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Sample records for cationic polyamidoamine dendrimer

  1. A novel Ag+ cation sensor based on polyamidoamine dendrimer modified with 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodangeh, Mohammad; Gharanjig, Kamaladin; Arami, Mokhtar

    2016-02-01

    In this study, 4-amino-1,8-naphthalimide-conjugated polyamidoamine dendrimer was synthesized and characterized and its potentiality as a cation sensor was investigated. 4-Amino-1,8-naphthalic anhydride reacted with polyamidoamine dendrimer and the product was characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and melting point analysis method. The synthesized compound was applied to detect various cations in water media and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) via monitoring the quenching of the fluorescence intensity. Furthermore, various metal cations including Cu2 +, Ni2 +, Zn2 +, Pb2 +,Ca2 +, Ba2 +, Cd2 +, Hg2 +, Fe2 +, Fe3 + and Ag+ were tested. The complexes formed between the synthesized compound and metal cations in solution and their effects on Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) process were investigated regarding the potential application of the newly-synthesized dendrimer as a colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for such cations. The results clearly confirmed that the 1,8-naphthalimide groups surrounding the central dendrimer core showed strong green fluorescence emission at 553 nm. This effect considerably decreased with the introduction of all cations, except Ag+ where the fluorescence quenching effect was remarkable and more dominant. Therefore, it can be concluded that the synthesized dye has the potentiality of being a highly sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for Ag+ cation.

  2. Cationic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers induced cyto-protective autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are proposed as one of the most promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications because of their unique tree-like structure, monodispersity and tunable properties. In this study, we found that PAMAM dendrimers could induce the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, while the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR and activation of the Erk 1/2 signaling pathways were involved in autophagy-induced by PAMAM dendrimers. We also investigated the suppression of autophagy with the obviously enhanced cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers. Moreover, the blockage of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) could enhance the growth inhibition and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, induced by PAMAM dendrimers through reducing autophagic effects. Taken together, these findings explored the role and mechanism of autophagy induced by PAMAM dendrimers in HepG2 cells, provided new insight into the effect of autophagy on drug delivery nanomaterials and tumor cells and contributed to the use of a drug delivery vehicle for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. (paper)

  3. Cationic poly(amidoamine) dendrimers induced cyto-protective autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Wang, Shaofei; Wang, Ziyu; Qian, Xiaolu; Fan, Jiajun; Zeng, Xian; Sun, Yun; Song, Ping; Feng, Meiqing; Ju, Dianwen

    2014-09-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are proposed as one of the most promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications because of their unique tree-like structure, monodispersity and tunable properties. In this study, we found that PAMAM dendrimers could induce the formation of autophagosomes and the conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, while the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR and activation of the Erk 1/2 signaling pathways were involved in autophagy-induced by PAMAM dendrimers. We also investigated the suppression of autophagy with the obviously enhanced cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers. Moreover, the blockage of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) could enhance the growth inhibition and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, induced by PAMAM dendrimers through reducing autophagic effects. Taken together, these findings explored the role and mechanism of autophagy induced by PAMAM dendrimers in HepG2 cells, provided new insight into the effect of autophagy on drug delivery nanomaterials and tumor cells and contributed to the use of a drug delivery vehicle for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment.

  4. Electrochemistry of polyamidoamine dendrimers ester gel electrolytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; MO Zunli

    2004-01-01

    This paper described the first example of polyamidoamine dendrimers ester (PAMAM) used as a gel electrolyte with a short-chain polyethylene glycol (MPEG-400) as a plasticizer. The polymer films are solid and sticky. Background cyclic voltammetry (CV) shows a potential window between +0.7 and -0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The voltammetry of ferrocene and 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) indicates that diffusion coefficients are in the range of 10-a-10-9 cm2/s.Ionic conductivities are approximately 10-6 S/cm. Similar films using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a plasticizer instead of MPEG-400 have demonstrated ionic conductivities of 10-4 S/cra and reversible voltammetry. However, UV spectrophotometry shows that 70% of the DMSO is lost under vacuum, indicating the difficulty in quantifying the DMSO content when exposed to vacuum.

  5. Synthesis and properties of new amphoteric poly(amidoamine dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of new amphoteric dendrimers have been synthesized by attaching dimethylbenzylaminoethyl acrylate chloride (Bz80, sodium acrylic acid (SAA and modified polyoxyethylene (MPEO units to a third-generation poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer core via Michael addition reaction. The structure of the dendrimers was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal stability and intrinsic viscosity were investigated. The applicable experiment exhibited the amphoteric dendrimers have high flocculation efficiency, which could be significantly improved by combining amphoteric dendrimers with polyacrylamide (PAM. The suitable mass ratio of the dendrimers and PAM was 2:3. The study would promote the use of amphoteric dendrimers as a flocculant in treating wastewater and as a new paper retention aid in papermaking.

  6. Quaternized Polyamidoamine Dendrimers as Novel Gene Delivery System: Relationship between Degree of Quaternization and Their Influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaternary ammonium groups were introduced to Starburst polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers for a gene carrier. These quaternary dendritic carriers exhibited reduced cytotoxicity on 293T cells compared to parent dendrimers examined and their transfection efficiency were similar with parent dendrimers. Quaternization could be a promising tool to improve properties of dendrimers as a gene delivery carrier

  7. 9-Anthracenecarboxaldehyde Functionalized Second Generation Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers: Synthesis and Metal Absorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Min HE; Wei ZHENG; Pei Xie YANG; Hai Ping XIA

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report the peripheral functionalization of amine-terminated second generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) with 9-anthracenecarboxalehyde and the preparation of dendrimer-encapsulated metal salts. The interesting different behaviors of these hybrid materials were observed by fluorescence and UV-Vis spectra.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(Amidoamine Dendrimers Encapsulatd 198Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ritawidya1,2

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy or internal radiotherapy is one of many methods used for treatment of cancer. This modality requires an agent with radionuclides that emits  or β particle with a proper energy. 198Au (99% β max = 0.96 MeV and t1/2 = 2.69 days is one of radionuclides that has been considered to be effective for the above-mentioned purpose. The purpose of this research was to synthesis and characterize poly(amidoamine (PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles as a new brachytherapy agent. PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles was successfully synthesized by a bottom-up method using sodium borohydride as a reductor. Purification was then performed by a size exclusion chromatography in order to separate large Au nanoparticles that were formed outside the cavity of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers. Prior to the synthesis of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles, the synthetic procedure was first established by using a non-radioactive Au. The PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles produced was then characterized by using an UV-Vis spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscopy (TEM, particle size analyzer (PSA, and an atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Characterization results revealed that PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles that were prepared from a reaction mixture of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers and Au HAuCl4 with mol ratio of 2.8, was found to be a proper formula. It produced PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated Au nanoparticles with diameter of 1.743 nm, spheris, uniform and drug loading value of 26.34%. This formula was then used in synthesis using radioactive Au, 198Au. Characterization results of PAMAM G3.0 dendrimers encapsulated 198Au nanoparticles gave a radiochemical purity of 99.4% and zero charge.

  9. Naked Polyamidoamine Polymers Intrinsically Inhibit Angiotensin II-Mediated EGFR and ErbB2 Transactivation in a Dendrimer Generation- and Surface Chemistry-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saghir; El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Benter, Ibrahim F

    2016-05-01

    The effects of naked polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signaling via Angiotensin (Ang) II-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the closely related family member ErbB2 (HER2) were investigated. In primary aortic vascular smooth muscle cells, a cationic fifth-generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimer dose- and time-dependently inhibited Ang II/AT1 receptor-mediated transactivation of EGFR and ErbB2 as well as their downstream signaling via extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Inhibition even occurred at noncytotoxic concentrations at short (1 h) exposure times and was dependent on dendrimer generation (G7 > G6 > G5 > G4) and surface group chemistry (amino > carboxyl > hydroxyl). Mechanistically, the cationic G5 PAMAM dendrimer inhibited Ang II-mediated transactivation of EGFR and ErbB2 via inhibition of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src. This novel, early onset, intrinsic biological action of PAMAM dendrimers as inhibitors of the Ang II/AT1/Src/EGFR-ErbB2/ERK1/2 signaling pathway could have important toxicological and pharmacological implications. PMID:26985693

  10. Thiol-ene crosslinking polyamidoamine dendrimer-hyaluronic acid hydrogel system for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiangdong; Liang, Aiye; Tan, Yu; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Higginbothem, Ashley; Gado, Togor; Gramling, Abigail; Bahn, Hanna; Wang, Qian

    2016-06-01

    A series of alkene functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers were synthesized to prepare in situ forming hydrogels with varied gelation time and mechanical properties through crosslinking with thiolated hyaluronic acid (HS-HA). By varying the alkenyl groups on the dendrimers, the gelation time displayed a large range from 8 seconds to 18 hours, and the modulus of the hydrogels ranged from 36 to 183 Pa under experimental conditions. Investigation by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy revealed that the gelation time and the stiffness of the hydrogels were governed by the degree of electron deficiency of alkenyl groups on the dendrimers. This research provided a systematic study on the relationship between chemical structures versus gelation time and mechanical properties of hydrogels, which could guide the way to synthesize in situ forming hydrogels with designated gelation time and stiffness for biomedical applications. Further, a RGD peptide was attached to the PAMAM dendrimers to enhance cell attachment and proliferation. Viability assays of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) in the synthesized hydrogels demonstrated the biocompatibility of the hydrogels after 48 hours of culturing, and the RGD peptide improved the viability of HUVEC cells in hydrogels. We believe the PAMAM/HA hydrogel system is a tuneable and biocompatible system for diverse biomedical applications. PMID:26923639

  11. Intermolecular forces between low generation PAMAM dendrimer condensed DNA helices: role of cation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Min; Parkin, Sean R; DeRouchey, Jason E

    2014-01-28

    In recent years, dendriplexes, complexes of cationic dendrimers with DNA, have become attractive DNA delivery vehicles due to their well-defined chemistries. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing dendriplexes, we studied low generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-DNA complexes and compared them to comparably charged linear arginine peptides. Using osmotic stress coupled with X-ray scattering, we have investigated the effect of molecular chain architecture on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance within these polycation condensed DNA arrays. In order to compact DNA, linear cations are believed to bind in DNA grooves and to interact with the phosphate backbone of apposing helices. We have previously shown a length dependent attraction resulting in higher packaging densities with increasing charge for linear cations. Hyperbranched polycations, such as polycationic dendrimers, presumably would not be able to bind to DNA and correlate their charges in the same manner as linear cations. We show that attractive and repulsive force amplitudes in PAMAM-DNA assemblies display significantly different trends than comparably charged linear arginines resulting in lower DNA packaging densities with increasing PAMAM generation. The salt and pH dependencies of packaging in PAMAM dendrimer-DNA and linear arginine-DNA complexes were also investigated. Significant differences in the force curve behaviour and salt and pH sensitivities suggest that different binding modes may be present in DNA condensed by dendrimers when compared to linear polycations. PMID:24651934

  12. Novel looped enzyme-polyamidoamine dendrimer nanohybrids used as biosensor matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yun-Long; Huang, Hao-Wen; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Tian, Mei-Na; Li, Chun-Xiang; Tang, Chun-Ran; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2007-12-01

    We report the synthesis of a novel looped enzyme-polyamidoamine nanocomposite with high enzyme loading density and long-term retention of bioactivity. The horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is first immobilized on fourth-grade (G4) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer to form relatively a small enzyme-PAMAM composite, which is allowed to grow up into a larger one. The looped horseradish peroxidase-polyamidoamine (HRP-PAMAM) nanohybrid was characterized by TEM. The material obtained shows promising features as applied to the fabrication of high sensitive and long lifetime biosensors. In the presence of the hydroquinone mediator in the solution, the immobilized HRP exhibited excellent electro-catalytical response to H2O2. Under the optimal conditions, the resulting biosensor showed a linear response to H2O2 over a concentration range from 3.1x10(-6) to 2.0x10(-3) mol L(-1) with a sensitivity of 0.36 A L mol(-1) cm(-2) and a detection limit of 8.0x10(-7) mol L(-1). The sensitivity of the sensor response maintained over 70% of the original over 10 weeks. The catalytic activity of the looped enzyme-PAMAM nanohybrid form of HRP enzyme was obviously stabilized. As an extension, bienzyme sensor modified with glucose oxidase and HRP enzymatic PAMAM nanocomposites was constructed. The sensor exhibited improved performance and can be applied to the detection of glucose in real samples. PMID:17996539

  13. Polyamidoamine dendrimer and oleic acid-functionalized graphene as biocompatible and efficient gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiahui; Ma, Dongmei; Tang, Hao; Tan, Liang; Xie, Qingji; Zhang, Youyu; Ma, Ming; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2014-06-11

