capillary electrophoresis. (United States)

    Duša, Filip; Witos, Joanna; Karjalainen, Erno; Viitala, Tapani; Tenhu, Heikki; Wiedmer, Susanne K


    The use of bare fused silica capillary in CE can sometimes be inconvenient due to undesirable effects including adsorption of sample or instability of the EOF. This can often be avoided by coating the inner surface of the capillary. In this work, we present and characterize two novel polyelectrolyte coatings (PECs) poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium iodide) (PMOTAI) and poly(3-methyl-1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-imidazolium chloride) (PIL-1) for CE. The coated capillaries were studied using a series of aqueous buffers of varying pH, ionic strength, and composition. Our results show that the investigated polyelectrolytes are usable as semi-permanent (physically adsorbed) coatings with at least five runs stability before a short coating regeneration is necessary. Both PECs showed a considerably decreased stability at pH 11.0. The EOF was higher using Good's buffers than with sodium phosphate buffer at the same pH and ionic strength. The thickness of the PEC layers studied by quartz crystal microbalance was 0.83 and 0.52 nm for PMOTAI and PIL-1, respectively. The hydrophobicity of the PEC layers was determined by analysis of a homologous series of alkyl benzoates and expressed as the distribution constants. Our result demonstrates that both PECs had comparable hydrophobicity, which enabled separation of compounds with log Po/w > 2. The ability to separate cationic drugs was shown with β-blockers, compounds often misused in doping. Both coatings were also able to separate hydrolysis products of the ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate at highly acidic conditions, where bare fused silica capillaries failed to accomplish the separation.

  14. IRMPD action spectroscopy of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on gas phase conformation. (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wu, R R; Polfer, N C; Berden, G; Oomens, J; Rodgers, M T


    The gas-phase structures of alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes generated by electrospray ionization are probed via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. IRMPD action spectra of five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes exhibit both similar and distinctive spectral features over the range of ~1000-1900 cm(-1). The IRMPD spectra of the Li(+)(cytosine), Na(+)(cytosine), and K(+)(cytosine) complexes are relatively simple but exhibit changes in the shape and shifts in the positions of several bands that correlate with the size of the alkali metal cation. The IRMPD spectra of the Rb(+)(cytosine) and Cs(+)(cytosine) complexes are much richer as distinctive new IR bands are observed, and the positions of several bands continue to shift in relation to the size of the metal cation. The measured IRMPD spectra are compared to linear IR spectra of stable low-energy tautomeric conformations calculated at the B3LYP/def2-TZVPPD level of theory to identify the conformations accessed in the experiments. These comparisons suggest that the evolution in the features in the IRMPD action spectra with the size of the metal cation, and the appearance of new bands for the larger metal cations, are the result of the variations in the intensities at which these complexes can be generated and the strength of the alkali metal cation-cytosine binding interaction, not the presence of multiple tautomeric conformations. Only a single tautomeric conformation is accessed for all five alkali metal cation-cytosine complexes, where the alkali metal cation binds to the O2 and N3 atoms of the canonical amino-oxo tautomer of cytosine, M(+)(C1).

  15. Isomerization of propargyl cation to cyclopropenyl cation: Mechanistic elucidations and effects of lone pair donors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zodinpuia Pachuau; Kiew S Kharnaior; R H Duncan Lyngdoh


    This ab initio study examines two pathways (one concerted and the other two-step) for isomerization of the linear propargyl cation to the aromatic cyclopropenyl cation, also probing the phenomenon of solvation of this reaction by simple lone pair donors (NH3, H2O, H2S and HF) which bind to the substrate at two sites. Fully optimized geometries at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level were used, along with single point QCISD(T)/6-311+G(d,p) and accurate G3 level calculations upon the DFT optimized geometries. For the unsolvated reaction, the two-step second pathway is energetically favoured over the one-step first pathway. Lone pair donor affinity for the various C3H$^{+}_{3}$ species follows the uniform order NH3 > H2S>H2O>HF. The activation barriers for the solvated isomerizations decrease in the order HF>H2O>H2S>NH3 for both pathways. The number of lone pairs on the donor heteroatom as well as the heteroatom electronegativity are factors related to both these trends. Compared to the unsolvated cases, the solvated reactions have transition states which are usually ‘later’ in position along the reaction coordinate, validating the Hammond postulate.

  16. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process. (United States)

    Reshetnikov, Roman V; Sponer, Jiri; Rassokhina, Olga I; Kopylov, Alexei M; Tsvetkov, Philipp O; Makarov, Alexander A; Golovin, Andrey V


    A combination of explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation (30 simulations reaching 4 µs in total), hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the atomistic picture of ion binding to 15-mer thrombin-binding quadruplex DNA (G-DNA) aptamer. Binding of ions to G-DNA is complex multiple pathway process, which is strongly affected by the type of the cation. The individual ion-binding events are substantially modulated by the connecting loops of the aptamer, which play several roles. They stabilize the molecule during time periods when the bound ions are not present, they modulate the route of the ion into the stem and they also stabilize the internal ions by closing the gates through which the ions enter the quadruplex. Using our extensive simulations, we for the first time observed full spontaneous exchange of internal cation between quadruplex molecule and bulk solvent at atomistic resolution. The simulation suggests that expulsion of the internally bound ion is correlated with initial binding of the incoming ion. The incoming ion then readily replaces the bound ion while minimizing any destabilization of the solute molecule during the exchange.

  17. Silica surfaces lubrication by hydrated cations adsorption from electrolyte solutions. (United States)

    Donose, Bogdan C; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Higashitani, Ko


    Adsorption of hydrated cations on hydrophilic surfaces has been related to a variety of phenomena associated with the short-range interaction forces and mechanisms of the adhesive contact between the surfaces. Here we have investigated the effect of the adsorption of cations on the lateral interaction. Using lateral force microscopy (LFM), we have measured the friction force between a silica particle and silica wafer in pure water and in electrolyte solutions of LiCl, NaCl, and CsCl salts. A significant lubrication effect was demonstrated for solutions of high electrolyte concentrations. It was found that the adsorbed layers of smaller and more hydrated cations have a higher lubrication capacity than the layers of larger and less hydrated cations. Additionally, we have demonstrated a characteristic dependence of the friction force on the sliding velocity of surfaces. A mechanism for the observed phenomena based on the microstructures of the adsorbed layers is proposed.

  18. Degradation Mechanism of Cationic Red X-GRL by Ozonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Rong ZHAO; Xin Hua XU; Hui Xiang SHI; Da Hui WANG


    The degradation mechanism of Cationic Red X-GRL was investigated when the intermediates, the nitrate ion and the pH were analyzed in the ozonation. The degradation of the Cationic Red X-GRL includes the de-auxochrome stage, the decolour stage, and the decomposition of fragment stage. During the degradation process, among the six nitrogen atoms of Cationic Red X-GRL, one is transferred into a nitrate ion, one becomes the form of an amine compound, and the rest four are transformed into two molecules of nitrogen. In the course of the ozonation of Cationic Red X-GRL, the direct attack of ozone is the main decolour effect.

  19. DFT study on the cycloreversion of thietane radical cations. (United States)

    Domingo, Luis R; Pérez-Ruiz, Raúl; Argüello, Juan E; Miranda, Miguel A


    The molecular mechanism of the cycloreversion (CR) of thietane radical cations has been analyzed in detail at the UB3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Results have shown that the process takes place via a stepwise mechanism leading to alkenes and thiobenzophenone; alternatively, formal [4+2] cycloadducts are obtained. Thus, the CR of radical cations 1a,b(•+) is initiated by C2-C3 bond breaking, giving common intermediates INa,b. At this stage, two reaction pathways are feasible involving ion molecule complexes IMCa,b (i) or radical cations 4a,b(•+) (ii). Calculations support that 1a(•+) follows reaction pathway ii (leading to the formal [4+2] cycloadducts 5a). By contrast, 1b(•+) follows pathway i, leading to trans-stilbene radical cation (2b(•+)) and thiobenzophenone.

  20. Condensation of nonstochiometric DNA/polycation complexes by divalent cations. (United States)

    Budker, Vladimir; Trubetskoy, Vladimir; Wolff, Jon A


    This study found that divalent cations induced the further condensation of partially condensed DNA within nonstochiometric polycation complexes. The addition of a few mmol of a divalent cation such as calcium reduced by half the inflection point at which DNA became fully condensed by poly-L-lysine (PLL) and a variety of other polycations. The effect on DNA condensation was initially observed using a new method, which is based on the concentration-dependent self-quenching of fluorescent moieties (e.g., rhodamine) covalently linked to the DNA backbone at relatively high densities. Additional analyses, which employed ultracentrifugation, dynamic light scattering, agarose gel electrophoresis, and atomic force microscopy, confirmed the effect of divalent cations. These results provide an additional accounting of the process by which divalent cations induce greater chromatin compaction that is based on the representation of chromatin fibers as a nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex. They also offer a new approach to assemble nonviral vectors for gene therapy.

  1. Migration of Cations and Anions in Amorphous Polymer Electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.A.Stolwijk; S.H.Obeidi; M.Wiencierz


    1 Results Polymer electrolytes are used as ion conductors in batteries and fuel cells.Simple systems consist of a polymer matrix complexing an inorganic salt and are fully amorphous at the temperatures of interest.Both cations and anions are mobile and contribute to charge transport.Most studies on polymer electrolytes use the electrical conductivity to characterize the ion mobility.However,conductivity measurements cannot discriminate between cations and anions.This paper reports some recent results fr...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W. Liu; Y. Ni; H. Xiao


    Hydrophilic and cationic montmorillonite is desirable for pitch control in the pulp and paper industry. In this paper, polyaminoamide - epichlorohydrin (PAE)modified montmorillonite was prepared. The modified montmorillonite was characterized using X-ray diffraction, FTIR and thermal gravimetric analysis. The amount of PAE intercalated and cationic charge densities of the modified montmorillonite were determined. Finally, it was found that both the solution and melt-intercalated samples with different charge densities exhibited strong interactions with dispersed colloidal rosin acid.

  3. Competition by meperidine for the organic cation renal excretory system. (United States)

    Acara, M; Gessner, T; Trudnowski, R J


    Renal tubular excretory transport of meperidine was studied using the Sperber preparation in chickens. When urine samples from infused and uninfused kidneys were analyzed for meperidine by gas chromatography, meperidine was always present in greater amounts in the urine from the infused kidney, demonstrating active tubular excretion. Meperidine at an infusion rate of 1 mumole/min, also inhibited the excretion of the organic cations choline and acetylcholine, indicating occupation of the renal organic cation excretory system in the chicken.

  4. Focused fluorescent probe library for metal cations and biological anions. (United States)

    Rhee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Jun-Seok; Chang, Young-Tae; Hong, Jong-In


    A focused fluorescent probe library for metal cations was developed by combining metal chelators and picolinium/quinolinium moieties as combinatorial blocks connected through a styryl group. Furthermore, metal complexes derived from metal chelators having high binding affinities for metal cations were used to construct a focused probe library for phosphorylated biomolecules. More than 250 fluorescent probes were screened for identifying an ultraselective probe for dTTP.

  5. Computer simulation of alkali metal cation-montmorillonite hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Fang-Ru Chou [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Skipper, N.T. [Univ. College, London (United Kingdom); Sposito, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    Molecular structure in the interlayers of Li-, Na-, or K-Wyoming montmorillonite with one, two, or three adsorbed water layers was investigated for the first time by concurrent Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, based on the Matsouka-Clementi-Yoshimine, (MCY) model of water-water interactions. Calculated layer spacings, as well as interlayer-species self-diffusion coefficients, were in good agreement with available experimental data. Inner-sphere surface complexes of the cations with tetrahedral charge sites were observed for all hydrates, whereas outer-sphere surface complexes of the cations with octahedral charge sites, found also in the one-layer hydrate, tended to dissociate from the clay mineral basal planes into a diffuse layer in the two- and three-layer hydrates. Differences in the interlayer water structure among the hydrates mainly reflected cation solvation, although some water molecules were entrapped within cavities in the montmorillonite surface. All of the interlayer cation and water species exchanged on the time scale (0.2 ns) of the MD simulations. Comparisons with results obtained using, instead of the MCY model, the TIP4P model for water-water, cation-water, and cation-clay interactions indicated that layer spacings and interlayer species mobilities tend to be under-predicted by the TIP4P model.

  6. Complexation Between Cationic Diblock Copolymers and Plasmid DNA (United States)

    Jung, Seyoung; Reineke, Theresa; Lodge, Timothy

    Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), as polyanions, can spontaneously bind with polycations to form polyelectrolyte complexes. When the polycation is a diblock copolymer with one cationic block and one uncharged hydrophilic block, the polyelectrolyte complexes formed with plasmid DNA (pDNA) are often colloidally stable, and show great promise in the field of polymeric gene therapy. While the resulting properties (size, stability, and toxicity to biological systems) of the complexes have been studied for numerous cationic diblocks, the fundamentals of the pDNA-diblock binding process have not been extensively investigated. Herein, we report how the cationic block content of a diblock influences the pDNA-diblock interactions. pDNA with 7164 base pairs and poly(2-deoxy-2-methacrylamido glucopyranose)-block-poly(N-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide) (PMAG-b-PAEMA) are used as the model pDNA and cationic diblock, respectively. To vary the cationic block content, two PMAG-b-PAEMA copolymers with similar PMAG block lengths but distinct PAEMA block lengths and a PAEMA homopolymer are utilized. We show that the enthalpy change from pDNA-diblock interactions is dependent on the cationic diblock composition, and is closely associated with both the binding strength and the pDNA tertiary structure.

  7. Photochemical generation, isomerization, and oxygenation of stilbene cation radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, F.D.; Bedell, A.M.; Dykstra, R.E.; Elbert, J.E. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA)); Gould, I.R.; Farid, S. (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY (USA))


    The cation radicals of cis- and trans-stilbene and several of their ring-substituted derivatives have been generated in solution directly by means of pulsed-laser-induced electron transfer to singlet cyanoanthracenes or indirectly via electron transfer from biphenyl to the singlet cyanoanthracene followed by secondary electron transfer from the stilbenes to the biphenyl cation radical. Transient absorption spectra of the cis- and trans-stilbene cation radicals generated by secondary electron transfer are similar to those previously obtained in 77 K matrices. Quantum yields for radical ion-pair cage escape have been measured for direct electron transfer from the stilbenes to three neutral and one charged singlet acceptor. These values increase as the ion-pair energy increases due to decreased rate constants for radical ion-pair return electron transfer, in accord with the predictions of Marcus theory for highly exergonic electron transfer. Cage-escape efficiencies are larger for trans- vs cis-stilbene cation radicals, possibly due to the greater extent of charge delocalization in the planar trans vs nonpolar cis cation radicals. Cage-escape stilbene cation radicals can initiate a concentration-dependent one way cis- {yields} trans-stilbene isomerization reaction.

  8. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of cationically modified phospholipid polymers. (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew L; Berwick, James; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J; Wang, Jin-Hai; Small, Sharon; Dunn, Anthony; O'Byrne, Vincent; Redman, Richard P; Jones, Stephen A


    Phospholipid-like copolymers based on 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl) phosphorylcholine were synthesised using monomer-starved free radical polymerisation methods and incorporating cationic charge in the form of the choline methacrylate monomer in amounts varying from 0 to 30 wt%, together with a 5 wt% silyl cross-linking agent in order to render them water-insoluble once thermally cured. Characterisation using a variety of techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-pressure liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography showed the cationic monomer did not interfere with the polymerisation and that the desired amount of charge had been incorporated. Gravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry methods were used to evaluate the water contents of polymer membranes cured at 70 degrees C, which was seen to increase with increasing cation content, producing materials with water contents ranging from 50% to 98%. Surface plasmon resonance indicated that the coatings swelled rapidly in water, the rate and extent of swelling increasing with increasing cation level. Dynamic contact angle showed that coatings of all the polymers possessed a hydrophobic surface when dry in air, characteristic of the alkyl chains expressed at the surface (>100 degrees advancing angle). Rearrangement of the hydrophilic groups to the surface occurred once wet, to produce highly wettable surfaces with a decrease in advancing angle with increasing cation content. Atomic force microscopy showed all polymer films to be smooth with no features in topographical or phase imaging. Mechanical properties of the dry films were also unaffected by the increase in cation content.

  10. Modulatory role of bivalent cations on reward system. (United States)

    Nechifor, M; Chelărescu, D


    Bivalent cations (Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn etc.) modulate activity of reward system (RS). At physiologic levels they may influence all components of RS. There are influenced behavioral reactions at physiological stimuli and all essential elements of drug dependence (compulsive intake of substance, craving, reinforcement, withdrawal syndrom, relapse and reinstatement of intake) The fact that some cations (e.g. calcium) enhance some of the aspects of drug dependence and others (e.g. magnesium, zinc) decrease intensity of this process show that ratio between intra- and extracellular in the brain of these cations is important for the function of RS. Among actions of different cations at the level of RS there are important differences. Their mecahanism of action are common in part and specific in other. It is important the fact that modulatory action appear at physiologic cation concentrations (that could be reached at therapeutic doses). Modulatory action is related to ratio between concetrations of different bivalent cations and is exerted both in normal or pathologic conditions.

  11. Does the cation really matter? The effect of modifying an ionic liquid cation on an SN2 process. (United States)

    Tanner, Eden E L; Yau, Hon Man; Hawker, Rebecca R; Croft, Anna K; Harper, Jason B


    The rate of reaction of a Menschutkin process in a range of ionic liquids with different cations was investigated, with temperature-dependent kinetic data giving access to activation parameters for the process in each solvent. These data, along with molecular dynamics simulations, demonstrate the importance of accessibility of the charged centre on the cation and that the key interactions are of a generalised electrostatic nature.

  12. Sorption of the organic cation metoprolol on silica gel from its aqueous solution considering the competition of inorganic cations. (United States)

    Kutzner, Susann; Schaffer, Mario; Börnick, Hilmar; Licha, Tobias; Worch, Eckhard


    Systematic batch experiments with the organic monovalent cation metoprolol as sorbate and the synthetic material silica gel as sorbent were conducted with the aim of characterizing the sorption of organic cations onto charged surfaces. Sorption isotherms for metoprolol (>99% protonated in the tested pH of around 6) in competition with mono- and divalent inorganic cations (Na(+), NH4(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+)) were determined in order to assess their influence on cation exchange processes and to identify the role of further sorptive interactions. The obtained sorption isotherms could be described well by an exponential function (Freundlich isotherm model) with consistent exponents (about 0.8). In general, a decreasing sorption of metoprolol with increasing concentrations in inorganic cations was observed. Competing ions of the same valence showed similar effects. A significant sorption affinity of metoprolol with ion type dependent Freundlich coefficients KF,0.77 between 234.42 and 426.58 (L/kg)(0.77) could still be observed even at very high concentrations of competing inorganic cations. Additional column experiments confirm this behavior, which suggests the existence of further relevant interactions beside cation exchange. In subsequent batch experiments, the influence of mixtures with more than one competing ion and the effect of a reduced negative surface charge at a pH below the point of zero charge (pHPZC ≈ 2.5) were also investigated. Finally, the study demonstrates that cation exchange is the most relevant but not the sole mechanism for the sorption of metoprolol on silica gel.

  13. Cation Uptake and Allocation by Red Pine Seedlings under Cation-Nutrient Stress in a Column Growth Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhenqing; Balogh-Brunstad, Zsuzsanna; Grant, Michael R.; Harsh, James B.; Gill, Richard; Thomashow, Linda; Dohnalkova, Alice; Stacks, Daryl; Letourneau, Melissa; Keller, Chester K.


    Background and Aims Plant nutrient uptake is affected by environmental stress, but how plants respond to cation-nutrient stress is poorly understood. We assessed the impact of varying degrees of cation-nutrient limitation on cation uptake in an experimental plant-mineral system. Methods Column experiments, with red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) seedlings growing in sand/mineral mixtures, were conducted for up to nine months under a range of Ca- and K-limited conditions. The Ca and K were supplied from both minerals and nutrient solutions with varying Ca and K concentrations. Results Cation nutrient stress had little impact on carbon allocation after nine months of plant growth and K was the limiting nutrient for biomass production. The Ca/Sr and K/Rb ratio results allowed independent estimation of dissolution incongruency and discrimination against Sr and Rb during cation uptake processes. The fraction of K in biomass from biotite increased with decreasing K supply from nutrient solutions. The mineral anorthite was consistently the major source of Ca, regardless of nutrient treatment. Conclusions Red pine seedlings exploited more mineral K in response to more severe K deficiency. This did not occur for Ca. Plant discrimination factors must be carefully considered to accurately identify nutrient sources using cation tracers.

  14. Lack of association between a cationic protein and a cationic fluorosurfactant. (United States)

    Macakova, Lubica; Nordstierna, Lars; Karlsson, Göran; Blomberg, Eva; Furó, István


    Surface tension, 19F and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and cryotransmission electron microscopy are used to characterize the state of association in aqueous solutions of a fluorosurfactant CF3(CF2)nSO2NH(CH2)3-4N(CH3)3+ I- (n = 8, 6) with and without lysozyme added. In the absence of lysozyme, we find monomers, small aggregates, and large vesicles to coexist, with the individual fluorosurfactant molecules exchanging slowly (>1 ms) among those states. When both lysozyme and fluorosurfactant are present in the solution, they have no measurable influence on the physical state of the other. In contrast, a hydrogenated cationic surfactant with the same headgroup, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, is shown to associate to lysozyme.

  15. Uso de 2-octil-cianoacrilato na reconstrução da cavidade anoftálmica de coelhos 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in rabbit anophthalmic cavity reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni Cristina Barbarini Ferraz


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ligação entre músculos oculares extrínsecos e esferas de polietileno poroso usando um bioadesivo. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental envolvendo 8 coelhos albinos submetidos a enucleação do olho direto com colocação de implante esférico de polietileno poroso de 12 mm de diâmetro unido aos músculos oculares extrínsecos por meio do bioadesivo 2-octil-cianoacrilato. Noventa dias após a cirurgia os animais foram sacrificados e o conteúdo orbitário removido. Em 4 animais foi realizado estudo biomecânico, avaliando-se a força de ruptura entre a musculatura e a esfera (grupo implante e entre a musculatura e a esclera nos olhos contralaterais (grupo controle. Nos outros 4 animais foi realizada análise histológica. RESULTADO: A avaliação biomecânica revelou que a força de ruptura entre esfera-músculo e esclera-músculo foram semelhantes quando se usa o adesivo de cianoacrilato. O exame histológico mostrou reação fibrovascular no local da adesão entre a musculatura e a esfera, sem efeitos deletérios aos tecidos. Ao redor dos implantes foi possível observar pseudocápsula e no interior, neovasos e tecido fibrovascular preenchendo os espaços entre os grânulos do polietileno. CONCLUSÃO: O adesivo 2-octil-cianoacrilato mantém boa força de adesão na união entre os músculos e as esferas de polietileno poroso, com redução do tempo cirúrgico e sem efeitos deletérios aos tecidos orbitais. Desta forma, deve-se considerar o uso do bioadesivo na reconstrução da cavidade anoftálmica.PURPOSE: To evaluate fixation by a bioadhesive of the external ocular muscles to the porous polyethylene spheres. METHODS: An experimental study was performed using eight white rabbits that underwent right eye enucleation with placement of 12 mm spheres of porous polyethylene. The rectus muscles (superior and inferior were attached to the implant with a bioadhesive (2-octyl-cyanoacrylate applied to the inferior side of the external

  16. Experimental Study of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Cyanoacrylate Medical Adhesive%多壁碳纳米管改性氰基丙烯酸酯医用胶的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗滦; 梁向党; 张军营; 孙赓; 宋垚垚


    目的:对氰基丙烯酸酯医用胶进行增强及增韧改性研究.方法:选用羧基化多壁碳纳米管(MWCNTs-COOH)和多壁碳纳米管(MWCNTs)2种纳米材料对CA医用胶进行改性,并对改性前后的胶黏剂进行拉伸剪切强度和玻璃化转化温度测试.用扫描电子显微镜观察胶黏剂黏附破坏界面.结果:MWCNTs-COOH/CA的含量为64 mg/100 g时,胶黏剂的拉伸剪切强度最大,比纯CA的拉伸剪切强度提高约51.5%,而且玻璃化转化温度也比纯CA下降33.7%;MWCNs/CA的含量为64 mg/100 g时,拉伸剪切强度也达到最大,比纯CA提高12.7%,而MWCNTs/CA的含量为4mg/100 g时,玻璃化转化温度最低,比纯CA下降12.4%;扫描电子显微镜见MWCNTs-COOH/CA胶黏剂拉伸断面由很多树枝状微纹组成.结论:2种碳纳米管的加入可有效改善胶黏剂的拉伸强度并提高其韧性,其中MWCNTs-COOH对拉伸强度的改性效果更好(P<0.01,t=6).%Objective To perform experimental study of reinforcement and toughening modification of cyanoacrylate(CA) medical adhesive. Methods Multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) and carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs-COOH) were used to modify cyanoacrylate(CA) medical adhesive. Then the tensile shear strength(TSS) and glass transition; temperature(Tg) were measured before and after the modification. The destruction of interface adhesion was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Result8 The TSS of 64 mg/100 g in MWCNTs -COOH/CAseries was the highest, which was higher by 51.5% than the CA. The Tg of MWCNTs-COOH/CA(64 mg/100 g) was the lowest, which was lower by 33.7% than the CA. The TSS of 64 mg/100 g in MWCNTs/CA series was the highest, which was higher by 12.7% than the CA. The Tg of MWCNTs/CA(4 mg/100 g) was the lowest, which was lower by 12.4% than the CA. The TSS of MWCNTs-COOH/CA(64 mg/100 g) was higher than MWCNTs/CA(4 mg/100 g)(P<0.01, t=6). It's found that the tensile fracture of MWNTs-COOH/CA(64 mg/100 g

  17. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate. (United States)

    Abbad, Sarra; Wang, Cheng; Waddad, Ayman Yahia; Lv, Huixia; Zhou, Jianping


    Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH), based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) (HA-PBCA) block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA "plain" nanoparticle (MH-PNs) and HA-PBCA/TPGS "mixed" nanoparticles (MH-MNs) were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice. Overall, the results imply that the developed nanoparticles are promising vehicles for the targeted delivery of lipophilic anticancer drugs.

  18. Hydration of cations: a key to understanding of specific cation effects on aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers. (United States)

    Lutter, Jacob C; Wu, Tsung-yu; Zhang, Yanjie


    This work reports results from the interactions of a series of monovalent and divalent cations with a triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO). Phase transition temperatures of the polymer in the presence of chloride salts with six monovalent and eight divalent cations were measured using an automated melting point apparatus. The polymer undergoes a two-step phase transition, consisting of micellization of the polymer followed by aggregation of the micelles, in the presence of all the salts studied herein. The results suggest that hydration of cations plays a key role in determining the interactions between the cations and the polymer. The modulation of the phase transition temperature of the polymer by cations can be explained as a balance between three interactions: direct binding of cations to the oxygen in the polymer chains, cations sharing one water molecule with the polymer in their hydration layer, and cations interacting with the polymer via two water molecules. Monovalent cations Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) do not bind to the polymer, while Li(+) and NH4(+) and all the divalent cations investigated including Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) bind to the polymer. The effects of the cations correlate well with their hydration thermodynamic properties. Mechanisms for cation-polymer interactions are discussed.

  19. Endocytosis of cationized ferritin by coated vesicles of soybean protoplasts. (United States)

    Tanchak, M A; Griffing, L R; Mersey, B G; Fowke, L C


    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) protoplasts have been surface-labelled with cationized ferritin, and the fate of the label has been followed ultrastructurally. Endocytosis of the label occurs via the coated-membrane system. The pathway followed by the label, once it has been taken into the interior of the protoplast, appears to be similar to that found during receptor-mediated endocytosis in animal cells. Cationized ferritin is first seen in coated vesicles but rapidly appears in smooth vesicles. Labelled, partially coated vesicles are occasionally observed, indicating that the smooth vesicles may have arisen by the uncoating of coated vesicles. Structures which eventually become labelled with cationized ferritin include multivesicular bodies, dictyosomes, large smooth vesicles, and a system of partially coated reticula.

  20. Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation on CH Bond Acidity in Cationic Alkanes (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Xie, Min; Fujii, Asuka


    We have demonstrated large enhancements of CH bond acidities in alcohol, ether, and amine cations through infrared predissociation spectroscopy based on the vacuum ultraviolet photoionization detection. In this study, we investigate for the cationic alkanes (pentane, hexane, and heptane) with different alkyl chain lengths. The σ electrons are ejected in the ionization of alkanes, while nonbonding electrons are ejected in ionization of alcohols, ethers, and amines. Nevertheless, the acidity enhancements of CH in these cationic alkanes have also been demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy. The correlations of their CH bond acidities with the alkyl chain lengths as well as the mechanisms of their acidity enhancements will be discussed by comparison of infrared spectra and theoretical calculations.

  1. Radical Addition to Iminium Ions and Cationic Heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tauber


    Full Text Available Carbon-centered radicals represent highly useful reactive intermediates in organic synthesis. Their nucleophilic character is reflected by fast additions to electron deficient C=X double bonds as present in iminium ions or cationic heterocycles. This review covers diverse reactions of preformed or in situ-generated cationic substrates with various types of C-radicals, including alkyl, alkoxyalkyl, trifluoromethyl, aryl, acyl, carbamoyl, and alkoxycarbonyl species. Despite its high reactivity, the strong interaction of the radical’s SOMO with the LUMO of the cation frequently results in a high regioselectivity. Intra- and intermolecular processes such as the Minisci reaction, the Porta reaction, and the Knabe rearrangement will be discussed along with transition metal and photoredox catalysis or electrochemical methods to generate the odd-electron species.

  2. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG FangFang; WANG Yi; WANG BingQiang; WANG YinFeng; MA Fang; Li ZhiRu


    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer (TTF·~+-TTF·~+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π/π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π/π bonding has the bonding energy of about-21 kcal·mol~(-1) and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·~+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·~+ subunit,I.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  3. A covalent attraction between two molecular cation TTF·~+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The optimized structure of the tetrathiafulvalence radical-cation dimer(TTF·+-TTF·+) with all-real frequencies is obtained at MP2/6-311G level,which exhibits the attraction between two molecular cation TTF·+.The new attraction interaction is a 20-center-2-electron intermolecular covalent π /π bonding with a telescope shape.The covalent π /π bonding has the bonding energy of about -21 kcal·mol-1 and is concealed by the Coulombic repulsion between two TTF·+ cations.This intermolecular covalent attraction also influences the structure of the TTF·+ subunit,i.e.,its molecular plane is bent by an angle θ=5.6°.This work provides new knowledge on intermolecular interaction.

  4. Cationic lipids delay the transfer of plasmid DNA to lysosomes. (United States)

    Wattiaux, R; Jadot, M; Laurent, N; Dubois, F; Wattiaux-De Coninck, S


    Plasmid 35S DNA, naked or associated with different cationic lipid preparations was injected to rats. Subcellular distribution of radioactivity in the liver one hour after injection, was established by centrifugation methods. Results show that at that time, 35S DNA has reached lysosomes. On the contrary, when 35S DNA was complexed with lipids, radioactivity remains located in organelles whose distribution after differential and isopycnic centrifugation, is clearly distinct from that of arylsulfatase, lysosome marker enzyme. Injection of Triton WR 1339, a specific density perturbant of lysosomes, four days before 35S DNA injection causes a density decrease of radioactivity bearing structures, apparent one hour after naked 35S DNA injection but visible only after more than five hours, when 35S DNA associated with a cationic lipid is injected. These observations show that cationic lipids delay the transfer to lysosomes, of plasmid DNA taken up by the liver.

  5. Surface hopping investigation of the relaxation dynamics in radical cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, Mariana; Matsika, Spiridoula, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Weinacht, Thomas [Department of Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)


    Ionization processes can lead to the formation of radical cations with population in several ionic states. In this study, we examine the dynamics of three radical cations starting from an excited ionic state using trajectory surface hopping dynamics in combination with multiconfigurational electronic structure methods. The efficiency of relaxation to the ground state is examined in an effort to understand better whether fragmentation of cations is likely to occur directly on excited states or after relaxation to the ground state. The results on cyclohexadiene, hexatriene, and uracil indicate that relaxation to the ground ionic state is very fast in these systems, while fragmentation before relaxation is rare. Ultrafast relaxation is facilitated by the close proximity of electronic states and the presence of two- and three-state conical intersections. Examining the properties of the systems in the Franck-Condon region can give some insight into the subsequent dynamics.

  6. Theoretical Studies on the Interactions of Cations with Diazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; WU Wen-Peng; ZHANG Jing-Lai; CAO Ze-Xing


    Density functional theory and MP2 calculations have been used to determine the geometries, stabilities, binding energies, and dissociative properties of cation-diazine complexes Mn+-C4H4N2 (Mn+ = Li+, B+, Al+, Be2+, Mg2+, Ca2+). The calculated results indicate that most complexes are stable except the π complexes of Ca2+-pyridazine, Ca2+-pyrazine, Al+-pyrimidine and Al+-pyrimidine. The σ complexes are generally much more stable than their π counterparts. Among the π complexes, the cation-pyrazine π complexes have slightly higher stability. The nature of the ion-molecule interactions has been discussed by the natural bond orbital analysis and frontier molecular orbital interactions. In these σ complexes, there is stronger covalent interaction between B+ and diazine. In the selected π complexes, B+ and Be2+ have stronger covalent interaction with diazine, while the other cations mainly have electrostatic interaction with diazine.

  7. Solubility and transport of cationic and anionic patterned nanoparticles (United States)

    Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica


    Diffusion and transport of nanoparticles (NPs) though nanochannels is important for desalination, drug delivery, and biomedicine. Their surface composition dictate their efficiency separating them by reverse osmosis, delivering into into cells, as well as their toxicity. We analyze bulk diffusion and transport through nanochannels of NPs with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns achieved by coating a fraction of the NP sites with positive or negative charges via explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. The cationic NPs are more affected by the patterns, less water soluble, and have higher diffusion constants and fluxes than their anionic NPs counterparts. The NP-water interaction dependence on surface pattern and field strength explains these observations. For equivalent patterns, anionic NPs solubilize more than cationic NPs since the Coulomb interaction of free anionic NPs, which are much stronger than hydrophobic NP-water interactions, are about twice that of cationic NPs.

  8. Cationization of Alpha-Cellulose to Develop New Sustainable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral


    Full Text Available Papermaking has been using high quantities of retention agents, mainly cationic substances and organic compounds such as polyamines. The addition of these agents is related to economic and environmental issues, increasing contamination of the effluents. The aim of this work is to develop a cationic polymer for papermaking purposes based on the utilization of alpha-cellulose. The cationization of mercerized alpha-cellulose with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC is governed by a pseudo-second-order reaction. The initial amorphous fraction of cellulose is reacted with CHPTAC until the equilibrium value of nitrogen substitution is reached. Nitrogen is incorporated as a quaternary ammonium group in the polymer. Also, the kinetic constant increased with decreasing crystallinity index, showing the importance of the previous alkalization stage. The use of modified natural polysaccharides is a sustainable alternative to synthetic, nonbiodegradable polyelectrolytes and thus is desirable with a view to developing new products and new processes.

  9. Comparison of Cation Adsorption by Isostructural Rutile and Cassiterite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machesky, Michael L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL; Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Rosenqvist, Jorgen K [ORNL; Predota, M. [University of South Bohemia, Czech Republic; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL; Ridley, Moira K [ORNL; Kohli, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Zhang, Zhan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Fenter, Paul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Cummings, Peter T [ORNL; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University; Fedkin, Mark V [ORNL; Rodriguez-Santiago, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia


    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) Crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl2 in NaCl, and trace ZnCl2 in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite ( bulk 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb and Na on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl- binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb , Na , and especially Sr2 are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn2 are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn2 hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner-sphere cation binding is relatively more

  10. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite. (United States)

    Machesky, Michael; Wesolowski, David; Rosenqvist, Jörgen; Předota, Milan; Vlcek, Lukas; Ridley, Moira; Kohli, Vaibhav; Zhang, Zhan; Fenter, Paul; Cummings, Peter; Lvov, Serguei; Fedkin, Mark; Rodriguez-Santiago, Victor; Kubicki, James; Bandura, Andrei


    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl(2) in NaCl, and trace ZnCl(2) in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite (ε(bulk) ≈ 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb(+) and Na(+) on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl(-) binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb(+), Na(+), and especially Sr(2+) are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn(2+) are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn(2+) hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH(+) on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the cassiterite (110) surface. Hence, their removal upon inner

  11. Determination of Cationic Surfactant by Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel method for the determination of cationic surfactant by laser thermal lens spectrometry was developed. It was based on the reaction between 1-hydroxy-2-(5-nitro-2-Pyri-dylazo)-8-aminonaphthalene-3,6-disulfonic acid (5-NO2-PAH) and cationic surfactant to form 1:2 ionic association complex in a weakly basic medium (pH 9.44). The determination conditions and the mechanism were discussed. The method has been applied to the analysis of wastewater and moat water samples.