    Functionalized graphene has good potential in biomedical applications. To address a better and multiplex design of graphene-based gene vectors, the graphene-oleate-polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer hybrids were synthesized by the oleic acid adsorption and covalent linkage of PAMAM dendrimers. The micromorphology, electrical charge property, and amount of free amine groups of the graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids were characterized, and the peripheral functional groups were identified. The PAMAM dendrimers could be tethered onto graphene surface in high density. The graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids exhibit relatively good dispersity and stability in aqueous solutions. To evaluate the potential application of the hybrids in gene delivery vectors, cytotoxicity to HeLa and MG-63 cells and gene (plasmid DNA of enhanced green fluorescent protein) transfection capacity of the hybrids were investigated in detail. The graphene-oleate-PAMAM hybrids show mammalian cell type- and dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity. Under the optimal condition, the hybrids possess good biocompatibility and gene transfection capacity. The surface modification of graphene with oleic acid and PAMAM improves the gene transfection efficiency 13 times in contrast to the ultrasonicated graphene. Moreover, the hybrids show better transfection efficiency than the graphene oxide-PAMAM without the oleic acid modification. PMID:24836601

  14. Nano polyamidoamine-G7 dendrimer synthesis and assessment the antibacterial effect in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Gholami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nano scale dendrimers are macromolecules synthetic which frequently used in medical and health field. Because traditional antibiotics inevitably induce bacterial resistance, which is responsible for many treatment failures, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic drugs. This study was aimed to examine Synthesis and the antibacterial effect of NanoPolyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer on Escherichia Coli, Proteus Mirabilis, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus Aureus. Methods: In this experimental study that has been conducted in June 2015 in the Laboratory of Microbiology, Iran University of Medical Science, NPAMAM-G7 dendrimers was synthesized by Tomalia’s divergent growth approach. The antibacterial effects of NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer were studied by disc diffusion and micro-dilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guideline. Standard discs were prepared using different concentrations of dendrimer on Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Results: Zone of inhibition in concentration 25 μg/ml of NPAMAM-G7 dendrimers for Escherichia Coli, Proteus Mirabilis, Salmonella Typhi, Bacillus Subtilis and Staphylococcus Aureus were 26, 38, 36, 22 and 25 mm, respectively. Regarding the zone of inhibition in gram negative bacteria with gram positive ones was P= 0.16 and was not significant difference. The MIC for Salmonella Typhi was 0.025, for Proteus Mirabilis, Bacillus Subtilis, Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli was 0.25 μg/ml. The MBC for Salmonella Typhi was 25μg/ml, for Proteus Mirabilis and Bacillus Subtilis was 50 μg/ml and for Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus was 100 μg/ml. The least of sensitivity against NPAMAM-G7 related to Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus and the most of sensitivity related to

  15. Interaction Mechanism of Nano-silicon Dioxide Modified by Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jin; Xiao-yu Li

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the attachment of ≡Si+ (SC) ion (regarded as guest) to the lowest generation,NH2-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (regarded as host) in the liquid phase,density functional theory is used to investigate the structures and energetics of the host-guest complex.The effect of solvent on the structures and energetics is also investigated.Various initial configurations of the ion bound to PAMAM are tested,and two stable conformers are found,i.e,types A (≡Si+ is bound to the amine site) and C (≡Si+ is bound to the amide site).Types A and C are the most stable due to the chemical bond formations of Si-No (amine nitrogen atoms) and Si-O,respectively.The IR spectra for the lowest energy conformers are thoroughly analyzed and compared with the available experimental data.

  16. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Hybrids for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Francesco; Campisciano, Vincenzo; Calabrese, Carla; La Parola, Valeria; Syrgiannis, Zois; Prato, Maurizio; Gruttadauria, Michelangelo

    2016-04-26

    We report the synthesis and catalytic properties of single-walled carbon nanotube-polyamidoamine dendrimers hybrids (SWCNT-PAMAM), prepared via a convergent strategy. The direct reaction of cystamine-based PAMAM dendrimers (generations 2.5 and 3.0) with pristine SWCNTs in refluxing toluene, followed by immobilization and reduction of [PdCl4](2-), led to the formation of highly dispersed small palladium nanoparticles homogeneously confined throughout the nanotube length. One of these functional materials proved to be an efficient catalyst in Suzuki and Heck reactions, able to promote the above processes down to 0.002 mol % showing a turnover number (TON) of 48 000 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 566 000 h(-1). In addition, the hybrid material could be recovered and recycled for up to 6 times. No leaching of the metal has been detected during the Suzuki coupling. Additional experiments carried out on the spent catalyst permitted to suggest that a "release and catch" mechanism is operative in both reactions, although during Heck reaction small catalytically active soluble Pd species are also present. PMID:26974262

  17. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular transportation, and exocytosis of polyamidoamine dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhang,Mengjun; Sun,Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan,Guannan; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao,Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Jie Zhang,1 Dan Liu,1 Mengjun Zhang,1 Yuqi Sun,1,2 Xiaojun Zhang,1 Guannan Guan,1 Xiuli Zhao,1 Mingxi Qiao,1 Dawei Chen,1 Haiyang Hu1 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Polyamidoamine dendrimers, which can deliver drugs and genetic materials to resistant cells, are attracting inc...

  18. Gene therapy for ovarian cancer using carbonyl reductase 1 DNA with a polyamidoamine dendrimer in mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A; Yokoyama, Y; Osawa, Y; Miura, R; Mizunuma, H

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) in which carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) is highly expressed has good prognosis. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal conditions for delivering CBR1 DNA to OC cells via a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and to examine the therapeutic effectiveness of using a CBR1/PAMAM dendrimer to treat OC. The ratio for mixture of the PAMAM dendrimer and CBR1 plasmid DNA was defined as the ratio of the number of moles of phosphate groups in plasmid DNA to the number of moles of amino groups in PAMAM, which was expressed as N/P ratio. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with OC cells (HRA) to create peritoneal carcinomatosis. CBR1 DNA/PAMAM dendrimer complexes were administered on alternate days after injection of HRA cells. Cells transfected with CBR1 DNA at N/P ratio of 20:1 for 48 h produced the highest level of CBR1 expression. All the mice in control group died prior to day 25. However, all the mice administered the CBR1 DNA/PAMAM dendrimer survived (P<0.001). Use of a PAMAM dendrimer allowed CBR1 DNA to be delivered to cancer cells. The results suggested that CBR1 DNA/PAMAM dendrimer complexes may represent a potent gene therapy for the treatment of advanced OC. PMID:26584532

  19. Polyamidoamine Dendrimer-Based Binders for High-Loading Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Lv, Dongping; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Darsell, Jens T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Tomalia, Donald A.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Xiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are regarded as one of the most promising candidates for next generation energy storage systems because of their ultra high theoretical specific energy. To realize the practical application of Li-S batteries, however, a high S active material loading is essential (>70 wt% in the carbon-sulfur (C-S) composite cathode and >2 mg cm-2 in the electrode). A critical challenge to achieving this high capacity in practical electrodes is the dissolution of the longer lithium polysulfide reaction intermediates in the electrolyte (resulting in loss of active material from the cathode and contamination of the anode due to the polysulfide shuttle mechanism). The binder material used for the cathode is therefore crucial as this is a key determinant of the bonding interactions between the active material (S) and electronic conducting support (C), as well as the maintenance of intimate contact between the electrode materials and current collector. The battery performance can thus be directly correlated with the choice of binder, but this has received only minimal attention in the relevant Li-S battery published literature. Here, we investigated the application of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as functional binders in Li-S batteries—a class of materials which has been unexplored for electrode design. By using dendrimers, it is demonstrated that high S loadings (>4 mg cm-2) can be easily achieved using "standard" (not specifically tailored) materials and simple processing methods. An exceptional electrochemical cycling performance was obtained (as compared to cathodes with conventional linear polymeric binders such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR)) with >100 cycles and 85-98% capacity retention, thus demonstrating the significant utility of this new binder architecture which exhibits critical physicochemical properties and flexible nanoscale design parameters (CNDP's).

  20. Silica nanoparticles functionalized with polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as platforms for photoluminescence (PL) sensing of copper and cyanide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrans, Kateryna; Luhrs, Alicia; Feider, Clara; Margerum, Lawrence D

    2016-05-15

    Functionalized nanoparticles for photoluminescence (PL) applications are a promising technology for biomedical imaging and as sensors for small molecules. This work presents a new method to modify silica nanoparticles (SNP) using the bifunctional linker 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) with a series of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer molecules followed by grafting of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) to create platforms for photoluminescence (PL) sensors. A dendrimer size and charge-variable response to only copper(II) ions confirmed the prediction of a selective turn-off sensor via proximity quenching. Both dye density and Cu(2+) quenching efficiency peaked with SNP-dendrimer generation 4 (64 terminal amines). In addition, changing the terminal dendrimer arms to carboxylic acid end groups increased the copper quenching suggesting that more metal ion binding sites were created in close proximity to the dyes. Of the small anions tested for a turn-off sensor, only cyanide ion fully restored the PL when reaching a 2:1 CN(-):Cu(2+) ratio, while EDTA was not as effective at the same ratio. Therefore, dendrimer size and surface charge on the nanoparticles controlled the dye loading and copper quenching efficiency, while creating multiple binding sites for cyanide over other metal binding anions. PMID:26962978

  1. Cu(II) bis(oxamato) end-grafted poly(amidoamine) dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlig, Karoline; Mothes, Robert; Aliabadi, Azar; Kataev, Vladislav; Büchner, Bernd; Buschbeck, Roy; Rüffer, Tobias; Lang, Heinrich

    2016-05-10

    Successive treatment of the diethyl ester of 3,4-bis(oxamate)phenylene benzoic acid (3,4-bopbH2Et2OH; ) with [Bu4N]OH and MCl2·nH2O (M = Cu, Ni; n = 2, 6) gave, upon extraction into CH2Cl2, binuclear complexes [Bu4N]4[{M(3,4-bopbO)}2CH2] (, M = Cu, Ni) as novel symmetric methylene diesters. In contrast, subsequent addition of [Bu4N]OH and anhydrous NiCl2 to afforded the very hygroscopic [Bu4N]3[Ni(3,4-bopbO)] () instead. In order to verify reaction conditions to achieve the corresponding carboxamides to - as a crucial step for the synthesis of higher generation dendrimers - was shown to react with RNH2 (R = Me (), Pr ()) to [RNH3][tdqc] (R = Me (), Pr (); tdqc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-2,3-dioxo-6-quinoxaline carboxylate) by rearrangement reactions. Alternatively, if was converted first to 3,4-bopbH2EtF () and treated next with PrNH2, the corresponding carboxamide 3,4-bopbH2Et2NPrH () could be obtained in high yields. The reaction of with [Bu4N]OH and MCl2·nH2O (M = Cu, Ni; n = 2, 6) gave conveniently mononuclear [Bu4N]2[M(3,4-bopbNPrH)] (, M = Cu, Ni). After thus optimizing reaction conditions, for the synthesis of higher-branched bis(oxamato) type complexes the (polyamido)amines (en(II)H2), (den(III)H3), (den(V)H5) and (den(X)H10), possessing two, three, five or ten terminal amino groups, were reacted with appropriate equiv. of to give the corresponding carboxamides en(II)(3,4-bopbH2Et2)2 (), den(III)(3,4-bopbH2Et2)3 (), den(V)(3,4-bopbH2Et2)5 () and den(X)(3,4-bopbH2Et2)10 (). Compounds were converted to the corresponding Cu(II)-containing complexes , which were treated with the corresponding equiv. of [Cu(pmdta)][BF4]2 to afford . Complexes of the series and possess two, three, five or ten end-grafted mononuclear {Cu(3,4-bopb)}(2-) and trinuclear {Cu3(3,4-bopb)(pmdta)2}(2+) complex fragments, respectively. The identities of were established by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS measurements. For and , ESI-MS, UV/Vis and ESR studies were applied to confirm the identities

  2. Electrochemical functionalization of polypyrrole through amine oxidation of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers: Application to DNA biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miodek, Anna; Mejri-Omrani, Nawel; Khoder, Rabih; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2016-07-01

    Electrochemical patterning method has been developed to fabricate composite based on polypyrrole (PPy) film and poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of fourth generation (PAMAM G4). PPy layer was generated using electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole on a gold electrode. PPy film was then modified with PAMAM G4 using amines electro-oxidation method. Covalent bonding of PAMAM G4 and the formation of PPy-PAMAM composite was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Ferrocenyl groups were then attached to such surface as a redox marker. Electrochemical properties of the modified nanomaterial (PPy-PAMAM-Fc) were studied using both amperometric and impedimetric methods to demonstrate the efficiency of electron transfer through the modified PPy layer. The obtained electrical and electrochemical properties were compared to a composite where PPy bearing carboxylic acid functions was chemically modified with PAMAM G4 by covalent attachment through formation of amid bond (PPy-CONH-PAMAM). The above mentioned studies showed that electrochemical patterning does not disturb the electronic properties of PPy. The effect of the number of functional groups introduced by the electrochemical patterning was demonstrated through the association of various compounds (ethylenediamine, PAMAM G2 and PAMAM G6). We demonstrated that such compounds could be applied in the biosensors technology. The modified PPy-PAMAM-Fc was evaluated as a platform for DNA sensing. High performance in the DNA detection by variation of the electrochemical signal of ferrocene was obtained with detection limit of 0.4 fM. Furthermore, such approach of electrochemical patterning by oxidation of amines could be applied for chemical modification of PPy and open a new way in various biosensing application involving functionalized PPy. PMID:27154698