  12. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.


    The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

  13. Dilatometric, refractometric and viscometric study of lysozyme-cation interaction. (United States)

    Abad, C; Trueba, M; Campos, A; Figueruelo, J E


    The interaction between hen egg-white lysozyme and Cu(II) or Co(II) cations has been studied by dilatometry, equilibrium dialysis-differential refractometry and viscometry at different metal cation concentrations. Delta V isotherms in copper and cobalt solutions have been obtained from dilatometry. Preferential adsorption parameters and specific viscosity have been determined from refractometric and viscosimetric measurements. It has been observed that this interaction produces structural alterations in lysozyme. The magnitude of these conformational changes depends on the metal ion and protein concentration. The results obtained using the three techniques are in good agreement.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinWang; KefuChen; FushanChent; ChuanshanZhao; RendangYang


    Cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) which was prepared through complex initiation system in laboratory and cationic polyacrylamide (Ciba) were used asretention and drainage aids for bleached wheat strawpulp. The influences of (polydiallyldimethlammonium chloride) PDADMAC and PDADMAC/CPAMon Zeta potential and drainability of pulp was investigated. The dual drainage and retention systems suchas CPAM/modified bentonite, CPAM/colloidal SiO2,as well as their comparison between the two systemswere discussed, and the optimal dosages of additiveswere determined. The results showed that: the complex systems can further enhance filler retention,drainability of pulp and strength properties of paper.

  15. Evaluation of the permeability of the furcation area of deciduous molars conditioned with Er:YAG laser and cyanoacrylate Avaliação da permeabilidade da região da furca de molares decíduos condicionada com laser de Er:YAG e cianoacrilatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriene Mara Souza Lopes-Silva


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the dentin permeability of the deciduous pulp chamber floor after employing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate and Er:YAG laser. Twenty four deciduous molars were used, divided into four groups. After chemical-surgical preparation each group received a different treatment: Group 1 - control, without treatment; Group 2 - the floor of the pulp chamber was covered with a fine layer of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate; Group 3 - the floor of the pulp chamber was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (250 mJ, 10 Hz for 30 seconds, 80 J of energy and 320 pulses, and covered with a fine layer of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate; and Group 4 - the floor of the pulp chamber was irradiated with Er:YAG laser set at the parameters already described. After that the specimens received application of 0.5% methylene blue, for 15 minutes. The teeth were cut, photographed, and the digitalized images were analyzed using the ImageLab program. The results obtained were submitted to statistical analysis. Group 4 (Er:YAG presented the largest averages in percentage of dye penetration area (19.5%, followed by Group 1 (11.1%, Group 3 (1.4% and Group 2 (0.2%. The experimental model allowed to conclude that the specimens conditioned with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Group 2 and Er:YAG laser associated to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Group 3 presented a decrease in permeability, and the specimens treated with Er:YAG laser (Group 4 presented an increase in permeability of the analyzed area.A proposta do presente experimento foi avaliar in vitro a permeabilidade da dentina no assoalho da câmara pulpar de dentes decíduos com o emprego do 2-octil cianoacrilato e laser de Er:YAG. Foram empregados 24 molares decíduos, divididos em quatro grupos. Após preparo químico-cirúrgico, cada grupo recebeu um tratamento diferente: Grupo 1 - controle, sem tratamento; Grupo 2 - o assoalho da câmara pulpar foi coberto com uma fina camada de 2-octil cianoacrilato; Grupo 3 - o assoalho da c

  16. Alloyed copper chalcogenide nanoplatelets via partial cation exchange reactions. (United States)

    Lesnyak, Vladimir; George, Chandramohan; Genovese, Alessandro; Prato, Mirko; Casu, Alberto; Ayyappan, S; Scarpellini, Alice; Manna, Liberato


    We report the synthesis of alloyed quaternary and quinary nanocrystals based on copper chalcogenides, namely, copper zinc selenide-sulfide (CZSeS), copper tin selenide-sulfide (CTSeS), and copper zinc tin selenide-sulfide (CZTSeS) nanoplatelets (NPLs) (∼20 nm wide) with tunable chemical composition. Our synthesis scheme consisted of two facile steps: i.e., the preparation of copper selenide-sulfide (Cu2-xSeyS1-y) platelet shaped nanocrystals via the colloidal route, followed by an in situ cation exchange reaction. During the latter step, the cation exchange proceeded through a partial replacement of copper ions by zinc or/and tin cations, yielding homogeneously alloyed nanocrystals with platelet shape. Overall, the chemical composition of the alloyed nanocrystals can easily be controlled by the amount of precursors that contain cations of interest (e.g., Zn, Sn) to be incorporated/alloyed. We have also optimized the reaction conditions that allow a complete preservation of the size, morphology, and crystal structure as that of the starting Cu2-xSeyS1-y NPLs. The alloyed NPLs were characterized by optical spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV), which demonstrated tunability of their light absorption characteristics as well as their electrochemical band gaps.

  17. Cu Vacancies Boost Cation Exchange Reactions in Copper Selenide Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Lesnyak, Vladimir; Brescia, Rosaria; Messina, Gabriele C; Manna, Liberato


    We have investigated cation exchange reactions in copper selenide nanocrystals using two different divalent ions as guest cations (Zn(2+) and Cd(2+)) and comparing the reactivity of close to stoichiometric (that is, Cu2Se) nanocrystals with that of nonstoichiometric (Cu(2-x)Se) nanocrystals, to gain insights into the mechanism of cation exchange at the nanoscale. We have found that the presence of a large density of copper vacancies significantly accelerated the exchange process at room temperature and corroborated vacancy diffusion as one of the main drivers in these reactions. Partially exchanged samples exhibited Janus-like heterostructures made of immiscible domains sharing epitaxial interfaces. No alloy or core-shell structures were observed. The role of phosphines, like tri-n-octylphosphine, in these reactions, is multifaceted: besides acting as selective solvating ligands for Cu(+) ions exiting the nanoparticles during exchange, they also enable anion diffusion, by extracting an appreciable amount of selenium to the solution phase, which may further promote the exchange process. In reactions run at a higher temperature (150 °C), copper vacancies were quickly eliminated from the nanocrystals and major differences in Cu stoichiometries, as well as in reactivities, between the initial Cu2Se and Cu(2-x)Se samples were rapidly smoothed out. These experiments indicate that cation exchange, under the specific conditions of this work, is more efficient at room temperature than at higher temperature.

  18. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso


    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  19. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers aggressively initiate blood clot formation. (United States)

    Jones, Clinton F; Campbell, Robert A; Brooks, Amanda E; Assemi, Shoeleh; Tadjiki, Soheyl; Thiagarajan, Giridhar; Mulcock, Cheyanne; Weyrich, Andrew S; Brooks, Benjamin D; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Grainger, David W


    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are increasingly studied as model nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications, notably in systemic administrations. However, with respect to blood-contacting applications, amine-terminated dendrimers have recently been shown to activate platelets and cause a fatal, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like condition in mice and rats. We here demonstrate that, upon addition to blood, cationic G7 PAMAM dendrimers induce fibrinogen aggregation, which may contribute to the in vivo DIC-like phenomenon. We demonstrate that amine-terminated dendrimers act directly on fibrinogen in a thrombin-independent manner to generate dense, high-molecular-weight fibrinogen aggregates with minimal fibrin fibril formation. In addition, we hypothesize this clot-like behavior is likely mediated by electrostatic interactions between the densely charged cationic dendrimer surface and negatively charged fibrinogen domains. Interestingly, cationic dendrimers also induced aggregation of albumin, suggesting that many negatively charged blood proteins may be affected by cationic dendrimers. To investigate this further, zebrafish embryos were employed to more specifically determine the speed of this phenomenon and the pathway- and dose-dependency of the resulting vascular occlusion phenotype. These novel findings show that G7 PAMAM dendrimers significantly and adversely impact many blood components to produce rapid coagulation and strongly suggest that these effects are independent of classic coagulation mechanisms. These results also strongly suggest the need to fully characterize amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers in regard to their adverse effects on both coagulation and platelets, which may contribute to blood toxicity.

  20. Cation binding site of cytochrome c oxidase: progress report. (United States)

    Vygodina, Tatiana V; Kirichenko, Anna; Konstantinov, Alexander A


    Cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart binds Ca(2+) reversibly at a specific Cation Binding Site located near the outer face of the mitochondrial membrane. Ca(2+) shifts the absorption spectrum of heme a, which allowed earlier the determination of the kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of the binding, and, as shown recently, the binding of calcium to the site inhibits cytochrome oxidase activity at low turnover rates of the enzyme [Vygodina, Т., Kirichenko, A., Konstantinov, A.A (2013). Direct Regulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase by Calcium Ions. PloS ONE 8, e74436]. This paper summarizes further progress in the studies of the Cation Binding Site in this group presenting the results to be reported at 18th EBEC Meeting in Lisbon, 2014. The paper revises specificity of the bovine oxidase Cation Binding Site for different cations, describes dependence of the Ca(2+)-induced inhibition on turnover rate of the enzyme and reports very high affinity binding of calcium with the "slow" form of cytochrome oxidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Guest Editors: Manuela Pereira and Miguel Teixeira.

  1. Structure and Reactivity of the Cysteine Methyl Ester Radical Cation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osburn, S.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.; O' Hair, R. A. J.; Van Stipdonk, M.; Ryzhov, V.


    The structure and reactivity of the cysteine methyl ester radical cation, CysOMe(center dot+), have been examined in the gas phase using a combination of experiment and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. CysOMe(center dot+) undergoes rapid ion molecule reactions with dimethyl disulfide, a

  2. [Synthesis of functionalized cyanines. Fluorescence properties following complexation of cations]. (United States)

    Mazières, M R; Duprat, C; Sutra, E; Lamandé, L; Bergon, M; Bellan, J; Wolf, J G; Roques, C


    The ionophoric properties of podands containing dioxazaphosphocane moieties linked by inactive spacers were studied. To increase the detection sensibility of these compounds we introduced a cyanine as spacer. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated the interest of cyanines as active spacers since the complexation by cations as Ca2+ and Mg2+ gives an enhancement of the emission intensity.

  3. Metal Cations in G-Quadruplex Folding and Stability (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debmalya; Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Basu, Soumitra


    This review is focused on the structural and physico-chemical aspects of metal cation coordination to G-Quadruplexes (GQ) and their effects on GQ stability and conformation. G-Quadruplex structures are non-canonical secondary structures formed by both DNA and RNA. G-quadruplexes regulate a wide range of important biochemical processes. Besides the sequence requirements, the coordination of monovalent cations in the GQ is essential for its formation and determines the stability and polymorphism of GQ structures. The nature, location and dynamics of the cation coordination and their impact on the overall GQ stability are dependent on several factors such as the ionic radii, hydration energy and the bonding strength to the O6 of guanines. The intracellular monovalent cation concentration and the localized ion concentrations determine the formation of GQs and can potentially dictate their regulatory roles. A wide range of biochemical and biophysical studies on an array of GQ enabling sequences have generated at a minimum the knowledge base that allows us to often predict the stability of GQs in presence of the physiologically relevant metal ions, however, prediction of conformation of such GQs is still out of the realm.

  4. Denatured Thermodynamics of Proteins in Weak Cation-exchange Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong; CHEN Guo-Liang


    The thermostability of some proteins in weak cation-exchange chromatography was investigated at 20-80 ℃. The results show that there is a fixed thermal denaturation transition temperature for each protein. The appearance of the thermal transition temperature indicates that the conformations of the proteins are destroyed seriously. The thermal behavior of the proteins in weak cation-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies were compared in a wide temperature range. It was found that the proteins have a higher thermostability in a weak cation-exchange chromatography system. The thermodynamic parameters(ΔH0, ΔS0) of those proteins were determined by means of Vant Hoff relationship(lnk-1/T). According to standard entropy change(ΔS0), the conformational change of the proteins was judged in the chromatographic process. The linear relationships between ΔH0 and ΔS0 can be used to evaluate "compensation temperature"(β) at the protein denaturation and identify the identity of the protein retention mechanism in weak cation-exchange chromatography.

  5. Synthesis and Cation Complexation of Lariat Calix[4 ] crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zheng-Wei; JIN Chuan-Ming; LU Guo-Yuan


    @@ Calixcrowns carrying bridging polyethyleneoxy moieties on the lower rim, which combine calixarene and crown ether in a single molecule, are a novel class of host compounds which have attracted increasing attention because of their increased ability for selective complexation of cations and neutral molecules compared with crown ethers or cal ixarenes.

  6. Two different cationic positions in Cu-SSZ-13? (United States)

    Hun Kwak, Ja; Zhu, Haiyang; Lee, Jong H; Peden, Charles H F; Szanyi, János


    H(2)-TPR and FTIR were used to characterize the nature of the Cu ions present in the Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite at different ion exchange levels. The results obtained are consistent with the presence of Cu ions at two distinct cationic positions in the SSZ-13 framework.

  7. Two different cationic positions in Cu-SSZ-13?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Haiyang; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos


    H2-TPR and FTIR were used to characterize the Cu ions present in Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite at different ion exchange levels. The results obtained are consistent with the presence of Cu ions in two distinct cationic positions of the SSZ-13 framework.

  8. Interactions between liposomes and cations in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Ruso, Juan M; Besada, Lina; Martínez-Landeira, Pablo; Seoane, Laura; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix


    An investigation on the dependence of electrophoretic mobilities of unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidylcholine-cholesterol-phosphatidylinositol (PC-Chol-PI) on the concentration of several cations with variations in the relation charge/radius in the range Na+, K+, Cs+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Al3+, and La3+ has been realized. Plots of zeta potential against ion concentration exhibit a maximum for all the cations under study, the position of the maximum is greatly affected by the charge of the ion. From the feature of these plots two phenomenon were observed: an initial binding of cations into the slipping plane for ion concentration below the maximum and a phenomenon of vesicle association for concentration above the maximum. To confirm these observations measurements on dynamic light scattering were performed to obtain the corresponding size distribution of the liposomes at different ion concentrations. Finally the ability of the Stern isotherm to describe the adsorption of the cations to vesicles was tested by two methods. The two main parameters of the theory: the total number of adsorption sites per unit area, N1, and the equilibrium constant, K; (and consequently the free energy of adsorption, deltaG0ads) were calculated for the different ions, showing good agreement. The equilibrium constants of adsorption have been found to obey a linear relationship with ion radius the slope of which decreases with the ion charge.

  9. New cation-exchange membranes for hyperfiltration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der P.M.; Smolders, C.A.


    A new route for the preparation of cation exchange membranes from polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS) block copolymers has been studied, using N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate. At temperatures of 0° to 20°C, N-chlorosulfonyl isocyanate reacts readily with the olefin group in polyisoprenes, resulti

  10. Predictive model of cationic surfactant binding to humic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, M.; Koopal, L.K.


    The humic substances (HS) have a high reactivity with other components in the natural environment. An important factor for the reactivity of HS is their negative charge. Cationic surfactants bind strongly to HS by electrostatic and specific interaction. Therefore, a surfactant binding model is devel

  11. Synthesis and Properties of Novel Cationic Maleic Diester Polymerizable Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Three new cationic polymerizable surfactants are synthesized by the reaction of alkylmaleic hemiester with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Their structures are confirmed by 1H NMR, IR and elements analysis. The values of CMC and gCMC of these surfactants have been measured. One can obtain nearly monodisperse polystyrene latex by emulsion polymerization using the polymerizable surfactant.

  12. Gas-phase infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of cationic polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; van Roij, A. J. A.; Meijer, G.; von Helden, G.


    Infrared spectra of gas-phase cationic naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and pyrene are recorded in the 500-1600 cm(-1) range using multiphoton dissociation in an ion trap. Gas-phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons are photoionized by an excimer laser and stored in a quadrupole ion trap. Subsequent i

  13. Metal Cations in G-Quadruplex Folding and Stability (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debmalya; Mirihana Arachchilage, Gayan; Basu, Soumitra


    This review is focused on the structural and physicochemical aspects of metal cation coordination to G-Quadruplexes (GQ) and their effects on GQ stability and conformation. G-quadruplex structures are non-canonical secondary structures formed by both DNA and RNA. G-quadruplexes regulate a wide range of important biochemical processes. Besides the sequence requirements, the coordination of monovalent cations in the GQ is essential for its formation and determines the stability and polymorphism of GQ structures. The nature, location, and dynamics of the cation coordination and their impact on the overall GQ stability are dependent on several factors such as the ionic radii, hydration energy, and the bonding strength to the O6 of guanines. The intracellular monovalent cation concentration and the localized ion concentrations determine the formation of GQs and can potentially dictate their regulatory roles. A wide range of biochemical and biophysical studies on an array of GQ enabling sequences have generated at a minimum the knowledge base that allows us to often predict the stability of GQs in the presence of the physiologically relevant metal ions, however, prediction of conformation of such GQs is still out of the realm. PMID:27668212

  14. Cation Hydration Constants by Proton NMR: A Physical Chemistry Experiment. (United States)

    Smith, Robert L.; And Others


    Studies the polarization effect on water by cations and anions. Describes an experiment to illustrate the polarization effect of sodium, lithium, calcium, and strontium ions on the water molecule in the hydration spheres of the ions. Analysis is performed by proton NMR. (MVL)

  15. Planar Homotropenylium Cation : A Transition State with Reversed Aromaticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, Christopher M.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Fowler, Patrick W.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.


    In contrast to the equilibrium structure of the homoaromatic C-s homotropenylium cation, C8H9+ (1), which supports a pinched diatropic ring current, the C(2)v transition state (2) for inversion of the methylene bridge of 1 is antiaromatic and supports a two-lobe paratropic pi current, as detected by

  16. Cationic Organic/Inorganic Hybrids and Their Swelling Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan; L. Ghimici; M. Cazacu


    @@ 1Introduction Specific properties of poly(dimethylsiloxanes), such as low glass transition temperature, low surface energy, good insulating properties, biological and chemical inertness, high diffusion coefficient of gases, make them very attractive for practical applications in the daily life. However, there is a great interest last time in the preparation of ionic organic/inorganic materials with new properties for new applications. Quaternary ammonium salt(QAS) groups included in siloxane copolymers could induce new interesting properties such as:permanent fungicidal and bactericidal properties, which make them very attractive as materials for sanitary applications, improved selectivity coefficients of the gas-separation membranes, ion-exchange properties and so forth. So far, QAS groups have been located in the side chain[1,2]. Our interest was focused on the preparation of some novel cationic polysiloxane copolymers containing QAS groups of both integral type and pendent type[3,4]. Our objectives for the present study concern the synthesis of some cationic organic/siloxane hybrid materials with swelling properties controlled by both the nature of cationic organic component and the ratio between the organic and inorganic counterparts. Such cationic hybrid materials could be of interest for the preparation of new stimuli-responsive hydrogels[5,6].

  17. Cation ordering and superstructures in natural layered double hydroxides. (United States)

    Krivovichev, Sergey V; Yakovenchuk, Victor N; Zolotarev, Andrey A; Ivanyuk, Gregory N; Pakhomovsky, Yakov A


    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) constitute an important group of materials with many applications ranging from catalysis and absorption to carriers for drug delivery, DNA intercalation and carbon dioxide sequestration. The structures of LDHs are based upon double brucite-like hydroxide layers [M(2+)(n)M(3+)(m)(OH)(2(m+n)](m+), where M(2+) = Mg(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), etc.; M(3+) = Al(3+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Mn(3+), etc. Structural features of LDHs such as cation ordering, charge distribution and polytypism have an immediate influence upon their properties. However, all the structural studies on synthetic LDHs deal with powder samples that prevent elucidation of such fine details of structure architecture as formation of superstructures due to cation ordering. In contrast to synthetic materials, natural LDHs are known to form single crystals accessible to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, which provides a unique possibility to investigate 3D cation ordering in LDHs that results in formation of complex superstructures, where 2D cation order is combined with a specific order of layer stacking (polytypism). Therefore LDH minerals provide an indispensable source of structural information for modeling of structures and processes happening in LDHs at the molecular and nanoscale levels.

  18. Cationic amphiphiles as delivery system for genes into eukaryotic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberle, Volker; Zuhorn, Inge S.; Audouy, Sandrine; Bakowsky, Udo; Smisterová, Jarmila; Engberts, Jan B.F.N.; Hoekstra, Dick; Gregoriadis, G; McCormack, B


    Cationic liposomes, consisting of synthetic amphiphiles and a so-called helper lipid, rapidly form complexes with DNA, known as lipoplexes. When incubated with cells in culture, the DNA can be delivered into the cell and becomes expressed. Because of these properties, lipoplexes are considered a use

  19. Inward Cationic Diffusion and Percolation Transition in Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsklaer, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng; Mørup, Steen


    of crystallization. Below the critical value, the diffusion extent decreases only slightly with the degree of crystallization. No cationic diffusion is observed in the fully crystalline materials. The critical value might be associated with a percolation transition from an interconnected to a disconnected glass...

  20. Cationic starches on cellulose surfaces. A study of polyelectrolyte adsorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van de H.G.M.


    Cationic starches are used on a large scale in paper industry as wet-end additives. They improve dry strength. retention of fines and fillers, and drainage. Closure of the white water systems in the paper mills hase increased the concentration of detrimental substances. This might be the reason for

  1. Analysis of Adsorption, Ion Exchange, Thermodynamic Behaviour of Some Organic Cations on Dowex 50WX4-50/H+ Cation Exchanger in Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehteram A. Noor


    Full Text Available The equilibrium adsorption, ion exchange characteristics of various concentrations of some organic cations from aqueous solutions onto dowex 50WEX/H+ cation exchanger were studied at different temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. The studied cations showed good adsorptive properties onto dowex 50WX4-5/H+ at different concentrations and temperatures. Main adsorption behaviour was ion exchange between hydrogen ions and the organic cations as indicated from the linear relation between the initial concentration of the organic cations and the released hydrogen ions. It was found that the adsorption affinity of dowex 50WX4-50/H+ towards the studied organic cations depends on the substituent type of the organic cations giving the following increasing order: 1-H < 2-OH < 3-OCH3. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption of the studied organic cations were evaluated and discussed. It was found that the adsorption 1-H organic cation was spontaneous, ordered, exothermic and favored with decreasing temperature. On the other hand the adsorption of both 2-OH and 3-OCH3 organic cations was found to be spontaneous and disordered with enthalpy change varies significantly with increasing organic cation concentration, suggesting dipole-dipole adsorption forces as new active sites for adsorption under conditions of relatively high concentrations. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm models reasonably describe the adsorption of the studied organic cations onto dowex 50WX4-50/H+ by segmented straight lines depending on the studied range of concentration, indicating the existence of two different sets of adsorption sites with substantial difference in energy of adsorption. According to Dubinin-Radushkevich adsorption isotherm model, physical-ion exchange mechanism was suggested for the adsorption of 1-H organic cation and both physical and chemical-ion exchange mechanisms were suggested for the adsorption of 2-OH and 3-OCH3 organic cations

  2. Influence of various functional groups on the relative stability of alkylperoxy triplet cations: A theoretical study (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth J.; Meloni, Giovanni


    CBS-QB3 energy calculations show that the formation of a stable triplet cation for alkylperoxy radicals is dependent on factors other than the stability of the daughter cations exclusively. We have found that in cases where the daughter ions are not capable of stabilizing the cation through hyperconjugation, it is possible for the triplet cation to be bound. In many circumstances, CBS-QB3 calculations have found bound triplet cation states with 'negative dissociation energies.' These results are attributed to the effects that electron donating/withdrawing substituents have on the spin and charge densities of the resulting cations.

  3. Photo-fragmentation spectroscopy of benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe, E-mail: [Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 7345, Aix-Marseille Université, Avenue Escadrille Normandie-Niémen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, CNRS UMR 8214, Université Paris Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)


    The electronic spectra of cold benzylium (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH{sub 2}{sup +}) and 1-phenylethyl (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}-CH-CH{sub 3}{sup +}) cations have been recorded via photofragment spectroscopy. Benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations produced from electrosprayed benzylamine and phenylethylamine solutions, respectively, were stored in a cryogenically cooled quadrupole ion trap and photodissociated by an OPO laser, scanned in parts of the UV and visible regions (600–225 nm). The electronic states and active vibrational modes of the benzylium and 1-phenylethyl cations as well as those of their tropylium or methyl tropylium isomers have been calculated with ab initio methods for comparison with the spectra observed. Sharp vibrational progressions are observed in the visible region while the absorption features are much broader in the UV. The visible spectrum of the benzylium cation is similar to that obtained in an argon tagging experiment [V. Dryza, N. Chalyavi, J. A. Sanelli, and E. J. Bieske, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 204304 (2012)], with an additional splitting assigned to Fermi resonances. The visible spectrum of the 1-phenylethyl cation also shows vibrational progressions. For both cations, the second electronic transition is observed in the UV, around 33 000 cm{sup −1} (4.1 eV) and shows a broadened vibrational progression. In both cases the S{sub 2} optimized geometry is non-planar. The third electronic transition observed around 40 000 cm{sup −1} (5.0 eV) is even broader with no apparent vibrational structures, which is indicative of either a fast non-radiative process or a very large change in geometry between the excited and the ground states. The oscillator strengths calculated for tropylium and methyl tropylium are weak. Therefore, these isomeric structures are most likely not responsible for these absorption features. Finally, the fragmentation pattern changes in the second and third electronic states: C{sub 2}H{sub 2} loss becomes predominant at higher

  4. Solubilization of pentanol by cationic surfactants and binary mixtures of cationic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, M.E.


    The research reported here has included studies of the solubilization of pentanol in hexadecylpyridinium chloride (CPC), trimethyletetradecylammonium chloride (C{sub 14}Cl), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C{sub 14}BzCl), benzyldimethylhexadecylpyridinium chloride (C{sub 16}BzCl), hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and binary mixtures of CPC + C{sub 16}BzCl and C{sub 14}Cl + C{sub 14}BzCl. Rather than using calorimetric methods, this project will employ headspace chromatography to measure solubilization of pentanol over a wide range of solute concentrations. While not yielding as much thermodynamic data as calorimetry, headspace chromatography is a more direct measure of the extent of solubilization. Using headspace chromatography, is a more direct measure of the extent of solubilization. Using headspace chromatography, this study will seek to determine whether strongly synergistic mixture ratios exist in the case of binary cationic surfactant systems. There are two equilibria in the pentanol-water-surfactant system: (1) The pentanol solubilized in micelles is in equilibrium with the monomeric pentanol in solution, and (2) the monomeric pentanol is in equilibrium with the pentanol in the vapor above the solution. To establish the link between the two equilibria, a sample of the vapor above pure liquid pentanol must be collected, in order to find the activity of pentanol in solution. Also, a calibration curve for various concentrations of pentanol in solution. From this type of data it is possible to infer both the concentration of pentanol solubilized in micelles and the concentrations of pentanol in the ``bulk`` solution outside the micelles. The method is equally applicable to systems containing a single surfactant as well as mixtures of surfactants.

  5. Measuring cation dependent DNA polymerase fidelity landscapes by deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Michael Zamft

    Full Text Available High-throughput recording of signals embedded within inaccessible micro-environments is a technological challenge. The ideal recording device would be a nanoscale machine capable of quantitatively transducing a wide range of variables into a molecular recording medium suitable for long-term storage and facile readout in the form of digital data. We have recently proposed such a device, in which cation concentrations modulate the misincorporation rate of a DNA polymerase (DNAP on a known template, allowing DNA sequences to encode information about the local cation concentration. In this work we quantify the cation sensitivity of DNAP misincorporation rates, making possible the indirect readout of cation concentration by DNA sequencing. Using multiplexed deep sequencing, we quantify the misincorporation properties of two DNA polymerases--Dpo4 and Klenow exo(---obtaining the probability and base selectivity of misincorporation at all positions within the template. We find that Dpo4 acts as a DNA recording device for Mn(2+ with a misincorporation rate gain of ∼2%/mM. This modulation of misincorporation rate is selective to the template base: the probability of misincorporation on template T by Dpo4 increases >50-fold over the range tested, while the other template bases are affected less strongly. Furthermore, cation concentrations act as scaling factors for misincorporation: on a given template base, Mn(2+ and Mg(2+ change the overall misincorporation rate but do not alter the relative frequencies of incoming misincorporated nucleotides. Characterization of the ion dependence of DNAP misincorporation serves as the first step towards repurposing it as a molecular recording device.

  6. Measurement of antioxidant activity with trifluoperazine dihydrochloride radical cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Asghar


    Full Text Available A novel, rapid and cost-effective trifluoperazine dihydrochloride (TFPH decolorization assay is described for the screening of antioxidant activity. A chromogenic reaction between TFPH and potassium persulfate at low pH produces an orange-red radical cation with maximum absorption at 502 nm in its first-order derivative spectrum. TFPH was dissolved in distilled water to give a 100 mM solution. The TFPH radical cation solution was made by reacting 0.5 mL of the solution with K2S2O8 (final concentration: 0.1 mM and diluting to 100 mL with 4 M H2SO4 solution. A linear inhibition of color production was observed with linearly increasing amounts of antioxidants, with correlation coefficients (R² ranging from 0.999 to 0.983. The antioxidant capacity of standard solutions of an antioxidant was evaluated by comparing with the inhibition curve using Trolox as the standard. Comparison of antioxidant capacity determined with this newly developed TFPH assay and with the well-known 2,2'-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS-persulfate decolorization assay indicated the efficacy and sensitivity of the procedure. The proposed assay is less expensive (costs about US$4 per 100 assays and requires only 20 min for preparation of radical cation solution in comparison with ABTS assay, in which almost 12-16 h are required for preparation of a stable ABTS radical cation solution. The present assay has the advantage over ABTS assay that it can be used to measure the antioxidant activity of the samples, which are naturally found at a pH as low as 1, because the radical cation itself has been stabilized at low pH.

  7. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayss, M. K.; Armentrout, P. B.; Oomens, J.; Schaefer, M.


    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+,K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectra

  8. IR spectroscopy of cationized aliphatic amino acids: Stability of charge-solvated structure increases with metal cation size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayß, M.K.; Armentrout, P.B.; Oomens, J.; Schäfer, M.


    Gas-phase structures of alkali metal cationized (Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+) proline (Pro) and N-methyl alanine have been investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser and computational modeling. Measured IRMPD spectr

  9. Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles based on hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate for tumor-targeted delivery of morin hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbad S


    Full Text Available Sarra Abbad,1,2 Cheng Wang,1 Ayman Yahia Waddad,1 Huixia Lv,1 Jianping Zhou11Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Abou Bekr Belkaid University, Tlemcen, AlgeriaAbstract: Herein, we describe the preparation of a targeted cellular delivery system for morin hydrate (MH, based on a low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid-poly(butyl cyanoacrylate (HA-PBCA block copolymer. In order to enhance the therapeutic effect of MH, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS was mixed with HA-PBCA during the preparation process. The MH-loaded HA-PBCA “plain” nanoparticle (MH-PNs and HA-PBCA/TPGS “mixed” nanoparticles (MH-MNs were concomitantly characterized in terms of loading efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, critical aggregation concentration, and morphology. The obtained MH-PNs and MH-MNs exhibited a spherical morphology with a negative zeta potential and a particle size less than 200 nm, favorable for drug targeting. Remarkably, the addition of TPGS resulted in about 1.6-fold increase in drug-loading. The in vitro cell viability experiment revealed that MH-MNs enhanced the cytotoxicity of MH in A549 cells compared with MH solution and MH-PNs. Furthermore, blank MNs containing TPGS exhibited selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells without diminishing the viability of normal cells. In addition, the cellular uptake study indicated that MNs resulted in 2.28-fold higher cellular uptake than that of PNs, in A549 cells. The CD44 receptor competitive inhibition and the internalization pathway studies suggested that the internalization mechanism of the nanoparticles was mediated mainly by the CD44 receptors through a clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. More importantly, MH-MNs exhibited a higher in vivo antitumor potency and induced more tumor cell apoptosis than did MH-PNs, following intravenous administration to S180 tumor-bearing mice

  10. Uso da cola n-butil cianoacrilato na sulcoplastia de recessão em coelhos: avaliação histológica Use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in the recession sulcoplasty in rabbits: histologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carpi dos Santos


    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivos analisar a cola composta por n-butil cianoacrilato, como um auxiliar na fixação da cunha óssea no procedimento da sulcoplastia de recessão e sua interferência no processo cicatricial. Foram utilizados nove coelhos da raça Norfolk, machos, com peso inicial entre 3,0 e 3,5 kg. Após anestesia epidural, realizou-se acesso parapatelar medial e seccionou-se uma cunha ósseo-cartilaginosa em formato de V no sulco da tróclea. No joelho direito, antes da colocação da cunha em seu leito, foram aplicadas duas gotas da cola, ao passo que, no joelho esquerdo, considerado controle, a cunha foi apenas recolocada. Para realização da técnica de exame anatomopatológico, foram submetidos à eutanásia três animais aos cinco, 15 e 30 dias de pós-operatório. Na avaliação macroscópica, notou-se, em ambos os joelhos, a estabilização da cunha ósseo-cartilaginosa em seu leito receptor nos diferentes momentos de observação. Pelo exame histológico foi possível concluir que a cola não induziu o aparecimento de processo inflamatório acentuado e reação do tipo corpo estranho, mas interferiu negativamente, retardando o processo cicatricial.The aim of this study was to analyze the glue composed by n-butyl cyanoacrylate, as an auxiliary in the fixation of the bone wedge at the recession sulcoplasty procedure and the interference in the healing. Nine male Norfolk rabbits, initially weighing from 3 to 3.5 kg were used. After epidural anesthesia, a medial parapatellar approach was used and a V-shaped osteochondral wedge was removed from the trochlea. In the right stifle joint, before the osteochondral wedge replacement two glue drops were used. In the left stifle joint, considered as control, the osteochondral wedge was only replaced. Three animals were submitted to euthanasia at five, 15 and 30 days of postoperative period. Macroscopic evaluation showed that in both stifles the osteochondral wedge was stabilized on the

  11. “502”胶显现汗潜手印后 Basic Red 29染色的应用研究%The Application Study of Dying by Basic Red 29 after Cyanoacrylate Fuming Technology in Latent Fingerprints Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国强; 罗亚平; 赵雅彬


    To study the dying method by a new fluorescent dyes basic Red 29 after cyanoacrylate fuming tech-nology in latent fingerprints development, the excitation and emission spectra of the dyes were determined by fluo-rescence spectrophotometer.And the application conditions were investigated, including best formula, observation conditions, the dying effect on different objects, old fingerprint processing method.The results showed that the con-centration of basic red ethanol solution of 0.1 g/L, excited in 530~550 nm range, under the orange filter observa-tion can produce orange fluorescence, is good to enhance the contrast with the background of object, and improve the rate of fingerprint, because of its high fluorescence efficiency, safe non-toxic, adsorption good merits, in thep-ractical work of public security has a good application prospect.%研究一种新型的荧光染料碱性红29用于“502”胶显现手印后染色的方法。通过荧光分光光度计测定了该染料的激发光谱和发射光谱;并对其应用条件进行了考察,包括最佳配方、观察条件、不同客体手印显现效果、陈旧手印的处理方法等方面。结果表明,浓度为0.1 g/L的碱性红乙醇溶液,在530~550 nm范围内激发,在橙色滤光镜下观察能产生橙黄色的荧光,很好地增强了与客体背景的反差,提高了手印的显现率,由于其荧光效率高、安全无毒、吸附性好等优点,在公安实际工作中有很好的应用前景。

  12. Variational first hyperpolarizabilities of 2,3-naphtho-15-crown-5 ether derivatives with cation-complexing: a potential and selective cation detector. (United States)

    Yu, Hai-Ling; Wang, Wen-Yong; Hong, Bo; Zong, Ying; Si, Yan-Ling; Hu, Zhong-Qiang


    Crown ethers, as a kind of heterocycle, have been the subject of great interest over recent decades due to their selective capability to bind to metal cations. The use of a constant crown ether, such as naphtho-15-crown-5 (N15C5), and varied metal cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Be(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+)) makes it possible to determine the contributions of the metal cations to nonlinear optical (NLO) responses and to design an appropriate NLO-based cation detector. N15C5 and its metal cation derivatives have been systematically investigated by density functional theory. It is found that the dependency of the first hyperpolarizability relies on the metal cation, especially for transition metals. The decrease of the first hyperpolarizabilities for alkali metal cation derivatives is due to their relatively low oscillator strengths, whereas the significant increase of the first hyperpolarizabilities for transition metal cation derivatives can be further illustrated by their low transition energies, large amplitudes and separate distributions of first hyperpolarizability density. Thus, the alkali metal and transition metal cations are distinguishable and the transition metal cations are easier to detect by utilizing the variations in NLO responses.