  3. Differences in toxicity of anionic and cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers in zebrafish embryos and cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewein, Lambert; Schmelter, Frank; Di Fiore, Stefano; Hollert, Henner; Fischer, Rainer; Fenske, Martina

    2016-08-15

    Dendrimers are an emerging class of polymeric nanoparticles with beneficial biomedical applications like early diagnostics, in vitro gene transfection or controlled drug delivery. However, the potential toxic impact of exposure on human health or the environment is often inadequately defined. Thus, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generations G3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 and polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimers G3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 were tested in zebrafish embryos for 96h and human cancer cell lines for 24h, to assess and compare developmental in vivo toxicity with cytotoxicity. The zebrafish embryo toxicity of cationic PAMAM and PPI dendrimers increased over time, with EC50 values ranging from 0.16 to just below 1.7μM at 24 and 48hpf. The predominant effects were mortality, plus reduced heartbeat and blood circulation for PPI dendrimers. Apoptosis in the embryos increased in line with the general toxicity concentration-dependently. Hatch and dechorionation of the embryos increased the toxicity, suggesting a protective role of the chorion. Lower generation dendrimers were more toxic in the embryos whereas the toxicity in the HepG2 and DU145 cell lines increased with increasing generation of cationic PAMAMs and PPI dendrimers. HepG2 were less sensitive than DU145 cells, with IC50 values≥402μM (PAMAMs) and ≤240μM (PPIs) for HepG2 and ≤13.24μM (PAMAMs) and ≤12.84μM (PPIs) for DU145. Neither in fish embryos nor cells toxicity thresholds were determinable for anionic PAMAM G3.5 and G4.5. The study demonstrated that the cytotoxicity underestimated the in-vivo toxicity of the dendrimers in the fish embryos. PMID:27288734

  4. Plasmid pORF-hTRAIL targeting to glioma using transferrin-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Song Gao,1,* Jianfeng Li,2 Chen Jiang,2 Bo Hong,3 Bing Hao4,* 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 2Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai, 3Department of Pathology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, 4Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-Organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A gene drug delivery system for glioma therapy based on transferrin (Tf-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM was prepared. Gene drug, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (hTRAIL-encoding plasmid open reading frame (pORF-hTRAIL, Trail, was condensed by Tf-modified PAMAM to form nanoparticles (NPs. PAMAM-PEG-Tf/DNA NPs showed higher cellular uptake, in vitro gene expression, and cytotoxicity than PAMAM-PEG/DNA NPs in C6 cells. The in vivo targeting efficacy of NPs was visualized by ex vivo fluorescence imaging. Tf-modified NPs showed obvious glioma-targeting trend. Plasmid encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP was also condensed by modified or unmodified PAMAM to evaluate the in vivo gene expression level. The PAMAM-PEG-Tf/plasmid encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP NPs exhibited higher GFP expression level than PAMAM-PEG/pEGFP NPs. TUNEL assay revealed that Tf-modified NPs could induce much more tumor apoptosis. The median survival time of PAMAM-PEG-Tf/Trail-treated rats (28.5 days was longer than that of rats treated with PAMAM-PEG/Trail (25.5 days, temozolomide (24.5 days, PAMAM-PEG-Tf/pEGFP (19 days, or saline (17 days. The therapeutic effect was further confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. This study demonstrated that targeting gene delivery system had potential application for the

  5. Effect of pH on Solubilisation of Practically Insoluble Sorafenib by Classic and Stealth Polyamidoamine (PAMAM Dendrimers and β-Cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first report of the solubilization of sorafenib (SFB, a water insoluble drug, by polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD. For this study whole generations (G4 and G5 of PAMAM dendrimers have been used. The aqueous solubility of sorafenib was measured in the presence of dendrimers and β-cyclodextin at 30 ◦ C at pH 4, 7.4, and 10 using the Higuchi rotating bottle method. The amount of solubilized SFB was measured by HPLC-UV method. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy were used to confirm complexation. From the phase solubility studies, it was found that PAMAM dendrimers increased SFB solubility most in pH 4. The maximum solubilizing effect was for G4 PAMAM dendrimers at pH 4 up to 36 folds. β-CD did not or slightly increased the solubility of SFB.

  6. Effect of the Route of Administration and PEGylation of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers on Their Systemic and Lung Cellular Biodistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qian; Merkel, Olivia M; Reineke, Joshua J; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities in the development of oral inhalation (oi) formulations for the delivery of small molecule therapeutics and biologics to and through the lungs. Nanocarriers have the potential to play a key role in advancing oi technologies and pushing the boundary of the pulmonary delivery market. In this work we investigate the effect of the route of administration and PEGylation on the systemic and lung cellular biodistribution of generation 3, amino-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (G3NH2). Pharmacokinetic profiles show that the dendrimers reach their peak concentration in systemic circulation within a few hours after pulmonary delivery, independent of their chemistry (PEGylated or not), charge (+24 mV for G3NH2 vs -3.7 mV for G3NH2-24PEG1000), or size (5.1 nm for G3NH2 and 9.9 nm for G3NH2-24PEG1000). However, high density of surface modification with PEG enhances pulmonary absorption and the peak plasma concentration upon pulmonary delivery. The route of administration and PEGylation also significantly impact the whole body and local (lung cellular) distribution of the dendrimers. While ca. 83% of G3NH2 is found in the lungs upon pulmonary delivery at 6.5 h post administration, only 2% reached the lungs upon intravenous (iv) delivery. Moreover, no measurable concentration of either G3NH2 or G3NH2-24PEG1000 is found in the lymph nodes upon iv administration, while these are the tissues with the second highest mass distribution of dendrimers post pulmonary delivery. Dendrimer chemistry also significantly impacts the (cellular) distribution of the nanocarriers in the lung tissue. Upon pulmonary delivery, approximately 20% of the lung endothelial cells are seen to internalize G3NH2-24PEG1000, compared to only 6% for G3NH2. Conversely, G3NH2 is more readily taken up by lung epithelial cells (35%) when compared to its PEGylated counterpart (24%). The results shown here suggest that both the pulmonary route of administration and dendrimer

  7. Cationic carbosilane dendrimers and oligonucleotide binding: an energetic affair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, D.; Laurini, E.; Posocco, P.; Fermeglia, M.; Pricl, S.

    2015-02-01

    Generation 2 cationic carbosilane dendrimers hold great promise as internalizing agents for gene therapy as they present low toxicity and retain and internalize the genetic material as an oligonucleotide or siRNA. In this work we carried out complete in silico structural and energetical characterization of the interactions of a set of G2 carbosilane dendrimers, showing different affinity towards two single strand oligonucleotide (ODN) sequences in vitro. Our simulations predict that these four dendrimers and the relevant ODN complexes are characterized by similar size and shape, and that the molecule-specific ODN binding ability can be rationalized only by considering a critical molecular design parameter: the normalized effective binding energy ΔGbind,eff/Neff, i.e. the performance of each active individual dendrimer branch directly involved in a binding interaction.Generation 2 cationic carbosilane dendrimers hold great promise as internalizing agents for gene therapy as they present low toxicity and retain and internalize the genetic material as an oligonucleotide or siRNA. In this work we carried out complete in silico structural and energetical characterization of the interactions of a set of G2 carbosilane dendrimers, showing different affinity towards two single strand oligonucleotide (ODN) sequences in vitro. Our simulations predict that these four dendrimers and the relevant ODN complexes are characterized by similar size and shape, and that the molecule-specific ODN binding ability can be rationalized only by considering a critical molecular design parameter: the normalized effective binding energy ΔGbind,eff/Neff, i.e. the performance of each active individual dendrimer branch directly involved in a binding interaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04510f

  8. The cellular uptake mechanism, intracellular transportation, and exocytosis of polyamidoamine dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Mengjun; Sun, Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Guan, Guannan; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Hu, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Polyamidoamine dendrimers, which can deliver drugs and genetic materials to resistant cells, are attracting increased research attention, but their transportation behavior in resistant cells remains unclear. In this paper, we performed a systematic analysis of the cellular uptake, intracellular transportation, and efflux of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers in multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR cells) using sensitive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells) as the control. We found that the uptake rate of PAMAM-NH2 was much lower and exocytosis of PAMAM-NH2 was much greater in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells due to the elimination of PAMAM-NH2 from P-glycoprotein and the multidrug resistance-associated protein in MCF-7/ADR cells. Macropinocytosis played a more important role in its uptake in MCF-7/ADR cells than in MCF-7 cells. PAMAM-NH2 aggregated and became more degraded in the lysosomal vesicles of the MCF-7/ADR cells than in those of the MCF-7 cells. The endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were found to participate in the exocytosis rather than endocytosis process of PAMAM-NH2 in both types of cells. Our findings clearly showed the intracellular transportation process of PAMAM-NH2 in MCF-7/ADR cells and provided a guide of using PAMAM-NH2 as a drug and gene vector in resistant cells. PMID:27536106

  9. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin and biosensing for hydrogen peroxide using a film containing silver nanoparticles and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Marina; Janegitz, Bruno C; Berté, Rodrigo; Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Banks, Craig E; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando; Zucolotto, Valtencir

    2016-01-01

    A new architecture for a biosensor is proposed using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with hemoglobin (Hb) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) encapsulated in poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PAMAM). The biosensors were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, ζ-potential and cyclic voltammetry to investigate the interactions between Hb, AgNPs and the PAMAM film. The biosensor exhibited a well-defined cathodic peak attributed to reduction of the Fe(3+) present in the heme group in Hb, as revealed by cyclic voltammetry in the presence of O2. An apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate of 4.1s(-1) was obtained. The Hb-AgNPs-PAMAM/GCE third generation biosensor was applied in the amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide over the linear range from 6.0 × 10(-6) to 9.1 × 10(-5)mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 4.9 × 1 0(-6)mol L(-1). The proposed method can be extended to immobilize and evaluate the direct electron transfer of other redox enzymes. PMID:26478291

  10. Synthesis and characterization of low-generation polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) clay nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanage, Amila U; Ikhuoria, Esther U; Adenuga, Adeniyi A; Remcho, Vincent T; Lerner, Michael M

    2013-04-15

    Polymer-inorganic nanocomposites are a recently developed class of materials that have altered physical or chemical properties with respect to the pure polymer, inorganic host, or their micro- and macrocomposites. Lower generation (G0.0-2.0) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer/sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) nanocomposites were synthesized in a solution-phase exfoliation adsorption reaction. These are the first reports of the G0.0/ and G1.0/Na-MMT nanocomposites and of a structurally-ordered G2.0/Na-MMT. The materials were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). PAMAM characteristics at acidic and basic aqueous media were studied using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Pseudospherical PAMAM dendrimers in aqueous medium attain a highly flattened conformation within the confined space between MMT sheets upon nanocomposite formation. The nanocomposite structure depends on the PAMAM generation and the starting dendrimer/organic composition. G0.0 always forms monolayer structures (d = 0.42 nm), while G2.0 forms monolayer structure, mixed phase, and bilayer structures (d = 0.84 nm) at lower, intermediate, and higher organic content, respectively, showing an interesting monolayer to bilayer transition. G1.0 showed an intermediate behavior, with monolayer to mixed-phase transition at the reactant ratios studied. This monolayer arrangement of PAMAM/clay nanocomposites is reported for the first time. Maximum organic contents of G0.0 monolayer and G2.0 bilayer nanocomposites were ∼7% and ∼14%, respectively. Gallery expansions were similar to those observed with linear polymer intercalates, but the packing fractions (0.31-0.32) were 2-3 times lower. At acidic pH, the nanocomposites forming only monolayer structures are obtained, indicating a stronger electrostatic attraction between MMT and protonated PAMAM, and these nanocomposites formed more slowly and were more ordered

  11. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-polyethylene glycol-polyamidoamine dendrimer conjugate improves liver-cell aggregation and function in 3-D spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanfei; Lian, Fen; Wang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Yanling; Tang, Nanhong

    2016-01-01

    The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a type of macromolecule material, has been used in spheroidal cell culture and drug delivery in recent years. However, PAMAM is not involved in the study of hepatic cell-spheroid culture or its biological activity, particularly in detoxification function. Here, we constructed a PAMAM-dendrimer conjugate decorated by an integrin ligand: arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. Our studies demonstrate that RGD-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PAMAM conjugates can promote singly floating hepatic cells to aggregate together in a sphere-like growth with a weak reactive oxygen species. Moreover, RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates can activate the AKT-MAPK pathway in hepatic cells to promote cell proliferation and improve basic function and ammonia metabolism. Together, our data support the hepatocyte sphere treated by RGD-PEG-PAMAM conjugates as a potential source of hepatic cells for a biological artificial liver system. PMID:27621619

  12. Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer Nanocarriers and Their Aerosol Formulations for siRNA Delivery to the Lung Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapies have great promise in the treatment of a number of prevalent pulmonary disorders including lung cancer, asthma and cystic fibrosis. However, progress in this area has been hindered due to the lack of carriers that can efficiently deliver siRNA to lung epithelial cells, and also due to challenges in developing oral inhalation (OI) formulations for the regional administration of siRNA and their carriers to the lungs. In this work we report the ability of generation four, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer (G4NH2)–siRNA complexes (dendriplexes) to silence the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene on A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells stably expressing eGFP. We also report the formulation of the dendriplexes and their aerosol characteristics in propellant-based portable OI devices. The size and gene silencing ability of the dendriplexes was seen not to be a strong function of the N/P ratio. Silencing efficiencies of up to 40% are reported. Stable dispersions of the dendriplexes encapsulated in mannitol and also in a biodegradable and water-soluble co-oligomer were prepared in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-based pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs). Their aerosol characteristics were very favorable, and conducive to deep lung deposition, with respirable fractions of up to 77%. Importantly, siRNA formulated as dendriplexes in pMDIs was shown to keep its integrity after the particle preparation processes, and also after long-term exposures to HFA. The relevance of this study stems from the fact that this is the first work to report the formulation of inhalable siRNA with aerosol properties suitable to deep lung deposition using pMDIs devices that are the least expensive and most widely used portable inhalers. This study is relevant because, also for the first time, it shows that siRNA–G4NH2 dendriplexes can efficiently target lung alveolar epithelial A549 cells and silence genes even after si

  13. Functionalization of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-based nano-architectures using a naphthalimide derivative and their fluorescent, dyeing and antimicrobial properties on wool fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Mousa; Safapour, Siyamak

    2016-06-01

    Novel naphthalimide-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer fluorescent dyes were synthesized, and their structures were identified and confirmed using different characterization methods such as Fourier transform infrared, (1) H NMR, (13) C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, elemental analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric studies demonstrated absorption maxima (λmax ) and extinction coefficient (εmax ) values in the ranges of 429-438 nm and 25,635-88,618 L/mol/cm, respectively. The dyeing, fastness and antimicrobial properties of dyed wool fibers were examined. Colorimetric measurements demonstrated a greenish-yellow hue with remarkable fluorescence intensity on dyed wool. Although the fastness properties of naphthalimide dye on wool fibers were poor/moderate, color fastness was appreciably improved through modification of the dye using dendrimers. The results revealed that the newly synthesized dyes are potent antimicrobial agents on wool fibers. Overall, it was deduced that poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers could be exploited as a promising tool in tailoring the different properties of naphthalimide dyes, being suitable for dyeing and antimicrobial finishing agents for wool fibers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26663475

  14. Poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimer-cisplatin complexes for chemotherapy of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellepeddi, Venkata Kashyap; Vangara, Kiran Kumar; Palakurthi, Srinath, E-mail: palakurthi@tamhsc.edu [Texas A and M Health Science Center, Irma Lerma Rangel College of Pharmacy (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Dendrimer-cisplatin complexes were prepared using PAMAM dendrimers with terminal -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups as well as biotin-conjugated dendrimers. Preformulation parameters of dendrimer-cisplatin complexes were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cytotoxicity and mechanism of cytotoxicity of dendrimer-cisplatin complexes was investigated in OVCAR-3, SKOV, A2780 and cisplatin-resistant CP70 human ovarian cancer cell lines. The loading of cisplatin in dendrimers was {approx}11 % (w/w). PAMAM G4 dendrimers with amine surface groups (biotinylated and native) have shown 2.5- to 3.0-fold reduction in IC{sub 50} values in ovarian cancer cells when compared with carboxylate surface dendrimers (p < 0.05). A correlation was observed among cytotoxicity of the complexes, cellular uptake, and platinum-DNA adduct formation. Treatment with dendrimer-cisplatin complexes resulted in a 7.0-fold increase (p < 0.05) in expression of apoptotic genes (Bcl2, Bax, p53) and 13.2- to 27.1-fold increase (p < 0.05) in the activity of caspases 3, 8, and 9 in vitro. Results suggest that PAMAM dendrimers can be used as potential carrier for cisplatin chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.

  15. Electrochemical One-Electron Oxidation of Low-Generation Polyamidoamine-Type Dendrimers with a 1,4-Phenylenediamine Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerich, Ole; Hansen, Thomas; Thorvildsen, Asbjørn;

    2009-01-01

    ,N,N',N'-tetra-n-alkyl-p-phenylenediamines, including a planar arrangement of the atoms linked to the two PD nitrogen atoms. Thus, the effect of chain size on the oxidation potential appears to be caused primarily by a simple electronic effect. The calculations indicate considerable reorientation of the dendrimer side chains on oxidation, presumably...... peak heights vary approximately as predicted from the Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland equation, but the variation of the relative effective radii with the size of the dendrimer is much larger than predicted from the radii obtained by the DFT calculations, that is, the dendrimers exist in solution mainly as...

  16. Nano Polyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 Dendrimer Synthesis and Assessment the Effect of its antibacterial on Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , Proteus Mirabilis and Staphylococcus Aureus from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Gholami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nano scale dendrimers are macromolecules synthetic which frequently used in medical and health field. This study was aimed to examine synthesis and the antibacterial effect of NanoPolyamidoamine-G7 (NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer on Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa , Proteus Mirabilis and Staphylococcus Aureus from aqueous solution. Material and methods: In this experimental study, initially dilution of 103 CFU/ml were prepared from each strain of bacteria. Then different concentrations of dendrimer (0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 25 µg/ml in the laboratory temperature (23-25 °C was added to water. In order to determine the efficiency of dendrimers in removal of bacteria, samples were taken at different times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min and were cultured on nutrient agar medium. Samples were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C and then number of colonies were counted. Results: Antibacterial properties of dendrimers in aqueous solution by increasing the dendrimer concentration and contact time is directly related. At a concentration of 25 μg/ml at 60 minutes all bacteria except Staphylococcus Aureus, and at 30 minutes, Escherichia Coli and Klebsiella Oxytoca bacteria for 100% excluded. The concentration of 2.5 μg/ml at 60 minutes of bacteria, Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella Oxytoca and Proteus Mirabilis are 100% excluded. All concentrations of dendrimers at different times were reduced bacteria in the PAMAM- G7 dendrimer effect on gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria was better. Conclusion: The NPAMAM-G7 dendrimer with end amine groups exhibited a positive impact on the removal of standard strains, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is possible to use these nanodendrimers as antibacterial in the future.

  17. Preparation of Layer-by-Layer Films Composed of Polysaccharides and Poly(Amidoamine Dendrimer Bearing Phenylboronic Acid and Their pH- and Sugar-Dependent Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yoshida

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Layer-by-layer films composed of polysaccharides and poly(amidoamine dendrimer bearing phenylboronic acid (PBA-PAMAM were prepared to study the deposition behavior of the films and their stability in buffer solutions and in sugar solutions. Alginic acid (AGA and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC were employed as counter-polymers in constructing LbL films. AGA/PBA-PAMAM films were successfully prepared at pH 6.0–9.0, whereas the preparation of CMC/PBA-PAMAM film was unsuccessful at pH 8.0 and 9.0. The results show that the LbL films formed mainly through electrostatic affinity between PBA-PAMAM and polysaccharides, while, for AGA/PBA-PAMAM films, the participation of boronate ester bonds in the films was suggested. AGA/PBA-PAMAM films were stable in the solutions of pH 6.0–9.0. In contrast, CMC/PBA-PAMAM films decomposed at pH 7.5–9.0. The AGA/PBA-PAMAM films decomposed in response to 5–30 mM fructose at pH 7.5, while the films were stable in glucose solutions. Thus, AGA is useful as a counter-polymer for constructing PBA-PAMAM films that are stable at physiological pH and decompose in response to fructose.

  18. 树枝状聚酰胺-胺紫外光固化树脂的合成%Synthesis of UV-Curing Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡加娟; 郭秀生; 于德梅; 苏敏茹; 郭容男

    2011-01-01

    采用发散法合成了以乙二胺为核的0.5 ~3.5代树枝状大分子聚酰胺-胺(PAMAM),研究了半代PAM-AM在酸性条件下的水解反应,用傅里叶变换红外光谱和核磁共振法对半代PAMAM和PAMAM水解酸进行了表征.通过丙烯酸羟乙酯与半代PAMAM水解酸的反应,合成了不需添加稀释剂,在紫外光作用下便能同化成膜的树枝状聚酰胺-胺紫外光固化树脂,得到的光固化膜表面光滑、柔软、颜色均匀、内部无气泡且表观性能较好,解决了为降低高分子材料黏度必须加入大量稀释剂的问题.傅里叶变换红外光谱证明了丙烯酸羟乙酯改性成功,测定了合成的光固化树脂溶解性、紫外光固化膜的熔点、热稳定性等性能,并对其性能变化的规律进行了探讨.测试表明合成的产物不同,其溶解性能有较大的不同,只能溶解在极性较大的水、甲醇、N,Ⅳ-二甲基甲酰胺中.随着代数的增加,紫外光固化膜的熔点逐渐降低;TG分析表明紫外光固化膜的热分解反应是一个由外层向内层分步进行的过程,初始分解均在170℃以上,固化膜具有较好的稳定性.%A series of polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer from 0. 5 generation to 3. 5 generation have been synthesized by divergent method. Half generation of PAMAM (0. 5G,1. 5G,2. 5G,3. 5G) were hydroly-sised in acidic conditions. The compositions and structures of half generation of PAMAM and its hydrolyzed products were characterized by means of FT - IR and ' H NMR. The hydrolyzed products were modified with hydroxyethyl acrylate to form a UV - curable polyamidoamine dendrimer which couled be cured under UV -light without diluent. Film surface was smooth,soft,uniform color,no air bubbles inside and showed a better apparent performance, solving the problem that a lot of thinner needed to be added in order to reduce the viscosity of polymer materials. FT - IR proved the success of modification. The properties of the modified

  19. Catalytic solid substrate-room-temperature phosphorimetry detection for trace cadmium with Cd2+ -3.5-generation polyamidoamine dendrimer-Tween-80 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hong-Xin; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Shao-Qin; Lin, Xuan; Cai, Wen-Lian; Lin, Chang-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    3.5-Generation polyamidoamine dendrimers (3.5-G-D) emitted strong and stable room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) on filter paper when Pb2+ was used as a heavy atom perturber. The RTP signal of 3.5-G-D was sharply enhanced upon the formation of 3.5-G-D-Tween-80 micelle compound. The complex Cd2+ -3.5-G-D-Tween-80, generated in the coordination reaction between Cd2+ and the tertiary amidocyanogen on the outer layer of 3.5-G-D in 3.5-G-D-Tween-80 micelle compound, could catalyze KBrO3 to oxidize 3.5-G-D in 3.5-G-D-Tween-80, which caused the sharp quenching of the RTP signal of the system. The phosphorescence intensity change (ΔI(p) ) of the system had a linear relationship with the content of Cd2+. Thus a new catalytic solid substrate-room-temperature phosphorimetry (SS-RTP) for the determination of trace cadmium has been established. This highly selective and sensitive method has been applied to determine trace cadmium in biological samples with a limit of detection (LD) of 1.2 ag per spot (when the sample volume was 0.4 μL per spot, the corresponding concentration was 3.0 × 10(-15)  g mL(-1) ), the results agreeing with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mechanism of catalytic SS-RTP for the determination of trace cadmium was also discussed. PMID:22021248

  20. Polyamidoamine dendrimers as sweeping agent and stationary phase for rapid and sensitive open-tubular capillary electrophoretic determination of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ying; Guo, Yujun; Qin, Weidong

    2014-04-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer generation 2.5 was synthesized and evaluated as sweeping agent for in-column enrichment and as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatographic separation of heavy metal ions, viz., Pb(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), in a running buffer containing 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) as a chromogenic reagent. During experiment, a plug of aqueous PAMAM generation 2.5 solution was first introduced to the capillary, followed by electrokinetic injection of the heavy metal ions under a positive voltage. In this step, PAMAM acted as a sweeping agent, stacking the metal ions on the analyte/PAMAM boundary by forming metal ion-PAMAM complexes. The second preconcentration process occurred when PAR, a stronger ligand, moving toward the injection end under the electric field, reached and re-swept the metal ion-PAMAM zone, forming metal ion-PAR complexes. During separation, the neutral PAMAM moved toward the detector with the electroosmotic flow, dynamically coating the capillary wall, forming stationary phases that affected the separation of the metal ions. Due to the function of PAMAM, the detection sensitivity and resolution of the heavy metal ions improved significantly. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limits were 0.299, 0.184, 0.774, 0.182 and 0.047 μg/L for Pb(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II) and Co(II), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals in snow, tap and rain water samples. PMID:24607109

  1. Syntheses, characterization and adsorption properties for Pb2+ of silica-gel functionalized by dendrimer-like polyamidoamine and 5-sulfosalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiongzhi; Luo, Liangliang; Chen, Ziyan; Liang, Kailing

    2016-02-01

    Silica-gel adsorbents PAMAM-n.0SSASG (n = 1-4) with dendrimer-like polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and 5-sulfosalicylic acid as functional groups were prepared and characterized with FTIR, SEM, TG, elemental analysis and porous structure analysis. Micro-column enrichment and measurement of Pb2+ with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) was studied with PAMAM-n.0SSASG (n = 1-4) as adsorbent. It was emphasized to investigate the relationship between dynamic adsorption/desorption rates, adsorption capacities, and grafting percentage of PAMAM onto silica-gel surface. Experiments showed that the generation increase of grafted PAMAM changed the pore diameter distribution of adsorbent and obviously improved adsorption/desorption property for Pb2+. Adsorption capacity of PAMAM-n.0SSASG (n = 1-4) was 14.04, 17.43, 20.07 and 25.05 mg g-1 for Pb2+ respectively. An enrichment factor of 200 was obtained with PAMAM-4.0SSASG as adsorbent and with 2000 mL Pb2+ solution (1.0 ng mL-1). The priority of adsorption property of PAMAM-4.0SSASG was explained by steric hindrance effect of PAMAM on adsorption/desorption, and selective adsorption of 5-sulfosalicylic acid with Pb2+. With PAMAM-4.0SSASG as adsorbent, GFAAS method for analysis of Pb2+ combined with micro-column enrichment was proposed and applied to the determination of Pb2+ of standard reference sample and sea water sample.