  13. Pharmacology of the human cell voltage-dependent cation channel. Part II: inactivation and blocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennekou, Poul; Barksmann, Trine L.; Kristensen, Berit I.


    Human red cells; Nonselective voltage-dependent cation channel; NSVDC channel; Thiol group reagents......Human red cells; Nonselective voltage-dependent cation channel; NSVDC channel; Thiol group reagents...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3420 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (United States)


    ... polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. 872.3420 Section 872.3420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....3420 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and cationic polyacrylamide polymer denture adhesive is a...

  15. Preparing cationic cotton linter cellulose with high substitution degree by ultrasonic treatment. (United States)

    Zhang, Fulong; Pang, Zhiqiang; Dong, Cuihua; Liu, Zong


    As an important cellulose derivative, cationic cellulose has becoming an attractive material. However, it remains challenging to produce cationic cellulose with high substitute degree. In this paper, we successfully increased the substitute degree of cationic cellulose by introducing ultrasonic treatment, which efficiently breaks hydrogen bonds of the chemical structure of cationic cellulose. Properties of cationic cellulose were studied by scanning electron spectroscope (SEM), contact angle, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Experimental results show that the cationic cellulose has rougher surface and lower crystallinity degree as compared to the original sample. TGA analysis verifies that the thermostability of CLC decreases after the cationic modification. The residual of the cationic cellulose (25 wt%) after pyrolysis increases significantly as compared to that of the original cellulose (15 wt%).

  16. Comparison of cation adsorption by isostructural rutile and cassiterite.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machesky, M.; Wesolowski, D.; Rosenqvist, J.; Predota, M.; Vlcek, L.; Ridley, M.; Kohli, V.; Zhang, Z.; Fenter, P.; Cummings, P.; Lvov, S.; Fedkin, M.; Rodriguez-Santiago, V.; Kupicki, J.; Bandura, A. (X-Ray Science Division); (Illinois State Water Survey); (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); (University of South Branisovska); (Texas Tech University); (Vanderbilt University); (The Pennsylvania State University); (St. Petersburg State University)


    Macroscopic net proton charging curves for powdered rutile and cassiterite specimens with the (110) crystal face predominant, as a function of pH in RbCl and NaCl solutions, trace SrCl{sub 2} in NaCl, and trace ZnCl{sub 2} in NaCl and Na Triflate solutions, are compared to corresponding molecular-level information obtained from static DFT optimizations and classical MD simulations, as well as synchrotron X-ray methods. The similarities and differences in the macroscopic charging behavior of rutile and cassiterite largely reflect the cation binding modes observed at the molecular level. Cation adsorption is primarily inner-sphere on both isostructural (110) surfaces, despite predictions that outer-sphere binding should predominate on low bulk dielectric constant oxides such as cassiterite ({epsilon}{sub bulk} {approx} 11). Inner-sphere adsorption is also significant for Rb{sup +} and Na{sup +} on neutral surfaces, whereas Cl{sup -} binding is predominately outer-sphere. As negative surface charge increases, relatively more Rb{sup +}, Na{sup +}, and especially Sr{sup 2+} are bound in highly desolvated tetradentate fashion on the rutile (110) surface, largely accounting for enhanced negative charge development relative to cassiterite. Charging curves in the presence of Zn{sup 2+} are very steep but similar for both oxides, reflective of Zn{sup 2+} hydrolysis (and accompanying proton release) during the adsorption process, and the similar binding modes for ZnOH{sup +} on both surfaces. These results suggest that differences in cation adsorption between high and low bulk dielectric constant oxides are more subtly related to the relative degree of cation desolvation accompanying inner-sphere binding (i.e., more tetradentate binding on rutile), rather than distinct inner- and outer-sphere adsorption modes. Cation desolvation may be favored at the rutile (110) surface in part because inner-sphere water molecules are bound further from and less tightly than on the

  17. Star-like superalkali cations featuring planar pentacoordinate carbon. (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Chang; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wang, Ying-Jin; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Wu, Yan-Bo; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian


    Superalkali cations, known to possess low vertical electron affinities (VEAs), high vertical detachment energies, and large highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy gaps, are intriguing chemical species. Thermodynamically, such species need to be the global minima in order to serve as the promising targets for experimental realization. In this work, we propose the strategies of polyhalogenation and polyalkalination for designing the superalkali cations. By applying these strategies, the local-minimum planar pentacoordinate carbon (ppC) cluster CBe5 can be modified to form a series of star-like superalkali ppC or quasi-ppC CBe5X5 (+) (X = F, Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) cations containing a CBe5 moiety. Polyhalogenation and polyalkalination on the CBe5 unit may help eliminate the high reactivity of bare CBe5 molecule by covering the reactive Be atoms with noble halogen anions and alkali cations. Computational exploration of the potential energy surfaces reveals that the star-like ppC or quasi-ppC CBe5X5 (+) (X = F, Cl, Br, Li, Na, K) clusters are the true global minima of the systems. The predicted VEAs for CBe5X5 (+) range from 3.01 to 3.71 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 2.12-2.51 eV for X = Li, Na, K, being below the lower bound of the atomic ionization potential of 3.89 eV in the periodic table. Large HOMO-LUMO energy gaps are also revealed for the species: 10.76-11.07 eV for X = F, Cl, Br and 4.99-6.91 eV for X = Li, Na, K. These designer clusters represent the first series of superalkali cations with a ppC center. Bonding analyses show five Be-X-Be three-center two-electron (3c-2e) σ bonds for the peripheral bonding, whereas the central C atom is associated with one 6c-2e π bond and three 6c-2e σ bonds, rendering (π and σ) double aromaticity. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the CBe5 motif is robust in the clusters. As planar hypercoordination carbon species are often thermodynamically

  18. Diffusion of an organic cation into root cell walls. (United States)

    Meychik, N R; Yermakov, I P; Prokoptseva, O S


    Uptake of a cationic dye (methylene blue) by isolated root cell walls, roots of whole transpiring seedlings, and excised roots was investigated using 7-day-old seedlings of cucumber, maize, and wheat. The number of ionogenic groups per 1 g dry and wet weight of the root cell walls, their swelling capacity (K(cw)), time-dependence of methylene blue (M(cw)) ion exchange capacity, and diffusion coefficients of the cation diffusion in the polymer matrix of the cell walls (D(cw)) were determined. The M(cw) value depended on pH (or carboxyl group dissociation); it changed in accordance with the number of carboxyl groups per 1 g cell wall dry weight. This parameter decreased in the order: cucumber > wheat > maize. For description of experimental kinetic curves and calculation of cation diffusion coefficients, the equation for ion diffusion into a cylinder of infinite length was used. The chosen model adequately described cation diffusion in cell walls and roots. Diffusion coefficient values for cucumber, wheat, and maize were 3.1*10(-8), 1.3*10(-8), and 8.4*10(-8) cm(2)/sec, respectively. There was a statistically significant linear dependence between K(cw) and D(cw) values, which characterize the same property of the polymer matrix, rigidity of its polymer structure or the degree of cross-linkage or permeability. This also confirms the right choice of the model selected for calculation of methylene blue diffusion coefficients, because K(cw) and D(cw) values were obtained in independent experiments. The coefficients determined for methylene blue diffusion in transpiring seedling roots (D(ts)) and excised roots (D(er)) depended on the plant species. The rate of methylene blue diffusion into the excised roots was either 1.5-fold lower (cucumber) or 3-4-times lower (maize, wheat) than in cell walls. The values of diffusion coefficients in roots of whole seedlings were comparable which those for the cell walls. On the basis of the experimental data and results of calculations

  19. Experimental study on reparation of conjunctival and skin laceration with α-cyanoacrylate%α-氰基丙烯酸正丁酯用于皮肤结膜裂伤修复的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江志坚; 冀慧莹; 董健鸿


    Background The effectiveness of medical tissue adhesive for the reparation of operative incision has been recognized,but its influence to ocular surface microenvironment is not quite clear.Objective This study was to appraise the safety and efficacy of α-cyanoacrylate,a medical issue adhesive,for the reparation of the conjunctival and skin laceration.Methods Twenty healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into suturing group and medical glue group.Routine ophthalmic examination,the level of tear secretion and breakup time of tear film (BUT) were tested before operation.The upper bulbar conjunctiva of each right eye was cut apart about 1.0 cm after surface anesthesia and the skin of back was incised about 2.5 cm length after local anesthesia.The conjunctival and skin lacerations were adhered with compound medical adhesive in the medical glue group,and continuous suture was done to repair the conjunctival laceration and interrupted suture to the skin laceration with 5-0 chorda serica chirurgicalis in the suture group.The routine ophthalmic examination,level of tear secretion,BUT and the states of wound healing were examined 1 day,2 days and 7 days postoperatively.Pathologic examination of the corresponding tissues was also carried out 1 week after the animals were sacrificed.The data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistical software.This experiment followed the Administration of the Care and Use of Experimental Animals of Shanghai City.Results The conjunctival and skin lacerations healed well both in the suture group and the medical glue group.The levels of tear secretion 1 day and 2 days postoperatively in the medical glue group were (12.70±2.21)mm and (12.70±2.00)mm respectively,showing a significant lowness in comparison with (14.90±2.38)mm and (14.90±2.33)mm of the suture group (q =-4.02,P =0.03;q =-4.02,P =0.03).Compared with the baseline,the difference of the levels of tear secretion in the medical glue group was not statistically significant in

  20. High performance flocculating agents based on cationic polysaccharides in relation to coal fine suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, S.; Sen, G.; Karmakar, N.C.; Mal, D.; Singh, R.P. [Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry


    Five polysaccharides namely amylopectin, amylose, glycogen, guar gum and starch have been cationized by grafting with N-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride and studied for their flocculation behaviors. Of them, cationic glycogen (Cat Gly) is found to be the best for flocculation of coal suspended sample amongst cationic polysaccharides. Cat Gly was compared with some of the commercial flocculants.

  1. The Influence of Cationization on the Dyeing Performance of Cotton Fabrics with Direct Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shahin


    Full Text Available The effect of cationic modification of cotton fabrics, using cationic agent (Chromatech 9414 on direct dyeing characteristics was studied in this work. Cationization of cotton fabric at different conditions (pH, cationic agent concentration, temperature and time was investigated and the optimum conditions were determined . Nitrogen content of cotton samples pretreated with cationic agent was indicated. The results showed that increasing cationic agent concentration lead to higher nitrogen content on cotton fabric . The cationized cotton fabrics were dyed with two direct dyes (C.I. Direct Yellow 142 - C.I. Direct red 224 and the results were compared to untreated cotton fabrics. The parameters which may affect the dyeing process such as dye concn., addition of salt, time and temperature of dyeing were studied. The dyeing results illustrate that cationization improves the fabric dyeability compared to the uncationized cotton and the magnitude of increase in colour depth depends on the nitrogen content of the cationized cotton fabric .The results also refer to possibility of dyeing cationized cotton fabric with direct dyes without addition of electrolytes to give colour strength higher than that achieved on uncationized cotton using conventional dyeing method .Another important advantage of cationic treatment is in the saving of dye concn., energy ,dyeing time , rinse water and subsequently saving of waste water treatment , and finally minimizes the environmental pollution . The changes in surface morphology of fibres after cationization were identified by various methods such as wettability and scanning with the electron microscope. Different fastness properties were evaluated.

  2. 21 CFR 872.3480 - Polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (United States)


    ... adhesive. 872.3480 Section 872.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyacrylamide polymer (modified cationic) intended...

  3. Structure of ionic liquids with cationic silicon-substitutions (United States)

    Wu, Boning; Shirota, Hideaki; Lall-Ramnarine, Sharon; Castner, Edward W.


    Significantly lower viscosities result when a single alkyl carbon is replaced by a silicon atom on the side chain of an ionic liquid cation. To further explore this effect, we compare liquid structure factors measured using high-energy X-ray scattering and calculated using molecular dynamics simulations. Four ionic liquids are studied that each has a common anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ( NTf2 - ). The four cations for this series of NTf2 - -anion ionic liquids are 1-methyl-3-trimethylsilylmethylimidazolium (Si-mim+), 1-methyl-3-neopentylimidazolium (C-mim+), 1-methyl-3-pentamethyldisiloxymethylimidazolium (SiOSi-mim+), and 1-methyl-1-trimethylsilylmethylpyrrolidinium (Si-pyrr+). To achieve quantitative agreement between the structure factors measured using high-energy X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, new transferable parameters for silicon were calibrated and added to the existing force fields.

  4. Review on cation exchange selectivity coefficients for MX-80 bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, C.; Arcos, D.; Duro, L. [ENVIROS, Passeig de Rubi, 29-31, 08197 Valldoreix (Spain); Sellin, P. [SKB, Brahegatan 47, SE-102 40 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Full text of publication follows: Bentonite is considered as engineered barrier in the near field of a nuclear waste repository due to its low permeability, what impedes groundwater flow to the nuclear waste, and its high retention capacity (sorption) of radionuclides in the eventuality of groundwater intrusion. One of the main retention processes occurring at the bentonite surface is ion exchange. This process may exert a strong control on the mobility of major pore water cations. Changes in major cation concentration, especially calcium, can affect the dissolution-precipitation of calcite, which in turn controls one of the key parameters in the system: pH. The cation exchange process is usually described according to the Gaines-Thomas convention: Ca{sup 2+} + 2 NaX = CaX{sub 2} + 2 Na{sup +}, K{sub Ca} = (N{sub Ca} x a{sup 2}{sub Na{sup +}})/(N{sup 2}{sub Na} x a{sub Ca{sup 2+}}) where K{sub Ca} is the selectivity coefficient for the Ca by Na exchange, ai is the activity of cation 'i' in solution and NJ the equivalent fractional occupancy of cation 'J' in bentonite. Parameters such as solid to liquid (S:L) ratio and dry density of the solid have an important influence on the value of selectivity coefficients (K{sub ex}). Although in most geochemical modelling works, K{sub ex} values are directly taken from experiments conducted at low S:L ratios and low dry densities, the expected conditions in a deep geological nuclear waste repository are higher S:L and higher bentonite density (1.6{sup -3} in the SKB design to obtain a fully water saturated density of around 2.0{sup -3}). Experiments focused at obtaining selectivity coefficients under the conditions of interest face the difficulty of achieving a proper extraction and analyses of pore water without disturbing the system by the sampling method itself. In this work we have conducted a complete analyses of published data on MX-80 bentonite cationic exchange in order to assess the

  5. S. Typhimurium strategies to resist killing by cationic antimicrobial peptides. (United States)

    Matamouros, Susana; Miller, Samuel I


    S. Typhimurium is a broad host range Gram-negative pathogen that must evade killing by host innate immune systems to colonize, replicate, cause disease, and be transmitted to other hosts. A major pathogenic strategy of Salmonellae is entrance, survival, and replication within eukaryotic cell phagocytic vacuoles. These phagocytic vacuoles and gastrointestinal mucosal surfaces contain multiple cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) which control invading bacteria. S. Typhimurium possesses several key mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs which involve sensing CAMPs and membrane damage to activate signaling cascades that result in remodeling of the bacterial envelope to reduce its overall negative charge with an increase in hydrophobicity to decrease binding and effectiveness of CAMPs. Moreover Salmonellae have additional mechanisms to resist killing by CAMPs including an outer membrane protease which targets cationic peptides at the surface, and specific efflux pumps which protect the inner membrane from damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides.

  6. Preparation of sulfonated cation exchangers from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.


    It was established that the reaction of petroleum asphaltite sulfonation is determined in the first step by the chemical reaction rate, and in the last --- by diffusion factors. The kinetic constants were found for each reaction step. Sulfonated cation exchangers were obtained having the characteristics: specific volume of the swollen cation exchanger 3.30 mL/g, bulk density of the air-dry product 0.58 g/mL., moisture content 23.4%, swelling in water 41.6%, mechanical strength 80.0%, static exchange capacity with respect to 0.1N NaOH solution 2.76 mg equiv/g, dynamic exchange capacity with respect to 0.0035N CaC1/sub 2/ solution for a specific load of 10 L/L.h 465 mg equiv/L.

  7. Cationic polymers for successful flocculation of marine microalgae. (United States)

    't Lam, G P; Vermuë, M H; Olivieri, G; van den Broek, L A M; Barbosa, M J; Eppink, M H M; Wijffels, R H; Kleinegris, D M M


    Flocculation of microalgae is a promising technique to reduce the costs and energy required for harvesting microalgae. Harvesting marine microalgae requires suitable flocculants to induce the flocculation under marine conditions. This study demonstrates that cationic polymeric flocculants can be used to harvest marine microalgae. Different organic flocculants were tested to flocculate Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Neochloris oleoabundans grown under marine conditions. Addition of 10 ppm of the commercial available flocculants Zetag 7557 and Synthofloc 5080H to P. tricornutum showed a recovery of, respectively, 98% ± 2.0 and 94% ± 2.9 after flocculation followed by 2h sedimentation. Using the same flocculants and dosage for harvesting N. oleoabundans resulted in a recovery of 52% ± 1.5 and 36% ± 11.3. This study shows that cationic polymeric flocculants are a viable option to pre-concentrate marine cultivated microalgae via flocculation prior to further dewatering.

  8. Mobility of alkali cations in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupila, E.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland); Kankare, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, 20500 Turku (Finland)


    Due to the immobility of the large dodecyl sulfate anion, the mobile ions in polypyrrole-dodecyl sulfate are small ions from the solution. Virgin PP-dodecyl sulfate does not contain other ionic species, but already the first reduction causes the incorporation of cations into the membrane. Using in situ AC conductimetry on a double-band platinum electrode, we show that the insertion of cations from the solution into the PP membrane proceeds as a non-conducting zone advancing from the solution interface toward the substrate. The model allows to estimate ion mobilities in the membrane giving 8.6x10{sup -7}cm{sup 2}s{sup -1}V{sup -1} for K{sup +}. (orig.)

  9. Structure of heavy cation molecules: from experiment to simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Auwer, C.; Fillaux, C.; Guilbaud, P.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P. [CEA Marcoule DEN/DRCP/SCPS, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Conradson, S.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Di Giandomenico, V.; Le Naour, C.; Simoni, E. [IPN Orsay, 91405 Orsay (France); Hennig, C. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, ROBL at ESRF, 38043 Grenoble (France)


    For industrial, environmental and public health purposes, actinide chemistry has been the subject of considerable efforts since the 50's. Aqueous redox chemistry, ionic selective recognition, uptake by specific biomolecules or compartments of the geosphere are some of the major fields of investigation. The physical-chemical properties of the actinide elements strongly depend on the 5f/6d electronic configuration. X-ray photons are an ideal spectroscopic tool for structure and bonding in actinide molecules. At high photon energies, actinide Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) is a structural probe of the cation coordination sphere. Furthermore, coupling EXAFS with molecular dynamics or quantum chemical calculations leads to a better description of the 'cation in its close environment', like polyhedron, disorder, solvent effects etc.. (authors)

  10. Microstructure characterization and cation distribution of nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Y.M., E-mail: [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Mansour, S.A.; Ibrahim, M.H. [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Ali, Shehab E., E-mail: [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt)


    Nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite has been synthesized using two different methods: ceramic and co-precipitation techniques. The nanocrystalline ferrite phase has been formed after 3 h of sintering at 1000 deg. C. The structural and microstructural evolutions of the nanophase have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. The refinement result showed that the type of the cationic distribution over the tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the nanocrystalline lattice is partially an inverse spinel. The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer. - Highlights: > The refinement result showed that the cationic distribution over the sites in the lattice is partially an inverse spinel. > The transmission electronic microscope analysis confirmed the X-ray results. > The magnetic properties of the samples were characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer.

  11. Sulfonated polyvinyl chloride fibers for cation-exchange microextraction. (United States)

    Xu, Li; Lee, Hian Kee


    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fiber was derivatized by concentrated sulfuric acid to yield sulfonated PVC (PVC-SO3H). The PVC-SO3H fiber had dual properties as a sorbent, based on cation-exchange and hydrophobicity. In the present study, the novel fiber was used directly as an individual device for extraction purposes in the cation-exchange microextraction of anaesthetics, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV analysis. The results demonstrated that this PVC-SO3H fiber-based microextraction afforded convenient operation and cost-effective application to basic analytes. The limits of detection for four anaesthetics ranged from 1.2 to 6.0 ng/mL. No carryover (because of its disposable usage), and no loss of sorbent phase (which normally occurs in stir-bar sorptive extraction) during extraction were observed.

  12. The effect of external divalent cations on spontaneous non-selective cation channel currents in rabbit portal vein myocytes. (United States)

    Albert, A P; Large, W A


    1. The effects of external divalent cations on spontaneous single non-selective cation channel currents were studied in outside-out patches from rabbit portal vein smooth muscle cells in K+-free conditions. 2. In an external medium containing 1.5 mM Ca2+ (Ca2+o) the majority of spontaneous channel currents had a unitary conductance of 23 pS, reversal potential (Vr) of +10 mV and a low open probability (Po) at negative patch potentials. Some channels opened to a lower conductance state of about 13 pS suggesting that the cation channels have two conductance states. Open time and burst duration distributions could both be described by two exponentials with time constants of about of 1 ms and 7 ms for open times and 3 ms and 16 ms for burst durations. 3. In 0 Ca2+o the majority of spontaneous cation channels had a unitary conductance of 13 pS and Vr was shifted to +4 mV. Moreover the longer open time and longer burst duration time constants were both reduced to approximately half the values in 1.5 mM Ca2+o. 4. Compared to 0 Ca2+o the single channel currents in 3 microM and 100 microM Ca2+o had a 5- to 6-fold increase in Po which was accompanied by increases in both open times and burst durations. In 3 microM and 100 microM Ca2+o the unitary conductance of the single channel currents was between 22 and 26 pS. 5. At positive membrane potentials the single channel currents had an increased Po compared to negative potentials which was associated with increased open times and burst durations but these values were similar in 3 microM, 100 microM and 1.5 mM Ca2+o. 6. In 1.5 mM Sr2+o and 1.5 mM Ba2+o channels opened to the higher conductance state of about 22-25 pS and had a 3- to 7-fold greater Po than in 0 Ca2+o. 7. In conclusion, external divalent cations have marked effects on the unitary conductance and kinetic behaviour of non-selective cation channels in rabbit portal vein smooth muscle cells.

  13. Flow behaviour of gellan sol with selected cations. (United States)

    Sharma, Shipra; Bhattacharya, Suvendu


    An understanding of the flow behaviour of the sols before gel formation is important for developing nutrient enriched gels. The influence of cations like CaCl2 (0.05 and 0.1 %, w/w) and FeSO4 (0.05 and 0.1 %, w/w) on the rheological properties of 1 % gellan sol (w/w) prior to gelling was investigated. The apparent viscosity, reported at a shear-rate of 100 s(-1), indicated that the gellan dispersion without any cation possessed lower values compared to other samples containing different cations. The Cross model provided the best fit (0.97 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, p ≤ 0.01) compared to moderate fitting to power law model (0.94 ≤ r ≤ 0.98). Among the different Cross model parameters, the zero-shear viscosity (ηo) increased with the addition of CaCl2 and FeSO4, and with an increase in their concentrations. Zero-shear viscosity values were 0.46 Pas for gellan sol, 0.79 Pas for gellan with 0.05 % (w/w) CaCl2, 1.41 Pas for gellan with 0.1 % CaCl2, 3.85 Pas for gellan with 0.05 % FeSO4 and 4.33 Pas for gellan with 0.1 % FeSO4. An increase in cation concentration from 0.05 to 0.10 % (w/w) marginally increased the relaxation time (λ) values indicating the development of more solid characteristics in the sol.

  14. Identification of bilinear systems using differential evolution algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saban Ozer; Hasan Zorlu


    In this work, a novel identification method based on differential evolution algorithm has been applied to bilinear systems and its performance has been compared to that of genetic algorithm. Box–Jenkins system and different type bilinear systems have been identified using differential evolution and genetic algorithms. The simulation results have shown that bilinear systems can be successfully and efficiently identified using these algorithms.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LinLi; BingyueLiu; YafengCao


    The cationic graft copolymer was synthesized byreversed phase emulsion copolymerization of starchwith diallydimethyl ammoniumlchlorid (DADMAC)and acrylamide (AM). The copolymerization wascarried out using (NH4)2S2Os-NH2CONH2 redox asinitiator and selecting Span-20 as emulsifier. Theeffects of emulsifier content in oil phase, volumeratio of oil to water, initiator concentration and moleratio of DADMAC to AM on the graftcopolymerization were discussed. The optimumcondition of synthetics was found with theorthogonal test method.

  16. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: The role of compensating cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Hector, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Tecnologias Limpias (F. Ingenieria), Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, Concepcion (Chile); Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica (F. Ingenieria), Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical and thermal treatment enhances catalytic activity of natural zeolite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modified natural zeolite exhibits high stability after thermal treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reducing the compensating cation content leads to an increase on ozone abatement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface active atomic oxygen was detected using the DRIFT technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The highest reactivity toward ozone was performed by NH4Z3 zeolite sample. - Abstract: Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L{sup -1}). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH{sub 3}-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  17. Electronic absorption spectrum of triacetylene cation for astronomical considerations. (United States)

    Chakrabarty, S; Rice, C A; Mazzotti, F J; Dietsche, R; Maier, J P


    The A(2)Πg ← X(2)Πu electronic transition (4800-6000 Å) of triacetylene cation was measured in an ion trap, where the vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom were equilibrated to 25 K. The rotational profile of the origin band is predicted by a collisional-radiative rate model under conditions expected in diffuse interstellar clouds. Variation in the density of the surrounding gas, rotational temperature, and velocity dispersion are taken into account.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongjie Zhang; Huiren Hu; Fushan Chen


    In this paper, the cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM)with high molecular weight was prepared in aqueous solution through a complex initiator system. The CPAM was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C NMR), and the charge density of the CPAM was determined by colloid titration. The results obtained indicated that the copolymerization technology used in the experiment was successful.

  19. Transformation of anthracene on various cation-modified clay minerals. (United States)

    Li, Li; Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi


    In this study, anthracene was employed as a probe to explore the potential catalytic effect of clay minerals in soil environment. Clay minerals saturated with various exchangeable cations were tested. The rate of anthracene transformation follows the order: Fe-smectite > Cu-smectite > Al-smectite ≈ Ca-smectite ≈ Mg-smectite ≈ Na-smectite. This suggests that transition-metal ions such as Fe(III) play an important role in anthracene transformation. Among Fe(III)-saturated clays, Fe(III)-smectite exhibits the highest catalytic activity followed by Fe(III)-illite, Fe(III)-pyrophyllite, and Fe(III)-kaolinite, which is in agreement with the interlayer Fe(III) content. Moreover, effects by two common environmental factors, pH and relative humidity (RH), were evaluated. With an increase in pH or RH, the rate of anthracene transformation decreases rapidly at first and then is leveled off. GC-MS analysis identifies that the final product of anthracene transformation is 9,10-anthraquinone, a more bioavailable molecule compared to anthracene. The transformation process mainly involves cation-π bonding, electron transfer leading to cation radical, and further oxidation by chemisorbed O2. The present work provides valuable insights into the abiotic transformation and the fate of PAHs in the soil environment and the development of contaminated land remediation technologies.

  20. Drug loading to lipid-based cationic nanoparticles (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Leide P.; Konovalov, Oleg; Torriani, Iris L.; Haas, Heinrich


    Lipid-based cationic nanoparticles are a new promising option for tumor therapy, because they display enhanced binding and uptake at the neo-angiogenic endothelial cells, which a tumor needs for its nutrition and growth. By loading suitable cytotoxic compounds to the cationic carrier, the tumor endothelial and consequently also the tumor itself can be destroyed. For the development of such novel anti-tumor agents, the control of drug loading and drug release from the carrier matrix is essential. We have studied the incorporation of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent Paclitaxel (PXL) into a variety of lipid matrices by X-Ray reflectivity measurements. Liposome suspensions from cationic and zwitterionic lipids, comprising different molar fractions of Paclitaxel, were deposited on planar glass substrates. After drying at controlled humidity, well ordered, oriented multilayer stacks were obtained, as proven by the presence of bilayer Bragg peaks to several orders in the reflectivity curves. The presence of the drug induced a decrease of the lipid bilayer spacing, and with an excess of drug, also Bragg peaks of drug crystals could be observed. From the results, insight into the solubility of Paclitaxel in the model membranes was obtained and a structural model of the organization of the drug in the membrane was derived. Results from subsequent pressure/area-isotherm and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) measurements performed with drug/lipid Langmuir monolayers were in accordance with these conjectures.

  1. Cationic porphyrin derivatives for application in photodynamic therapy of cancer (United States)

    Prack McCormick, Bárbara P.; Florencia Pansa, M.; Milla Sanabria, Laura N.; Carvalho, Carla M. B.; Faustino, M. Amparo F.; Neves, Maria Graça P. M. S.; Cavaleiro, José A. S.; Rumie Vittar, Natalia B.; Rivarola, Viviana A.


    Current studies in photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer are focused on the development of new photosensitizers (PSs), with higher phototoxic action. The aim of this study was to compare the therapeutic efficiency of tri-cationic meso-substituted porphyrin derivatives (Tri-Py+-Me-PF, Tri-Py+-Me-Ph, Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2H) with the well-known tetra-cationic T4PM. The phototoxic action of these derivatives was assessed in human colon adenocarcinoma cells by cell viability, intracellular localization and nuclear morphology analysis. In the experimental conditions used we determined that after light activation -PF, -Ph and -CO2Me cause a more significant decline of cell viability compared to -CO2H and T4PM. These results suggest that the nature of the peripheral substituent influences the extent of cell photodamage. Moreover, we have demonstrated that PS concentration, physicochemical properties and further light activation determine the PDT response. All porphyrins were clearly localized as a punctuated pattern in the cytoplasm of the cells, and the PDT scheme resulted in apoptotic cell death after 3 h post-PDT. The tri-cationic porphyrin derivatives Tri-Py+-Me-PF, Tri-Py+-Me-Ph and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me showed a promising ability, making them good photosensitizer candidates for oncological PDT.

  2. Natural zeolite reactivity towards ozone: the role of compensating cations. (United States)

    Valdés, Héctor; Alejandro, Serguei; Zaror, Claudio A


    Among indoor pollutants, ozone is recognised to pose a threat to human health. Recently, low cost natural zeolites have been applied as alternative materials for ozone abatement. In this work, the effect of compensating cation content of natural zeolite on ozone removal is studied. A Chilean natural zeolite is used here as starting material. The amount of compensating cations in the zeolite framework was modified by ion exchange using an ammonium sulphate solution (0.1 mol L(-1)). Characterisation of natural and modified zeolites were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption at 77K, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS), and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia (NH(3)-TPD). Ozone adsorption and/or decomposition on natural and modified zeolites were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Results show that the zeolite compensating cation content affects ozone interaction with zeolite active sites. Ammonium ion-exchange treatments followed by thermal out-gassing at 823 K, reduces ozone diffusion resistance inside the zeolite framework, increasing ozone abatement on zeolite surface active sites. Weak and strong Lewis acid sites of zeolite surface are identified here as the main active sites responsible of ozone removal.

  3. Solidification cracking in austenitic stainless steel welds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Shankar; T P S Gill; S L Mannan; S Sundaresan


    Solidification cracking is a significant problem during the welding of austenitic stainless steels, particularly in fully austenitic and stabilized compositions. Hot cracking in stainless steel welds is caused by low-melting eutectics containing impurities such as S, P and alloy elements such as Ti, Nb. The WRC-92 diagram can be used as a general guide to maintain a desirable solidification mode during welding. Nitrogen has complex effects on weld-metal microstructure and cracking. In stabilized stainless steels, Ti and Nb react with S, N and C to form low-melting eutectics. Nitrogen picked up during welding significantly enhances cracking, which is reduced by minimizing the ratio of Ti or Nb to that of C and N present. The metallurgical propensity to solidification cracking is determined by elemental segregation, which manifests itself as a brittleness temperature range or BTR, that can be determined using the varestraint test. Total crack length (TCL), used extensively in hot cracking assessment, exhibits greater variability due to extraneous factors as compared to BTR. In austenitic stainless steels, segregation plays an overwhelming role in determining cracking susceptibility.

  4. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  5. Naphthoxy Bounded Ferrocenium Salts as Cationic Photoinitiators for Epoxy Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Q. Li


    Full Text Available To improve the absorption and the bulk of arene ligands, two naphthoxy bounded ferrocenium salts as new cationic photoinitiators, (η6-α-naphthoxybenzene (η5-cyclopentadienyl iron hexafluorophosphate (NOFC-1 and (η6-β-naphthoxybenzene (η5-cyclopentadienyl iron hexafluorophosphate (NOFC-2, were synthesized, characterized, and studied. NOFC-1 and NOFC-2 were prepared by the reaction of nucleophilic substitution (SNAr with naphthol and chlorobenzene-cyclopentadienyliron salt. Their activity as cationic photoinitiators was studied using real-time infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed that NOFC-1 and NOFC-2 are capable of photoinitiating the cationic polymerization of epoxy monomer directly on irradiation with long-wavelength UV light (365 nm. Comparative studies also demonstrated that they exhibited better efficiency than cyclopentadienyl-Fe-cymene hexafluorophosphate (I-261. When NOFC-1 and NOFC-2 were used to efficiently initiate polymerization of epoxide, both rate of polymerization and final conversion increased using benzoyl peroxide (BPO as sensitizer. DSC studies showed that NOFC-1 and NOFC-2 photoinitiators in epoxides possess good thermal stability in the absence of light.

  6. Alkali metal cation-hexacyclen complexes: effects of alkali metal cation size on the structure and binding energy. (United States)

    Austin, C A; Rodgers, M T


    Threshold collision-induced dissociation (CID) of alkali metal cation-hexacyclen (ha18C6) complexes, M(+)(ha18C6), with xenon is studied using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry techniques. The alkali metal cations examined here include: Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). In all cases, M(+) is the only product observed, corresponding to endothermic loss of the intact ha18C6 ligand. The cross-section thresholds are analyzed to extract zero and 298 K M(+)-ha18C6 bond dissociation energies (BDEs) after properly accounting for the effects of multiple M(+)(ha18C6)-Xe collisions, the kinetic and internal energy distributions of the M(+)(ha18C6) and Xe reactants, and the lifetimes for dissociation of the activated M(+)(ha18C6) complexes. Ab initio and density functional theory calculations are used to determine the structures of ha18C6 and the M(+)(ha18C6) complexes, provide molecular constants necessary for the thermodynamic analysis of the energy-resolved CID data, and theoretical estimates for the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs. Calculations using a polarizable continuum model are also performed to examine solvent effects on the binding. In the absence of solvent, the M(+)-ha18C6 BDEs decrease as the size of the alkali metal cation increases, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the binding in these complexes. However, in the presence of solvent, the ha18C6 ligand exhibits selectivity for K(+) over the other alkali metal cations. The M(+)(ha18C6) structures and BDEs are compared to those previously reported for the analogous M(+)(18-crown-6) and M(+)(cyclen) complexes to examine the effects of the nature of the donor atom (N versus O) and the number donor atoms (six vs four) on the nature and strength of binding.

  7. Effects of Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation: Part I. Cation series. (United States)

    Tuhumury, H C D; Small, D M; Day, L


    Different cationic salts were used to investigate the effects of the Hofmeister salt series on gluten network formation. The effects of cationic salts on wheat flour dough mixing properties, the rheological and the chemical properties of the gluten extracted from the dough with different respective salts, were investigated. The specific influence of different cationic salts on the gluten structure formation during dough mixing, compared to the sodium ion, were determined. The effects of different cations on dough and gluten of different flours mostly followed the Hofmeister series (NH4(+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)). The impacts of cations on gluten structure and dough rheology at levels tested were relatively small. Therefore, the replacement of sodium from a technological standpoint is possible, particularly by monovalent cations such as NH4(+), or K(+). However the levels of replacement need to take into account sensory attributes of the cationic salts.

  8. Reduced hepatic uptake and intestinal excretion of organic cations in mice with a targeted disruption of the organic cation transporter 1 (Oct1 [Slc22a1]) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, JW; Wagenaar, E; Mol, CAAM; Buitelaar, M; Koepsell, H; Smit, JW; Schinkel, AH


    The polyspecific organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1 [SLC22A1]) mediates facilitated transport of small (hydrophilic) organic cations. OCT1 is localized at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the liver, kidney, and intestine and could therefore be involved in the elimination of endogenous

  9. STXM / NEXAFS investigation of humic acid metal cation interaction (United States)

    Plaschke, M.; Rothe, J.; Denecke, M. A.; Geckeis, H.


    Waste matrix dissolution following water intrusion in a future underground nuclear waste repository is regarded as a possible failure scenario leading to the dispersal of radioactive substances in the environment. Dissolved actinides, carriers of the long term radiotoxicity, may interact with groundwater constituents or sediment and host rock phases. These processes can either enhance or retard actinide mobility in the aquifer surrounding the repository. Actinide species may be highly mobile occuring as ‘eigen-colloids' or actinides adsorbed on groundwater colloids. The latter include dissolved humic acids (HA), mineral particles like iron oxides/hydroxides or clays and mineral/organic associations. The chemical characterization of these carrier colloids and a molecular scale understanding of the actinide-colloid interaction is a prerequisite to reliable prediction of actinide mobility based on model calculations. Therefore, chemical speciation information along with micro-scale morphology information is mandatory. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) is a powerful technique to reveal the chemical functionality and morphology of organic matter on a sub-µm scale. Moreover, STXM benefits from the ability to characterize organic samples in a thin film of aqueous solution. Morphological and microchemical information can be obtained at the same time within the spectral ‘water window' (i.e., between the C 1s and O 1s absorption edges at 284 eV and 537 eV, respectively). This ensures that complex hydrated structures of HA are kept in their native state. STXM investigations of HA in contact with polyvalent metal cations are carried out at the NSLS and SLS endstations. STXM micrographs at the carbon K-edge of metal cation loaded HA show optically dense zones (densification of carbon) embedded in a matrix of less dense material. Carboxyl groups are proposed to act as the primary HA cation attachment sites. NEXAFS (Near Edge Absorption Fine Structure) spectra of

  10. Increased cation conductance in human erythrocytes artificially aged by glycation. (United States)

    Kucherenko, Yuliya V; Bhavsar, Shefalee K; Grischenko, Valentin I; Fischer, Uwe R; Huber, Stephan M; Lang, Florian


    Excessive glucose concentrations foster glycation and thus premature aging of erythrocytes. The present study explored whether glycation-induced erythrocyte aging is paralleled by features of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell membrane scrambling with subsequent phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface and cell shrinkage. Both are triggered by increases of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), which may result from activation of Ca(2+) permeable cation channels. Glycation was accomplished by exposure to high glucose concentrations (40 and 100 mM), phosphatidylserine exposure estimated from annexin binding, cell shrinkage from decrease of forward scatter, and [Ca(2+)](i) from Fluo3-fluorescence in analysis via fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Cation channel activity was determined by means of whole-cell patch clamp. Glycation of total membrane proteins, immunoprecipitated TRPC3/6/7, and immunoprecipitated L-type Ca(2+) channel proteins was estimated by Western blot testing with polyclonal antibodies used against advanced glycation end products. A 30-48-h exposure of the cells to 40 or 100 mM glucose in Ringer solution (at 37 degrees C) significantly increased glycation of membrane proteins, hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), TRPC3/6/7, and L-type Ca(2+) channel proteins, enhanced amiloride-sensitive, voltage-independent cation conductance, [Ca(2+)](i), and phosphatidylserine exposure, and led to significant cell shrinkage. Ca(2+) removal and addition of Ca(2+) chelator EGTA prevented the glycation-induced phosphatidylserine exposure and cell shrinkage after glycation. Glycation-induced erythrocyte aging leads to eryptosis, an effect requiring Ca(2+) entry from extracellular space.

  11. Monomer and dimer radical cations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene. (United States)

    Das, Tomi Nath


    Pulse radiolytic generation of monomeric and dimeric cations of benzene, toluene, and naphthalene in aqueous acid media at room temperature and their spectrophotometric characterization is discussed. Results presented include measurements of each aromatic's solubility in H(2)O-H(2)SO(4) and H(2)O-HClO(4) media over the acidity range pH 1 to H(0) -7.0, facile oxidative generation, and real-time identification of appropriate cationic transients with respective lambda(max) (nm) and epsilon (M(-1) cm(-1)) values measured as follows: C(6)H(6)(*+) (443, 1145 +/- 75), C(6)H(5)CH(3)(*+) (428, 1230 +/- 90), C(10)H(8)(*+) (381, 3650 +/- 225, and 687, 2210 +/- 160), (C(6)H(6))(2)(*+) (860, 2835 +/- 235), (C(6)H(5)CH(3))(2)(*+) (950, 1685 +/- 155), and (C(10)H(8))(2)(*+) (1040, 4170 +/- 320). Kinetic measurements reveal the respective formation rates of monomeric cations to be near-diffusion controlled, while the forward rate values for the dimeric species generation are marginally slower. The proton activity corrected pK(a) values are found to remain between -2.6 and -1.3 for the ArH(*+) species (C(6)H(6)(*+) most acidic, C(10)H(8)(*+) least acidic), while the pK(a) values of (ArH)(2)(*+) species vary from -5.0 to -3.0 ((C(6)H(6))(2)(*+) most acidic, (C(10)H(8))(2)(*+) least acidic). In H(0) -5 in aqueous H(2)SO(4), the respective stabilization energy of (C(6)H(6))(2)(*+), (C(6)H(5)CH(3))(2)(*+), and (C(10)H(8))(2)(*+) is estimated to be 16.6, 15.0, and 13.7 kcal mol(-1). Thus, the aqueous acid solution emerges as an alternative medium for typical radical-cationic studies, while offering compatibility for the deprotonated radical characterization near neutral pH.

  12. Protic Cationic Oligomeric Ionic Liquids of the Urethane Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shevchenko, V. V.; Stryutsky, A. V.; Klymenko, N. S.;


    Protic oligomeric cationic ionic liquids of the oligo(ether urethane) type are synthesized via the reaction of an isocyanate prepolymer based on oligo(oxy ethylene)glycol with M = 1000 with hexamethylene-diisocyanate followed by blocking of the terminal isocyanate groups with the use of amine...... derivatives of imidazole, pyridine, and 3-methylpyridine and neutralization of heterocycles with ethanesulfonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid. The structures and properties of the synthesized oligomeric ionic liquids substantially depend on the structures of the ionic groups. They are amorphous at room...

  13. Synthesis of Branch Fluorinated Cationic Surfactant and Surface Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongke Wu


    Full Text Available A novel fluorinated quaternary ammonium salt cationic surfactant N,N,N-trimethyl-2-[[4-[[3,4,4,4-tetrafluoro-2-[1,2,2,2-tetrafluoro-1-(trifluoromethylethyl]-1,3-bis(tri-fluoromethyl-1-buten-1-yl]oxy]-benzoyl]amino]-iodide (FQAS was synthesized successfully, and its structure was characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 19F-NMR, and MS. The surface activities of FQAS and the effect of temperature, electrolyte, and combination with hydrocarbon surfactant were investigated. The results showed that FQAS exhibited excellent surface activity and combination with hydrocarbon surfactant.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Flocculation Properties of Branched Cationic Polyacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Sun


    Full Text Available A water soluble branched cationic polyacrylamide (BCPAM was synthesized using solution polymerization. The polymerization was initiated using potassium diperiodatocuprate, K5[Cu(HIO62](Cu(III, initiating the self-condensing vinyl copolymerization of acrylamide and acryloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC monomer. The resulting copolymer was characterized by the use of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Its flocculation properties were evaluated with standard jar tests of sewage. The effects of initiator concentration, monomer concentration, reaction temperature, and the mass ratio of monomers on intrinsic viscosity and flocculation properties of the product were determined using single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiment.

  15. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus


    A model that relates the characteristic diffusion length and average cooling rate to peak temperature was developed for chemical diffusion in spherical geometries on the basis of geospeedometry principles and diffusion theory. The model is quantitatively evaluated for cation diffusion profiles in...... is robust and provides a reliable means of estimating peak temperatures for different types of high-grade metamorphic rock. The tool could be of particular advantage in rocks where critical assemblages for conventional thermometry do not occur or have been replaced during retrogression....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Li; Bingyue Liu; Yafeng Cao


    The cationic graft copolymer was synthesized by reversed phase emulsion copolymerization of starch with diallydimethyl ammoniumlchlorid (DADMAC)and acrylamide (AM). The copolymerization was carried out using (NH4)2S2O8-NH2CONH2 redox as initiator and selecting Span-20 as emulsifier. The effects of emulsifier content in oil phase, volume ratio of oil to water, initiator concentration and mole ratio of DADMAC to AM on the graft copolymerization were discussed. The optimum condition of synthetics was found with the orthogonal test method.

  17. Blackbody-induced radiative dissociation of cationic SF 6 clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toker, Jonathan; Rahinov, I.; Schwalm, D.;


    The stability of cationic SF5+(SF6)n−1 clusters was investigated by measuring their blackbody-induced radiative dissociation (BIRD) rates. The clusters were produced in a supersonic expansion ion source and stored in an electrostatic ion-beam trap at room temperature, where their abundances...... and lifetimes were measured. Using the “master equation” approach, relative binding energies of an SF6 unit in the clusters could be extracted from the storage-time dependence of the survival probabilities. The results allow for a deeper insight into the effect of a localized charge on the structure...... and stability of SF6-based clusters....

  18. Holographic Grating Formation in Cationic Photopolymers with Dark Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Hao-Yun; CAO Liang-Cai; GU Claire; XU Zhen-Feng; HE Ming-Zhao; HE Qing-Sheng; HE Shu-Rong; JIN Guo-Fan


    @@ We propose a new formula to describe the dynamics of holographic grating formation under low intensity pulse exposures in cationic photopolymers, in which the dark reaction contributes dominantly to the grating strength.The formula is based on the living polymerization mechanism and the diffusion-free approximation. The analytical solution indicates that the grating formation time depends on the termination rate constant, while the final grating strength depends linearly on the total exposure energy. These theoretical predictions are verified experimentally using the Aprilis HMC-400μm photopolymer. The results can provide guidelines for the control and optimization of the holographic recording conditions in practical applications.

  19. Properties of sulfonated cation-exchangers made from petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Yu.V.; Pol' kin, G.B.; Proskuryakov, V.A.


    The use of ion-exchangers in radiochemical technology is accompanied by changes of their properties under the influence of ionizing radiation. The rate of development of these processes depends on the nature and structure of the matrix and on the nature and amount of ionic groups. We have proposed a method of synthesis of ion-exchangers resistant to ..gamma.. radiation from petroleum asphaltites. Continuing these investigations, we prepared cation-exchangers by sulfonation of a mixture of petroleum asphaltites and acid asphalt. An investigation of their radiation resistance is described in this paper.

  20. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.;


    Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...... with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both...

  1. EXAFS determination of cation local order in layered perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M. E.; Fuentes M, L.; Duarte M, J. A.; Fuentes C, L. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S. C., Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Garcia G, M. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Mehta, A.; Webb, S. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, CA (United States)


    EXAFS analysis of Bi{sub 6}Ti{sub 3}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 18} Aurivillius ceramic was performed to elucidate the local environment of Fe cations. Experiments were performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, at T = 10, 30, 50, 75, 100 and 298 K, in fluorescence regime. EXAFS spectra were processed using the ab initio multiple scattering program FEFF6. Distances among representative atomic pairs were refined. As a basic result, the previous hypothesis suggested by X-ray diffraction experiments, regarding a preference of iron atoms for the centered perovskite layer of the unit cell, was confirmed. (Author)

  2. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  3. Cationic polyacrylamides enhance rates of starch and cellulose saccharification. (United States)

    Reye, John T; Maxwell, Kendra; Rao, Swati; Lu, Jian; Banerjee, Sujit


    Adding a cationic polyacrylamide (c-PAM) to either the amylase mediated hydrolysis of corn starch or the hydrolysis of wood fiber by cellulase can enhance the initial hydrolysis rates, although a rate decrease can occur under some conditions. Several c-PAMs can serve as catalysts and the same c-PAM can improve the efficiency of both amylase and cellulase. The initial amylase rate approximately doubles; the analogous cellulase hydrolysis rate increases by about 40%. c-PAMs increase the binding of enzyme to substrate.

  4. Ensemble classi…cation methods for autism disordered speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoubir Abdeslem Benselama


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of our investigation on Autism classifi…cation by applying ensemble classi…ers to disordered speech signals. The aim is to distinguish between Autism sub-classes by comparing an ensemble combining three decision methods, the sequential minimization optimization (SMO algorithm, the random forests (RF, and the feature-subspace aggregating approach (Feating. The conducted experiments allowed a reduction of 30% of the feature space with an accuracy increase over the baseline of 8.66% in the development set and 6.62% in the test set.

  5. Contributions of cation-π interactions to the collagen triple helix stability. (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Ching; Hsu, Wei; Hwang, Kuo-Chu; Hwu, Jih Ru; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Horng, Jia-Cherng


    Cation-π interactions are found to be an important noncovalent force in proteins. Collagen is a right-handed triple helix composed of three left-handed PPII helices, in which (X-Y-Gly) repeats dominate in the sequence. Molecular modeling indicates that cation-π interactions could be formed between the X and Y positions in adjacent collagen strands. Here, we used a host-guest peptide system: (Pro-Hyp-Gly)(3)-(Pro-Y-Gly-X-Hyp-Gly)-(Pro-Hyp-Gly)(3), where X is an aromatic residue and Y is a cationic residue, to study the cation-π interaction in the collagen triple helix. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements and Tm data analysis show that the cation-π interactions involving Arg have a larger contribution to the conformational stability than do those involving Lys, and Trp forms a weaker cation-π interaction with cationic residues than expected as a result of steric effects. The results also show that the formation of cation-π interactions between Arg and Phe depends on their relative positions in the strand. Moreover, the fluorinated and methylated Phe substitutions show that an electron-withdrawing or electron-donating substituent on the aromatic ring can modulate its π-electron density and the cation-π interaction in collagen. Our data demonstrate that the cation-π interaction could play an important role in stabilizing the collagen triple helix.

  6. Hydrogen release reactions of Al-based complex hydrides enhanced by vibrational dynamics and valences of metal cations. (United States)

    Sato, T; Ramirez-Cuesta, A J; Daemen, L; Cheng, Y-Q; Tomiyasu, K; Takagi, S; Orimo, S


    Hydrogen release from Al-based complex hydrides composed of metal cation(s) and [AlH4](-) was investigated using inelastic neutron scattering viewed from vibrational dynamics. The hydrogen release followed the softening of translational and [AlH4](-) librational modes, which was enhanced by vibrational dynamics and the valence(s) of the metal cation(s).

  7. Cation Guided Assembly: Crystal Structures of Two Ag(I) Complexes in Versatile Dimensionalities with Different Counter Cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG, Jiang-Yun; GU, Wen; WANG, Wen-Zhen; LIU, Xin; LIAO, Dai-Zheng


    Assembly of [Ag(CN)2]- units with M(Ⅱ)-diamine complex cations [Cu(LN-N)2]2+, where LN-N represents1,2-diaminopropane (pn) and ethylenediamine (en), afforded two complexes, [Cu(pn)2][Ag2(CN)4] (1) and[Cu(en)2][Ag3(CN)5] (2), which were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and ESR spectra. Single crystal X-ray analyses show that these complexes have 2D and 3D architectures through silver-silver interactions and other weak interactions. The luminescence behaviors of the two complexes were also studied by means of emission spectra.

  8. Molecular Dynamics Study of a Dual-Cation Ionomer Electrolyte. (United States)

    Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Fangfang; Jónsson, Erlendur; Forsyth, Maria


    The poly(N1222 )x Li1-x [AMPS] ionomer system (AMPS=2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) with dual cations has previously shown decoupled Li ion dynamics from polymer segmental motions, characterized by the glass-transition temperature, which can result in a conductive electrolyte material whilst retaining an appropriate modulus (i.e. stiffness) so that it can suppress dendrite formation, thereby improving safety when used in lithium-metal batteries. To understand this ion dynamics behavior, molecular dynamics techniques have been used in this work to simulate structure and dynamics in these materials. These simulations confirm that the Li ion transport is decoupled from the polymer particularly at intermediate N1222(+) concentrations. At 50 mol % N1222(+) concentration, the polymer backbone is more rigid than for higher N1222(+) concentrations, but with increasing temperature Li ion dynamics are more significant than polymer or quaternary ammonium cation motions. Herein we suggest an ion-hopping mechanism for Li(+) , arising from structural rearrangement of ionic clusters that could explain its decoupled behavior. Higher temperatures favor an aggregated ionic structure as well as enhancing these hopping motions. The simulations discussed here provide an atomic-level understanding of ion dynamics that could contribute to designing an improved ionomer with fast ion transport and mechanical robustness.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin Wang; Wenxia Liu


    Layered double hydroxides consisting of layers with cationic charges may be potential candidates of cationic microparticles forming synergetic retention effect with anionic polyacrylamide. In this work, the layered double hydroxides with various molar ratios of Mg/Al were synthesized by co-precipitation of magnesium chloride and aluminum chloride and peptized by intense washing with water. The chemical formula, particle size, Zeta potential of the layered double hydroxide were analyzed. It was found that positively charged magnesium aluminum hydroxide with particle diameter in nanoparticle size could be prepared. The Zeta potential and particle size vary with the feed molar ratio of Mg/Al and the peptizing process, respectively. The Zeta potential is also pH dependent. The retention experiments carried out on DDJ show that when used together with anionic polyacrylamide, the positively charged colloidal double hydroxide greatly improves the retention of reed pulps. The chemical formula, particle size and Zeta potential of the colloidal double hydroxide all affect its retention behavior.

  10. The cation content of phospholipides from swine erythrocytes. (United States)



    Phospholipides from swine erythrocytes were isolated and separated into four reproducible fractions. One of the fractions seems to be pure phosphatidylserine. The others are almost certainly not single compounds, although the analytical data indicate that they represent mixtures considerably simpler than the parent mixture extracted from the cells. All four fractions contained Na(+) and K(+), but very little Ca(2+). Sodium was the predominant cation in two of the fractions under all conditions although the major intracellular cation was potassium. In the other two fractions the ratio Na/K varied with the extraction procedure largely because the quantity of K(+) seemed to depend on the solvent system used. There appear to be reasons to believe that the entire system of phospholipides binds Na(+) preferentially. In addition, it was observed that the quantity of Na(+) found in the lipide extracts varied when the extrusion of Na(+) from the cells was made to vary. Both of these observations are consistent with the possibility that the phospholipides play some part in the extrusion of Na(+) from these cells.

  11. Effects of cation concentration on photocatalytic performance over magnesium vanadates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peng [Catalytic Materials Group, Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Zhou, Wei [Department of Physics, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Defa [TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); Umezawa, Naoto, E-mail:, E-mail:; Abe, Hideki, E-mail:, E-mail: [Catalytic Materials Group, Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Ye, Jinhua [Catalytic Materials Group, Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)


    A series of magnesium vanadates (MgV {sub 2}O{sub 6}, Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8}) were synthesized to investigate the effect of cation concentration on photocatalytic performance. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic O{sub 2} evolution experiments under visible light irradiation showed Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibits the best performance, while Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8} has the lowest activity. The density functional theory calculations indicated that the lowest unoccupied states of Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8} are the mostly localized by the cation layers. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves gave evident performances of excited states of magnesium vanadates and pointed out MgV {sub 2}O{sub 6} has a very short excited electron lift-time. Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7} performs high photocatalytic activity because of its high electron mobility and long electron life-time.

  12. H2O Nucleation Around Noble Metal Cations (United States)

    Calaminici, Patrizia; Oropeza Alfaro, Pavel; Juarez Flores, Martin; Köster, Andreas; Beltran, Marcela; Ulises Reveles, J.; Khanna, Shiv N.


    First principle electronic structure calculations have been carried out to investigate the ground state geometry, electronic structure and binding energy of noble metal cations (H2O)n^+ clusters containing up to 10 H2O molecules. The calculations are performed with the density functional theory code deMon2k [1]. Due to the very flat potential energy surface of these systems special care to the numerical stability of energy and gradient calculation must be taken.Comparison of the results obtained with Cu^+, Ag^+ and Au^+ will be shown. This investigation provides insight into the structural arrangement of the water molecules around these metals and a microscopic understanding of the observed incremental binding energy in the case of the gold cation based on collision induced dissociation experiments. [1] A.M. Köster, P. Calaminici, M.E. Casida, R. Flores-Moreno, G. Geudtner, A. Goursot, T. Heine, A. Ipatov, F. Janetzko, J. Martin del Campo, S. Patchkovski, J.U. Reveles, A. Vela and D.R. Salahub, deMon2k, The deMon Developers, Cinvestav, 2006

  13. Cationic gadolinium chelate for magnetic resonance imaging of cartilaginous defects. (United States)

    Nwe, Kido; Huang, Ching-Hui; Qu, Feini; Warden-Rothman, Robert; Zhang, Clare Y; Mauck, Robert L; Tsourkas, Andrew


    The ability to detect meniscus defects by magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) can be highly variable. To improve the delineation of fine tears, we synthesized a cationic gadolinium complex, (Gd-DOTA-AM4 )(2+) , that can electrostatically interact with Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The complex has a longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of 4.2 mM(-1) s(-1) and is highly stable in serum. Its efficacy in highlighting soft tissue tears was evaluated in comparison to a clinically employed contrast agent (Magnevist) using explants obtained from adult bovine menisci. In all cases, Gd-DOTA-AM4 appeared to improve the ability to detect the soft tissue defect by providing increased signal intensity along the length of the tear. Magnevist shows a strong signal near the liquid-meniscus interface, but much less contrast is observed within the defect at greater depths. This provides initial evidence that cationic contrast agents can be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRA. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Role of Reverse Divalent Cation Diffusion in Forward Osmosis Biofouling. (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Hashmi, Sara M; Nghiem, Long D; Elimelech, Menachem


    We investigated the role of reverse divalent cation diffusion in forward osmosis (FO) biofouling. FO biofouling by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was simulated using pristine and chlorine-treated thin-film composite polyamide membranes with either MgCl2 or CaCl2 draw solution. We related FO biofouling behavior-water flux decline, biofilm architecture, and biofilm composition-to reverse cation diffusion. Experimental results demonstrated that reverse calcium diffusion led to significantly more severe water flux decline in comparison with reverse magnesium permeation. Unlike magnesium, reverse calcium permeation dramatically altered the biofilm architecture and composition, where extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) formed a thicker, denser, and more stable biofilm. We propose that FO biofouling was enhanced by complexation of calcium ions to bacterial EPS. This hypothesis was confirmed by dynamic and static light scattering measurements using extracted bacterial EPS with the addition of either MgCl2 or CaCl2 solution. We observed a dramatic increase in the hydrodynamic radius of bacterial EPS with the addition of CaCl2, but no change was observed after addition of MgCl2. Static light scattering revealed that the radius of gyration of bacterial EPS with addition of CaCl2 was 20 times larger than that with the addition of MgCl2. These observations were further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy imaging, where bacterial EPS in the presence of calcium ions was globular, while that with magnesium ions was rod-shaped.

  15. Effect of cationic monomer on properties of fluorinated acrylate latex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun Chen


    Cationic fluorinated acrylate latex was prepared via semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization of cationic monomer and other monomers.The resultant latex and its film were characterized with dynamic light scattering detector and contact angle meter.Influences of amount of DMDAAC on the properties of resultant latex and its film were investigated in detail.Results show that the particle size of the latex has the minimum value and the zeta potential of the latex is increased when the amount of DMDAAC is increased.In addition,the particle size of the latex is unimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is not more than 2.5%.However,the particle size of the latex is bimodal distribution when the amount of DMDAAC is more than 2.5%.The contact angle is varied slightly with the increase of amount of DMDAAC when it is not more than 2.5%.Nevertheless,the contact angle is decreased with the increase of the amount of DMDAAC when it is more than 25%.

  16. Stretch-activated cation channel from larval bullfrog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D; Willumsen, Niels J; Marrero, Mario B


    Cell-attached patches from isolated epithelial cells from larval bullfrog skin revealed a cation channel that was activated by applying suction (-1 kPa to -4.5 kPa) to the pipette. Activation was characterized by an initial large current spike that rapidly attenuated to a stable value and showed...... was markedly reduced with N-methyl-D-glucamide (NMDG)-Cl Ringer's solution in the pipette. Neither amiloride nor ATP, which are known to stimulate an apical cation channel in Ussing chamber preparations of larval frog skin, produced channel activation nor did these compounds affect the response to suction....... Stretch activation was not affected by varying the pipette concentrations of Ca(2+) between 0 mmol l(-1) and 4 mmol l(-1) or by varying pH between 6.8 and 8.0. However, conductance was reduced with 4 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). Western blot analysis of membrane homogenates from larval bullfrog and larval toad skin...

  17. Structural Insights into Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Regulation by Divalent Cations. (United States)

    Lee, Samuel K; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Mok, Mac C Y; Dong, Zhiwei; Tomar, Dhanendra; Carvalho, Edmund; Rajan, Sudarsan; Junop, Murray S; Madesh, Muniswamy; Stathopulos, Peter B


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) flux into the matrix is tightly controlled by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) due to vital roles in cell death and bioenergetics. However, the precise atomic mechanisms of MCU regulation remain unclear. Here, we solved the crystal structure of the N-terminal matrix domain of human MCU, revealing a β-grasp-like fold with a cluster of negatively charged residues that interacts with divalent cations. Binding of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) destabilizes and shifts the self-association equilibrium of the domain toward monomer. Mutational disruption of the acidic face weakens oligomerization of the isolated matrix domain and full-length human protein similar to cation binding and markedly decreases MCU activity. Moreover, mitochondrial Mg(2+) loading or blockade of mitochondrial Ca(2+) extrusion suppresses MCU Ca(2+)-uptake rates. Collectively, our data reveal that the β-grasp-like matrix region harbors an MCU-regulating acidic patch that inhibits human MCU activity in response to Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) binding.

  18. Excited state dynamics of the astaxanthin radical cation (United States)

    Amarie, Sergiu; Förster, Ute; Gildenhoff, Nina; Dreuw, Andreas; Wachtveitl, Josef


    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy in the visible and NIR and ultrafast fluorescence spectroscopy were used to examine the excited state dynamics of astaxanthin and its radical cation. For neutral astaxanthin, two kinetic components corresponding to time constants of 130 fs (decay of the S 2 excited state) and 5.2 ps (nonradiative decay of the S 1 excited state) were sufficient to describe the data. The dynamics of the radical cation proved to be more complex. The main absorption band was shifted to 880 nm (D 0 → D 3 transition), showing a weak additional band at 1320 nm (D 0 → D 1 transition). We found, that D 3 decays to the lower-lying D 2 within 100 fs, followed by a decay to D 1 with a time constant of 0.9 ps. The D 1 state itself exhibited a dual behavior, the majority of the population is transferred to the ground state in 4.9 ps, while a small population decays on a longer timescale of 40 ps. Both transitions from D 1 were found to be fluorescent.

  19. High and rapid alkali cation storage in ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo; Lee, Seulbee; Kim, Na Rae; Kang, Minjee; Leal, Cecilia; Park, Kyu-Young; Kang, Kisuk; Jin, Hyoung-Joon


    To achieve better supercapacitor performance, efforts have focused on increasing the specific surface area of electrode materials to obtain higher energy and power density. The control of pores in these materials is one of the most effective ways to increase the surface area. However, when the size of pores decreases to a sub-nanometer regime, it becomes difficult to apply the conventional parallel-plate capacitor model because the charge separation distance (d-value) of the electrical double layer has a similar length scale. In this study, ultramicroporous carbonaceous materials (UCMs) containing sub-nanometer-scale pores are fabricated using a simple in situ carbonization/activation of cellulose-based compounds containing potassium. The results show that alkali cations act as charge carriers in the ultramicropores (<0.7 nm), and these materials can deliver high capacitances of ∼300 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and 130 F g-1, even at a high current rate of 65 A g-1 in an aqueous medium. In addition, the UCM-based symmetric supercapacitors are stable over 10,000 cycles and have a high energy and power densities of 8.4 Wh kg-1 and 15,000 W kg-1, respectively. This study provides a better understanding of the effects of ultramicropores in alkali cation storage.

  20. Cationic Nanocylinders Promote Angiogenic Activities of Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Bok Lee


    Full Text Available Polymers have been used extensively taking forms as scaffolds, patterned surface and nanoparticle for regenerative medicine applications. Angiogenesis is an essential process for successful tissue regeneration, and endothelial cell–cell interaction plays a pivotal role in regulating their tight junction formation, a hallmark of angiogenesis. Though continuous progress has been made, strategies to promote angiogenesis still rely on small molecule delivery or nuanced scaffold fabrication. As such, the recent paradigm shift from top-down to bottom-up approaches in tissue engineering necessitates development of polymer-based modular engineering tools to control angiogenesis. Here, we developed cationic nanocylinders (NCs as inducers of cell–cell interaction and investigated their effect on angiogenic activities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vitro. Electrospun poly (l-lactic acid (PLLA fibers were aminolyzed to generate positively charged NCs. The aninolyzation time was changed to produce two different aspect ratios of NCs. When HUVECs were treated with NCs, the electrostatic interaction of cationic NCs with negatively charged plasma membranes promoted migration, permeability and tubulogenesis of HUVECs compared to no treatment. This effect was more profound when the higher aspect ratio NC was used. The results indicate these NCs can be used as a new tool for the bottom-up approach to promote angiogenesis.

  1. Source of Lake Vostok Cations Constrained with Strontium Isotopes (United States)

    Lyons, William; Welch, Kathleen; Priscu, John; Tranter, Martyn; Royston-Bishop, George


    Lake Vostok is the largest sub-glacial lake in Antarctica. The primary source of our current knowledge regarding the geochemistry and biology of the lake comes from the analysis of refrozen lake water associated with ice core drilling. Several sources of dissolved ions and particulate matter to the lake have been proposed, including materials from the melted glacier ice, the weathering of underlying geological materials, hydrothermal activity and underlying, ancient evaporitic deposits. A sample of Lake Vostok Type 1 accretion ice has been analyzed for its 87Sr/86Sr signature as well as its major cation and anion and Sr concentrations. The strontium isotope ratio of 0.71655 and the Ca/Sr ratio in the sample strongly indicate that the major source of the Sr is from aluminosilicate minerals from the continental crust. These data imply that at least a portion of the other cations in the Type 1 ice also are derived from continental crustal materials and not hydrothermal activity, the melted glacier ice, or evaporitic sources.

  2. Synthesis and rheological properties of cation-exchanged Laponite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phuoc, Tran X. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Howard, Bret H. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Chyu, Minking K. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    In this paper we report our new approach to synthesize cation-exchanged Laponite suspensions. General observations of the prepared samples indicated that an aqueous suspension of 1 wt.% Laponite retained its free flowing liquid phase characteristics even after aging for several weeks. When bivalent cationic metals (Cu, Co, Ni) were ablated into the suspension, the strong charge of the crystal face was reduced and, on standing, the suspension gelled becoming highly viscous. This sol-gel transition was induced by the formation of a space-filled structure due to both van der Waals and electrostatic bonds between the positively charged rims and negatively charged faces. Rheological properties of such prepared suspensions were measured using a Brookfield DV-II Pro Viscometer with a small sample adapter (SSA18/13RPY). The yield strengths of 2.2 N/m2, 3.2 N/m2, and 1.7 N/m2 were measured for Ni-, Co-, and Cumodified Laponite suspensions, respectively. These yield strengths are sufficiently high for suspending weighting materials such as barite which requires the gel strength of about 0.5 N/m2.

  3. Synthesis and rheological properties of cation exchanged Laponite suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, X P; Howard, B; Chyu, M K


    In this paper we report our new approach to synthesize cation-exchanged Laponite suspensions. General observations of the prepared samples indicated that an aqueous suspension of 1 wt% Laponite retained its free flowing liquid phase characteristics even after aging for several weeks. When bivalent cationic metals (Cu, Co, Ni) were ablated into the suspension, the strong charge of the crystal face was reduced and, on standing, the suspension gelled becoming highly viscous. This sol-gel transition was induced by the formation of a space-filled structure due to both van derWaals and electrostatic bonds between the positively charged rims and negatively charged faces. Rheological properties of such prepared suspensions were measured using a Brookfield DV-H Pro Viscometer with a small sample adapter{SSA18/13RPY). The yield strengths of2.2 N/m2, 3.2 N/m2, and 1.7 N/m2 were measured for Ni-, Co-, and Cu-modified Laponite suspensions, respectively. These yield strengths are sufficiently high for suspending weighting materials such as barite which requires the gel strength of about 0.5 N/m2.

  4. Anionic and cationic Hofmeister effects on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. (United States)

    Schwierz, Nadine; Horinek, Dominik; Netz, Roland R


    Using a two-step modeling approach, we address the full spectrum of direct, reversed, and altered ionic sequences as the charge of the ion, the charge of the surface, and the surface polarity are varied. From solvent-explicit molecular dynamics simulations, we extract single-ion surface interaction potentials for halide and alkali ions at hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. These are used within Poisson-Boltzmann theory to calculate ion density and electrostatic potential distributions at mixed polar/unpolar surfaces for varying surface charge. The resulting interfacial tension increments agree quantitatively with experimental data and capture the Hofmeister series, especially the anomaly of lithium, which is difficult to obtain using continuum theory. Phase diagrams that feature different Hofmeister series as a function of surface charge, salt concentration, and surface polarity are constructed from the long-range force between two surfaces interacting across electrolyte solutions. Large anions such as iodide have a high hydrophobic surface affinity and increase the effective charge magnitude on negatively charged unpolar surfaces. Large cations such as cesium also have a large hydrophobic surface affinity and thereby compensate an external negative charge surface charge most efficiently, which explains the well-known asymmetry between cations and anions. On the hydrophilic surface, the size-dependence of the ion surface affinity is reversed, explaining the Hofmeister series reversal when comparing hydrophobic with hydrophilic surfaces.

  5. Cation charge dependence of the forces driving DNA assembly. (United States)

    DeRouchey, Jason; Parsegian, V Adrian; Rau, Donald C


    Understanding the strength and specificity of interactions among biologically important macromolecules that control cellular functions requires quantitative knowledge of intermolecular forces. Controlled DNA condensation and assembly are particularly critical for biology, with separate repulsive and attractive intermolecular forces determining the extent of DNA compaction. How these forces depend on the charge of the condensing ion has not been determined, but such knowledge is fundamental for understanding the basis of DNA-DNA interactions. Here, we measure DNA force-distance curves for a homologous set of arginine peptides. All forces are well fit as the sum of two exponentials with 2.4- and 4.8-Å decay lengths. The shorter-decay-length force is always repulsive, with an amplitude that varies slightly with length or charge. The longer-decay-length force varies strongly with cation charge, changing from repulsion with Arg¹ to attraction with Arg². Force curves for a series of homologous polyamines and the heterogeneous protein protamine are quite similar, demonstrating the universality of these forces for DNA assembly. Repulsive amplitudes of the shorter-decay-length force are species-dependent but nearly independent of charge within each species. A striking observation was that the attractive force amplitudes for all samples collapse to a single curve, varying linearly with the inverse of the cation charge.

  6. The influence of large cations on the electrochemical properties of tunnel-structured metal oxides (United States)

    Yuan, Yifei; Zhan, Chun; He, Kun; Chen, Hungru; Yao, Wentao; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh; Song, Boao; Yang, Zhenzhen; Nie, Anmin; Luo, Xiangyi; Wang, Hao; Wood, Stephen M.; Amine, Khalil; Islam, M. Saiful; Lu, Jun; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza


    Metal oxides with a tunnelled structure are attractive as charge storage materials for rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors, since the tunnels enable fast reversible insertion/extraction of charge carriers (for example, lithium ions). Common synthesis methods can introduce large cations such as potassium, barium and ammonium ions into the tunnels, but how these cations affect charge storage performance is not fully understood. Here, we report the role of tunnel cations in governing the electrochemical properties of electrode materials by focusing on potassium ions in α-MnO2. We show that the presence of cations inside 2 × 2 tunnels of manganese dioxide increases the electronic conductivity, and improves lithium ion diffusivity. In addition, transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that the tunnels remain intact whether cations are present in the tunnels or not. Our systematic study shows that cation addition to α-MnO2 has a strong beneficial effect on the electrochemical performance of this material.

  7. Flexible polyelectrolyte conformation in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants (United States)

    Passos, C. B.; Kuhn, P. S.; Diehl, A.