  2. 季铵化树状聚酰胺-胺的合成及表征%Synthesis and Characterization of Quaternized Polyamidoamine Dendrime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学川; 何林燕; 强涛涛

    2011-01-01

    The 0.5~1.0 generation of polyamidoamine dendrime (PAMAM) was synthesized via Michael-additive action of alkylene diamine and methyl acrylate from ethylenediamine and methacrylate. 1.0G PAMAM was grafted with (2,3-epoxypropyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC), thus 1.0G PAMAM-TAC was prepared. By the method of one-factor experimental design, rome correlative factors that influenced the 1.0G PAMAM-TAC were investigated, the appropriate action conditions were optimized as follows: solvent consumption 40% (ba.ed on the total mass of reaction system), reaction temperature 55 ℃, reaction time 5 h, n (1.0GPAMAM): n (EPTAC) = 1:8. The polymer was characterized by infrared spectrum (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum (1H and 13CNMR).%以乙二胺和丙烯酸甲酯为原料,通过Michael加成反应和酰胺化反应合成了0.5代~1.0代树状聚酰胺-胺(0.5G~1.0G PAMAM).再利用缩水甘油三甲基氯化铵(EPTAC)对1.0G PAMAM进行接枝改性制备了1.0代树状聚酰胺-胺的季铵盐(1.0G PAMAM-TAC).通过单因素试验筛选出了1.0G PAMAM-TAC的最佳反应条件:溶剂用量40%(以反应体系的总质量计)、反应温度55℃、反应时间5 h、投料摩尔比n(1.0GPAMAM):n(EPTAC)为1:8.采用红外光谱和核磁共振波谱对改性前后1.0GPAMAM的结构进行了表征.

  3. Analysis application in biological field and prediction of human diseases with dual luminescence molecular of 3.5-generations polyamidoamine dendrimers-porphyrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Lin, Chang-Qing; Lin, Shao-Qin; Lin, Li-Ping; Wang, Xin-Xing; Zheng, Mei-Xia; Zhang, Bin

    2010-09-01

    A new phosphorescence-labelling reagent (3.5-G-D-P labelling reagent) was developed, based on 3.5-generation polyamidoamine dendrimers (3.5-G-D) as internal acceptor to capture porphyrin (P) molecular. In the disturber of heavy atom, 3.5-G-D-P could emit room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of 3.5-G-D and P on the surface of polyamide membrane (PAM), respectively. Products (3.5-G-D-P-WGA) of 3.5-G-D-P labelling triticum vulgaris lectin (WGA) could emit strong and stable RTP signal on the surface of PAM, and it also could take specific affinity adsorption reaction (AA) with alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The product of the AA reaction (3.5-G-D-P-WGA-ALP) could keep the RTP characteristics of 3.5-G-D-P very well, and the Δ Ip of the system was linear correlation to the content of ALP. The Δ Ip of the system with Tween-80 was once for P and twice for 3.5-G-D more than that without Tween-80. Thus, the affinity adsorption solid substrate-room temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) for the determination of trace ALP has been established using Tween-80-3.5-G-D-P to label WGA. The detection limit (LD) of this method was 0.12 fg spot -1 for 3.5-G-D and 0.18 fg spot -1 for P with direct method, 0.14 fg spot -1 for 3.5-G-D and 0.17 fg spot -1 for P with sandwich method, respectively, and the sensitivity was obviously high. This research showed that either using 3.5-G-D or P excitation/emission wavelength to determine the content of ALP in human serum, the results were coincided with ELISA, and the flexibility of AA-SS-RTP was obviously improved and the applicability was wider. Meanwhile, the reaction mechanism of determining ALP by direct method AA-SS-RTP was discussed.

  4. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Dendrimer Conjugates of Clickable Agonists of the A3 Adenosine Receptor and Coactivation of the P2Y14 Receptor by a Tethered Nucleotide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosh, Dilip, K. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Yoo, Lena S. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Chinn, Moshe [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL; Barrett, Matthew O. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Fricks, Ingrid P. [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Harden, T. Kendall [University of North Carolina School of Medicine; Jacobson, Kenneth A. [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health

    2010-01-01

    We previously synthesized a series of potent and selective A{sub 3} adenosine receptor (AR) agonists (North-methanocarba nucleoside 5{prime}-uronamides) containing dialkyne groups on extended adenine C2 substituents. We coupled the distal alkyne of a 2-octadiynyl nucleoside by Cu(I)-catalyzed 'click' chemistry to azide-derivatized G4 (fourth-generation) PAMAM dendrimers to form triazoles. A{sub 3}AR activation was preserved in these multivalent conjugates, which bound with apparent Ki of 0.1-0.3 nM. They were substituted with nucleoside moieties, solely or in combination with water-solubilizing carboxylic acid groups derived from hexynoic acid. A comparison with various amide-linked dendrimers showed that triazole-linked conjugates displayed selectivity and enhanced A{sub 3}AR affinity. We prepared a PAMAM dendrimer containing equiproportioned peripheral azido and amino groups for conjugation of multiple ligands. A bifunctional conjugate activated both A{sub 3} and P2Y{sub 14} receptors (via amide-linked uridine-5{prime}-diphosphoglucuronic acid), with selectivity in comparison to other ARs and P2Y receptors. This is the first example of targeting two different GPCRs with the same dendrimer conjugate, which is intended for activation of heteromeric GPCR aggregates. Synergistic effects of activating multiple GPCRs with a single dendrimer conjugate might be useful in disease treatment.

  5. Direct detection of microRNA-126 at a femtomolar level using a glassy carbon electrode modified with chitosan, graphene sheets, and a poly(amidoamine) dendrimer composite with gold and silver nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a strategy for the determination of microRNA-126 (miRNA-126) that is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode modified with (a) carboxy-terminated generation 3.5 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer; (b) gold and silver nanoclusters, and (c) a chitosan-graphen composite. A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was immobilized on the surface and serves as a receptor to hybridize miRNA-126. Subsequently, a digoxin labeled signal DNA is specifically recognized by the PNA. The analytical signal was finally generated by adding anti-digoxin antibody labeled with horse radish peroxidase. The biosensor was characterized by differential pulse voltammetry. A linear current-concentration relationship is found for miRNA-126 at a working voltage of 208 mV in the 1.0 fM to 10 nM concentration range. The limit of detection is 0.79 fM (at an S/N of 3). This biosensor displays good reproducibility, stability and selectivity (author)

  6. Wiring of Glucose Oxidizing Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent Enzymes by Methylene Blue-Modified Third Generation Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers Attached to Spectroscopic Graphite Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaing, Victor; Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ordered multiple redox centers, represent an advanced alternative to the existing approaches. Here we show that methylene blue (MB)-labeled G3 PAMAM dendrimers covalently attached to the high-surface area spectroscopic graphite (Gr) electrodes form stable and spatially resolved electronic wires......, characterized by the heterogeneous ET rate constant of 7.1 0.1 s1; they can be used for electronic wiring of glucose-oxidizing FAD-containing enzymes, such as hexose oxidase (HOX), and further bioelectrocatalysis of glucose oxidation, starting, at pH 7, from -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, dendrimer......-templated electronic wires, comprising MB molecules conjugated to the periphery of the PAMAM and anchored to the surface of cost-effective Gr electrodes represent an efficient and robust tool for protein wiring to electrodes for their perspective bioelectronic applications in biosensors and biofuel cells....

  7. Study of streptavidin coated onto PAMAM dendrimer modified magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyamidoamine dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of amino silane modified magnetite nanoparticles. After coating of streptavidin to these dendrimer-modified magnetite nanoparticles, an up to 3.4 times higher amount of streptavidin (SA) was measured compared to magnetite nanoparticles modified with only amino silane. The biotin-binding capacity of SA thus increased after dendrimer modification

  8. Wiring of Glucose Oxidizing Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide-Dependent Enzymes by Methylene Blue-Modified Third Generation Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimers Attached to Spectroscopic Graphite Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaing, Victor; Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    , characterized by the heterogeneous ET rate constant of 7.1 0.1 s1; they can be used for electronic wiring of glucose-oxidizing FAD-containing enzymes, such as hexose oxidase (HOX), and further bioelectrocatalysis of glucose oxidation, starting, at pH 7, from -100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Thus, dendrimer......-templated electronic wires, comprising MB molecules conjugated to the periphery of the PAMAM and anchored to the surface of cost-effective Gr electrodes represent an efficient and robust tool for protein wiring to electrodes for their perspective bioelectronic applications in biosensors and biofuel cells....

  9. Polyethylene glycolated PAMAM dendrimers-Efavirenz conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Pyreddy, Suneela; Kumar, Pandurangan Dinesh; KUMAR, PALANIRAJAN VIJAYARAJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The preparation of novel PEGylated PAMAM (poly-amidoamine) dendrimers for delivery of anti-HIV drug Efavirenz is reported. Method and Materials: About 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers are prepared by ethylene diamine core via Michael addition by divergent method. PEGylation is done by polyethylene glycol 600 using epichlorhydrin as linker. PEGylated 5.0 G PAMAM dendrimers loaded with Efavirenz (EFV) are evaluated for FTIR, DSC, SEM, drug release, and stability studies. Results and Conclusion: From...

  10. Dendrimer-Capped Nanoparticles Prepared by Picosecond Laser Ablation in Liquid Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Marsili

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifth generation ethylendiamine-core poly(amidoamine (PAMAM G5 is presented as an efficient capping agent for the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles by ps laser ablation in water. In particular, we describe results obtained with the fundamental, second and third harmonic of a ps Nd:YAG laser and the influence of laser wavelength and pulse energy on gold particle production and subsequent photofragmentation. In this framework, the role of the dendrimer and, in particular, its interactions with gold clusters and cations are accounted.

  11. Synthesis and Catalytic Evaluation of Dendrimer-Encapsulated Cu Nanoparticles: An Undergraduate Experiment Exploring Catalytic Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Lyon, Jennifer L.; Croley, J. Sawyer; Crooks, Richard M.; Vanden Bout, David A.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Copper nanoparticles were synthesized using generation 4 hydroxyl-terminated (G4-OH) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers as templates. The synthesis is conducted by coordinating copper ions with the interior amines of the dendrimer, followed by chemical reduction to form dendrimer-encapsulated copper nanoparticles (Cu-DEN). The catalytic…

  12. IMMUNOSTIMULATORY PROPERTIES OF DENDRIMERS MULTIVALENTLY PRESENTING MURAMYLDIPEPTIDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as PGN. Interestingly, whereas PGN induced a considerable IL-10-production, no IL-10 was induced by the MDP-conjugated dendrimers. By flow cytometry, enhanced cell death was detected in response to unmodified PPI-dendrimers, whereas none of the MDP-conjugated dendrimers showed any detectable...... of PAMP minimal motifs on the surface of monodisperse hyperbranched globular synthetic polymers, dendrimers. Two sizes of polypropylene-imine (PPI) and polyamido-amine (PAMAM) dendrimers were conjugated with muramyldipeptide (MDP), the minimal essential motif of peptidoglycan (PGN), to yield...... constructs presenting a theoretical number of 16 and 32 MDP molecules, respectively. These conjugates were tested for cytotoxicity, and for their ability to induce cytokines and upregulate MHC and costimulatory molecules in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: Both MDP-PPI and MDP...