    In this work we have studied the conformation of flexible polyelectrolyte chains in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. We developed a simple theoretical model for the formation of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes and mixed micelles formed by cationic and anionic surfactant molecules, in the framework of the Debye-Hückel-Bjerrum-Manning and Flory theories, with the hydrophobic interaction included explicitly as an effective short-ranged attraction between the surfactant hydrocarbon tails. This simple model allows us to calculate the extension of the polyelectrolyte-cationic surfactant complexes as a function of the anionic surfactant concentration, for different types of cationic and anionic surfactant molecules. A discrete conformational transition from a collapsed state to an elongated coil was found, for all surfactant chain lengths we have considered, in agreement with the experimental observations for the unfolding of ​DNA-cationic surfactant complexes.

  8. Resonance Raman and quantum chemical studies of short polyene radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keszthelyi, T.; Wilbrandt, R.; Bally, T.


    The results of our investigations of the geometric and vibrational structures of some short conjugated polyene radical cations are reported. The radical cations of 1,3-butadiene and three of its deuterated isotopomers, trans- and cis-1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and E- and Z-1,3,5-hexa......The results of our investigations of the geometric and vibrational structures of some short conjugated polyene radical cations are reported. The radical cations of 1,3-butadiene and three of its deuterated isotopomers, trans- and cis-1,3-pentadiene, 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, and E- and Z-1...... and to assist assignment of the resonance Raman spectra. A new and improved scaled quantum mechanical force field for the butadiene radical cation was also determined. The presence of more than one rotamer was observed in all the polyene radical cations we investigated. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V....

  9. Improving reactive ink jet printing via cationization of cellulosic linen fabric. (United States)

    Rekaby, M; Abd-El Thalouth, J I; Abd El-Salam, Sh H


    Cellulose linen fabric samples subjected to cationization using different cationizing agents: dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH), and Quat-188, via pad batch technique, followed by ink jet printing with reactive dyes. The %N as well as the K/S of the cationized samples was found to be depends on: (a) the nature of the cationizing agent and (b) on the time of batching. As the latter increases both of the nitrogen content and K/S increases to a maximum depending on the nature of the reagent used. Further increase in the batching time up to 30 h is accompanied by a decrease in both the %N and K/S irrespective of the nature of the cationizing agent used. Cationization improves the printability of reactive dye ink jet printed linen fabrics with no remarkable effect on the overall color fastness properties.

  10. Cation-{pi}-interaction promoted aggregation of aromatic molecules and energy transfer within Y zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.J.; Sunoj, R.B.; Chandrasekhar, J.; Ramamurthy, V.


    Photophysical studies of naphthalene confirm that aromatic molecules tend to aggregate within cation exchanged Y zeolites. Ground-state aggregation is traced to the presence of cation-aromatic {pi}-interaction. Solvents that can coordinate to the cation turn off the cation-aromatic interaction, and consequently aggregation does not occur in zeolites that are impregnated with the above solvents. The solvent that exhibits a maximum in such an effect is water. MP2 calculations on cation-benzene dimer indicate that cation-{pi}-interaction results in stabilization of the {pi}-stacked benzene dimer. Results of MP2 calculations are consistent with the formation of ground-state {pi}-stacked aggregates of naphthalene molecules within Y zeolites.

  11. Fabrication of patterned calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogel films and coatings through reductive cation exchange. (United States)

    Bruchet, Marion; Melman, Artem


    Calcium cross-linked alginate hydrogels are widely used in targeted drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound treatment, and other biomedical applications. We developed a method for preparing homogeneous alginate hydrogels cross-linked with Ca(2+) cations using reductive cation exchange in homogeneous iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogels. Treatment of iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogels with calcium salts and sodium ascorbate results in reduction of iron(III) cations to iron(II) that are instantaneously replaced with Ca(2+) cations, producing homogeneous ionically cross-linking hydrogels. Alternatively, the cation exchange can be performed by photochemical reduction in the presence of calcium chloride using a sacrificial photoreductant. This approach allows fabrication of patterned calcium alginate hydrogels through photochemical patterning of iron(III) cross-linked alginate hydrogel followed by the photochemical reductive exchange of iron cations to calcium.

  12. Probing optical band gaps at nanoscale from tetrahedral cation vacancy defects and variation of cation ordering in NiCo2O4 epitaxial thin films (United States)

    Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Silwal, P.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.


    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is utilized to probe the optical band gaps at the nanoscale in epitaxial NiCo2O4 (NCO) thin films with different structural order (cation/charge). The structure of NCO deviates from the ideal inverse spinel (non-magnetic and insulating) for films grown at higher temperatures (>500 °C) towards a mixed cation structure (magnetic with metallic conductivity) at lower deposition temperatures (<450 °C). This significantly modifies the electronic structure as well as the nature of the band gap of the material. Nanoscale regions with unoccupied tetrahedral A site cations are additionally observed in all the samples and direct measurement from such areas reveals considerably lower band gap values as compared to the ideal inverse spinel and mixed cation configurations. Experimental values of band gaps have been found to be in good agreement with the theoretical mBJLDA exchange potential based calculated band gaps for various cation ordering and consideration of A site cation vacancy defects. The origin of rich variation in cation ordering observed in this system is discussed.

  13. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek


    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  14. Early events following radiolytic and photogeneration of radical cations in hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werst, D.W.; Trifunac, A.D.


    Real-time studies in hydrocarbons have revealed a richness of chemistry involving the initial ionic species produced in radiolysis and photoionization. A modified radical cation mechanism patterned after the core mechanism for alkane radiolysis-formation of radical cations and their disappearance via ion-molecule reactions - is capable of explaining a wide range of observations in high-energy photochemistry, and thus unifies two high-energy regimes. Fundamental studies of radical cations suggest strategies for mitigating radiation effects in materials.

  15. Early events following radiolytic and photogeneration of radical cations in hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werst, D.W.; Trifunac, A.D.


    Real-time studies in hydrocarbons have revealed a richness of chemistry involving the initial ionic species produced in radiolysis and photoionization. A modified radical cation mechanism patterned after the core mechanism for alkane radiolysis-formation of radical cations and their disappearance via ion-molecule reactions - is capable of explaining a wide range of observations in high-energy photochemistry, and thus unifies two high-energy regimes. Fundamental studies of radical cations suggest strategies for mitigating radiation effects in materials.

  16. Click-based porous cationic polymers for enhanced carbon dioxide capture


    Dani, Alessandro; Magistris, Valentina Crocella Claudio; Santoro, Valentina; Yuan, Jiayin; Bordiga, Silvia


    Imidazolium based porous cationic polymers were synthesized using an innovative and facile approach, which takes advantage of the Debus Radziszewski reaction to obtain meso- and microporous polymers following click chemistry principles. In the obtained set of materials, click based porous cationic polymers have the same cationic backbone, whereas they bear the commonly used anions of imidazolium poly(ionic liquid)s. These materials show hierarchical porosity and a good specific surface area. ...

  17. Ternary mixtures of ionic liquids for better salt solubility, conductivity and cation transference number improvement (United States)

    Karpierz, E.; Niedzicki, L.; Trzeciak, T.; Zawadzki, M.; Dranka, M.; Zachara, J.; Żukowska, G. Z.; Bitner-Michalska, A.; Wieczorek, W.


    We hereby present the new class of ionic liquid systems in which lithium salt is introduced into the solution as a lithium cation-glyme solvate. This modification leads to the reorganisation of solution structure, which entails release of free mobile lithium cation solvate and hence leads to the significant enhancement of ionic conductivity and lithium cation transference numbers. This new approach in composing electrolytes also enables even three-fold increase of salt concentration in ionic liquids.

  18. A Photo Touch on Amines: New Synthetic Adventures of Nitrogen Radical Cations. (United States)

    Maity, Soumitira; Zheng, Nan


    Amines have been used as sacrificial electron donors to reduce photoexcited Ru(II) or Ir(III) complexes, during which they are oxidized to nitrogen radical cations. Recently, the synthetic potential of these nitrogen radical cations have caught synthetic organic chemists' attention. They have been exploited in various transformations yielding a number of elegant methods for amine synthesis. This article highlights recent developments on nitrogen radical cation chemistry under visible-light photocatalysis.

  19. Research on plasma and saliva levels of some bivalent cations in patients with chronic periodontitis (salivary cations in chronic periodontitis). (United States)

    Manea, A; Nechifor, M


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether chronic periodontitis can stand behind modifications in the salivary and blood concentration of some bivalent cations (Calcium, Magnesium, Zinc and Copper). For this purpose, we formed a group of 30 adult patients with clinically onset chronic periodontitis, and another one of 30 healthy patients as control. Both groups were free from acute oral pathology and general illnesses. The groups were divided again according to the habit of smoking. Total saliva samples were obtained as "first time in the morning", then weighed and processed. Cations were read on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and by Ion Chromatography (Magnesium). The same patients were required to undergo laboratory blood tests for Calcium, Magnesium and Zinc. Data obtained was normalised, then statistically interpreted using two-tailed heteroscedastic t-Student tests. Our data confirmed the existence of a connection between salivary calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper, and of blood magnesium, and chronic periodontitis. Salivary calcium and magnesium are affected by smoking.

  20. Influence of competing inorganic cations on the ion exchange equilibrium of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on natural sediment. (United States)

    Niedbala, Anne; Schaffer, Mario; Licha, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Börnick, Hilmar; Ruppert, Hans; Worch, Eckhard


    The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the influence of the mono- and divalent inorganic ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) on the sorption behavior of the monovalent organic cation metoprolol on a natural sandy sediment at pH=7. Isotherms for the beta-blocker metoprolol were obtained by sediment-water batch tests over a wide concentration range (1-100000 μg L(-1)). Concentrations of the competing inorganic ions were varied within freshwater relevant ranges. Data fitted well with the Freundlich sorption model and resulted in very similar Freundlich exponents (n=0.9), indicating slightly non-linear behavior. Results show that the influence of Ca(2+) compared to Na(+) is more pronounced. A logarithmic correlation between the Freundlich coefficient K(Fr) and the concentration or activity of the competing inorganic ions was found allowing the prediction of metoprolol sorption on the investigated sediment at different electrolyte concentrations. Additionally, the organic carbon of the sediment was completely removed for investigating the influence of organic matter on the sorption of metoprolol. The comparison between the experiments with and without organic carbon removal revealed no significant contribution of the organic carbon fraction (0.1%) to the sorption of metoprolol on the in this study investigated sediment. Results of this study will contribute to the development of predictive models for the transport of organic cations in the subsurface.

  1. Computational and analytical modeling of cationic lipid-DNA complexes. (United States)

    Farago, Oded; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels


    We present a theoretical study of the physical properties of cationic lipid-DNA (CL-DNA) complexes--a promising synthetically based nonviral carrier of DNA for gene therapy. The study is based on a coarse-grained molecular model, which is used in Monte Carlo simulations of mesoscopically large systems over timescales long enough to address experimental reality. In the present work, we focus on the statistical-mechanical behavior of lamellar complexes, which in Monte Carlo simulations self-assemble spontaneously from a disordered random initial state. We measure the DNA-interaxial spacing, d(DNA), and the local cationic area charge density, sigma(M), for a wide range of values of the parameter (c) representing the fraction of cationic lipids. For weakly charged complexes (low values of (c)), we find that d(DNA) has a linear dependence on (c)(-1), which is in excellent agreement with x-ray diffraction experimental data. We also observe, in qualitative agreement with previous Poisson-Boltzmann calculations of the system, large fluctuations in the local area charge density with a pronounced minimum of sigma(M) halfway between adjacent DNA molecules. For highly-charged complexes (large (c)), we find moderate charge density fluctuations and observe deviations from linear dependence of d(DNA) on (c)(-1). This last result, together with other findings such as the decrease in the effective stretching modulus of the complex and the increased rate at which pores are formed in the complex membranes, are indicative of the gradual loss of mechanical stability of the complex, which occurs when (c) becomes large. We suggest that this may be the origin of the recently observed enhanced transfection efficiency of lamellar CL-DNA complexes at high charge densities, because the completion of the transfection process requires the disassembly of the complex and the release of the DNA into the cytoplasm. Some of the structural properties of the system are also predicted by a continuum

  2. Study on synthesis and flocculation property of cation-polyacrylamide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Rong-chun; GUO Li-ying; XU Chu-yang


    On the basis of flocculating settling experimentation on flotation waste coal in Wangfenggang coal preparation plant, influence of medical dosage and cationization (CD) of CPAM samples on coal slurry's flocculating effect was studied, difference of flocculating effect on coal slurry among different categories of polyacrylamide was discussed. Experi-mental results show that when the dosage of flocculant reaches 2~4 g/m3 flotation waste,and the CD of CPAM is 5%, flocculating effect is the best, light transmittance of super-natant liquor reaches 93%. Taking 3types of sample CPAM, PAM and PHP, which formula weight vary a little, to deal with the same concn of coal slurry, when medicine dosage is 3 g/m3, flocculating effect of CPAM is the best, light transmittance of supernatant liquor reaches 92%.

  3. Organic non-aqueous cation-based redox flow batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Andrew N.; Vaughey, John T.; Chen, Zonghai; Zhang, Lu; Brushett, Fikile R.


    The present invention provides a non-aqueous redox flow battery comprising a negative electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid negative electrolyte, a positive electrode immersed in a non-aqueous liquid positive electrolyte, and a cation-permeable separator (e.g., a porous membrane, film, sheet, or panel) between the negative electrolyte from the positive electrolyte. During charging and discharging, the electrolytes are circulated over their respective electrodes. The electrolytes each comprise an electrolyte salt (e.g., a lithium or sodium salt), a transition-metal free redox reactant, and optionally an electrochemically stable organic solvent. Each redox reactant is selected from an organic compound comprising a conjugated unsaturated moiety, a boron cluster compound, and a combination thereof. The organic redox reactant of the positive electrolyte is selected to have a higher redox potential than the redox reactant of the negative electrolyte.

  4. Interpnictogen cations: exploring new vistas in coordination chemistry. (United States)

    Robertson, Alasdair P M; Gray, Paul A; Burford, Neil


    Pnictine derivatives can behave as both 2e(-) donors (Lewis bases) and 2e(-) acceptors (Lewis acids). As prototypical ligands in the coordination chemistry of transition metals, amines and phosphines also form complexes with p-block Lewis acids, including a variety of pnictogen-centered acceptors. The inherent Lewis acidity of pnictogen centers can be enhanced by the introduction of a cationic charge, and this feature has been exploited in recent years in the development of compounds resulting from coordinate Pn-Pn and Pn-Pn' interactions. These compounds offer the unusual opportunity for homoatomic coordinate bonding and the development of complexes that possess a lone pair of electrons at the acceptor center. This Review presents new directions in the systematic extension of coordination chemistry from the transition series into the p-block.

  5. A New Nanometer-Sized Ga(III-Oxyhydroxide Cation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Casey


    Full Text Available A new 30-center Ga(III-oxy-hydroxide cation cluster was synthesized by hydrolysis of an aqueous GaCl3 solution near pH = 2.5 and crystallized using 2,6-napthalene disulfonate (NDS. The cluster has 30 metal centers and a nominal stoichiometry: [Ga30(μ4-O12(μ3-O4(μ3-OH4(μ2-OH42(H2O16](2,6-NDS6, where 2,6-NDS = 2,6-napthalene disulfonate This cluster augments the very small library of Group 13 clusters that have been isolated from aqueous solution and closely resembles one other Ga(III cluster with 32 metal centers that had been isolated using curcurbit ligands. These clusters have uncommon linked Ga(O4 centers and sets of both protonated and unprotonated μ3-oxo.

  6. Ab initio study of the transition-metal carbene cations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉海; 冯大诚; 冯圣玉


    The geometries and bonding characteristics of the first-row transition-metal carbene cations MCH2+ were investigated by ab initio molecular orbital theory (HF/LANL2DZ). All of MCH2+ are coplanar. In the closed shell structures the C bonds to M with double bonds; while in the open shell structures the partial double bonds are formed, because one of the σ and π orbitals is singly occupied. It is mainly the π-type overlap between the 2px orbital of C and 4px, 3dxz, orbitals of M+ that forms the π orbitals. The dissociation energies of C—M bond appear in periodic trend from Sc to Cu. Most of the calculated bond dissociation energies are close to the experimental ones.

  7. Cationic Conjugated Polymers-Induced Quorum Sensing of Bacteria Cells. (United States)

    Zhang, Pengbo; Lu, Huan; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jiangyan; Liu, Libing; Lv, Fengting; Wang, Shu


    Bacteria quorum sensing (QS) has attracted significant interest for understanding cell-cell communication and regulating biological functions. In this work, we demonstrate that water-soluble cationic conjugated polymers (PFP-G2) can interact with bacteria to form aggregates through electrostatic interactions. With bacteria coated in the aggregate, PFP-G2 can induce the bacteria QS system and prolong the time duration of QS signal molecules (autoinducer-2 (AI-2)) production. The prolonged AI-2 can bind with specific protein and continuously regulate downstream gene expression. Consequently, the bacteria show a higher survival rate against antibiotics, resulting in decreased antimicrobial susceptibility. Also, AI-2 induced by PFP-G2 can stimulate 55.54 ± 12.03% more biofilm in E. coli. This method can be used to understand cell-cell communication and regulate biological functions, such as the production of signaling molecules, antibiotics, other microbial metabolites, and even virulence.

  8. Efficient intravesical therapy of bladder cancer with cationic doxorubicin nanoassemblies. (United States)

    Jin, Xun; Zhang, Peilan; Luo, Li; Cheng, Hao; Li, Yunzu; Du, Ting; Zou, Bingwen; Gou, Maling

    Nanoparticles have promising applications in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane/methoxypoly (ethyleneglycol) (DPP) nanoparticles to deliver doxorubicin (Dox) for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. The DPP micelles have a mean dynamic diameter of 18.65 nm and a mean zeta potential of +19.6 mV. The DPP micelles could prolong the residence of Dox in the bladder, enhance the penetration of Dox into the bladder wall, and improve cellular uptake of Dox. The encapsulation by DPP micelles significantly improved the anticancer effect of Dox against orthotopic bladder cancer in vivo. This work described a Dox-loaded DPP nanoparticle with potential applications in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer.

  9. Chiral DNA packaging in DNA-cationic liposome assemblies. (United States)

    Zuidam, N J; Barenholz, Y; Minsky, A


    Recent studies have indicated that the structural features of DNA-lipid assemblies, dictated by the lipid composition and cationic lipid-to-DNA ratio, critically affect the efficiency of these complexes in acting as vehicles for cellular delivery of genetic material. Using circular dichroism we find that upon binding DNA, positively-charged liposomes induce a secondary conformational transition of the DNA molecules from the native B form to the C motif. Liposomes composed of positively-charged and neutral 'helper' lipids, found to be particularly effective as transfecting agents, induce - in addition to secondary conformational changes - DNA condensation into a left-handed cholesteric-like phase. A structural model is presented according to which two distinct, yet inter-related modes of DNA packaging coexist within such assemblies. The results underline the notion that subtle changes in the components of a supramolecular assembly may substantially modulate the interplay of interactions which dictate its structure and functional properties.

  10. Investigation on the aggregation properties of cationic [60]fullerene derivative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guanwu; ZHAO Guoxia; YAN Lifeng


    The UV-Vis spectra, HRTEM and AFM images of cationic fullerene derivative 1 with ammonium head group directly connected to C60 skeleton in tetrahydrofuran (THF)-water (H2O) binary mixtures and in pure H2O were investigated. It was found that the UV-Vis spectra of ammonium 1 in the THF-H2O mixtures with THF% ≥ 20% were nearly overlapped, while those with THF% < 20% showed broadened and red-shifted peaks, indicating the formation of aggregates. Corresponding to the UV-Vis spectral changes,the solvatochromism of ammonium 1 in THF-H2O mixtures was observed. Ammonium 1 in binary THF-H2O mixtures existing as the monomer state could aggregate upon prolonged standing. Higher temperature and lower concentration speeded up the aggregation process.

  11. Quantitative mapping of intracellular cations in the human amniotic membrane (United States)

    Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Razafindrabe, L.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.


    The effect of magnesium and taurine on the permeability of cell membranes to monovalent cations has been investigated using the Bordeaux nuclear microprobe. PIXE and RBS techniques have been used to provide quantitative measurements and ion distributions in the isolated amniotic membrane. This physiological model for cellular exchanges allowed us to reveal the distribution of most elements involved in cellular pathways and the modifications under different experimental conditions of incubation in physiological fluids. The PIXE microanalysis provided an original viewpoint on these mechanisms. Following this first study, the amnion compact lamina was found to play a role which was not, up to now, taken into account in the interpretation of electrophysiological experimentations. The release of some ionic species, such as K +, from the epithelial cells, during immersion in isotonic fluids, could have been hitherto underestimated.

  12. Electrochemical uranyl cation biosensor with DNA oligonucleotides as receptor layer. (United States)

    Jarczewska, Marta; Ziółkowski, Robert; Górski, Łukasz; Malinowska, Elżbieta


    The present study aims at the further development of the uranyl oligonucleotide-based voltammetric biosensor, which takes advantage of strong interaction between UO2(2+) and phosphate DNA backbone. Herein we report the optimization of working parameters of previously elaborated electrochemical DNA biosensor. It is shown that the sensor sensitivity is highly dependent on the oligonucleotide probe length and the incubation time of sensor in a sample solution. Consequently, the highest sensitivity was obtained for 10-nucleotide sequence and 60 min incubation time. The lower detection limit towards uranyl cation for developed biosensor was 30 nM. The influence of mixed monolayers and the possibility of developing a non-calibration device were also investigated. The selectivity of the proposed biosensor was significantly improved via elimination of adenine nucleobases from the DNA probe. Moreover, the regeneration procedure was elaborated and tested to prolong the use of the same biosensor for 4 subsequent determinations of UO2(2+).

  13. Cation-Induced Coiling of Vanadium Pentoxide Nanobelts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun


    Full Text Available Abstract Single-crystalline V2O5·xH2O nanorings and microloops were chemically assembled via an ion-induced chemical spinning route in the designed hydrothermal system. The morphology and structure of products were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD measurement, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS microanalysis and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA revealed that the composition of nanorings and microloops is V2O5·1·1H2O. For these oxide nanorings and microloops, the cation-induced coiling growth mechanism of vanadium pentoxide nanobelts has been proposed on the basis of crystallographic structure of vanadium pentoxide. Our proposed chemical spinning process and the rational solution-phase synthesis route can also be extended to prepare novel 1D materials with layered or more complex structures.

  14. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nandini


    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  15. Aqueous behaviour of cationic surfactants containing a cleavable group. (United States)

    Samakande, Austin; Chaghi, Radhouane; Derrien, Gaelle; Charnay, Clarence; Hartmann, Patrice C


    The aggregation behaviour of two novel cationic RAFT agents (transfer surfactants); N,N-dimethyl-N-(4-(((phenylcarbonothioyl)thio)methyl)benzyl)ethanammonium bromide (PCDBAB) and N-(4-((((dodecylthio)-carbonothioyl)thio)methyl)benzyl)-N,N-dimethylethanammonium bromide (DCTBAB) in diluted solutions have been investigated by surface tension, conductimetry and microcalorimetry measurements. The thermodynamic parameters i.e. the critical micelle concentration (cmc), the degree of micelle ionization (alpha), the head group surface area (a 0), Delta H mic, Delta G mic and T Delta S mic are reported at 303 K. The thermodynamic parameters have been compared to those of the conventional surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in order to specify structural relationships. The obtained results have been discussed considering the hydrophobic behaviour of the S-C=S- linkage and the specific interactions that arise from the introduction of the benzene ring into the hydrophobic part.

  16. Note: Vibrationally mediated photodissociation of carbon dioxide cation (United States)

    Mao, Rui; Zhang, Qun; Chen, Min; He, Chao; Zhou, Dan-na; Bai, Xi-lin; Zhang, Limin; Chen, Yang


    The photodissociation dynamics of carbon dioxide cation, CO_2^ +, mediated by its different tilde A{}^2Π _{u,1/2} (\\upsilon _1,\\upsilon _2,0) vibronic states has been investigated by means of time-sliced velocity map imaging. Through analysis of the recorded translational energy release spectra of photofragment CO+, we found that the photodissociation of CO_2^ + exhibits drastic change in a rather narrow energy region. A conformational barrier in the CO_2^ + ( {tilde A{}^2A_1 } ) state is suggested to be ˜5600 cm-1 relative to the CO_2^ + ( {tilde A{}^2Π _{u,1/2} ( {0,0,0} )}) state, in reasonable agreement with previous prediction.

  17. Influence of hydration and cation binding on parvalbumin dynamics (United States)

    Zanotti, J.-M.; Parello, J.; Bellissent-Funel, M.-C.

    Due to structural characteristics, parvalbumin exerts a major role in intracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration regulation during the muscular contraction-relieving cycle. This structure-function relationship being established, we are investigating the structure-dynamics-function relationship to take into account the protein dynamics. Because of the strong incoherent neutron scattering cross section of hydrogen and of the abundance of this element in proteins, incoherent inelastic neutron scattering is a unique probe to study vibrations and localised motions in biological macromolecules. We take advantage of the complementarities in energy or time resolution of various neutron spectrometers (time of flight, backscattering, spin-echo) to probe the parvalbumin dynamics from a fraction of a picosecond to a few nanoseconds. Influences of hydration and of the nature of the cation on parvalbumin dynamics are discussed.

  18. Property Predictions for Nitrate Salts with Nitroxy-Functionalized Cations (United States)


    2-nitroxyethyl)-3-methyl-5-nitroim+ (40) 1-(2-nitroxyethyl)-5-nitroimidazole (40a) CH3X Pyrazolium Cations 1,2H-pyr+ (41) 1H- pyrazole (41a/44a) HX...4-nitro-1,2H-pyr+ (42) 4-nitro-1H- pyrazole (42a) HX 3,5-bis(nitroxymethyl)-1,2H-pyr+ (43) 3,5-bis(nitroxymethyl)-1H- pyrazole (43a) HX 1-methyl-2H...pyr+ (44) 1H- pyrazole (41a/44a) CH3X 1,2-dimethylpyr+ (45) 1-methylpyrazole (45a) CH3X 1-nitroxymethyl-2-methylpyr+ (46) 1-nitroxymethylpyrazole (46a

  19. Cationic Dihydrogen/Dihydride Complexes of Osmium: Structure and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egbert, Jonathan D.; Bullock, R. Morris; Heinekey, D. M.


    Reaction of Cp*Os(CO)2Cl with (Et3Si )(BArF4) under hydrogen gas affords the cationic hydrogen complex [Cp*Os(CO)2(H2)][BArF4] (1), (Cp* = C5Me5; ArF = C6F5). When this reaction is carried out with HD gas, complex 1-d1 results, with JHD = 24.5 Hz. When solutions of complex 1 are monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy over several days, the gradual formation of a trans dihydride species is observed. Similarly, reaction of CpOs(dppm)Br with NaBArF*4 (ArF* = 3,5-(CF3)2C6H3) under hydrogen affords the cationic dihydride complex [CpOs(dppm)H2]BArF*4 (2). At 295 K, complex 2 exists as a 10:1 mixture of cis and trans isomers. The 1H NMR spectrum of the cis form in the hydride region exhibits a triplet with JHP = 6.5 Hz, due to rapid exchange of the hydrogen atoms. At low temperature, static spectra of the HH'PP' spin system can be obtained, revealing quantum mechanical exchange coupling between the two hydride ligands. The observed JHH' is temperature dependent, varying from 133 Hz at 141 K to 176 Hz at 198 K. This is the first report of detectable exchange coupling between pairs of chemically equivalent hydrogen atoms. Research at the University of Washington was supported by the National Science Foundation. Research at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and was supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was funded by LDRD funds. PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  20. Non-Surface Activity of Cationic Amphiphilic Diblock Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Rati Ranjan; Yamada, Tasuku; Matsuoka, Hideki, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)


    Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers containing quaternized poly (2-vinylpyridine) chain as a hydrophilic segment (PIp-b-PNMe2VP) were synthesized by living anionic polymerization. By IR measurement, we confirmed the quaternization of the polymer (PIp-b-PNMe2VP), and determined the degree of quaternization by conductometric titration. The surface tension experiment showed that the polymers are non-surface active in nature. The foam formation of the polymer solutions was also investigated with or without added salt. Almost no foam formation behavior was observed without added salt, while a little foam was observed in the presence of 1M NaCl. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the diblock copolymers with 3 different chain lengths was measured by the static light scattering method. The cmc values obtained in this study were much lower than the values obtained for anionic non-surface active diblock polymers studied previously. The hydrodynamic radii of the polymer micelle increased slightly in the presence of 1 M NaCl. The transmission electron microscopic images revealed spherical micelles in pure water. In the presence of salt, the cmc values increased as was the case for anionic polymers, which is unlike conventional surfactant systems but consistent with non-surface active anionic block copolymers. The microviscosity of the micelle core was evaluated using Coumarin-153 as a fluorescent anisotropy probe using steady-sate fluorescence depolarization. Non-surface activity has been proved to be universal for ionic amphiphilic block copolymers both for anionic and cationic. Hence, the origin of non-surface activity is not the charged state of water surface itself, but should be an image charge repulsion at the air/water interface.

  1. Dilution thermodynamics of the biologically relevant cation mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczyński, Marek, E-mail:; Borowik, Tomasz, E-mail:; Przybyło, Magda, E-mail:; Langner, Marek, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dilution energetics of Ca{sup 2+} can be altered by the aqueous phase ionic composition. • Dissipated heat upon Ca{sup 2+} dilution is drastically reduced in the K{sup +} presence. • Reduction of the enthalpy change upon Ca{sup 2+} dilution is K{sup +} concentration dependent. • The cooperativity of Ca{sup 2+} hydration might be of great biological relevance providing a thermodynamic argument for the specific ionic composition of the intracellular environment. - Abstract: The ionic composition of intracellular space is rigorously controlled by a variety of processes consuming large quantities of energy. Since the energetic efficiency is an important evolutional criterion, therefore the ion fluxes within the cell should be optimized with respect to the accompanying energy consumption. In the paper we present the experimental evidence that the dilution enthalpies of the biologically relevant ions; i.e. calcium and magnesium depend on the presence of monovalent cations; i.e. sodium and potassium. The heat flow generated during the dilution of ionic mixtures was measured with the isothermal titration calorimetry. When calcium was diluted together with potassium the dilution enthalpy was drastically reduced as the function of the potassium concentration present in the solution. No such effect was observed when the potassium ions were substituted with sodium ones. When the dilution of magnesium was investigated the dependence of the dilution enthalpy on the accompanying monovalent cation was much weaker. In order to interpret experimental evidences the ionic cluster formation is postulated. The specific organization of such cluster should depend on ions charges, sizes and organization of the hydration layers.

  2. Evaluation of the abdominal wall cicatrization of rabbits exposed to nicotine and undergone abdominoplasty using nylon thread or cyanoacrylate Avaliação da cicatrização da parede abdominal de coelhos expostos à nicotina e submetidos à abdominoplastia, utilizando-se nylon ou cianocrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Assis Costa


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the wound healing of the abdominal wall of rabbits exposed to nicotine and submitted to abdominoplasty using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate or nylon thread for the surgery suture. METHODS: Thirty two rabbits were used. They were divided in subgroups: A1, A2, B1 e B2. Group A received saline 0.9%; group B received nicotine, both groups for 14 days before surgery. We performed an abdominoplasty with a nylon suture into the A1 and B1 subgroups; as for A2 and B2 groups the suture was performed with cyanoacrylate. The euthanasia happened in the 14th post-operative day. After, we evaluated: swollen process, fibroblast proliferation, collagen, neovascularization, and macroscope and microscope epithelization of the scars. RESULTS: We observed the presence of eosinophils in all scars exposed to the cyanoacrylate, and a significant increase of neovascularization in the subgroup B2 comparing to the A2 one (p=0.037. The other variables haven't showed any statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine hasn't influenced the swollen process, the fibroblast proliferation, the presence of collagen, neither the epithelialization. The neovascularization showed cicatricial immaturity when comparing group A2 to group B2. The eosinophils in the scars repaired with glue showed that the substance has acted as an allergen.OBJETIVO: Comparar a cicatrização da parede abdominal de coelhos expostos à nicotina e submetidos à abdominoplastia utilizando 2-octil cianoacrilato ou nylon na síntese cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 32 coelhos. Estes foram distribuídos em subgrupos: A1, A2, B1 e B2. O grupo A recebeu solução de NaCl 0,9%; o B recebeu nicotina, ambos durante 14 dias do pré-operatório. Nos subgrupos A1 e B1 foi realizada abdominoplastia e sutura com "nylon"; enquanto A2 e B2 a síntese ocorreu com cianoacrilato. A eutanásia ocorreu no 14º dia do pós-operatório. Na pesquisa avaliou-se: processo inflamatório, proliferação fibroblástica, col

  3. Binding properties of oxacalix[4]arenes derivatives toward metal cations; Interactions entre cations metalliques et derives des oxacalix[4]arenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellah, B


    The objective of this work was to establish the binding properties of oxacalix[4]arene derivatives with different numbers of the oxa bridges, functional groups (ketones, pyridine, ester, amide and methoxy) and conformations. Their interactions with alkali and alkaline-earth, heavy and transition metal cations have been evaluated according to different approaches: (i) extraction of corresponding picrates from an aqueous phase into dichloromethane; (ii) determination of the thermodynamic parameters of complexation in methanol and/or acetonitrile by UV-spectrophotometry and micro-calorimetry; (iii) determination of the stoichiometry of the complexes by ESI-MS; (iv) {sup 1}H-NMR titrations allowing to localize the metal ions in the ligand cavity. In a first part dealing on homo-oxacalix[4]arenes, selectivities for Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} of ketones derivatives was shown. The presence of oxa bridge in these derivatives increases their efficiency while decreasing their selectivity with respect to related calixarenes. The pyridine derivative prefers transition and heavy metal cations, in agreement with the presence of the soft nitrogen atoms. In the second part, di-oxacalix[4]arene ester and secondary amide derivatives were shown to be less effective than tertiary amide counterparts but to present high selectivities for Li{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. A third part devoted to the octa-homo-tetra-oxacalix[4]arene tetra-methoxy shows that the 1:1 metal complexes formed are generally more stable than those of calixarenes, suggesting the participation of the oxygen atoms of the bridge in the complexation. Selectivity for Cs{sup +}, Ba{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} were noted. (author)

  4. Coordination Chemistry of Alkali and Alkaline-Earth Cations with Macrocyclic Ligands. (United States)

    Dietrich, Bernard


    Discusses: (l) alkali and alkaline-earth cations in biology (considering naturally occurring lonophores, their X-ray structures, and physiochemical studies); (2) synthetic complexing agents for groups IA and IIA; and (3) ion transport across membranes (examining neutral macrobicyclic ligands as metal cation carriers, transport by anionic carriers,…

  5. Chemical Surface, Thermal and Electrical Characterization of Nafion Membranes Doped with IL-Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Valle Martínez de Yuso


    Full Text Available Surface and bulk changes in a Nafion membrane as a result of IL-cation doping (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate or BMIM+BF4 and phenyltrimethylammonium chloride or TMPA+Cl− were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, contact angle, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and impedance spectroscopy (IS measurements performed with dry samples after 24 h in contact with the IL-cations BMIM+ and TMPA+. IL-cations were selected due to their similar molecular weight and molar volume but different shape, which could facilitate/obstruct the cation incorporation in the Nafion membrane structure by proton/cation exchange mechanism. The surface coverage of the Nafion membrane by the IL-cations was confirmed by XPS analysis and contact angle, while the results obtained by the other two techniques (DSC and IS seem to indicate differences in thermal and electrical behaviour depending on the doping-cation, being less resistive the Nafion/BMIM+ membrane. For that reason, determination of the ion transport number was obtained for this membrane by measuring the membrane or concentration potential with the samples in contact with HCl solutions at different concentrations. The comparison of these results with those obtained for the original Nafion membrane provides information on the effect of IL-cation BMIM+ on the transport of H+ across wet Nafion/BMIM+ doped membranes.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A number of cationic amine drugs that are taken up by liver and excreted into bile may accumulate in acidified intracellular organelles such as lysosomes and endosomes. These studies were undertaken to assess directly the uptake and accumulation of three types of model organic cationic amines by end

  7. Chemical mechanical polishing of transparent conductive layers using spherical cationic polymer microbeads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shoji, E-mail: [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Ryu, Naoya [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Akio [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shirosaki, Tomohiro [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Horikawa, Maki [Kumamoto Industrial Research Institute, 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan); Sakurai, Hideo; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuouku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kumamoto Institute for Photo-Electro Organics (Phoenics), 3-11-38 Higashimachi, Higashiku, Kumamoto 862-0901 (Japan)


    Spherical cationic polymer microbeads were used to chemically mechanically polish transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers without the need for inorganic abrasives. Poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) was used as the polymer matrix. Surface cationization of the spherical PMA microbeads was achieved by aminolysis using 1,2-diaminoethane. The amino group content of the microbeads was controlled using the aminolysis reaction time. The surface roughness of the TCO polished using the cationic polymer microbeads was similar to that of TCO polished with an inorganic abrasive. The microbead-polished TCO layer was slightly thinner than the unpolished TCO layer. The sheet resistance of the TCO layer polished using the microbeads was lower than that polished using the inorganic abrasive. The TCO polishing ability of the microbeads was dependent on their cationic properties and softness. - Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) layer was planarized using cationic polymer microbeads. • Cationic polymer microbeads planarized, while retaining ITO layer thickness • Cationic polymer microbeads did not degrade the sheet resistance of ITO. • Cationic polymer microbeads could planarize the ITO surface without damaging.