  13. Preparation and characterization of conjugated polyamidoamine-MPEG-methotrexate for potential drug delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Sabri, Siti Noorzidah bt; Abu, Norhidayah; Mastor, Azreena; Hisham, Siti Farhana; Noorsal, Kartini

    2012-07-01

    Star polymers have unique characteristics due to their well-defined size and tailor ability which makes these polymers attractive candidates as carriers in drug delivery system applications. This work focuses on attaching a drug to the star polymer (polyamidoamine). The conjugation of polyamidoamine (PAMAM, generation 4) with methotrexate (MTX) (model drug) was studied in which monomethyl polyethylene glycol (MPEG) was used as a linker to reduce the toxicity of dendrimer. Conjugation starts with attaching the drug to the linker and followed by further conjugation with the polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer. The conjugation of PAMAM-PEG-MTX was confirmed through UV-Vis, FTIR, 1H NMR and DSC. The loading capacities and release profile of this conjugate were determined using 1H NMR and UV spectrometer.

  14. Design of Dendrimer Modified Carbon Nanotubes for Gene Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Bi-feng; BAO Chen-chen; GAO Feng; HE Rong; SHU Meng-jun; MA Yong-jie; CUI Da-xiang; XU Ping; CHEN Hao; LIU Feng-tao; LI Qing; HUANG Tuo; YOU Xiao-gang; SHAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of polyamidoamine dendrimer grafted carbon nanotube (dendrimer-CNT) mediated entrance of anti-survivin oligonucleotide into MCF-7 cells, and its effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Methods: Antisense survivin oligonucleotide was anchored onto polyamidoamine dendrimer grafted carbon nanotubes to form dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex and the complex was characterized by Zeta potential, AFM, TEM, and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Dendrimer-CNT-asODN complexes were added into the medium and incubated with MCF-7 cells. MTT method was used to detect the effects of asODN and dendrimer-CNT-asODN on the growth of MCF-7 cells. TEM was used to observe the distribution of dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex within MCF-7 cells. Results: Successful synthesis of dendrimer-CNT-asODN complexes was proved by TEM, AFM and agarose gel electrophoresis. TEM showed that the complexes were located in the cytoplasm, endosome, and lysosome within MCF-7 cells. When dendrimer-CNT-asODN (1.0 μmol/L) and asODN (1.0 μmol/L) were used for 120 h incubation, the inhibitory rates of MCF-7 cells were (28.22±3.5)% for dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex group, (9.23±0.56)% for only asODN group, and (3.44±0.25)% for dendrimer-CNT group. Dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex at 3.0 μmol/L inhibited MCF-7 cells by (30.30±10.62)%, and the inhibitory effects were in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. Conclusion: Dendrimer-CNT nanoparticles may serve as a gene delivery vector with high efficiency, which can bring foreign gene into cancer cells, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and markedly enhancing the cancer therapy effects.

  15. Nanomolar cationic dendrimeric sulfadiazine as potential antitoxoplasmic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, M J; Bacigalupe, D; Pardini, O; Amalvy, J I; Venturini, C; Morilla, M J; Romero, E L

    2006-12-01

    The high doses of sulfadiazine (SDZ), used in synergistic combination with pyrimethamine, are mainly responsible for severe side effects and discontinuation of toxoplasmosis treatments. In the search for new strategies that improve the efficacy of treatments with reduced doses of SDZ, we have determined the performance of cationic G4 (DG4) and anionic G4.5 (DG4.5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to act as SDZ nanocarriers. Both dendrimers could efficiently load SDZ (SDZ-DG4 and SDZ-DG4.5) up to a ratio of 30 molecules SDZ per dendrimer molecule. The MTT assay on Vero and J774 cells showed no cytotoxicity for DG4.5 and its SDZ complex incubated between 0.03 and 33 microM of dendrimer concentration. On the other hand, DG4 and its SDZ complex resulted cytotoxic when incubated at dendrimer concentrations higher than 3.3 microM. Finally, complexes and empty dendrimers were in vitro tested against Vero cells infected with RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii along 4h of treatment. For SDZ-DG4.5 and DG4.5 to cause an infection decrease between 25 and 40%, respectively, a dendrimer concentration of 33 microM was required; however, SDZ-DG4 produced the highest infection decrease of 60% at 0.03 microM. These preliminary results, achieved with nanomolar doses of SDZ-DG4 as unique active principle, point to this complex as a suitable potential candidate for antitoxoplasmic therapy. PMID:16920292

  16. In vitro anti-Acanthamoeba synergistic effect of chlorhexidine and cationic carbosilane dendrimers against both trophozoite and cyst forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredero-Bermejo, I; Sánchez-Nieves, J; Soliveri, J; Gómez, R; de la Mata, F J; Copa-Patiño, J L; Pérez-Serrano, J

    2016-07-25

    Acanthamoeba sp. are the causative agents of severe illnesses in humans such as Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE). Medical therapy is not yet well established. Treatments of AK last for several months and generate toxicity, resistances appear due to the cysts stage and recurrences can occur. In this study has been demonstrated that the combination of chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX) and carbosilane dendrimers containing ammonium or guanidine moieties has in vitro synergistic effect against Acanthamoeba polyphaga. This synergy provokes an important reduction in the minimal trophozoite amoebicidal concentration (MTAC) of CLX, which means a reduction of their toxic effects on human cells. Moreover, some CLX/dendrimer combinations show important activity against the cyst resistance stage. PMID:27173821

  17. Modified PAMAM dendrimer with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone surface groups reveals negligible toxicity against three rodent cell-lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janaszewska, Anna; Ciolkowski, Michal; Wróbel, Dominika;

    2013-01-01

    Modification of the surface groups of dendrimers is one of the methods to improve their biocompatibility. This article presents results of experiments related to the toxicity of a modified polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer of the fourth generation with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone surface groups (PAM...

  18. Generation-dependent effect of PAMAM dendrimers on human insulin fibrillation and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka, Olga; Milowska, Katarzyna; Belica-Pacha, Sylwia; Palecz, Bartlomiej; Šipošová, Katarina; Gazova, Zuzana; Bryszewska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of various generations on the thermal stability and fibrillation of human insulin. Thermostability of human insulin used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which showed two phase-transitions for insulin at 60 and 82°C. After adding dendrimers at 0.6 μmol/l, the first peaks disappeared and the second peaks were higher. We posited that, in the presence of dendrimers, the dimers in the solution were transformed into hexamers. The effect of dendrimers on insulin fibrillation was monitored by measuring ThT fluorescence, and visualization of insulin fibrils by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The effect of PAMAM dendrimers on insulin fibrillation was strongly dependent on the dendrimers generation and dendrimer:protein ratio. PMID:26598047

  19. Dendrimer Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Silva Santos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this review is to describe the importance of dendrimer prodrugs in the design of new drugs, presenting numerous applications of these nanocomposites in the pharmaceutical field. Therefore, the use of dendrimer prodrugs as carrier for drug delivery, to improve pharmacokinetic properties of prototype, to promote drug sustained-release, to increase selectivity and, consequently, to decrease toxicity, are just some examples of topics that have been extensively reported in the literature, especially in the last decade. The examples discussed here give a panel of the growing interest dendrimer prodrugs have been evoking in the scientific community.

  20. Polyester Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been comprehensively reviewed starting from their first synthesis in the early 1990s by Hawker and Fréchet. Polyester dendrimers have attracted and continue to attract extensive interest because they are comparatively easy to make and because, whenever they have been tested, they have been found to be non-toxic. A number of different strategies for their synthesis have been examined and the methods employed for formation of the ester bond during dendrimer assembly have been summarized. The newest approaches, including the use of bifunctional orthogonally reacting dendrons and accelerated synthesis have been surveyed.

  1. Adsorption of uranium on surface of silica gel TLC substrate impregnated with PAMAM dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimer of second generation (G2) was synthesized by divergent method. The G2 PAMAM dendrimer was impregnated on the surface of silica gel coated TLC (thin layer chromatography) substrate. The impregnated silica substrate was characterized by FTIR. The sorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution on surface of PAMAM impregnated silica substrate was investigated. The effects of pH, concentration of uranium on adsorption were also investigated. (author)

  2. Influence of dendrimer's structure on its activity against amyloid fibril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of fibril assembly is a potential therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative disorders such as prion and Alzheimer's diseases. Highly branched, globular polymers-dendrimers-are novel promising inhibitors of fibril formation. In this study, the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (generations 3rd, 4th, and 5th) on amyloid aggregation of the prion peptide PrP 185-208 and the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ 1-28 was examined. Amyloid fibrils were produced in vitro and their formation was monitored using the dye thioflavin T (ThT). Fluorescence studies were complemented with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher the dendrimer generation, the larger the degree of inhibition of the amyloid aggregation process and the more effective are dendrimers in disrupting the already existing fibrils. A hypothesis on dendrimer-peptide interaction mechanism is presented based on the dendrimers' molecular structure

  3. Solubility improvement of an anthelmintic benzimidazole carbamate by association with dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.; Sigal, E.; Santo, M., E-mail: msanto@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Otero, L.; Silber, J. J. [Departamento de Quimica. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Fisicoquimicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, Rio Cuarto (Argentina)

    2011-10-15

    The improvement of aqueous solubility of methyl (5-[propylthio]-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) carbamate, albendazole (ABZ) using polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers as solubility enhancers was investigated. Full generation PAMAM dendrimers with amine terminal groups, (G3), with hydroxyl terminal groups (G3OH) and half generation PAMAM dendrimers with carboxylate terminal groups (G2.5 and G3.5), were chosen for this study. The nature of dendrimer-ABZ association was investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence emission measurements and by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained show that these polymeric structures have the capacity to enhance the solubility of ABZ, both lipophilic and specific hydrogen bond interactions contributing to the guest-host association. Although all studied dendrimers have hydrophobic internal nanoenvironments with similar dimensions, their surfaces differ significantly and the nature and the localization of the interactions involved in ABZ-dendrimer association depend on the type of terminal groups. (author)

  4. Fluorescence study on the interactions of PAMAM dendrimers and their derivatives with bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yanming; SONG Yu; KONG Deling; YU Yaoting

    2005-01-01

    The interactions of amino-terminated, and ethylenediamine core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers and their derivatives with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that the fluorescence intensity of BSA decreased after the addition of different modified dendrimers, and the extent of the fluorescence quenching caused by various modified dendrimers strongly depends upon the different functional groups on their surfaces. We also investigated the influence of pH and ionic strength on the interaction between various modified dendrimers and BSA. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic measurements showed that the content of α-helix structure of BSA decreased after the addition of different modified dendrimers, which indicated that dendrimers induced changes in the secondary structure of BSA.

  5. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uram, Łukasz; Szuster, Magdalena; Filipowicz, Aleksandra; Gargasz, Krzysztof; Wołowiec, Stanisław; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM) bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ) and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15) cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold) tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all investigated concentrations, with lower level (15%–25%) observed for BC-PAMAM. In fibroblasts, the dendrimer nuclear signal amounted to 15% at nontoxic and up to 70% at toxic concentrations, whereas BC-PAMAM remained at a lower concentration-dependent level (0.3%–20%). Mitochondrial localization of PAMAM and BC-PAMAM revealed similar patterns in both cell lines, depending on the extracellular dendrimer concentration, and presented significantly lower signals from BC-PAMAM, which correlated well with the cytotoxicity. PMID:26379435

  6. Advance in polyamidoamine dendrimers as gene delivery agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Gene therapy recently has become an important area of research as a new therapeutic method. In vivo and in vitro gene therapies require efficient delivery of genetic material into a cell and preferably high levels of expression of transferred gene. Traditionally, gene delivery systems are classified as viral vector-mediated systems and nonviral vector-mediated systems. Viral vectors, which have been demonstrated as systems with high transfection efficiency, however, are limited due to adverse effects such as immunogenicity, toxicity, limited DNA carrying capacity and mutagenesis caused by cell-infected viruses[1].

  7. Interaction of PAMAM dendrimers with bovine insulin depends on nanoparticle end-groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowacka, Olga; Milowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: milowska@biol.uni.lodz.pl; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-06-15

    We have looked at the interactions between polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with different terminal groups (−COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH) and bovine insulin. The influence of PAMAM dendrimers on insulin was tested by measuring zeta potential and fluorescence quenching. The secondary structure of insulin in the presence of dendrimers was examined by circular dichroism. The effect of dendrimers on dithiotreitol-induced aggregation of insulin was investigated by spectrophotometry. Dendrimers quenched the fluorescence of insulin, but did not change its secondary structure. Thus dendrimers neither induce hormone aggregation nor inhibit the aggregation process induced by dithiotreitol (DTT), except at 0.01 µmol/l. Dendrimers–insulin interactions are mainly electrostatic. - Highlight: • The interactions between PAMAM dendrimers and insulin were investigated. • The PAMAM dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of insulin. • The PAMAM dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of insulin. • Dendrimers did not induce aggregation of hormone. • Dendrimers–insulin interaction is mainly electrostatic.