  8. Concerted action of two cation filters in the aquaporin water channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Binghua; Steinbronn, Christina; Alsterfjord, Magnus;


    Aquaporin (AQP) facilitated water transport is common to virtually all cell membranes and is marked by almost perfect specificity and high flux rates. Simultaneously, protons and cations are strictly excluded to maintain ionic transmembrane gradients. Yet, the AQP cation filters have not been ide...

  9. Structures of dioxobipyridil-12-crown-4 and its complexes with silver (I) and copper (II) cations (United States)

    Starova, Galina L.; Denisova, Anna S.; Dem'yanchuk, Evgeniya M.


    The structures of dioxobipyridil-12-crown-4 ( bpy-CO-crown) and its complexes with copper (II) and silver (I) cations have been determined using single crystal X-ray-diffraction. The results have been compared with the literature data on the complexes of dcmbpy and its complex with silver (I) and copper (II) cations.

  10. Synthesis of phosphorylated calix[4]arene derivatives for the design of solid phases immobilizing uranyl cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroun, E.B.; Hagege, A.; Asfari, Z. [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Minerale, UMR 7178 ULP/CNRS/IN2P3 LC4, ECPM, Strasbourg Cedex (France); Basset, CH.; Quemeneur, E.; Vidaud, C. [CEA IBEB, SBTN, Centre de Marcoule, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)


    With the aim of developing supports for uranyl cations immobilisation, new 1, 3-alternate calix[4]arenes bearing both phosphonic acid functions as chelating sites and N-succinimide-4-oxa-butyrate as the anchoring arm were synthesised in good yields. The coupling of such calixarenes to a gel was performed and a successful immobilisation of uranyl cations was obtained. (authors)

  11. A Cationic Diode Based on Asymmetric Nafion® Film Deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Daping; Madrid, Elena; Aaronson, Barak; Fan, Lian; Doughty, James; Mathwig, Klaus; Bond, Alan M; McKeown, Neil B; Marken, Frank


    A thin film of Nafion®, of approximately 5 microm thickness, asymmetrically deposited onto a 6 microm thick film of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabricated with a 5, 10, 20, or 40 microm microhole, is shown to exhibit prominent ionic diode behaviour involving cation charge carrier ("cationic d

  12. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.


    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  13. Real-Time Observation of Organic Cation Reorientation in Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakulin, Artem A.; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Mueller, Christian; Glaser, Tobias; Lovrincic, Robert; Sun, Zhenhua; Chen, Zhuoying; Walsh, Aron; Frost, Jarvist M.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    The introduction of a mobile and polarized organic moiety as a cation in 3D lead-iodide perovskites brings fascinating optoelectronic properties to these materials. The extent and the time scales of the orientational mobility of the organic cation and the molecular mechanism behind its motion remain


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Andrade Gueiros


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar e comparar clínica e histologicamente o uso do adesivo metil-2-cianoacrilato e do fio de náilon na reparação de feridas cirúrgicas de pele, foram utilizados cinco cães e cinco gatos adultos, clinicamente sadios. Seguindo o protocolo anestésico e cirúrgico habitual para cada espécie, foram feitas cinco incisões na pele da região costal do lado esquerdo e cinco do lado direito, com aproximadamente dois centímetros de comprimento. As feridas cirúrgicas do lado direito foram suturadas com fio de náilon cirúrgico 3-0 e as do lado esquerdo foram aproximadas e fixadas com o metil-2-cianoacrilato em ambas as espécies. Os animais foram submetidos a avaliações clínicas a cada três dias. Foram retirados fragmentos de pele para realização de biopsias aos três, seis, nove, doze e quinze dias após a cirurgia. Os resultados obtidos, tanto em cães quanto em gatos, não revelaram diferença clínica ou histológica entre os tratamentos utilizados.The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare clinically and histologically the use of methyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive versus the nylon's suture in skin wounds closure. There were five adult mongrel dogs and cats, clinically healthy used. Following anaesthetical routine and surgical protocol, five incisions were made in the left costal region, and other five in right costal region, about 2cm in length, in both especies. The right side costal wounds were sutured with surgical nylon 3-0, and in the left side costal wounds methyl-2-cyanoacrylate was applied, in both species. The animals were submitted to clinical evaluation every three days, and a biopsy was realized at three, six, nine, twelve and fifteen days after the surgery. In both species, the results did not show any clinical or histologic difference when comparing the used treatments.

  15. Eutrophication of mangroves linked to depletion of foliar and soil base cations. (United States)

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin


    There is growing concern that increasing eutrophication causes degradation of coastal ecosystems. Studies in terrestrial ecosystems have shown that increasing the concentration of nitrogen in soils contributes to the acidification process, which leads to leaching of base cations. To test the effects of eutrophication on the availability of base cations in mangroves, we compared paired leaf and soil nutrient levels sampled in Nypa fruticans and Rhizophora spp. on a severely disturbed, i.e. nutrient loaded, site (Mahakam delta) with samples from an undisturbed, near-pristine site (Berau delta) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The findings indicate that under pristine conditions, the availability of base cations in mangrove soils is determined largely by salinity. Anthropogenic disturbances on the Mahakam site have resulted in eutrophication, which is related to lower levels of foliar and soil base cations. Path analysis suggests that increasing soil nitrogen reduces soil pH, which in turn reduces the levels of foliar and soil base cations in mangroves.

  16. Modification of potato peel waste with base hydrolysis and subsequent cationization. (United States)

    Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Joensuu, Päivi; Lajunen, Marja


    Potato peel waste (PW) is a starch containing biomaterial produced in large amounts by food processing industry. In this work, the treatment of PW by alkaline hydrolysis and cationization in the water phase is reported. In order to improve the cationization of starch, PW was hydrolyzed by heating with alkaline (NaOH) ethanol solution (80%) in a water bath. The impact of variable molar ratios of anhydroglucose unit (AGU):NaOH, heating temperatures and times was studied on the degradation of starch and the molecular size distribution of the product. The hydrolyzed PW was cationized subsequently in water by using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride and catalyzed by NaOH under microwave irradiation or in an oil bath. The impact of the various reaction conditions on the cationization and degree of substitution of starch was studied. The degree of substitution of the cationized starch varied in the range of 0-0.35.

  17. Theoretical Investigation on the Adsorption of Ag+ and Hydrated Ag+ Cations on Clean Si(111)Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Yong-Li; LI Meng-Hua; WANG Zhi-Guo; LIU Yong-Jun


    In this paper,the adsorption of Ag+ and hydrated Ag+ cations on clean Si(111)surface were investigated by using cluster(Gaussian 03)and periodic(DMol3)ab initio calculations.Si(111)surface was described with cluster models(Si14H17 and Si22H21)and a four-silicon layer slab with periodic boundary conditions.The effect of basis set superposition error(BSSE)was taken into account by applying the counterpoise correction.The calculated results indicated that the binding energies between hydrated Ag+ cations and clean Si(111)surface are large,suggesting a strong interaction between hydrated Ag+ cations and the semiconductor surface.With the increase of number,water molecules form hydrogen bond network with one another and only one water molecule binds directly to the Ag+ cation.The Ag+ cation in aqueous solution will safely attach to the clean Si(111)surface.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Kataja-aho,


    Full Text Available Cationized birch xylan was prepared and its use as a papermaking chemical was evaluated. The focus was on studying the effects of cationized birch xylan on the wet and dry strength of fine paper. The results of the laboratory experiments show that the addition of 3 percent of cationized birch xylan to birch kraft pulp improved the initial wet strength of the web by 30 percent compared to base stock at a solids content of 55%. Furthermore, the tensile stiffness of the wet web increased by approximately a third and the dry tensile strength improved by 26%, while the dry elastic modulus was not changed. The improvements in the strength properties were clear when compared to the base stock, but not as high as achieved with conventionally used cationized starch. The difference between the xylan and starch is most likely due to the shorter polymer chain length of the cationized xylan.

  19. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, Lowell D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Focsan, A Ligia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Konovalova, Tatyana A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence, Jesse [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowman, Michael K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Molnar, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deli, Jozsef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond

  20. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bianchi, Hugo L. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Ed. Tornavias, Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzini, Alberto C. [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH{sub 4}) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 Degree-Sign C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200-600 Degree-Sign C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 Degree-Sign C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 Degree-Sign C reached a plateau or


    Cationic surfactants can be used to modify surfaces of soils and subsurface materials to promote adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC). Batch and column experiments were performed to investigate this phenomenon with the cationic surfactant dodecylpyridinium (DP), a se...

  2. Pharmacology of the human red cell voltage-dependent cation channel Part I. Activation by clotrimazole and analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barksmann, Trine Lyberth; Kristensen, Berit I.; Christophersen, Palle.


    Human red cells, Nonselective voltage dependent cation channel, NSVDC channel, Gárdos channel blockers, NSVDC channel activators......Human red cells, Nonselective voltage dependent cation channel, NSVDC channel, Gárdos channel blockers, NSVDC channel activators...

  3. New methodology for a person identification system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bremananth; A Chitra


    Reliable person identification is a key factor for any safety measure. Unlike other biometrics such as the palm, retina, gait, face and fingerprints, the characteristic of the iris is stable in a person’s lifetime. Iris patterns are chaotically distributed and well suited for recognizing persons throughout their lifetime with a single conscription. This paper proposes a new approach to person recognition based on iris patterns, which works with indoor outdoor conditions, spectacles contact lens wearing persons and diseased eyes. A challenge-response method is used for eye aliveness checking that puts off artificial sources from entering the iris database. The proposed algorithm can work with 84 statistical iris features that are extracted from an individual. Space and time complexity of the proposed approach is lesser than the existing methods. This algorithm has been implemented and results have been analysed on 2500 different iris patterns acquired in India under different real-time conditions. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed method has been easily espoused in elections, bank transactions and other security applications.

  4. Cationic antimicrobial peptides disrupt the Streptococcus pyogenes ExPortal. (United States)

    Vega, Luis Alberto; Caparon, Michael G


    Although they possess a well-characterized ability to porate the bacterial membrane, emerging research suggests that cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAPs) can influence pathogen behaviour at levels that are sublethal. In this study, we investigated the interaction of polymyxin B and human neutrophil peptide (HNP-1) with the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. At sublethal concentrations, these CAPs preferentially targeted the ExPortal, a unique microdomain of the S. pyogenes membrane, specialized for protein secretion and processing. A consequence of this interaction was the disruption of ExPortal organization and a redistribution of ExPortal components into the peripheral membrane. Redistribution was associated with inhibition of secretion of certain toxins, including the SpeB cysteine protease and the streptolysin O (SLO) cytolysin, but not SIC, a protein that protects S. pyogenes from CAPs. These data suggest a novel function for CAPs in targeting the ExPortal and interfering with secretion of factors required for infection and survival. This mechanism may prove valuable for the design of new types of antimicrobial agents to combat the emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

  5. Computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics around cations and anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Santanu; Dang, Liem X.


    In this paper, we present the first computer simulation of methanol exchange dynamics between the first and second solvation shells around different cations and anions. After water, methanol is the most frequently used solvent for ions. Methanol has different structural and dynamical properties than water, so its ion solvation process is different. To this end, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using polarizable potential models to describe methanol-methanol and ion-methanol interactions. In particular, we computed methanol exchange rates by employing the transition state theory, the Impey-Madden-McDonald method, the reactive flux approach, and the Grote-Hynes theory. We observed that methanol exchange occurs at a nanosecond time scale for Na+ and at a picosecond time scale for other ions. We also observed a trend in which, for like charges, the exchange rate is slower for smaller ions because they are more strongly bound to methanol. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  6. Electromagnetic Properties of Substituted Ba - Ferrites by Selected Cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Kevicka


    Full Text Available The powdered samples of barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2x(Me1Me2 with x varying from 0.0 to 0.6 were prepared by citrate precursor method. The cation preference of mainly four-valence Me1=(Zr, Ti, Sn ions and two-valence Me2=(Co, Ni, Zn ions and their combinations in substituted Ba ferrites were investigated by the thermomagnetic analysis, Mossbauer spectroscopy and measurement of the magnetic properties. Mossbaur studies reveal that Zr4+, Sn4+ and less Co2+, Zn2+ ions have a strong preference to occupy 2b position, this position has the greatest contribution to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The La3+, Ti4+, Ni2+ ions preferently enter 4f2 sites and Zn2+, Co2+ ions also prefer to occupy 4f1 tetrahedral sites. The specific saturation magnetic polarisation Js-m and remanence Js-r increased with small x due to th substitution of non-magnetic and less magnetic ions in 4f1 and 4f2 sites. The coercivity Hc was casily controllable by the sustituions level x.

  7. An Overview on Metal Cations Extraction by Azocalixarenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasalettin Deligöz


    Full Text Available In this overview, our main aim is to present the design, preparation, characterization, and extraction/sorption properties of chromogenic azocalix[4]arenes (substituted with different groups toward metal cations. Azocalixarenes, which contain a conjugated chromophore, i.e. azo (-N=N- group are synthesized in “one-pot” procedures in satisfactory yields. A wide variety of applications is expected by the functionalization of the side arms. Some of them are used to complex with metal ions. These macrocycles due to their bowl-shaped geometry are indeed used as hosts allowing ionic or organic guests to coordinate onto their cavity. The azocalixarene based ionophores are generally applied in various fields such as catalyst recovery, power plant, agriculture, metals finishing, microelectonics, biotechnology processes, rare earths speciation, and potable water purification. Besides these, they find applications in the area of selective ion extractions, receptors, optical devices, chemical sensor devices, the stationary phase for capillary chromatography, ion transport membranes, and luminescence probes etc. This survey is focused to provide overview an of the versatile nature of azocalix[n]arenes as highly efficient extractants for metal ions treated as pollutants.

  8. Transient receptor potential (TRP gene superfamily encoding cation channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zan


    Full Text Available Abstract Transient receptor potential (TRP non-selective cation channels constitute a superfamily, which contains 28 different genes. In mammals, this superfamily is divided into six subfamilies based on differences in amino acid sequence homology between the different gene products. Proteins within a subfamily aggregate to form heteromeric or homomeric tetrameric configurations. These different groupings have very variable permeability ratios for calcium versus sodium ions. TRP expression is widely distributed in neuronal tissues, as well as a host of other tissues, including epithelial and endothelial cells. They are activated by environmental stresses that include tissue injury, changes in temperature, pH and osmolarity, as well as volatile chemicals, cytokines and plant compounds. Their activation induces, via intracellular calcium signalling, a host of responses, including stimulation of cell proliferation, migration, regulatory volume behaviour and the release of a host of cytokines. Their activation is greatly potentiated by phospholipase C (PLC activation mediated by coupled GTP-binding proteins and tyrosine receptors. In addition to their importance in maintaining tissue homeostasis, some of these responses may involve various underlying diseases. Given the wealth of literature describing the multiple roles of TRP in physiology in a very wide range of different mammalian tissues, this review limits itself to the literature describing the multiple roles of TRP channels in different ocular tissues. Accordingly, their importance to the corneal, trabecular meshwork, lens, ciliary muscle, retinal, microglial and retinal pigment epithelial physiology and pathology is reviewed.

  9. Biological removal of cationic fission products from nuclear wastewater. (United States)

    Ngwenya, N; Chirwa, E M N


    Nuclear energy is becoming a preferred energy source amidst rising concerns over the impacts of fossil fuel based energy on global warming and climate change. However, the radioactive waste generated during nuclear power generation contains harmful long-lived fission products such as strontium (Sr). In this study, cationic strontium uptake from solution by microbial cultures obtained from mine wastewater is evaluated. A high strontium removal capacity (q(max)) with maximum loading of 444 mg/g biomass was achieved by a mixed sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) culture. Sr removal in SRB was facilitated by cell surface based electrostatic interactions with the formation of weak ionic bonds, as 68% of the adsorbed Sr(2+) was easily desorbed from the biomass in an ion exchange reaction with MgCl₂. To a lesser extent, precipitation reactions were also found to account for the removal of Sr from aqueous solution as about 3% of the sorbed Sr was precipitated due to the presence of chemical ligands while the remainder occurred as an immobile fraction. Further analysis of the Sr-loaded SRB biomass by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirmed extracellular Sr(2+) precipitation as a result of chemical interaction. In summary, the obtained results demonstrate the prospects of using biological technologies for the remediation of industrial wastewaters contaminated by fission products.

  10. Radical-cationic gaseous amino acids: a theoretical study. (United States)

    Sutherland, Kailee N; Mineau, Philippe C; Orlova, Galina


    Three major forms of gaseous radical-cationic amino acids (RCAAs), keto (COOH), enolic (C(OH)OH), and zwitterionic (COO(-)), as well as their tautomers, are examined for aliphatic Ala(.+), Pro(.+), and Ser(.+), sulfur-containing Cys(.+), aromatic Trp(.+), Tyr(.+), and Phe(.+), and basic His(.+). The hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional with various basis sets along with the highly correlated CCSD(T) method is used. For all RCAAs considered, the main stabilizing factor is spin delocalization; for His(.+), protonation of the basic side chain is equally important. Minor stabilizing factors are hydrogen bonding and 3e-2c interactions. An efficient spin delocalization along the N-C(alpha)-C(O-)O moiety occurs upon H-transfer from C(alpha) to the carboxylic group to yield the captodative enolic form, which is the lowest-energy isomer for Ala(.+), Pro(.+), Ser(.+), Cys(.+), Tyr(.+), and Phe(.+). This H-transfer occurs in a single step as a 1,3-shift through the sigma-system. For His(.+), the lowest-energy isomer is formed upon H-transfer from C(alpha) to the basic side chain, which results in a keto form, with spin delocalized along the N-C(alpha)-C=O fragment. Trp(.+) is the only RCAA that favors spin delocalization over an aromatic system given the low ionization energy of indole. The lowest-energy isomer of Trp(.+) is a keto form, with no H-transfer.

  11. Uv Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Temperature Controlled Hydrated Phenol Cluster Cation (United States)

    Kurusu, Itaru; Yagi, Reona; Kasahara, Yasutoshi; Ishikawa, Haruki


    Owing to various developments of spectroscopic techniques, microscopic hydration structures of various clusters in the gas phase have been determined so far. The next step for further understanding of the microscopic hydration is to reveal the temperature effect, such as a fluctuation of the hydration structure. Thus, we have been carrying out photodissociation spectroscopy on the hydrated phenol cation clusters, [PhOH(H_2O)_n]^+, trapped in our temperature-variable ion trap. After the last symposium, we succeeded in improving our experimental condition and recorded the UV photodissociation spectra of [PhOH(H_2O)_5]^+ at the trap temperatures of 20, 50, and 100 K. We identified three groups of bands by their temperature dependence in the spectra. Based on the results of the DFT calculations, we estimated the temperature dependence of the relative populations among the isomers. As a results, the isomers were grouped into three groups having different motifs of the hydrogen-bond structures. Comparing the experimental with the theoretical results, we assigned the relation between the band carriers and the hydrogen-bond structure motifs. Details of the discussion will be presented in the paper. H. Ishikawa, T. Nakano, T. Eguchi, T. Shibukawa, K. Fuke, Chem. Phys. Lett. 514, 234 (2011) R. Yagi, Y. Kasahara, H. Ishikawa, WH12, the 70th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy (2015)

  12. Efficient intravesical therapy of bladder cancer with cationic doxorubicin nanoassemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin X


    Full Text Available Xun Jin,1 Peilan Zhang,1 Li Luo,1 Hao Cheng,1 Yunzu Li,1 Ting Du,1 Bingwen Zou,2 Maling Gou1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Thoracic Oncology, Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanoparticles have promising applications in drug delivery for cancer therapy. Herein, we prepared cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane/methoxypoly (ethyleneglycol (DPP nanoparticles to deliver doxorubicin (Dox for intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. The DPP micelles have a mean dynamic diameter of 18.65 nm and a mean zeta potential of +19.6 mV. The DPP micelles could prolong the residence of Dox in the bladder, enhance the penetration of Dox into the bladder wall, and improve cellular uptake of Dox. The encapsulation by DPP micelles significantly improved the anticancer effect of Dox against orthotopic bladder cancer in vivo. This work described a Dox-loaded DPP nanoparticle with potential applications in intravesical therapy of bladder cancer. Keywords: bladder cancer, drug delivery, nanoparticles, intravesical therapy

  13. Organic cation secretion by Cancer borealis urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.S.; Holliday, C.W.


    In the crab, Cancer borealis, initial clearance studies showed a potent renal excretory system for the model organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA). (/sup 14/C)-TEA clearance averaged 145 +/- 32 ml/day, which was 18 times the paired polyethylene glycol clearance. TEA uptake by slices of urinary bladder was concentrative, saturable, inhibitable by N/sup 1/-methylnicotinamide chloride, and dependent on glycolytic, but not oxidative, metabolism. When mounted in flux chambers, bladders exhibited a large net secretory flux. For 0.1 mM TEA, the ratio of secretory to reabsorptive fluxes was 65. Urinary bladders from another crab, Cancer irroratus, and a lobster, Homarus americanus, also exhibited net TEA secretion. In C. borealis bladder, secretory transport was concentrative, saturable, and nearly abolished by addition of 1 mM quinine to the serosol bath. Reabsorptive transport was not concentrative and was not reduced by luminal quinine. The data are consistent with a secretory pathway that is transcellular and mediated by carriers at both the serosal and luminal membranes.

  14. Rapid and quantitative quality control of microarrays using cationic nanoparticles. (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Fan, Wenhua; McCann, Michael P; Golovlev, Val


    The fabrication quality of microarrays significantly influences the accuracy and reproducibility of microarray experiments. In this report, we present a simple and fast quality control (QC) method for spotted oligonucleotide and cDNA microarrays. It employs a nonspecific electrostatic interaction of colloidal gold nanoparticles with the chemical groups of DNA molecules and other biomolecules immobilized on the microarray surface that bear positive or negative charges. An inexpensive flatbed scanner is used to visualize and quantify the binding of cationic gold particles to the anionic DNA probes on the microarray surface. An image analysis software was designed to assess the various parameters of the array spots including spot intensity, shape and array homogeneity, calculate the overall array quality score, and save the detailed array quality report in an Excel file. The gold staining technique is fast and sensitive. It can be completed in 10 min and detect less than 1% of the probe amount commonly recommended for microarrays. Compared to the current microarray QC method that utilizes the hybridization of probes with short random sequence oligonucleotides labeled with fluorophore, our gold staining method requires less time for the analysis, reduces the reagent cost, and eliminates the need for the expensive laser scanner.

  15. Nonbonded interactions in membrane active cyclic biopolymers. IV - Cation dependence (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Srinivasan, S.; Prasad, C. V.; Brinda, S. R.; Macelroy, R. D.; Sundaram, K.


    Interactions of valinomycin and form of its analogs in several conformations with the central ions Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+) and Cs(+) are investigated as part of a study of the specific preference of valinomycin for potassium and the mechanisms of carrier-mediated ion transport across membranes. Ion binding energies and conformational potential energies are calculated taking into account polarization energy formulas and repulsive energy between the central ion and the ligand atoms for conformations representing various stages in ion capture and release for each of the two ring chiralities of valinomycin and its analogs. Results allow the prediction of the chirality and conformation most likely to be observed for a given analog, and may be used to synthesize analogs with a desired rigidity or flexibility. The binding energies with the alkali metal cations are found to decrease with increasing ion size, and to be smaller than the corresponding ion hydration energies. It is pointed out that the observed potassium preference may be explainable in terms of differences between binding and hydration energies. Binding energies are also noted to depend on ligand conformation.

  16. Structure-conductivity studies in polymer electrolytes containing multivalent cations

    CERN Document Server

    Aziz, M


    force microscopy (AFM). DSC evidences helped to explain the texture of the iron samples during the drying process, and showed transitions between low melting, PEO and high melting spherulites, and VTPM is able to visualise the spherulites present in the samples. AFM has successfully imaged the as cast PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub 2 sample and the surface effect causing extra resistance in the impedance spectra could be seen. Conductivity studies were carried out using a.c. impedance spectra. Fe(ll) samples exhibit the typical semicircle-spike plot but the Fe(lll) samples displayed an extra semicircle before the spike reflecting a surface effect. This is also manifested in the Arrhenius plots of the same samples where a dip was shown at 100 deg C. From the conductivity studies on the iron systems it was found that for the dry samples the optimum conductivity was observed in PEO sub 8 :FeBr sub x irrespective of the valence state of the cation. For the air-cast samples the optimum conductivity composition depends on the...

  17. Transport of biguanides by human organic cation transporter OCT2. (United States)

    Sogame, Yoshihisa; Kitamura, Atsushi; Yabuki, Masashi; Komuro, Setsuko; Takano, Mikihisa


    Biguanides have the severe side effect of lactic acidosis. Although both metformin and phenformin are biguanide derivatives, there is a difference in the frequency at which they induce lactic acidosis. However, the reasons for the difference are not clear. Metformin has been reported to be mainly excreted into urine by human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2). The present study was designed to investigate the renal transport of metformin and phenformin, focusing on hOCT2, using hOCT2-expressing oocytes. Both biguanides were found to be good substrates for hOCT2. However, phenformin exhibited a higher affinity and transport activity than metformin. The Km values for metformin and phenformin were 235 and 37.4 μM, with CL(int) (V(max)/K(m)) values of 71.9×10⁻³ μL/min per oocyte and 209×10⁻³ μL/min per oocyte, respectively. This is the first report that has compared the transport profiles of these biguanides in hOCT2-expressing oocytes. The results suggest that plasma concentration of phenformin in subjects carrying hOCT2 variant may be higher compared to reference subjects, as reported in metformin. In addition, the relationship between plasma concentration of these biguanides and blood lactate level as well as the possible reasons for the difference in the associated frequency of occurrence of lactic acidosis are discussed.

  18. Cationic PAMAM dendrimers as pore-blocking binary toxin inhibitors. (United States)

    Förstner, Philip; Bayer, Fabienne; Kalu, Nnanya; Felsen, Susanne; Förtsch, Christina; Aloufi, Abrar; Ng, David Y W; Weil, Tanja; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M; Barth, Holger


    Dendrimers are unique highly branched macromolecules with numerous groundbreaking biomedical applications under development. Here we identified poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as novel blockers for the pore-forming B components of the binary anthrax toxin (PA63) and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin (C2IIa). These pores are essential for delivery of the enzymatic A components of the internalized toxins from endosomes into the cytosol of target cells. We demonstrate that at low μM concentrations cationic PAMAM dendrimers block PA63 and C2IIa to inhibit channel-mediated transport of the A components, thereby protecting HeLa and Vero cells from intoxication. By channel reconstitution and high-resolution current recording, we show that the PAMAM dendrimers obstruct transmembrane PA63 and C2IIa pores in planar lipid bilayers at nM concentrations. These findings suggest a new potential role for the PAMAM dendrimers as effective polyvalent channel-blocking inhibitors, which can protect human target cells from intoxication with binary toxins from pathogenic bacteria.

  19. Nicotine activates the chemosensory cation channel TRPA1. (United States)

    Talavera, Karel; Gees, Maarten; Karashima, Yuji; Meseguer, Víctor M; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen A J; Damann, Nils; Everaerts, Wouter; Benoit, Melissa; Janssens, Annelies; Vennekens, Rudi; Viana, Félix; Nemery, Benoit; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas


    Topical application of nicotine, as used in nicotine replacement therapies, causes irritation of the mucosa and skin. This reaction has been attributed to activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in chemosensory neurons. In contrast with this view, we found that the chemosensory cation channel transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is crucially involved in nicotine-induced irritation. We found that micromolar concentrations of nicotine activated heterologously expressed mouse and human TRPA1. Nicotine acted in a membrane-delimited manner, stabilizing the open state(s) and destabilizing the closed state(s) of the channel. In the presence of the general nAChR blocker hexamethonium, nociceptive neurons showed nicotine-induced responses that were strongly reduced in TRPA1-deficient mice. Finally, TRPA1 mediated the mouse airway constriction reflex to nasal instillation of nicotine. The identification of TRPA1 as a nicotine target suggests that existing models of nicotine-induced irritation should be revised and may facilitate the development of smoking cessation therapies with less adverse effects.

  20. Effect of cation trapping on thermal stability of magnetite nanoparticles. (United States)

    Pati, S S; Philip, John


    We investigate the effect of sodium trapping on thermal stability of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. The pure magnetite nanoparticles incubated in sodium hydroxide solutions and subsequently washed with water to remove the excess sodium. The amount of sodium in magnetite is measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The size distribution obtained from Small angle X-ray scattering measurements show that particles are fairly monodisperse. The FTIR spectra of nanoparticles show transmission bands at 441 and 611 cm(-1) are due to the symmetric stretching vibrations (v) of Fe-O in octahedral and tetrahedral sites respectively. With 500 ppm of sodium ions (Na+) in magnetite, the cubic ferrite structure of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) to hexagonal hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) phase transition is enhanced by -150 degrees C in air. The Rietveld analysis of sodium doped magnetite nanoparticles show that above 99% of metastable gamma-Fe2O3 is converted to a thermodynamically stable alpha-Fe2O3 after air annealing at 700 degrees C. A decrease in enthalpy observed in doped magnetite unambiguously confirms that the activation energy for maghemite to hematite transition is increased due to the presence of trapped sodium ions. These results suggest that the trapped cations in ferrite nanoparticles can stabilize them by increasing the activation energy.

  1. Dipicolinate complexes of main group metals with hydrazinium cation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Saravanan; S Govindarajan


    Some new coordination complexes of hydrazinium main group metal dipicolinate hydrates of formulae (N2H5)2M(dip)2.H2O (where, M =Ca, Sr, Ba or Pb and = 0, 2, 4 and 3 respectively and dip = dipicolinate), N2H5Bi(dip)2.3H2O and (N2H5)3Bi(dip)3.4H2O have been prepared and characterized by physico-chemical techniques. The infrared spectra of the complexes reveal the presence of tridentate dipicolinate dianions and non-coordinating hydrazinium cations. Conductance measurements show that the mono, di and trihydrazinium complexes behave as 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 electrolytes respectively, in aqueous solution. Thermal decomposition studies show that these compounds lose water followed by endothermic decomposition of hydrazine to give respective metal hydrogendipicolinate intermediates, which further decompose exothermically to the final product of either metal carbonates (Ca, Sr, Ba and Pb) or metal oxycarbonates (Bi). The coordination numbers around the metal ions differ from compound to compound. The various coordination numbers exhibited by these metals are six (Ca), seven (Ba), eight (Sr) and nine (Pb and Bi). In all the complexes the above coordination number is attained by tridentate dipicolinate dianions and water molecules. The X-ray diffraction patterns of these compounds differ from one another suggesting that they are not isomorphous.

  2. An FPGA implementation to detect selective cationic antibacterial peptides. (United States)

    Polanco González, Carlos; Nuño Maganda, Marco Aurelio; Arias-Estrada, Miguel; del Rio, Gabriel


    Exhaustive prediction of physicochemical properties of peptide sequences is used in different areas of biological research. One example is the identification of selective cationic antibacterial peptides (SCAPs), which may be used in the treatment of different diseases. Due to the discrete nature of peptide sequences, the physicochemical properties calculation is considered a high-performance computing problem. A competitive solution for this class of problems is to embed algorithms into dedicated hardware. In the present work we present the adaptation, design and implementation of an algorithm for SCAPs prediction into a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. Four physicochemical properties codes useful in the identification of peptide sequences with potential selective antibacterial activity were implemented into an FPGA board. The speed-up gained in a single-copy implementation was up to 108 times compared with a single Intel processor cycle for cycle. The inherent scalability of our design allows for replication of this code into multiple FPGA cards and consequently improvements in speed are possible. Our results show the first embedded SCAPs prediction solution described and constitutes the grounds to efficiently perform the exhaustive analysis of the sequence-physicochemical properties relationship of peptides.

  3. Script identification in printed bilingual documents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Dhanya; A G Ramakrishnan; Peeta Basa Pati


    Identification of the script of the text in multi-script documents is one of the important steps in the design of an OCR system for the analysis and recognition of the page. Much work has already been reported in this area relating to Roman, Arabic, Chinese, Korean and Japanese scripts. In the Indian context, though some results have been reported, the task is still at its infancy. In the work presented in this paper, a successful attempt has been made to identify the script, at the word level, in a bilingual document containing Roman and Tamil scripts. Two different approaches have been proposed and thoroughly tested. In the first method, words are divided into three distinct spatial zones. The spatial spread of a word in upper and lower zones, together with the character density, is used to identify the script. The second technique analyses the directional energy distribution of a word using Gabor filters with suitable frequencies and orientations. Words with various font styles and sizes have been used for the testing of the proposed algorithms and the results are quite encouraging.

  4. Comprehensive study of tartrazine/cationic surfactant interaction. (United States)

    Shahir, Afshin Asadzadeh; Javadian, Soheila; Razavizadeh, Bi Bi Marzieh; Gharibi, Hussein


    Interaction of a food dye, tartrazine, with some cationic conventional and gemini surfactants, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB), N,N'-ditetradecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (14,4,14), and N,N'-didodecyl-N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-N,N'-butanediyl-diammonium dibromide (12,4,12), were first investigated comprehensively employing conductometry, tensiometry, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Tartrazine was found to behave in the same manner as aromatic counterions. The formation of ion pairs reflected as a considerable increase of the surfactant efficiency in tensiometry plots and their stoichiometry were determined by Job's method of continuous variations. For the tartrazine/TTAB system, nonionic DS(3), ionic DS(2-), and/or DS(2)(-) ion pairs, their small premicelles, and tartrazine-rich micelles were constituted as well as dye-containing TTAB-rich micelles. Insoluble J-aggregates of DS(-) ion pairs and cylindrical surfactant-rich micelles were also formed in tartrazine/gemini surfactant systems and recognized by transmission electron microscopy. The zeta potential and the size of the aggregates were determined using dynamic light scattering and confirmed the suggested models for the processes happening in each system. Cyclic voltammetry was applied successfully to track all of these species using tartrazine's own reduction peak current for the first time.

  5. Closed-Shell Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations: A New Category of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)


    Density functional theory has been employed to calculate the harmonic frequencies and intensities of a range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations that explore both size and electronic structure effects of the infrared spectroscopic properties of these species. The sample extends the size range of PAH species considered to more than 50 carbon atoms and includes several representatives from each of two heretofore unexplored categories of PAH cations: (1) fully benzenoid PAH cations whose carbon skeleton is composed of an odd number of carbon atoms (C(sub odd) PAHs); and (2) protonated PAH cations (HPAH+). Unlike the radical electronic structures of the PAH cations that have been the subject of previous theoretical and experimental work, the species in these two classes have a closed-shell electronic configuration. The calculated spectra of circumcoronene, C54H18 in both neutral and (radical) cationic form are also reported and compared with those of the other species. Overall, the C(sub odd) PAHs spectra are dominated by strong CC stretching modes near 1600 cm(exp -1) and display spectra that are remarkably insensitive to molecular size. The HPAH+ species evince a more complex spectrum consistent with the added contributions of aliphatic modes and their generally lower symmetry. Finally, for both classes of closed-shell cations, the intensity of the aromatic CH stretching modes is found to increase with molecular size far out of proportion with the number of CH groups, approaching a value more typical of neutral PAHs for the largest species studied.

  6. On the feasibility of designing hyperalkali cations using superalkali clusters as ligands (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Ming; Li, Xiang-Hui; Li, Ying; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Wu, Di; Li, Chun-Yan; Ni, Bi-Lian; Li, Zhi-Ru


    The possibility of using superalkali clusters instead of alkali atoms as ligands to design a class of cationic compounds, referred to as hyperalkali cations, has been examined by using gradient-corrected density functional theory. By taking typical superalkalis (FLi2, OLi3, and NLi4) as examples, a series of hyperalkali cations ML2+ [M = (super)halogen; L = superalkali] have been constructed and investigated. Calculational results show that all the superalkali moieties preserve their geometric and electronic integrity in these proposed cations. The stability of these studied cations is guaranteed by the strong ionic bonds between superalkali ligand and (super)halogen core, as well as their large highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital gaps and positive dissociation energies. In particular, all these proposed cations possess lower vertical electron affinities (2.36-3.56 eV) than those of their corresponding cationic superalkali ligands, verifying their hyperalkali nature. We, therefore, hope that this study will provide an approach to obtain new species with excellent reducing capability by utilizing various superalkalis as building blocks.

  7. A novel Ag+ cation sensor based on polyamidoamine dendrimer modified with 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives (United States)

    Dodangeh, Mohammad; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Arami, Mokhtar


    In this study, 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide-conjugated polyamidoamine dendrimer was synthesized and characterized and its potentiality as a cation sensor was investigated. 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride reacted with polyamidoamine dendrimer and the product was characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and melting point analysis method. The synthesized compound was applied to detect various cations in water media and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) via monitoring the quenching of the fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, various metal cations including Cu2 +, Ni2 +, Zn2 +, Pb2 +,Ca2 +, Ba2 +, Cd2 +, Hg2 +, Fe2 +, Fe3 + and Ag+ were tested. The complexes formed between the synthesized compound and metal cations in solution and their effects on Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) process were investigated regarding the potential application of the newly-synthesized dendrimer as a colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for such cations. The results clearly confirmed that the 1,8-naphthalimide groups surrounding the central dendrimer core showed strong green fluorescence emission at 553 nm. This effect considerably decreased with the introduction of all cations, except Ag+ where the fluorescence quenching effect was remarkable and more dominant. Therefore, it can be concluded that the synthesized dye has the potentiality of being a highly sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for Ag+ cation.

  8. Competition between kaolinite flocculation and stabilization in divalent cation solutions dosed with anionic polyacrylamides. (United States)

    Lee, Byung Joon; Schlautman, Mark A; Toorman, Erik; Fettweis, Michael


    Divalent cations have been reported to develop bridges between anionic polyelectrolytes and negatively-charged colloidal particles, thereby enhancing particle flocculation. However, results from this study of kaolinite suspensions dosed with various anionic polyacrylamides (PAMs) reveal that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) can lead to colloid stabilization under some conditions. To explain the opposite but coexisting processes of flocculation and stabilization with divalent cations, a conceptual flocculation model with (1) particle-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules and kaolinite particles and (2) polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges between PAM molecules is proposed. The particle-binding bridges enhanced flocculation and aggregated kaolinite particles in large, easily-settleable flocs whereas the polymer-binding bridges increased steric stabilization by developing polymer layers covering the kaolinite surface. Both the particle-binding and polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges coexist in anionic PAM- and kaolinite-containing suspensions and thus induce the counteracting processes of particle flocculation and stabilization. Therefore, anionic polyelectrolytes in divalent cation-enriched aqueous solutions can sometimes lead to the stabilization of colloidal particles due to the polymer-binding divalent cationic bridges.

  9. Cationic cellulose nanofibers from waste pulp residues and their nitrate, fluoride, sulphate and phosphate adsorption properties. (United States)

    Sehaqui, Houssine; Mautner, Andreas; Perez de Larraya, Uxua; Pfenninger, Numa; Tingaut, Philippe; Zimmermann, Tanja


    Cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNF) having 3 different contents of positively charged quaternary ammonium groups have been prepared from waste pulp residues according to a water-based modification method involving first the etherification of the pulp with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride followed by mechanical disintegration. The cationic nanofibers obtained were observed by scanning electron microscopy and the extent of the reaction was evaluated by conductometric titration, ζ-potential measurements, and thermogravimetric analyses. The cationic CNF had a maximum cationic charge content of 1.2mmolg(-1) and positive ζ-potential at various pH values. Sorption of negatively charged contaminants (fluoride, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ions) and their selectivity onto cationic CNF have been evaluated. Maximum sorption of ∼0.6mmolg(-1) of these ions by CNF was achieved and selectivity adsorption studies showed that cationic CNF are more selective toward multivalent ions (PO4(3-) and SO4(2-)) than monovalent ions (F(-) and NO3(-)). In addition, we demonstrated that cationic CNF can be manufactured into permeable membranes capable of dynamic nitrate adsorption by utilizing a simple paper-making process.

  10. Poorly selective cation channels in the apical membrane of A6 cells. (United States)

    Van Driessche, W; De Smet, P; de Smedt, H


    This paper describes a Ca(2+)-blockable, poorly selective cation pathway in the apical membrane of A6 epithelia. This pathway has properties that resemble the cation-selective channels in the toad urinary bladder and frog skin. Transepithelial short circuit currents (Isc) and power density spectra (PDS) of the fluctuations in current were recorded. The basolateral surface of the tissues was exposed to Cl- or SO4(2-) solutions with Na+ as the major cation. Ca(2+)-blockable inward oriented currents and Lorentzian noise were recorded with isotonic (215 mosmol/kg) mucosal Cl- and hypotonic (144 mos-mol/kg serosal SO4(2-) solution with Na+, K+, Rb+ or Cs+ as the major mucosal cation. Experiments with mucosal K+ demonstrated that the cation-selective channel was markedly activated by serosal hypotonicity. Effects of an increased electrical driving force were excluded on the basis of the results obtained with microelectrode experiments and transepithelial voltage clamping. Cell volume expansion induced by isotonic replacements of serosal sucrose by glycerol or urea also activated the cation-selective pathway. Furthermore, the presence of Cl- in the mucosal solution was a prerequisite for a sustained response to hypotonicity or replacements of the organic compounds. Moreover, we found that the cation-selective channels are mainly expressed in the cells during the early period of epithelial growth.

  11. Theoretical study of the influence of cation vacancies on the catalytic properties of vanadium antimonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messina, S. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FIUBA, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Capital Federal (Argentina); Juan, A. [Departamento de Fisica, UNS, Av. Alem 1253, (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)], E-mail:; Larrondo, S.; Irigoyen, B.; Amadeo, N. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, FIUBA, Pabellon de Industrias, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Capital Federal (Argentina)


    We have theoretically studied the influence of antimony and vanadium cation vacancies in the electronic structure and reactivity of vanadium antimonate, using molecular orbital methods. From the analysis of the electronic properties of the VSbO{sub 4} crystal structure, we can infer that both antimony and vanadium vacancies increase the oxidation state of closer V cations. This would indicate that, in the rutile-type VSbO{sub 4} phase the Sb and V cations defects stabilize the V in a higher oxidation state (V{sup 4+}). Calculations of the adsorption energy for different toluene adsorption geometries on the VSbO{sub 4}(1 1 0) surface have also been performed. The oxidation state of Sb, V and O atoms and the overlap population of metal-oxygen bonds have been evaluated. Our results indicate that the cation defects influence in the toluene adsorption reactions is slight. We have computed different alternatives for the reoxidation of the VSbO{sub 4}(1 1 0) surface active sites which were reduced during the oxygenated products formation. These calculations indicate that the V cations in higher oxidation state (V{sup 4+}) are the species, which preferentially incorporate lattice oxygen to the reduced Sb cations. Thus, the cation defects would stabilize the V{sup 4+} species in the VSbO{sub 4} structure, determining its ability to provide lattice oxygen as a reactant.

  12. Molecular modeling of organic corrosion inhibitors: why bare metal cations are not appropriate models of oxidized metal surfaces and solvated metal cations. (United States)

    Kokalj, Anton


    The applicability of various models of oxidized metal surfaces - bare metal cations, clusters of various size, and extended (periodic) slabs - that are used in the field of quantum-chemical modeling of corrosion inhibitors is examined and discussed. As representative model systems imidazole inhibitor, MgO surface, and solvated Mg(2+) ion are considered by means of density-functional-theory calculations. Although the results of cluster models are prone to cluster size and shape effects, the clusters of moderate size seem useful at least for qualitative purposes. In contrast, the bare metal cations are useless not only as models of oxidized surfaces but also as models of solvated cations, because they bind molecules several times stronger than the more appropriate models. In particular, bare Mg(2+) binds imidazole by 5.9 eV, while the slab model of MgO(001) by only 0.35 eV. Such binding is even stronger for 3+ cations, e.g., bare Al(3+) binds imidazole by 17.9 eV. The reasons for these fantastically strong binding energies are discussed and it is shown that the strong bonding is predominantly due to electron charge transfer from molecule to metal cation, which stems from differences between molecular and metal ionization potentials.

  13. Reactions of atomic cations with methane: gas phase room-temperature kinetics and periodicities in reactivity. (United States)

    Shayesteh, Alireza; Lavrov, Vitali V; Koyanagi, Gregory K; Bohme, Diethard K


    Reactions of methane have been measured with 59 atomic metal cations at room temperature in helium bath gas at 0.35 Torr using an inductively-coupled plasma/selected-ion flow tube (ICP/SIFT) tandem mass spectrometer. The atomic cations were produced at approximately 5500 K in an ICP source and allowed to decay radiatively and to thermalize by collisions with argon and helium atoms prior to reaction. Rate coefficients and product distributions are reported for the reactions of fourth-row atomic cations from K(+) to Se(+), of fifth-row atomic cations from Rb(+) to Te(+) (excluding Tc(+)), of sixth-row atomic cations from Cs(+) to Bi(+), and of the lanthanide cations from La(+) to Lu(+) (excluding Pm(+)). Two primary reaction channels were observed: C-H bond insertion with elimination of H(2), and CH(4) addition. The bimolecular H(2) elimination was observed in the reactions of CH(4) with As(+), Nb(+), and some sixth-row metal cations, i.e., Ta(+), W(+), Os(+), Ir(+), Pt(+); secondary and higher-order H(2) elimination was observed exclusively for Ta(+), W(+), and Ir(+) ions. All other transition-metal cations except Mn(+) and Re(+) were observed to react with CH(4) exclusively by addition, and up to two methane molecules were observed to add sequentially to most transition-metal ions. CH(4) addition was also observed for Ge(+), Se(+), La(+), Ce(+), and Gd(+) ions, while the other main-group and lanthanide cations did not react measurably with methane.

  14. Optimizing delivery systems for cationic biopolymers: competitive interactions of cationic polylysine with anionic κ-carrageenan and pectin. (United States)

    Lopez-Pena, Cynthia Lyliam; McClements, David Julian


    Polylysine is a cationic biopolymer with a strong antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, however, its functional performance is influenced by its interactions with anionic biopolymers. We examined the stability of polylysine-pectin complexes in the presence of carrageenan, and vice versa. Polylysine-pectin or polylysine-carrageenan complexes were formed at mass ratios of 1:0 to 1:32 (pH 3.5), and then micro-electrophoresis, turbidity, microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were used to characterise them. Solutions containing polylysine-pectin complexes were slightly turbid and relatively stable to aggregation at high mass ratios, whereas those containing polylysine-carrageenan complexes were turbid and unstable to aggregation and precipitation. Pectin did not strongly interact with polylysine-carrageenan complexes, whereas carrageenan displaced pectin from polylysine-pectin complexes, which was attributed to differences in electrostatic attraction between polylysine, carrageenan, and pectin. These results have important implications for the design of effective antimicrobial delivery systems for foods and beverages.

  15. In vitro delivery of curcumin with cholesterol-based cationic liposomes. (United States)

    Apiratikul, N; Penglong, T; Suksen, K; Svasti, S; Chairoungdua, A; Yingyongnarongkula, B


    A new cholesterol-based cationic lipid was synthesized; liposomes prepared on its basis were evaluated as drug delivery vehicles for curcumin. Free and liposome-encapsulated curcumin cytotoxicity against HeLa, A549, HepG2, K562 and 1301 cell lines was assessed. Liposomal curcumin with ED50 values ranging from 2.5-10 microM exhibited 2-8 times higher cytotoxicity than free curcumin. The synthetic cholesterol-based cationic lipid also enhanced cellular uptake of curcumin into tested cells. Cationic liposome alone showed low cytotoxicity at high doses with ED50 values of 90-210 microM.

  16. Aftertreatment of Conventional Direct Dyeings of Cotton with a Bis-reactive Cationic Fixing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHARIF Saima; SAEED Ahmad; MUHAMMAD Naeem Khan; MUHAMMAD Fauz-uI-Azeem


    A his-reactive cationic fixing agent,ethylenebis[N-(2,3-epoxypropyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium chloride] has been used as an aftertreatment reagent to improve the wash fasmess of direct dyes on cotton.The effects of different pH conditions and concentrations on the effectiveness of this cationic fixing agent have been investigated.The results showed that aftertreatment at pH 11 produced dyeings with higher colour strength and better wash fastness than that at pH 7.In addition,the cationic agent at a low concentration was found to be more effective under both neutral and alkaline conditions.

  17. Arginine-based cationic liposomes for efficient in vitro plasmid DNA delivery with low cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker SR


    Full Text Available Satya Ranjan Sarker, Yumiko Aoshima, Ryosuke Hokama, Takafumi Inoue, Keitaro Sou, Shinji Takeoka Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University (TWIns, Tokyo, Japan Background: Currently available gene delivery vehicles have many limitations such as low gene delivery efficiency and high cytotoxicity. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed and synthesized two cationic lipids comprised of n-tetradecyl alcohol as the hydrophobic moiety, 3-hydrocarbon chain as the spacer, and different counterions (eg, hydrogen chloride [HCl] salt or trifluoroacetic acid [TFA] salt in the arginine head group. Methods: Cationic lipids were hydrated in 4-(2-hydroxyethyl-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES buffer to prepare cationic liposomes and characterized in terms of their size, zeta potential, phase transition temperature, and morphology. Lipoplexes were then prepared and characterized in terms of their size and zeta potential in the absence or presence of serum. The morphology of the lipoplexes was determined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The gene delivery efficiency was evaluated in neuronal cells and HeLa cells and compared with that of lysine-based cationic assemblies and Lipofectamine™ 2000. The cytotoxicity level of the cationic lipids was investigated and compared with that of Lipofectamine™ 2000. Results: We synthesized arginine-based cationic lipids having different counterions (ie, HCl-salt or TFA-salt that formed cationic liposomes of around 100 nm in size. In the absence of serum, lipoplexes prepared from the arginine-based cationic liposomes and plasmid (p DNA formed large aggregates and attained a positive zeta potential. However, in the presence of serum, the lipoplexes were smaller in size and negative in zeta potential. The morphology of the lipoplexes was vesicular. Arginine-based cationic liposomes with HCl-salt showed the

  18. Reactions of the radical cations of methylated benzene derivatives in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.


    The radical cations of methylated benzene decompose in acid solution into the corresponding methylbenzyl radical and a proton. The rate constant for this reaction decreases by three orders of magnitude as the number of methyl groups increases from one to five. The rate constants can be correlated with the ionization potential of the parent compound. In neutral solution the reverse reaction to the acid-catalyzed OH adduct conversion occurs and the radical cations react with water to form the OH adduct. In slightly alkaline solution the radical cations of the higher methylated benzenes (n greater than or equal to 3) react with hydroxide ions forming the OH adduct.

  19. Full automation of {sup 68}Ga labelling of DOTA-peptides including cation exchange prepurification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Antretter, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Knopp, R.; Kunkel, F. [Eckert and Ziegler Eurotope GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Petrik, M. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bergisadi, N. [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmacy Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Decristoforo, C. [Clinical Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail:


    Here we describe a fully automated approach for the synthesis of {sup 68}Ga-labelled DOTA-peptides based on pre-concentration and purification of the generator eluate by using a cation exchange-cartridge and its comparison with fully automated direct labelling applying fractionated elution. Pre-concentration of the eluate on a cation exchange cartridge both using a resin-based and a disposable cation-exchange cartridge efficiently removed {sup 68}Ge as well as major metal contaminations with Fe and Zn. This resulted in a high labelling efficiency of DOTA-peptides at high specific activity (SA) with short synthesis times.

  20. Determining the cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite by simultaneous thermal analysis method (United States)

    Boeva, N. M.; Bocharnikova, Yu. I.; Belousov, P. E.; Zhigarev, V. V.


    A way of determining the cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite by simultaneous thermal analysis is developed using as an example the bentonites of the 10th Khutor deposit (Republic of Khakassia) and the Vodopadnyi area (Sakhalin Island). A correlation is established between the cation exchange capacity of smectite and its weight loss upon heating in the range of dehydration; the enthalpy of dehydration of montmorillonite; and the weight loss and the enthalpy of thermal dissociation of ethylene glycol contained in the interlayer space of the mineral's crystal structure. These data open up new possibilities for determining the cation exchange capacity of montmorillonite, the most important technological indicator of the natural clay nanomineral.

  1. The quantitative relationship between metal radii, cationic radii and electronic configurations of elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾德生; 曾荣树; 叶大年


    A close relationship has been found between the metal radii, cationic radii and electronic configurations of elements. A unified formula for calculating metal radii is presented, whose paramatem are only related to the electronic configuration. Meanwhile theoretical relation between cationic radii and electronic configuration can be revealed by combining quantitative analysis with qualitative analysis. The calculated results and the charts of standard deviations are coincident with those given by reference books. Our work indicates that the metal radius and cationic radius of an element reflect in essence the element’s configuration.

  2. Nanospheres and nanocapsules of amphiphilic copolymers constituted by methoxypolyethylene glycol cyanoacrylate and hexadecyl cyanoacrylate units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Puiggali


    Full Text Available Nanospheres and nanocapsules of an amphiphilic copolymer having methylated polyethylene glycol and hexadecyl lateral groups were prepared by the solvent displacement method and using confined impinging jet mixers. Degradation, thermal properties and crystalline structure were investigated. Interestingly, pegylated chains hydrolyzed through ester bond cleavage, whereas the more hydrophobic hexadecyl ester groups were resistant to degradation in aqueous media. The copolymer crystallized from the melt, giving rise to spherulites with a negative birefringence and domains corresponding to crystallization of the different lateral groups. Size distribution and morphology of nanoparticles were mainly evaluated by electron microscopy. Nanocapsules were characterized by a stable membrane with a thickness close to 5 nm that allowed efficient encapsulation of a triglyceride oil. Triclosan was selected as an example of a hydrophobic drug to be loaded in both nanospheres and nanocapsules. The release behavior of these dosage forms was clearly different. Thus, the Burst effect was practically suppressed when using nanocapsules; in addition, these showed a sustained, controlled release over a greater time period. Antimicrobial activity of triclosan loaded nanospheres and nanocapsules was evaluated using Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The former were highly sensitive to the released triclosan whereas the latter strongly depended on the number of particles in the culture medium.

  3. Antimicrobial sand via adsorption of cationic Moringa oleifera protein. (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A; Adolfsen, Kristin J; McCullough, Lauren R; Velegol, Darrell; Velegol, Stephanie B


    Moringa oleifera (Moringa) seeds contain a natural cationic protein (MOCP) that can be used as an antimicrobial flocculant for water clarification. Currently, the main barrier to using Moringa seeds for producing potable water is that the seeds release other water-soluble proteins and organic matter, which increase the concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water. The presence of this DOM supports the regrowth of pathogens in treated water, preventing its storage and later use. A new strategy has been established for retaining the MOCP protein and its ability to clarify and disinfect water while removing the excess organic matter. The MOCP is first adsorbed and immobilized onto sand granules, followed by a rinsing step wherein the excess organic matter is removed, thereby preventing later growth of bacteria in the purified water. Our hypotheses are that the protein remains adsorbed onto the sand after the functionalization treatment, and that the ability of the antimicrobial functionalized sand (f-sand) to clarify turbidity and kill bacteria, as MOCP does in bulk solution, is maintained. The data support these hypotheses, indicating that the f-sand removes silica microspheres and pathogens from water, renders adhered Escherichia coli bacteria nonviable, and reduces turbidity of a kaolin suspension. The antimicrobial properties of f-sand were assessed using fluorescent (live-dead) staining of bacteria on the surface of the f-sand. The DOM that can contribute to bacterial regrowth was shown to be significantly reduced in solution, by measuring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Overall, these results open the possibility that immobilization of the MOCP protein onto sand can provide a simple, locally sustainable process for producing storable drinking water.

  4. Thermodynamics of cationic surfactant sorption onto natural clinoptilolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.J.; Bowman, R.S. [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Carey, J.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Sorption enthalpies of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) as monomers and micelles and tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) were used with surfactant, counterion, and co-ion sorption isotherms to infer the conformation, sorption mechanism, and relative stability of the sorbed surfactants on natural clinoptilolite. The average value of the sorption enthalpy was {minus}10.38 kJ/mol for monomers, {minus}11.98 kJ/mol for micelles, and +3.03 kJ/mol for TEA. Sorption of monomers produced a lower sorption plateau than equivalent micelle sorption (maxima 145 mmol/kg, 225 mmol/kg). Analysis of the sorption data demonstrated a change in the sorption mechanism at the external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) of clinoptilolite. Sorption data from below and above the ECEC were fit to a simple polynomial model and the Gibbs free energy of sorption ({Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0}) and sorption entropies were calculated. Resultant values of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were {minus}9.27 and {minus}14.38 kJ/mol for HDTMA monomers and micelles, respectively, for sorption below the ECEC, and {minus}16.11 and {minus}23.10 kJ/mol, respectively, for sorption above the ECEC. The value for TEA was {minus}1.04 kJ/mol, indicating weaker sorption than for HDTMA. Monomer sorption to clinoptilolite exceeded the ECEC, even when the solution concentration was below the critical micelle concentration. Hydrophobic (tail-tail) components of {Delta} G{sub m}{sup 0} were the driving force for sorption of HDTMA, both below and above the ECEC. A significant kinetic effect was observed in the sorption isotherms with a period of rapid sorption followed by slow equilibration requiring 7 days to achieve steady state for HDTMA; TEA equilibration occurred within 24 h.

  5. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma


    Full Text Available Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  6. Riparian zone control on base cation concentration in boreal streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. J. Ledesma


    Full Text Available Riparian zones (RZ are a major factor controlling water chemistry in forest streams. Base cations' (BC concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the RZ merit attention because a changing climate and increased forest harvesting could have negative consequences, including re-acidification, for boreal surface waters. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si flow-weighted concentrations from 13 RZ and 14 streams in different landscape elements of a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The spatial variation in BC and Si dynamics in both RZ and streams was explained by differences in landscape element type, with highest concentrations in silty sediments and lowest concentrations in peat-dominated wetland areas. Temporal stability in BC and Si concentrations in riparian soil water, remarkably stable Mg/Ca ratios, and homogeneous mineralogy suggest that patterns found in the RZ are a result of a distinct mineralogical upslope signal in groundwater. Stream water Mg/Ca ratios indicate that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. Flow-weighted concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Na in headwater streams were represented by the corresponding concentrations in the RZ, which were estimated using the Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM approach. Stream and RZ flow-weighted concentrations differed for K and Si, suggesting a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements, including K recirculation by vegetation and retention of Si within the RZ. Potential increases in groundwater levels linked to forest harvesting or changes in precipitation regimes would tend to reduce BC concentrations from RZ to streams, potentially leading to episodic acidification.

  7. Characterization and performance of short cationic antimicrobial peptide isomers. (United States)

    Juba, Melanie; Porter, Devin; Dean, Scott; Gillmor, Susan; Bishop, Barney


    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) represent an ancient defense mechanism against invading bacteria, with peptides such as the cathelicidins being essential elements of vertebrate innate immunity. CAMPs are typically associated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial potency and limited bacterial resistance. The cathelicidin identified from the elapid snake Naja atra (NA-CATH) contains a semi-conserved repeated 11-residue motif (ATRA motif) with a sequence pattern consistent with formation of an amphipathic helical conformation. Short peptide amides (ATRA-1, -1A, -1P, and -2) generated based on the pair of ATRA motifs in NA-CATH exhibited varied antimicrobial potencies. The small size of the ATRA peptides, coupled with their varied antimicrobial performances, make them interesting models to study the impact various physico-chemical properties have on antimicrobial performance in helical CAMPs. Accordingly, the D- and L-enantiomers of the peptide ATRA-1A, which in earlier studies had shown both good antimicrobial performance and strong helical character, were investigated in order to assess the impact peptide stereochemistry has on antimicrobial performance and interaction with chiral membranes. The ATRA-1A isomers exhibit varied potencies against four bacterial strains, and their conformational properties in the presence of mixed zwitterionic/anionic liposomes are influenced by anionic lipid content. These studies reveal subtle differences in the properties of the peptide isomers. Differences are also seen in the abilities of the ATRA-1A isomers to induce liposome fusion/aggregation, bilayer rearrangement and lysing through turbidity studies and fluorescence microscopy. The similarities and differences in the properties of the ATRA-1A isomers could aid in efforts to develop D-peptide-based therapeutics using high-performing L-peptides as templates.

  8. The non-selective voltage-activated cation channel in the human red blood cell membrane: reconciliation between two conflicting reports and further characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaestner, Lars; Christophersen, Palle; Bernhardt, Ingolf;


    Erythrocyte; Patch-clamp; Non-specific; cation channel; Voltage dependence; Acetylcholin receptor......Erythrocyte; Patch-clamp; Non-specific; cation channel; Voltage dependence; Acetylcholin receptor...

  9. Selective trans-membrane transport of alkali and alkaline earth cations through graphene oxide membranes based on cation-π interactions. (United States)

    Sun, Pengzhan; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Miao; Song, Zhigong; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wu, Dehai; Little, Reginald B; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Hongwei


    Graphene and graphene oxide (G-O) have been demonstrated to be excellent filters for various gases and liquids, showing potential applications in areas such as molecular sieving and water desalination. In this paper, the selective trans-membrane transport properties of alkali and alkaline earth cations through a membrane composed of stacked and overlapped G-O sheets ("G-O membrane") are investigated. The thermodynamics of the ion transport process reveal that the competition between the generated thermal motions and the interactions of cations with the G-O sheets results in the different penetration behaviors to temperature variations for the considered cations (K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Ba(2+)). The interactions between the studied metal atoms and graphene are quantified by first-principles calculations based on the plane-wave-basis-set density functional theory (DFT) approach. The mechanism of the selective ion trans-membrane transportation is discussed further and found to be consistent with the concept of cation-π interactions involved in biological systems. The balance between cation-π interactions of the cations considered with the sp(2) clusters of G-O membranes and the desolvation effect of the ions is responsible for the selectivity of G-O membranes toward the penetration of different ions. These results help us better understand the ion transport process through G-O membranes, from which the possibility of modeling the ion transport behavior of cellular membrane using G-O can be discussed further. The selectivity toward different ions also makes G-O membrane a promising candidate in areas of membrane separations.

  10. On the real performance of cation exchange resins in wastewater treatment under conditions of cation competition: the case of heavy metal pollution. (United States)

    Prelot, Benedicte; Ayed, Imen; Marchandeau, Franck; Zajac, Jerzy


    Sorption performance of cation-exchange resins Amberlite® IRN77 and Amberlite™ IRN9652 toward Cs(I) and Sr(II) has been tested in single-component aqueous solutions and simulated waste effluents containing other monovalent (Effluent 1) or divalent (Effluent 2) metal cations, as well as nitrate, borate, or carbonate anions. The individual sorption isotherms of each main component were measured by the solution depletion method. The differential molar enthalpy changes accompanying the ion-exchange between Cs+ or Sr2+ ions and protons at the resin surface from single-component nitrate solutions were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and they showed a higher specificity of the two resins toward cesium. Compared to the retention limits of both resins under such idealized conditions, an important depression in the maximum adsorption capacity toward each main component was observed in multication systems. The overall effect of ion exchange process appeared to be an unpredictable outcome of the individual sorption capacities of the two resins toward various cations as a function of the cation charge, size, and concentration. The cesium retention capacity of the resins was diminished to about 25% of the "ideal" value in Effluent 1 and 50% in Effluent 2; a further decrease to about 15% was observed upon concomitant strontium addition. The uptake of strontium by the resins was found to be less sensitive to the addition of other metal components: the greatest decrease in the amount adsorbed was 60% of the ideal value in the two effluents for Amberlite® IRN77 and 75% for Amberlite™ IRN9652. It was therefore demonstrated that any performance tests carried out under idealized conditions should be exploited with much caution to predict the real performance of cation exchange resins under conditions of cation competition.

  11. Synthesis and SMM behaviour of trinuclear versus dinuclear 3d-5f uranyl(v)-cobalt(ii) cation-cation complexes. (United States)

    Chatelain, Lucile; Tuna, Floriana; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella


    Trinuclear versus dinuclear heterodimetallic U(V)O2(+)Co(2+) complexes were selectively assembled via a cation-cation interaction by tuning the ligand. The trimeric complex 2, with a linear [Co-O[double bond, length as m-dash]U[double bond, length as m-dash]O-Co] core, exhibits magnetic exchange and slow relaxation with a reversal barrier of 30.5 ± 0.9 K providing the first example of a U-Co exchange-coupled SMM.

  12. Solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols and their use in hair conditioners. (United States)

    Yahagi, K; Hoshino, N; Hirota, H


    Summary The solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants, synthesized by using long-chain Guerbet alcohols, in water was investigated by a polarizing microscopic technique, differential scanning calorimetry, and electric conductivity measurements. These surfactants show the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition to be lower than 0 degrees C and form lamellar liquid crystals even in cold water and at low concentrations of surfactants. The sorption of cationic surfactants from aqueous solutions onto hair was determined as a function of temperature. The effect of adsorbed cationic surfactants on the critical surface tension and kinetic frictional coefficients of hair surface have been investigated. These surface characteristics of hair treated with quaternary ammonium compounds derived from Guerbet alcohols were found to be significantly improved. These results can be explained by the high ability of sorption onto hair. Hair rinses and conditioners having excellent ease of combing or brushing for wet and dry hair can be formulated by the application of these cationic surfactants.

  13. Tunneling Motion and Antiferroelectric Ordering of Lithium Cations Trapped inside Carbon Cages (United States)

    Aoyagi, Shinobu; Tokumitu, Akio; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Okada, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Norihisa; Akutagawa, Tomoyuki


    Dielectric and X-ray diffraction measurements of [Li@C60](PF6) single crystals reveal the motion of the Li+ cations inside the C60 cages at low temperature. An increase in the dielectric permittivity below 100 K is consistent with a combined tunneling and hopping motion of the Li+ cation between two positions inside the C60 cage. A phase transition accompanied by a decrease in the dielectric permittivity at TC = 24 K is explained by an antiferroelectric ordering of the Li+ cations. The Li+ ordering is caused by interactions among electric dipole moments formed between the Li+ cations inside and the PF6- anions outside the C60 cages. The electric dipole moments that are switched by the Li+ tunneling and interact with each other are potential qubits in a quantum computer using electric dipole moments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Sanjay Kumar; Pramod K. Bajpai


    Thc zeta potential and cationic demands of various kraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to different freeness levels were determined in the laboratory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stage was a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment such as alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower than the unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of unbleached pulp was higher compared to that of bleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationic demands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be attributed to the larger specific surface area of pulp components. Fibres become increasingly electronegative when beaten and therefore cationic demand of pulps increases with beating. When the zeta potential method is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, the slope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness of the pulp.

  15. Separation of Clay Minerals from Host Sediments Using Cation Exchange Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.S. Ismael; H.M. Baioumy


    Classic physical and chemical treatments applied to separating clay minerals from the host sediments are often difficult or aggressive for clay minerals. A technique using cation exchange resins (amberlite IRC-50H and amberlite IR-120) is used to separate clay minerals from the host sediments. The technique is based on the exchange of cations in the minerals that may be associated clay minerals in sediments,such as Ca and Mg from dolomite; Ca from calcite,gypsum and francolite with cations carried by resin radicals. The associated minerals such as gypsum,calcite,dolomite and francolite are removed in descending order. Separation of clay minerals using cation exchange resins is less aggressive than that by other classic treatments.The efficiency of amberlite IRC-50H in the removal of associated minerals is greater than that of amberlite IR-120.

  16. Anion recognition and cation-induced molecular motion in a heteroditopic [2]rotaxane. (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexandre V; Jemmett, Charlotte A; Beer, Paul D


    A heteroditopic [2]rotaxane consisting of a calix[4]diquinone-isophthalamide macrocycle and 3,5-bis-amide pyridinium axle components with the capability of switching between two positional isomers in response to barium cation recognition is synthesised. The anion binding properties of the rotaxane's interlocked cavity together with Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) and Ba(2+) cation recognition capabilities are elucidated by (1) H NMR and UV-visible spectroscopic titration experiments. Upon binding of Ba(2+) , molecular displacement of the axle's positively charged pyridinium group from the rotaxane's macrocyclic cavity occurs, whereas the monovalent cations Na(+) , K(+) and NH(4) (+) are bound without causing significant co-conformational change. The barium cation induced shuttling motion can be reversed on addition of tetrabutylammonium sulfate.

  17. On the intrinsic optical absorptions by tetrathiafulvalene radical cations and isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirketerp, Maj-Britt Suhr; Leal, Leonardo Andrés Espinosa; Varsano, Daniele;


    Gas-phase action spectroscopy shows unambiguously that the low-energy absorptions by tetramethylthiotetrathiafulvalene and tetrathianaphthalene cations in solution phase are due to monomers and not π-dimers....

  18. Pulse radiolysis and spectrophotometric studies on the binding of organic cations with heparin (United States)

    Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Adamus, Jan; Gębicki, Jerzy; Marcinek, Andrzej; Sikora, Adam


    Here we present the spectroscopic and pulse radiolysis studies of the interactions of heparin and some organic cations:methylene blue (MB), 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA+), and its dimer 1,3-bis(1-methylnicotinamide)propane (bis(MNA+)).

  19. Fast repair of purine deoxynucleotide radical cations by rutin and quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晨阳; 石益民; 王文锋; 贾忠建; 姚思德; 范波涛; 郑荣梁


    Repair effects of rutin and quercetin on purine deoxynucleotide radical cations were studied using pulse radiolysis technique. On electron pulse irradiation of N2 saturated deoxynucleotide aqueous solution containing 20 mmol/L K2S2O8, 200 mmol/L t-BuOH and rutin or quercetin, the transient absorption spectra of the deoxynucleotide radical cations decayed quickly. At the same time, the spectra of flavonoid phenoxyl radicals formed within several dozen microseconds. The results indicated that deoxynucleotide radical cations can be repaired by flavonoids. The rate constants of the repair reactions were 3.8×108-4.4×108 mol-1·L·s-1 and 1.3×108-1.8×108 mol-1·L·s-1 for dAMP and dGMP radical cations, respectively.

  20. Cation disordering by rapid crystal growth in olivine-phosphate nanocrystals. (United States)

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Seongsu; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Youn-Joong; Kang, Suk-Joong L


    On the basis of Pauling's first rule for ionic bonding, the coordination number of cations with oxygen anions can be determined by comparison of their relative ionic size ratio. In contrast to simple oxides, various site occupancies by multicomponent cations with similar sizes usually occur in complex oxides, resulting in distinct physical properties. Through an unprecedented combination of in situ high-temperature high-resolution electron microscopy, crystallographic image processing, geometric phase analysis, and neutron powder diffraction, we directly demonstrate that while the initial crystallites after nucleation during crystallization have a very high degree of ordering, significant local cation disordering is induced by rapid crystal growth in Li-intercalation metal-phosphate nanocrystals. The findings in this study show that control of subsequent crystal growth during coarsening is of great importance to attain a high degree of cation ordering, emphasizing the significance of atomic-level visualization in real time.

  1. Preparation and Photochemical Behavior of a Cationic Azobenzene Dye-Montmorillonite Intercalation Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Montmorillonite/cationic azobenzene dye(p-(δ-triethylammoniobutoxy)-p'-methyl-azobenzene bromide) intercalation compounds were prepared by the conventional ion exchange method. As compared with that of pure cationic azo-dye, the thermal stability of the intercalated dye was greatly enhanced, and the absorption band corresponding to azobenzene group in intercalated dye shifted towards longer wave length by 38 nm. This could be ascribed to the strong conjugation of cationic azo-dye supramolecular order structure(J cluster) confined in a nanoscale space of montmorillonite interlayer gallery. UV/vis spectra data show that the intercalated azo dye in the montmorillonite interlayer space exhibited reversible trans-to-cis photoisomerization and daylight cis-to-trans back reaction. FTIR indicates the successful intercalation of cationic azo-dye into the montmorillonite interlayer.

  2. Enthalpy-entropy compensation for n-hexane adsorption on Y zeolite containing transition metal cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercigonja R.