  8. Interaction of PAMAM dendrimers with bovine insulin depends on nanoparticle end-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have looked at the interactions between polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with different terminal groups (−COOH, −NH2, −OH) and bovine insulin. The influence of PAMAM dendrimers on insulin was tested by measuring zeta potential and fluorescence quenching. The secondary structure of insulin in the presence of dendrimers was examined by circular dichroism. The effect of dendrimers on dithiotreitol-induced aggregation of insulin was investigated by spectrophotometry. Dendrimers quenched the fluorescence of insulin, but did not change its secondary structure. Thus dendrimers neither induce hormone aggregation nor inhibit the aggregation process induced by dithiotreitol (DTT), except at 0.01 µmol/l. Dendrimers–insulin interactions are mainly electrostatic. - Highlight: • The interactions between PAMAM dendrimers and insulin were investigated. • The PAMAM dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of insulin. • The PAMAM dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of insulin. • Dendrimers did not induce aggregation of hormone. • Dendrimers–insulin interaction is mainly electrostatic

  9. Peptide dendrimers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2005), 757-788. ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multiple antigen peptides * peptide dendrimers * synthetic vaccine * multipleantigenic peptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.803, year: 2005

  10. Multiscale Modeling for Host-Guest Chemistry of Dendrimers in Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Ha Kim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers have been widely used as nanostructured carriers for guest species in a variety of applications in medicine, catalysis, and environmental remediation. Theory and simulation methods are an important complement to experimental approaches that are designed to develop a fundamental understanding about how dendrimers interact with guest molecules. This review focuses on computational studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the relevant physicochemical parameters at play in the binding and release mechanisms between polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers and guest species. We highlight recent contributions that model supramolecular dendrimer-guest complexes over the temporal and spatial scales spanned by simulation methods ranging from all-atom molecular dynamics to statistical field theory. The role of solvent effects on dendrimer-guest interactions and the importance of relating model parameters across multiple scales is discussed.

  11. Reduction of percutaneous absorption of toxic chemicals by dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Hamid R; Varshochian, Reyhaneh; Kobarfard, Farzad; Erfan, Mohammad

    2010-03-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer, a reactive nanoparticle, was investigated as a potential protectant against percutaneous absorption of chemicals. Permeation of furfural (model toxicant) through rat skin from a 1-mg/mL solution was studied in the absence and presence of PAMAM dendrimer, which was applied either as 1, 4, and 6 mg/mL in furfural solution (cotreatment) or 2.2 mg/cm(2) deposited on skin surface before furfural application (pretreatment). Furfural flux, about 70 microg/cm(2)/h in untreated samples, was decreased by PAMAM dendrimer in a concentration-dependent manner up to 12 times with the cotreatment methods and 2.3 times with the pretreatment method, indicating PAMAM's protective ability against cutaneous toxicants. PMID:19995245

  12. Synthesis and characterization of termini azobenzene-dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Louie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the organic molecules can be isomerized upon photoirradiation and when they are accompanied by a change in the visible absorption spectrum, it can be called photochromism. Azobenzenes which are important parts of molecular machines and nanotechnology can be called photoisomerizationazobenzene (azo chromophores, and have been incorporated into a wide variety of materials and molecular architectures, including polymers, dendrimers, and molecular glasses. We synthesized and characterized the AB2 type polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers by single active site. PAMAM diazobenzenedendrimer was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and NMR (1H, 13C and CHN-O Elementary analysis. A simple method can be used for the synthesis of azobenzene derivative PAMAM dendrimer and other similar compounds.

  13. Dendrimer Templates for the Formation of Silver Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-ping; LUO Yun-jun; XU Hou-cai; TAN Hui-min

    2006-01-01

    In order to control the size and shape of Ag nanoparticles obtained by using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer as template, the complexation between Ag+ ions and dendrimer studied extensively by UVVis spectroscopy and FTIR. After the Ag+/PAMAM demdrimer being reduced by direct chemical reduction,Ag (0) nanoparticles was formed, whose structure and characterization were studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy,transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) respectively. The results reveal that Ag nanoparticles is a kind of face center cubic crystal and its average size is 4.5 nm. The solubility and stability of the solution containing Ag nanoparticles also indicate that dendrimer is a good kind of template, as well as a protective agent.

  14. Potential drug delivery agent— polyamidoamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Ling; GU Wei; ZHOU Yu-lan; LIU Yong-li; YANG Hua

    2001-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Since their introduction in mid-1980s, polyamidoamide (P AMAM) dendrimershave attracted considerable attention because of their unique structures and properties. According to preliminary studies in animals, PAMAM dendrimers are non-immunogenic, very low in vivo toxicity and can be excreted by urine and feces.

  15. Aptamer-conjugated dendrimer-modified quantum dots for glioblastoma cells imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhiming; Huang Peng; He Rong; Bao Chenchen; Cui Daxiang [National Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Fabrication Technology, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Xiaomin; Ren Qiushi [Institute for Laser Medicine and Biophotonics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: qsren@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: dxcui@sjtu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    Targeted quantum dots have shown potential as a platform for development of cancer imaging. Aptamers have recently been demonstrated as ideal candidates for molecular targeting applications. In present work, polyamidoamine dendrimers were used to modify surface of quantum dots and improve their solubility in water solution. Then, dendrimer-modified quantum dots were conjugated with DNA aptamer, GBI-10, can recognize the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C on the surface of human glioblastoma cells. The dendrimer-modified quantum dots exhibit water-soluble, high quantum yield, and good biocompatibility. Aptamer-conjugated quantum dots can specifically target U251 human glioblastoma cells. High-performance aptamer-conjugated dendrimers modified quantum dot-based nanoprobes have great potential in application such as cancer imaging.

  16. Effect of methotrexate conjugated PAMAM dendrimers on the viability of MES-SA uterine cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Khatri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to synthesize methotrexate (MTX-polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendritic nanoconjugates and to study their effect on cell viability in uterine sarcoma cells. The amide-bonded PAMAM dendrimer-MTX conjugates were prepared by conjugation between the amine-terminated G5 dendrimer and the carboxylic groups of the MTX using a dicyclohexylcarbodiimide coupling reaction. The formation of conjugates was evaluated by ultraviolet (UV and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR spectroscopy studies. The cell survival of MES-SA cells, a uterine sarcoma cell line, was evaluated in the presence of the dendrimer-MTX nanoconjugate, using appropriate controls. The UV and 1 H NMR study confirmed the formation of covalent bonds between the drug and the dendrimer. The cell viability study indicated that the nanoconjugates had significantly improved cell killing compared to the free MTX.

  17. Different patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial penetration by the G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal bioconjugate BC-PAMAM in normal and cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uram Ł

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Łukasz Uram,1 Magdalena Szuster,1 Aleksandra Filipowicz,2 Krzysztof Gargasz,3 Stanisław Wołowiec,3 Elżbieta Wałajtys-Rode4 1Bioorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Cosmetology Department, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszow, 3Institute of Nursery and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, 4Department of Drug Technology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: The intracellular localization and colocalization of a fluorescently labeled G3 amine-terminated cationic polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer and its biotin–pyridoxal (BC-PAMAM bioconjugate were investigated in a concentration-dependent manner in normal human fibroblast (BJ and squamous epithelial carcinoma (SCC-15 cell lines. After 24 hours treatment, both cell lines revealed different patterns of intracellular dendrimer accumulation depending on their cytotoxic effects. Cancer cells exhibited much higher (20-fold tolerance for native PAMAM treatment than fibroblasts, whereas BC-PAMAM was significantly toxic only for fibroblasts at 50 µM concentration. Fibroblasts accumulated the native and bioconjugated dendrimers in a concentration-dependent manner at nontoxic range of concentration, with significantly lower bioconjugate loading. After reaching the cytotoxicity level, fluorescein isothiocyanate-PAMAM accumulation remains at high, comparable level. In cancer cells, native PAMAM loading at higher, but not cytotoxic concentrations, was kept at constant level with a sharp increase at toxic concentration. Mander’s coefficient calculated for fibroblasts and cancer cells confirmed more efficient native PAMAM penetration as compared to BC-PAMAM. Significant differences in nuclear dendrimer penetration were observed for both cell lines. In cancer cells, PAMAM signals amounted to ~25%–35% of the total nuclei area at all

  18. Effect of Terminal Groups of Dendrimers in the Complexation with Antisense Oligonucleotides and Cell Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Peñaloza, Juan Pablo; Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Reyes, Rodrigo; Vidaurre, Soledad; Romero, Valentina; Fuentes, Juan; Céric, Francisco; Velásquez, Luis; González-Nilo, Fernando D.; Otero, Carolina

    2016-02-01

    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers are the most recognized class of dendrimer. Amino-terminated (PAMAM-NH2) and hydroxyl-terminated (PAMAM-OH) dendrimers of generation 4 are widely used, since they are commercially available. Both have different properties, mainly based on their different overall charges at physiological pH. Currently, an important function of dendrimers as carriers of short single-stranded DNA has been applied. These molecules, known as antisense oligonucleotides (asODNs), are able to inhibit the expression of a target mRNA. Whereas PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers have shown to be able to transfect plasmid DNA, PAMAM-OH dendrimers have not shown the same successful results. However, little is known about their interaction with shorter and more flexible molecules such as asODNs. Due to several initiatives, the use of these neutral dendrimers as a scaffold to introduce other functional groups has been proposed. Because of its low cytotoxicity, it is relevant to understand the molecular phenomena involving these types of dendrimers. In this work, we studied the behavior of an antisense oligonucleotide in presence of both types of dendrimers using molecular dynamics simulations, in order to elucidate if they are able to form stable complexes. In this manner, we demonstrated at atomic level that PAMAM-NH2, unlike PAMAM-OH, could form a well-compacted complex with asODN, albeit PAMAM-OH can also establish stable interactions with the oligonucleotide. The biological activity of asODN in complex with PAMAM-NH2 dendrimer was also shown. Finally, we revealed that in contact with PAMAM-OH, asODN remains outside the cells as TIRF microscopy results showed, due to its poor interaction with this dendrimer and cell membranes.

  19. Effect of Terminal Groups of Dendrimers in the Complexation with Antisense Oligonucleotides and Cell Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Miranda, Valeria; Peñaloza, Juan Pablo; Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Reyes, Rodrigo; Vidaurre, Soledad; Romero, Valentina; Fuentes, Juan; Céric, Francisco; Velásquez, Luis; González-Nilo, Fernando D; Otero, Carolina

    2016-12-01

    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimers are the most recognized class of dendrimer. Amino-terminated (PAMAM-NH2) and hydroxyl-terminated (PAMAM-OH) dendrimers of generation 4 are widely used, since they are commercially available. Both have different properties, mainly based on their different overall charges at physiological pH. Currently, an important function of dendrimers as carriers of short single-stranded DNA has been applied. These molecules, known as antisense oligonucleotides (asODNs), are able to inhibit the expression of a target mRNA. Whereas PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers have shown to be able to transfect plasmid DNA, PAMAM-OH dendrimers have not shown the same successful results. However, little is known about their interaction with shorter and more flexible molecules such as asODNs. Due to several initiatives, the use of these neutral dendrimers as a scaffold to introduce other functional groups has been proposed. Because of its low cytotoxicity, it is relevant to understand the molecular phenomena involving these types of dendrimers. In this work, we studied the behavior of an antisense oligonucleotide in presence of both types of dendrimers using molecular dynamics simulations, in order to elucidate if they are able to form stable complexes. In this manner, we demonstrated at atomic level that PAMAM-NH2, unlike PAMAM-OH, could form a well-compacted complex with asODN, albeit PAMAM-OH can also establish stable interactions with the oligonucleotide. The biological activity of asODN in complex with PAMAM-NH2 dendrimer was also shown. Finally, we revealed that in contact with PAMAM-OH, asODN remains outside the cells as TIRF microscopy results showed, due to its poor interaction with this dendrimer and cell membranes. PMID:26847692

  20. Interaction of nucleic acids with carbon nanotubes and dendrimers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bidisha Nandy; Mogurampelly Santosh; Prabal K Maiti

    2012-07-01

    Nucleic acid interaction with nanoscale objects like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and dendrimers is of fundamental interest because of their potential application in CNT separation, gene therapy and antisense therapy. Combining nucleic acids with CNTs and dendrimers also opens the door towards controllable self-assembly to generate various supra-molecular and nano-structures with desired morphologies. The interaction between these nanoscale objects also serve as a model system for studying DNA compaction, which is a fundamental process in chromatin organization. By using fully atomistic simulations, here we report various aspects of the interactions and binding modes of DNA and small interfering RNA (siRNA) with CNTs, graphene and dendrimers. Our results give a microscopic picture and mechanism of the adsorption of single- and double-strand DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) on CNT and graphene. The nucleic acid–CNT interaction is dominated by the dispersive van der Waals (vdW) interaction. In contrast, the complexation of DNA (both ssDNA and dsDNA) and siRNA with various generations of poly-amido-amine (PAMAM) dendrimers is governed by electrostatic interactions. Our results reveal that both the DNA and siRNA form stable complex with the PAMAM dendrimer at a physiological pH when the dendrimer is positively charged due to the protonation of the primary amines. The size and binding energy of the complex increase with increase in dendrimer generation. We also give a summary of the current status in these fields and discuss future prospects.