    Full Text Available In this work, the values of entropy changes related to n-hexane adsorption onto cation exchanged Y zeolite were calculated from differential heats. Various transition metal cations (Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were introduced into the lattice of the parent NaY, and the existence of enthalpy-entropy compensation effect related to n-hexane adsorption, id. est, the linearity of -ΔH vs. -ΔS plots was examined. The compensation effect was confirmed for all investigated zeolites. The compensation effect can be comprehended as governed by ion-induced dipole interaction between highly polarizing cationic centers in zeolite and nonopolar n-hexane molecules. Finally, the compensation effect and so the compensation temperature were found to depend on the type of charge-balancing cation (charge, size and electronic configuration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids: Cation-anion interactions (United States)

    Men, Shuang; Jiang, Jing; Licence, Peter


    In this study, four 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids are analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, together with three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. A reliable fitting model for the carbon 1s region of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids is modified according to established models. The effect of the anion on the electronic environment of the cation is explored based upon the comparison between measured binding energies of nitrogen 1s and the hydrogen bond acceptor ability. The effect of the cation on the cation-anion interaction is also demonstrated by carefully comparing the hydrogen bond donating ability of different cations, with a definite anion.

  4. Adsorption of Cationic Peptides to Solid Surfaces of Glass and Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kasper; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    Cationic membrane-active peptides have been studied for years in the hope of developing them into novel types of therapeutics. In this article, we investigate an effect that might have significant experimental implications for investigators who wish to study these peptides, namely, that the pepti......Cationic membrane-active peptides have been studied for years in the hope of developing them into novel types of therapeutics. In this article, we investigate an effect that might have significant experimental implications for investigators who wish to study these peptides, namely......, that the peptides adsorb to solid surfaces of glass and plastic. Specifically, we use analytical HPLC to systematically quantify the adsorption of the three cationic membraneactive peptides mastoparan X, melittin, and magainin 2 to the walls of commonly used glass and plastic sample containers. Our results show...... experiments on cationic membrane-active peptides. We conclude the article by discussing different strategies for reducing the experimental impact of these adsorption effects....

  5. The diastereoselective synthesis of octahedral cationic iridium hydride complexes with a stereogenic metal centre. (United States)

    Humbert, Nicolas; Mazet, Clément


    We report herein the highly diastereoselective synthesis of octahedral cationic Ir(iii) hydride complexes with a stereogenic metal centre following various strategies. The configurational stability of these compounds has also been investigated.

  6. Switchable Pickering emulsions stabilized by silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a conventional cationic surfactant. (United States)

    Zhu, Yue; Jiang, Jianzhong; Liu, Kaihong; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P


    A stable oil-in-water Pickering emulsion stabilized by negatively charged silica nanoparticles hydrophobized in situ with a trace amount of a conventional cationic surfactant can be rendered unstable on addition of an equimolar amount of an anionic surfactant. The emulsion can be subsequently restabilized by adding a similar trace amount of cationic surfactant along with rehomogenization. This destabilization-stabilization behavior can be cycled many times, demonstrating that the Pickering emulsion is switchable. The trigger is the stronger electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged ionic surfactants compared with that between the cationic surfactant and the (initially) negatively charged particle surfaces. The cationic surfactant prefers to form ion pairs with the added anionic surfactant and thus desorbs from particle surfaces rendering them surface-inactive. This access to switchable Pickering emulsions is easier than those employing switchable surfactants, polymers, or surface-active particles, avoiding both the complicated synthesis and the stringent switching conditions.

  7. Ammonia vapor sensing properties of polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate cation exchange nanocomposite. (United States)

    Khan, Asif Ali; Baig, Umair; Khalid, Mohd


    In this study, the electrically conducting polyaniline-titanium(IV)phosphate (PANI-TiP) cation exchange nanocomposite was synthesized by sol-gel method. The cation exchange nanocomposite based sensor for detection of ammonia vapors was developed at room temperature. It was revealed that the sensor showed good reversible response towards ammonia vapors ranging from 3 to 6%. It was found that the sensor with p-toluene sulphonic acid (p-TSA) doped exhibited higher sensing response than hydrochloric acid doped. This sensor has detection limit ≤1% ammonia. The response of resistivity changes of the cation exchange nanocomposite on exposure to different concentrations of ammonia vapors shows its utility as a sensing material. These studies suggest that the cation exchange nanocomposite could be a good material for ammonia sensor at room temperature.

  8. Synthesis and adsorption properties of the cation exchange forms of OFF-type zeolite (United States)

    Gorshunova, K. K.; Travkina, O. S.; Kustov, L. M.; Kutepov, B. I.


    The possibility of the ion-exchange of Na+ and K+ cations contained in OFF-type zeolite for H+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Co2+, and La3+ cations is investigated. Chemical and phase compositions, the morphology of crystals, and the adsorption properties of synthesized samples are studied via X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction analysis, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and adsorption measurements.

  9. The bisketene radical cation and its formation by oxidative ring-Opening of cyclobutenedione


    Piech, Krzysztof; Bally, Thomas; Allen, Annette D.; Tidwell, Thomas T.


    Parent cyclobutenedione 1 was photolyzed and ionized in an Ar matrix at 10K. The bisketene 2 that results in both cases (in the form of its radical cation after ionization) was characterized by its IR spectrum and by high-level quantum chemical calculations. Experiment and theory show that the neutral bisketene has only a single conformation where the two ketene moieties are nearly perpendicular, whereas the radical cation is present in two stable planar conformations. The mechanism of the ri...

  10. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  11. The generation and spectral characterization of oligothiophenes radical cations. A pulse radiolysis investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmi, S.S. [Istituto FRAE of CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); D' Angelantonio, M. [Istituto FRAE of CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Beggiato, G. [Istituto FRAE of CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Poggi, G. [Dipartimento ' G. Ciamician' , Universita di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Geri, A. [Istituto FRAE of CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pietropaolo, D. [Istituto ICOCEA of CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Zotti, G. [Istituto IPELP of CNR, Stati Uniti 4, 35020 Padova (Italy)


    Conjugated polymers and oligomers of thiophene have been employed in a number of electronic devices due to the change in their conductivity by several orders of magnitude when oxidized to their cationic states. The radical cations of oligothiophenes (nT), with number of rings n=1-6, have been produced by pulse radiolysis for the first time and their spectra have been characterized. Electronic structure and transition energies are briefly discussed in the light of semiempirical theoretical calculations.

  12. Ternary mixtures of ionic liquids for better salt solubility, conductivity and cation transference number improvement (United States)

    Karpierz, E.; Niedzicki, L.; Trzeciak, T.; Zawadzki, M.; Dranka, M.; Zachara, J.; Żukowska, G. Z.; Bitner-Michalska, A.; Wieczorek, W.


    We hereby present the new class of ionic liquid systems in which lithium salt is introduced into the solution as a lithium cation−glyme solvate. This modification leads to the reorganisation of solution structure, which entails release of free mobile lithium cation solvate and hence leads to the significant enhancement of ionic conductivity and lithium cation transference numbers. This new approach in composing electrolytes also enables even three-fold increase of salt concentration in ionic liquids. PMID:27767069

  13. Alkali metal-cationized serine clusters studied by sonic spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Sokol, Ewa; Cooks, R Graham


    Serine solutions containing salts of alkali metals yield magic number clusters of the type (Ser(4)+C)(+), (Ser(8)+C)(+), (Ser(12)+C)(+), and (Ser(17)+2C)(+2) (where C = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+)), in relative abundances which are strongly dependent on the cation size. Strong selectivity for homochirality is involved in the formation of serine tetramers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). This is also the case for the octamers cationized by the smaller alkalis but there is a strong preference for heterochirality in the octamers cationized by the larger alkali cations. Tandem mass spectrometry shows that the octamers and dodecamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) dissociate mainly by the loss of Ser(4) units, suggesting that the neutral tetramers are the stable building blocks of the observed larger aggregates, (Ser(8)+C)(+) and (Ser(12)+C)(+). Remarkably, although the Ser(4) units are formed with a strong preference for homochirality, they aggregate further regardless of their handedness and, therefore, with a preference for the nominally racemic 4D:4L structure and an overall strong heterochiral preference. The octamers cationized by K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) therefore represent a new type of cluster ion that is homochiral in its internal subunits, which then assemble in a random fashion to form octamers. We tentatively interpret the homochirality of these tetramers as a consequence of assembly of the serine molecules around a central metal ion. The data provide additional evidence that the neutral serine octamer is homochiral and is readily cationized by smaller ions.

  14. Tunable separation of anions and cations by column switching in ion chromatography. (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad; Lim, Lee Wah; Takeuchi, Toyohide


    A convenient ion chromatography method has been proposed for the routine and simple determination of anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-)) and/or cations (Na(+), NH(4)(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) using a single pump, a single eluent and a single detector. The present system used cation-exchange and anion-exchange columns connected in series via two 6-port switching valves or a single 10-port valve. The connection order of the ion-exchange columns could be varied by switching the valve(s). The present system therefore allowed the separation of either cations or anions in a single chromatographic run. While one ion-exchange column is being operated, the other ion-exchange column is being conditioned, i.e., the columns are always ready for analysis at any time. When 2.4mM 5-sulfosalicylic acid was used as the eluent, the three anions and the five cations could be separated on the anion-exchange column and cation-exchange column, respectively. In order to obtain the separations of the target ions, the injection valve was placed between the two columns. Complete separations of the above anions or cations were demonstrated within 10min each. The detection limits at S/N=3 were 19-50ppb (mug/l) for cations and 10-14ppb for anions. The relative standard deviations of the analyte ions were less than 1.1, 2.9 and 2.8% for retention time, peak area and peak height, respectively. This proposed technique was applied to the determination of common anions and cations in river water samples.

  15. Mixed-Valence Porphyrin π-Cation Radical Derivatives: Electrochemical Investigations. (United States)

    Scheidt, W Robert; Buentello, Kristin E; Ehlinger, Noelle; Cinquantini, Arnaldo; Fontani, Marco; Laschi, Franco


    The electrochemistry of [Cu(OEP)] and [Ni(OEP)] are compared with the mixed-valence π-cations [Cu(OEP•/2)]2+and[Ni(OEP•/2)]2+. These electrochemical studies, carried out with cyclic voltametry and hydrodynamic voltametry, show that the mixed valence π-cations have distinct electrochemical properties, although the differences between the [M(OEP)](+/0) and [M(OEP•/2)]2+/0 processes are subtle.

  16. Theoretical Infrared Spectra for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Neutrals, Cations and Anions (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.


    Calculations are carried out using density functional theory (DFT) to determine the harmonic frequencies and intensities of the neutrals and cations of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) up to the size of ovalene. Calculations are also carried out for a few PAH anions. The DFT harmonic frequencies, when uniformly scaled by the factor of 0.958 to account primarily for anharmonicity, agree with the matrix isolation fundamentals to within an average error of about 10 per centimeter. Electron correlation is found to significantly reduce the intensities of many of the cation harmonics, bringing them into much better agreement with the available experimental data. While the theoretical infrared spectra agree well with the experimental data for the neutral systems and for many of the cations, there are notable discrepancies with the experimental matrix isolation data for some PAH cations that are difficult to explain in terms of limitations in the calculations. In agreement with previous theoretical work, the present calculations show that the relative intensities for the astronomical unidentified infrared (UIR) bands agree reasonably well with those for a distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) cations, but not with a distribution of PAH neutrals. We also observe that the infrared spectra of highly symmetrical cations such as coronene agree much better with astronomical observations than do those of, for example, the polyacenes such as tetracene and pentacene. The total integrated intensities for the neutral species are found to increase linearly with size, while the total integrated intensities are much larger for the cations and scale more nearly quadratically with size. We conclude that emission from moderate-sized highly symmetric PAH cations such as coronene and larger could account for the UIR bands.

  17. Influence of divalent cations and pH adsorption of a bacterial polysaccharide adhesin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Suci, P.A.; Baty, A.M.; Weiner, R.M.; Geesey, G.G.

    is important. Evidence for significant participation of hydrogen bonding to the oxide surface is lacking. © 1998 Academic Press Key Words: adhesion; bacteria; polysaccharide; adsorption; di- valent cation. INTRODUCTION Attachment of microorganisms to inert....00 Copyright © 1998 by Academic Press All rights of reproduction in any form reserved. cations and of pH on the adsorption behavior of fr2ps in order to further investigate the interactions involved in bonding of this adhesive polysaccharide at an aqueous...

  18. Cation exchange at the secondary building units of metal–organic frameworks


    Brozek, Carl Kavanaugh; Dinca, Mircea


    Cation exchange is an emerging synthetic route for modifying the secondary building units (SBUs) of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). This technique has been used extensively to enhance the properties of nanocrystals and molecules, but the extent of its applications for MOFs is still expanding. To harness cation exchange as a rational tool, we need to elucidate its governing factors. Not nearly enough experimental observations exist for drawing these conclusions, so we provide a conceptual fra...

  19. Conformational control in a bipyridine linked π-conjugated oligomer: cation mediated helix unfolding and refolding. (United States)

    Divya, Kizhumuri P; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai


    A chiral π-conjugated oligomer having alternate bipyridine and carbazole moieties connected through acetylinic bonds undergoes helical folding in chloroform-acetonitrile (40/60, v/v) as evident by fluorescence and circular dichroism changes. In the presence of transition metal cations such as Zn(2+) defolding of the helical conformation occurs. Upon decomplexation of the cation with EDTA, the helical conformation is regained.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-wei Zhang; Qu-li Fan; Yan-qin Huang; Wei Huang


    A cationic poly(p-phenylene vinylene) related copolymer without bulky phenylene substitutents attached to the conjugated backbone was prepared through Wittig reaction. The molecular structure and optical properties were highly investigated through ~1H-NMR, UV and PL spectroscopy. The quenching behavior was also investigated, and the results demonstrate that incomplete quenching exists, which is consistent with the cationic poly(p-phenylene vinylene) related copolymer containing bulky phenylene substitutents, probably correlated with the conformation of conjugated backbone and intermolecular aggregation.

  1. Cationic surfactants derived from lysine: effects of their structure and charge type on antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. (United States)

    Colomer, A; Pinazo, A; Manresa, M A; Vinardell, M P; Mitjans, M; Infante, M R; Pérez, L


    Three different sets of cationic surfactants from lysine have been synthesized. The first group consists of three monocatenary surfactants with one lysine as the cationic polar head with one cationic charge. The second consists of three monocatenary surfactants with two amino acids as cationic polar head with two positive charges. Finally, four gemini surfactants were synthesized in which the spacer chain and the number and type of cationic charges have been regulated. The micellization process, antimicrobial activity, and hemolytic activity were evaluated. The critical micelle concentration was dependent only on the hydrophobic character of the molecules. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial and hemolytic activities were related to the structure of the compounds as well as the type of cationic charges. The most active surfactants against the bacteria were those with a cationic charge on the trimethylated amino group, whereas all of these surfactants showed low hemolytic character.

  2. Pulse radiolysis studies of aminobenzenesulfonates: Formation of cation radicals. [7 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behar, D.; Behar, B. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States))


    Sulfanilic acid and anilinedisulfonic acids (ADS) react with OH radicals (k = 8.2 {times} 10{sup 9} and 5.9 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}) to form the corresponding OH adducts. In acid solutions the adducts react with protons to yield cation radicals (k = 5.3 {times} 10{sup 8} and 8.7 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}). N{sub 3} oxidizes sulfanilic acid directly to the cation radical by an electron-transfer reaction at a diffusion-controlled rate constant, k = 6.5 {times} 10{sup 9}M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, while the rate of oxidation of ADS by N{sub 3} is only 7.6 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}. SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} on the other hand oxidizes ADS to the cation radical at a rate of 1.8 {times} 10{sup 9}M{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}. Both cation radicals deprotonate to the anilino-type radicals in acid-base equilibria. The pK{sub a} of deprotonation of the sulfanilic cation radical is 5.8 {plus minus} 0.05 and that of the ADS cation radical is 4.3 {plus minus} 0.05.

  3. On the energetics of cation ordering in tungsten-bronze-type oxides. (United States)

    Olsen, Gerhard Henning; Selbach, Sverre Magnus; Grande, Tor


    Oxides with the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure are well-known ferroelectrics that show a large flexibility both with respect to chemical composition and cation ordering. Two of the simplest compounds in this family are lead metaniobate (PbNb2O6 or PN) and strontium barium niobate (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 or SBN). While PN is a classical ferroelectric, SBN goes from ferroelectric to relaxor-like with increasing Sr content, with a polar direction different from that in PN. The partially occupied sublattices in both systems give the possibility for cation order-disorder phenomena, but it is not known if or how this influences the polarization and ferroelectricity. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to investigate how cation and cation vacancy ordering influences the energetics of these compounds, by comparing both the energy differences and the barriers for transition between different cation configurations. We extend the thermodynamic model of O'Neill and Navrotsky, originally developed for cation interchange in spinels, to describe the order-disorder phenomenology in TTB oxides. The influence of order-disorder processes on the functional properties of PN and SBN is discussed.

  4. Novel cationic SLN containing a synthesized single-tailed lipid as a modifier for gene delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Wangyang; Liu Chunxi; Ye Jiesheng; Zou Weiwei; Zhang Na; Xu Wenfang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Ji' nan (China)], E-mail:


    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can bind DNA directly via ionic interaction and mediate in vitro gene transfection. However, toxicity is still an obstacle, which is strongly dependent on the cationic lipid used. In the present study, a novel single-tailed cationic lipid, 6-lauroxyhexyl lysinate (LHLN), was synthesized and used as a modifier to prepare stable SLN-DNA complexes by a nanoprecipitation method. The commonly used cationic lipid cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) modified SLN-DNA formulation served as a contrast. These two formulations were characterized and compared in terms of morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding capacity, release profile, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The LHLN SLN-DNA complexes had a similar spherical morphology, a relatively narrow particle size distribution and a more remarkable DNA loading capability compared to the CTAB ones. Most importantly, LHLN modified SLN had a higher gene transfection efficiency than the naked DNA and CTAB ones, which was approximately equal to that of Lipofectamine-DNA complexes, and a lower cytotoxicity compared with CTAB-SLN and Lipofectamine 2000. Thus, the novel cationic SLN can achieve efficient transfection of plasmid DNA, and to some extent reduce the cytotoxicity, which might overcome some drawbacks of the conventional cationic nanocarriers in vivo and may become a promising non-viral gene therapy vector.

  5. Novel cationic SLN containing a synthesized single-tailed lipid as a modifier for gene delivery (United States)

    Yu, Wangyang; Liu, Chunxi; Ye, Jiesheng; Zou, Weiwei; Zhang, Na; Xu, Wenfang


    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can bind DNA directly via ionic interaction and mediate in vitro gene transfection. However, toxicity is still an obstacle, which is strongly dependent on the cationic lipid used. In the present study, a novel single-tailed cationic lipid, 6-lauroxyhexyl lysinate (LHLN), was synthesized and used as a modifier to prepare stable SLN-DNA complexes by a nanoprecipitation method. The commonly used cationic lipid cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) modified SLN-DNA formulation served as a contrast. These two formulations were characterized and compared in terms of morphology, particle size, surface charge, DNA binding capacity, release profile, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficiency. The LHLN SLN-DNA complexes had a similar spherical morphology, a relatively narrow particle size distribution and a more remarkable DNA loading capability compared to the CTAB ones. Most importantly, LHLN modified SLN had a higher gene transfection efficiency than the naked DNA and CTAB ones, which was approximately equal to that of Lipofectamine-DNA complexes, and a lower cytotoxicity compared with CTAB-SLN and Lipofectamine 2000. Thus, the novel cationic SLN can achieve efficient transfection of plasmid DNA, and to some extent reduce the cytotoxicity, which might overcome some drawbacks of the conventional cationic nanocarriers in vivo and may become a promising non-viral gene therapy vector.

  6. Purification and characterization of a cationic peroxidase Cs in Raphanus sativus. (United States)

    Kim, Soung Soo; Lee, Dong Ju


    A short distance migrating cationic peroxidase from Korean radish seeds (Raphanus sativus) was detected. Cationic peroxidase Cs was purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass of the purified cationic peroxidase Cs was estimated to be about 44 kDa on SDS-PAGE. After reconstitution of apoperoxidase Cs with protohemin, the absorption spectra revealed a new peak in the Soret region around 400 nm, which is typical in a classical type III peroxidase family. The optimum pH of peroxidase activity for o-dianisidine oxidation was observed at pH 7.0. Kinetic studies revealed that the reconstituted cationic peroxidase Cs has Km values of 1.18 mM and of 1.27 mM for o-dianisidine and H2O2, respectively. The cationic peroxidase Cs showed the peroxidase activities for native substrates, such as coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and scopoletin. This result suggested that cationic peroxidase Cs plays an important role in plant cell wall formation during seed germination.

  7. Hydrocolloid liquid-core capsules for the removal of heavy-metal cations from water. (United States)

    Nussinovitch, A; Dagan, O


    Liquid-core capsules with a non-crosslinked alginate fluidic core surrounded by a gellan membrane were produced in a single step to investigate their ability to adsorb heavy metal cations. The liquid-core gellan-alginate capsules, produced by dropping alginate solution with magnesium cations into gellan solution, were extremely efficient at adsorbing lead cations (267 mg Pb(2+)/g dry alginate) at 25 °C and pH 5.5. However, these capsules were very weak and brittle, and an external strengthening capsule was added by using magnesium cations. The membrane was then thinned with the surfactant lecithin, producing capsules with better adsorption attributes (316 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate vs. 267 mg Pb(+2)/g dry alginate without lecithin), most likely due to the thinner membrane and enhanced mass transfer. The capsules' ability to adsorb other heavy-metal cations - copper (Cu(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)) and nickel (Ni(2+)) - was tested. Adsorption efficiencies were 219, 197 and 65 mg/g, respectively, and were correlated with the cation's affinity to alginate. Capsules with the sorbed heavy metals were regenerated by placing in a 1M nitric acid suspension for 24h. Capsules could undergo three regeneration cycles before becoming damaged.

  8. Cationic amphiphiles with fatty acyl chain asymmetry of coconut oil deliver genes selectively to mouse lung. (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, Voshavar; Srujan, Marepally; Prabhakar, Rairala; Reddy, Rakesh C; Sreedhar, Bojja; Rentam, Kiran K R; Kanjilal, Sanjit; Chaudhuri, Arabinda


    Recent structure-activity studies have revealed a dramatic influence of hydrophobic chain asymmetry in enhancing gene delivery efficacies of synthetic cationic amphiphiles (Nantz, M. H. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2010, 7, 786-794; Koynova, R. et al. Mol. Pharmaceutics2009, 6, 951-958). The present findings demonstrate for the first time that such a transfection enhancing influence of asymmetric hydrocarbon chains observed in pure synthetic cationic amphiphiles also works for cationic amphiphiles designed with natural, asymmetric fatty acyl chains of a food-grade oil. Herein, we demonstrate that cationic amphiphiles designed with the natural fatty acyl chain asymmetry of food-grade coconut oil are less cytotoxic and deliver genes selectively to mouse lung. Despite lauroyl chains being the major fatty acyl chains of coconut oil, both the in vitro and In vivo gene transfer efficiencies of such cationic amphiphiles were found to be remarkably superior (>4-fold) to those of their pure dilauroyl analogue. Mechanistic studies involving the technique of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) revealed higher biomembrane fusibility of the cationic liposomes of the coconut amphiphiles than that of the symmetric dilauroyl analogue. AFM study revealed pronounced fusogenic nonlamellar structures of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles. Findings in the FRET and cellular uptake study, taken together, support the notion that the higher cellular uptake resulting from the more fusogenic nature of the liposomes of coconut amphiphiles 1 are likely to play a dominant role in making the coconut amphiphiles transfection competent.

  9. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  10. Infrared multiple photon dissociation action spectroscopy of sodium cationized halouracils: Effects of sodium cationization and halogenation on gas-phase conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaczan, C.M.; Rathur, A.I.; Wu, R.R.; Chen, Y.; Austin, C.A.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M.T.


    The gas-phase structures of sodium cationized complexes of 5- and 6-halo-substituted uracils are examined via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical electronic structure calculations. The halouracils examined in this investigation include: 5-flourouracil, 5

  11. Formation of cationic [RP5Cl](+)-cages via insertion of [RPCl](+)-cations into a P-P bond of the P4 tetrahedron. (United States)

    Holthausen, Michael H; Feldmann, Kai-Oliver; Schulz, Stephen; Hepp, Alexander; Weigand, Jan J


    Fluorobenzene solutions of RPCl(2) and a Lewis acid such as ECl(3) (E = Al, Ga) in a 1:1 ratio are used as reactive sources of chlorophosphenium cations [RPCl](+), which insert into P-P bonds of dissolved P(4). This general protocol represents a powerful strategy for the synthesis of new cationic chloro-substituted organophosphorus [RP(5)Cl](+)-cages as illustrated by the isolation of several monocations (21a-g(+)) in good to excellent yields. For singular reaction two possible reaction mechanisms are proposed on the basis of quantum chemical calculations. The intriguing NMR spectra and structures of the obtained cationic [RP(5)Cl](+)-cages are discussed. Furthermore, the reactions of dichlorophosphanes and the Lewis acid GaCl(3) in various stoichiometries are investigated to obtain a deeper understanding of the species involved in these reactions. The formation of intermediates such as RPCl(2)·GaCl(3) (14) adducts, dichlorophosphanylchlorophosphonium cations [RPCl(2)-RPCl](+) (16(+)) and [RPCl(2)-RPCl-GaCl(3)](+) (17(+)) in reaction mixtures of RPCl(2) and GaCl(3) in fluorobenzene strongly depends on the basicity of the dichlorophosphane RPCl(2) (R = tBu, Cy, iPr, Et, Me, Ph, C(6)F(5)) and the reaction stoichiometry.

  12. The Prowess of Photogenerated Amine Radical Cations in Cascade Reactions: From Carbocycles to Heterocycles. (United States)

    Morris, Scott A; Wang, Jiang; Zheng, Nan


    Cascade reactions represent a class of ideal organic reactions because they empower efficiency, elegance, and novelty. However, development of cascade reactions remains a daunting task for synthetic chemists. Radicals are known to be well suited for cascade reactions. Compared with widely used carbon-based radicals, nitrogen-based radicals, such as neutral aminyl radicals and protonated aminyl radicals (amine radical cations), are underutilized, although they are behind some notable synthetic methods such as the Hofmann-Löffler-Freytag reaction. The constraint on their usage is generally attributed to the limited number of available stable precursors. Since amine radical cations offer increased reactivity and selectivity in chemical transformations compared with neutral aminyl radicals, their generation is of utmost importance. Recently, a surge of reports has been revealed using visible light photoredox catalysis. It has been demonstrated that amines can act as an electron donor in a reductive quenching cycle while the amine itself is oxidized to the amine radical cation. Although a number of methods exist to generate amine radical cations, the photochemical formation of these species offers many practical advantages. In this Account, we discuss our journey to the development of annulation reactions with various π-bonds and electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes using photogenerated amine radical cations. Various carbocycles and heterocycles are produced by these reactions. In our annulation work, we first show that single electron photooxidation of cyclopropylanilines to the amine radical cations triggers ring opening of the strained carbocycle, producing distonic radical cations. These odd-electron species are shown to react with alkenes and alkynes to yield the corresponding cyclopentanes and cyclopentenes in an overall redox neutral process. Further development of this annulation reaction allows us to achieve the [4 + 2] annulation of cyclobutylanilines

  13. Hysteroscopic sterilization with occlusion of sheep uterine tube using n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive Esterilização histeroscópica com oclusão da tuba uterina de ovelha com adesivo de n-butil-2-cianoacrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Bigolin


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the fertility and analyze the macroscopic, microscopic and morphometric aspects of sheep uterine tube sterilization with a hysteroscopically insert of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate adhesive. METHODS: 12 adult sheep, with one previous pregnancy, were distributed as follows: group L (n=3 subjected to laparotomy and Pomeroy uterine tube ligation, group S (n=3 subjected to hysteroscopic application of saline solution in tube isthmus and group AD(n=6, that was subjected to hysteroscopic application of 0.5 ml of n-2-butil-cyanoacrylate in tube isthmus. They were mated with fertile males for ninety days. The non pregnant sheep, at the 90th day, were subjected to laparotomy with uterus and tubes uterine resection. The fragments of uterine tubes were fixated in 10% formalin and processes for histology evaluated, and slices dyes for H.E. Data were evaluated by Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: All sheep from groups L and AD did not get pregnant (0% in contrast with sheep from group S (100%; the adhesive remained integral in the uterine tube lumen. The percentual of adherences (66.6% and fibrosis responses (100% was significantly higher in the group L than group AD (0% (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a fertilidade e aspectos macroscópicos, microscópicos e morfométricos da esterilização histeroscópica de tubas uterinas de ovelhas com o adesivo de n-butil-2-cianoacrilato. MÉTODOS: 12 ovelhas adultas, com uma prenhez anterior, foram distribuídas como segue: o grupo L (n=3 submetidas à laparotomia e laqueadura tipo Pomeroy, grupo S (n=3 submetidas à aplicação histeroscópica de solução salina no istmo tubário e grupo AD (n=6, com aplicação histeroscópica de 0,5 ml de cianoacrilato. As ovelhas foram acasaladas com machos de comprovada fertilidade por noventa dias. As ovelhas não prenhes aos 90 dias, foram submetidas à laparotomia com ressecção do útero e tubas uterinas, que foram fixadas em formalina 10%s e os

  14. Does Cation Size Affect Occupancy and Electrostatic Screening of the Nucleic Acid Ion Atmosphere? (United States)

    Gebala, Magdalena; Bonilla, Steve; Bisaria, Namita; Herschlag, Daniel


    Electrostatics are central to all aspects of nucleic acid behavior, including their folding, condensation, and binding to other molecules, and the energetics of these processes are profoundly influenced by the ion atmosphere that surrounds nucleic acids. Given the highly complex and dynamic nature of the ion atmosphere, understanding its properties and effects will require synergy between computational modeling and experiment. Prior computational models and experiments suggest that cation occupancy in the ion atmosphere depends on the size of the cation. However, the computational models have not been independently tested, and the experimentally observed effects were small. Here, we evaluate a computational model of ion size effects by experimentally testing a blind prediction made from that model, and we present additional experimental results that extend our understanding of the ion atmosphere. Giambasu et al. developed and implemented a three-dimensional reference interaction site (3D-RISM) model for monovalent cations surrounding DNA and RNA helices, and this model predicts that Na(+) would outcompete Cs(+) by 1.8-2.1-fold; i.e., with Cs(+) in 2-fold excess of Na(+) the ion atmosphere would contain an equal number of each cation (Nucleic Acids Res. 2015, 43, 8405). However, our ion counting experiments indicate that there is no significant preference for Na(+) over Cs(+). There is an ∼25% preferential occupancy of Li(+) over larger cations in the ion atmosphere but, counter to general expectations from existing models, no size dependence for the other alkali metal ions. Further, we followed the folding of the P4-P6 RNA and showed that differences in folding with different alkali metal ions observed at high concentration arise from cation-anion interactions and not cation size effects. Overall, our results provide a critical test of a computational prediction, fundamental information about ion atmosphere properties, and parameters that will aid in the

  15. On the Expressiveness of the Approach to Constructing PLC-programs by LTL-Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the approach to constructing and verification of discrete PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides an ability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method. The linear temporal logic LTL is used as a language of specification of the program behavior. The correctness analysis of LTL-specification is automatically performed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. The article demonstrates the consistency of the approach to constructing and verification of PLC programs by LTL-specification from the point of view of Turing power. It is proved, that in accordance with this approach for any Minsky counter machine can be built an LTL-specification, which is used for machine implementation in any PLC programming language of standard IEC 61131-3. Minsky machines equipollent Turing machines, and the considered approach also has Turing power. The proof focuses on representation of a counter machine behavior in the form of a set of LTL-formulas and matching these formulas to constructions of ST and SFC languages. SFC is interesting as a specific graphical language. ST is considered as a basic language because an implementation of a counter machine in IL, FBD/CFC and LD languages is reduced to rewriting blocks of ST-program. The idea of the proof is demonstrated by an example of a Minsky 3-counter machine, which implements a function of squaring.

  16. Hemin/G-quadruplex structure and activity alteration induced by magnesium cations. (United States)

    Kosman, J; Juskowiak, B


    The influence of metal cations on G-quadruplex structure and peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity was investigated. Experiments revealed a significant role of magnesium ion, which in the presence of potassium cation influenced DNAzyme activity. This ability has been associated with alteration of G-quadruplex topology and consequently affinity to bind hemin molecule. It has been demonstrated that G-quadruplex based on PS2.M sequence under these conditions formed parallel topology, which exhibited lower activity than that observed in standard potassium-containing solution. On the other hand DNAzyme/magnesium ion system based on telomeric sequence, which did not undergo significant structural changes, exhibited higher peroxidase activity upon magnesium ion addition. In both cases, the stabilization effect of magnesium cations on G-quadruplex structure was observed. The mechanism of DNAzyme activity alteration by magnesium ion can be explained by its influence on the pKa value of DNAzyme. Magnesium ion decreased pKa for PS2.M based system but increased it for telomeric DNAzyme. Magnesium cation effect on G-quadruplex structure as well as DNAzyme activity is particularly important since this ion is one of the most common metal cations in biological samples.

  17. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Saiers


    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  18. Preparation of weak cation exchange packings for chromatographic separation of proteins using "click chemistry''. (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Bai, Quan; Song, Chao; Wang, Fei; Yang, Fan


    "Click chemistry" is defined as a class of robust and selective chemical reactions affording high yields and is tolerant to a variety of solvents (including water), functional groups, and air. In this study, click chemistry was used as an effective strategy for coupling three alkyne-carboxylic acids onto the azide-silica to obtain three novel stationary phases of weak cation exchange chromatography, which were characterized with FTIR and elemental analysis. Six kinds of standard proteins, such as myoglobin, RNase A, RNase B, cytochrome C, α-chymotrypsin A, and lysozyme, were separated completely with the three novel weak cation exchange chromatography stationary phases. Compared with commercial weak cation exchange chromatography columns, the three kinds of novel weak cation exchange chromatography packings prepared by click chemistry approach have better resolution and selectivity. The mass recovery of more than 97% was obtained for all the tested proteins, and the bioactivity recovery of lysozyme on the prepared column was determined to be 96%. In addition, lysozyme was purified successfully from egg white with the novel weak cation exchange chromatography column by one step. The purity was more than 97% and a high specific activity was achieved to be 81 435 U/mg. The results illustrate the potential of click chemistry for preparing stationary phase for ion-exchange chromatography.

  19. First principles derived, transferable force fields for CO2 adsorption in Na-exchanged cationic zeolites. (United States)

    Fang, Hanjun; Kamakoti, Preeti; Ravikovitch, Peter I; Aronson, Matthew; Paur, Charanjit; Sholl, David S


    The development of accurate force fields is vital for predicting adsorption in porous materials. Previously, we introduced a first principles-based transferable force field for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites (Fang et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2012, 116, 10692). In this study, we extend our approach to CO2 adsorption in cationic zeolites which possess more complex structures. Na-exchanged zeolites are chosen for demonstrating the approach. These methods account for several structural complexities including Al distribution, cation positions and cation mobility, all of which are important for predicting adsorption. The simulation results are validated with high-resolution experimental measurements of isotherms and microcalorimetric heats of adsorption on well-characterized materials. The choice of first-principles method has a significant influence on the ability of force fields to accurately describe CO2-zeolite interactions. The PBE-D2 derived force field, which performed well for CO2 adsorption in siliceous zeolites, does not do so for Na-exchanged zeolites; the PBE-D2 method overestimates CO2 adsorption energies on multi-cation sites that are common in cationic zeolites with low Si/Al ratios. In contrast, a force field derived from the DFT/CC method performed well. Agreement was obtained between simulation and experiment not only for LTA-4A on which the force field fitting is based, but for other two common adsorbents, NaX and NaY.

  20. Change Color Effect and Spectral Properties of Gold Nanoparticle-cationic Surfactants System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhi-liang; PAN Hong-cheng; YUAN Wei-en


    The change color effect of gold nanoparticle solutions was studied by means of resonance scattering and absorption spectrometry and scan electron microscopy. The red Au nanoparticles with a size of 10 nm exhibit a resonance absorption peak and a resonance scattering peak all at 525 nm. After some inorganic electrolyte was added to a red Au nanoparticles solution, the color of the solution became blue and the absorbance at 600-700 nm was significantly increased. The ratio of the concentration of monovalent cations, at which the resonance scattering of the system at 525 nm is maximal to that of divalent cations, is in the range of 100 : 1 -100 : 1.8. It is in good agreement with the Schulze-Hardy rule of the coagulation value of electrolyte. After adding some cationic surfactants to the above solution, the color of the solution is in deep blue, with two resonance absorption peaks at 550 and 680 nm, and a greatly enhanced resonance scattering peak at 525 nm.The experiments demonstrate that the stronger the hydrophobicity of the cationic surfactant is, the stronger the change color effect of the Au nanoparticle solution promoted by cationic surfactant is. The change color effect of Au nanoparticle solution is resulted from the increased diameter of Au nanoparticles, and the changes of resonance absorption peak and resonance scattering.