  1. Dendrimer-Capped Nanoparticles Prepared by Picosecond Laser Ablation in Liquid Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Marsili; Simona Laza; Francesco Giammanco; Anna Giusti; Emilia Giorgetti

    2009-01-01

    Fifth generation ethylendiamine-core poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM G5) is presented as an efficient capping agent for the preparation of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles by ps laser ablation in water. In particular, we describe results obtained with the fundamental, second and third harmonic of a ps Nd:YAG laser and the influence of laser wavelength and pulse energy on gold particle production and subsequent photofragmentation. In this framework, the role of the dendrimer and, in particular, i...

  2. Toxicity of PAMAM dendrimers to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent decades, a new class of polymeric materials, PAMAM dendrimers, has attracted marked interest owing to their unique nanoscopic architecture and their hopeful perspectives in nanomedicine and therapeutics. However, the potential release of dendrimers into the aquatic environment raises the issue about their toxicity on aquatic organisms. Our investigation sought to estimate the toxicity of cationic PAMAM dendrimers on the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algal cultures were exposed to different concentrations (0.3-10 mg L-1) of low dendrimer generations (G2, G4 and G5) for 72 h. Potential adverse effects on Chlamydomonas were assessed using esterase activity (cell viability), photosynthetic O2 evolution, pigments content and chlorophyll a fluorescence transient. According to the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) appraised from esterase activity, toxicity on cell viability decreased with dendrimer generation number (2, 3 and 5 mg L-1 for G2, G4 and G5 dendrimers, respectively). Moreover, the three generations of dendrimers did not induce the same changes in the photosynthetic metabolism of the green alga. O2 evolution was stimulated in cultures exposed to the lowest generations tested (i.e. G2 and G4) whereas no significant effects were observed with G5. In addition, total chlorophyll content was increased after G2 treatment at 2.5 mg L-1. Finally, G2 and G4 had positive effects on photosystem II (PSII): the amount of active PSII reaction centers, the primary charge separation and the electron transport between QA and QB were all increased inducing activation of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. These changes resulted in stimulation of full photosynthetic performance.

  3. Dendrimers bind antioxidant polyphenols and cisplatin drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Abderrezak

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers of a specific shape and size play major role in drug delivery systems. Dendrimers are unique synthetic macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with a highly branched structure and globular shape with potential applications in gene and drug delivery. We examine the interaction of several dendrimers of different compositions mPEG-PAMAM (G3, mPEG-PAMAM (G4 and PAMAM (G4 with hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs cisplatin, resveratrol, genistein and curcumin at physiological conditions. FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of drug complexation on dendrimer stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that cisplatin binds dendrimers in hydrophilic mode via Pt cation and polymer terminal NH(2 groups, while curcumin, genistein and resveratrol are located mainly in the cavities binding through both hydrophobic and hydrophilic contacts. The overall binding constants of durg-dendrimers are ranging from 10(2 M(-1 to 10(3 M(-1. The affinity of dendrimer binding was PAMAM-G4>mPEG-PAMAM-G4>mPEG-PAMAM-G3, while the order of drug-polymer stability was curcumin>cisplatin>genistein>resveratrol. Molecular modeling showed larger stability for genisten-PAMAM-G4 (ΔG = -4.75 kcal/mol than curcumin-PAMAM-G4 ((ΔG = -4.53 kcal/mol and resveratrol-PAMAM-G4 ((ΔG = -4.39 kcal/mol. Dendrimers might act as carriers to transport hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs.

  4. Removal of uranium and thorium from aqueous solution by ultrafiltration (UF) and PAMAM dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) from aqueous solution have been carried out by ultrafiltration (UF) and dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF) using regenerated cellulose acetate membrane and PAMAM [poly(amido)amine] dendrimer chelating agent. In UF, the U(VI) and Th(IV) are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption/mass deposition on the membrane at pH > 4. In DAUF, the water soluble PAMAM dendrimer chelating agent effectively concentrates these metal ions in retentate thereby preventing the mass deposition on membrane. At acidic pH (≤3), the binding of metal ions with PAMAM dendrimer is very weak and hence PAMAM can be regenerated and reused. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3462-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (author)

  5. Glycopeptide dendrimers. Part I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2008), s. 2-43. ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/06/1272; GA MZe QF3115; GA AV ČR KAN200520703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : artificial virus * calixarene dendrimers * carbopeptide dendrimers * glycopeptide dendrimers Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2008

  6. Properties of mixed alkanethiol-dendrimer layers and their applications in biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, L; Snejdárková, M; Tóth, K; Gyurcsanyi, R E; Hianik, T

    2004-06-01

    We studied the properties of mixed alkanethiol-dendrimer layers on a gold support and their application in biosensing. We showed that properties of glucose sensor can be modified using a different ratio of 1-hexadecanethiol (HDT) and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer of first generation (G1). The cyclic voltammetry in the presence of the redox couple, Fe(CN)(6)(3-)/Fe(CN)(6)(4-), was used for estimating how effectively the layer blocks the redox probe's access to the electrode surface. A scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) was used to image the resulting distribution of the organic compounds. We found that with increasing content of dendrimers, the integrity of the layers was improved. PMID:15110289

  7. HER2 specific delivery of methotrexate by dendrimer conjugated anti-HER2 mAb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), was covalently attached to a fifth-generation (G5) polyamidoamine dendrimer containing the cytotoxic drug methotrexate. The specific binding and internalization of this conjugate labeled with FITC was clearly demonstrated in cell lines overexpressing HER2 by flow cytometry as well as confocal microscopic analysis. In addition, binding and uptake of antibody conjugated dendrimers was completely blocked by excess non-conjugated herceptin. The dendrimer conjugate was also shown to inhibit the dihydrofolate reductase with similar activity to methotrexate. Co-localization experiments with lysotracker red indicate that antibody conjugate, although internalized efficiently into cells, has an unusually long residence time in the lysosome. Somewhat lower cytotoxicity of the conjugate in comparison to free methotrexate was attributed to the slow release of methotrexate from the conjugate and its long retention in the lysosomal pocket

  8. Effects of catalyst introduction methods using PAMAM dendrimers on selective electroless nickel deposition on polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Troy R; Dams, Erin E; Wensing, Steven T; Lee, Ilsoon

    2007-06-19

    We studied the effects of catalyst introduction methods using poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers on the nickel patterning of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM)-coated substrates. Three different approaches to palladium catalyst introduction using microcontact printing as the patterning technique were utilized and compared. The catalyst introduction methods are (1) direct catalyst stamping, (2) directed assembly using PAMAM dendrimer stamping, and (3) catalyst encapsulation and reduction to nanoparticles within PAMAM dendrimers before stamping. After patterning, the sample surfaces were placed in an electroless bath where nickel was selectively plated onto the patterns. The patterned surfaces were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The metal plating rates on different homogeneous surfaces that simulate the patterned surfaces were measured using a quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, the effect of PEM film thickness (i.e., number of bilayers) on the selectivity of nickel patterning was investigated. PMID:17523692

  9. HER2 specific delivery of methotrexate by dendrimer conjugated anti-HER2 mAb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Rameshwer; Thomas, Thommey P; Desai, Ankur M; Kotlyar, Alina; Park, Steve J; Baker, James R Jr [Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, University of Michigan, 9220 MSRB III, Box 0648, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: rameshwe@umich.edu, E-mail: jbakerjr@med.umich.edu

    2008-07-23

    Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), was covalently attached to a fifth-generation (G5) polyamidoamine dendrimer containing the cytotoxic drug methotrexate. The specific binding and internalization of this conjugate labeled with FITC was clearly demonstrated in cell lines overexpressing HER2 by flow cytometry as well as confocal microscopic analysis. In addition, binding and uptake of antibody conjugated dendrimers was completely blocked by excess non-conjugated herceptin. The dendrimer conjugate was also shown to inhibit the dihydrofolate reductase with similar activity to methotrexate. Co-localization experiments with lysotracker red indicate that antibody conjugate, although internalized efficiently into cells, has an unusually long residence time in the lysosome. Somewhat lower cytotoxicity of the conjugate in comparison to free methotrexate was attributed to the slow release of methotrexate from the conjugate and its long retention in the lysosomal pocket.

  10. HER2 specific delivery of methotrexate by dendrimer conjugated anti-HER2 mAb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rameshwer; Thomas, Thommey P.; Desai, Ankur M.; Kotlyar, Alina; Park, Steve J.; Baker, James R., Jr.

    2008-07-01

    Herceptin, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to human growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), was covalently attached to a fifth-generation (G5) polyamidoamine dendrimer containing the cytotoxic drug methotrexate. The specific binding and internalization of this conjugate labeled with FITC was clearly demonstrated in cell lines overexpressing HER2 by flow cytometry as well as confocal microscopic analysis. In addition, binding and uptake of antibody conjugated dendrimers was completely blocked by excess non-conjugated herceptin. The dendrimer conjugate was also shown to inhibit the dihydrofolate reductase with similar activity to methotrexate. Co-localization experiments with lysotracker red indicate that antibody conjugate, although internalized efficiently into cells, has an unusually long residence time in the lysosome. Somewhat lower cytotoxicity of the conjugate in comparison to free methotrexate was attributed to the slow release of methotrexate from the conjugate and its long retention in the lysosomal pocket.

  11. Multiscale Modeling of Dendrimers and Their Interactions with Bilayers and Polyelectrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Larson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular dynamics simulation methodologies and computational power have allowed accurate predictions of dendrimer size, shape, and interactions with bilayers and polyelectrolytes with modest computational effort. Atomistic and coarse-grained (CG models show strong interactions of cationic dendrimers with lipid bilayers. The CG simulations with explicit lipid and water capture bilayer penetration and pore formation, showing that pore formation is enhanced at high dendrimer concentration, but suppressed at low temperature and high salt concentration, in agreement with experiments. Cationic linear polymers have also been simulated, but do not perforate membranes, evidently because by deforming into a pancake, the charges on a linear polymer achieve intimate contact with a single bilayer leaflet. The relatively rigid dendrimers, on the other hand, penetrate the bilayer, because only by interacting with both leaflets can they achieve a similar degree of contact between charged groups. Also, a “dendrimer-filled vesicle” structure for the dendrimer-membrane interaction is predicted by mesoscale thermodynamic simulations, in agreement with a picture derived from experimental observations. In simulations of complexes of dendrimer and polyelectrolyte, anionic linear chains wrap around the cationic dendrimer and penetrate inside it. Overall, these new results indicate that simulations can now provide predictions in excellent agreement with experimental observations, and provide atomic-scale insights into dendrimer structure and dynamics.

  12. Photosensitizer and peptide-conjugated PAMAM dendrimer for targeted in vivo photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsireddy A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amreddy Narsireddy,1 Kurra Vijayashree,2 Mahesh G Adimoolam,1 Sunkara V Manorama,1 Nalam M Rao21CSIR – Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, 2CSIR – Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Challenges in photodynamic therapy (PDT include development of efficient near infrared-sensitive photosensitizers (5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl-21H,23H-porphine [PS] and targeted delivery of PS to the tumor tissue. In this study, a dual functional dendrimer was synthesized for targeted PDT. For targeting, a poly(amidoamine dendrimer (G4 was conjugated with a PS and a nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA group. A peptide specific to human epidermal growth factor 2 was expressed in Escherichia coli with a His-tag and was specifically bound to the NTA group on the dendrimer. Reaction conditions were optimized to result in dendrimers with PS and the NTA at a fractional occupancy of 50% and 15%, respectively. The dendrimers were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, absorbance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using PS fluorescence, cell uptake of these particles was confirmed by confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. PS-dendrimers are more efficient than free PS in PDT-mediated cell death assays in HER2 positive cells, SK-OV-3. Similar effects were absent in HER2 negative cell line, MCF-7. Compared to free PS, the PS-dendrimers have shown significant tumor suppression in a xenograft animal tumor model. Conjugation of a PS with dendrimers and with a targeting agent has enhanced photodynamic therapeutic effects of the PS.Keywords: photodynamic therapy, dendrimers, nanoparticle, targeted delivery, Affibody, xenograft animal model

  13. Hydroxyl PAMAM dendrimer-based gene vectors for transgene delivery to human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Kambhampati, Siva P.; Mishra, Manoj K.; Wu, Tony; Song, Eric; Hanes, Justin; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2015-02-01

    Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE cells. We used hydroxyl-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers functionalized with various amounts of amine groups to achieve effective plasmid compaction. We further used triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as a nuclear localization enhancer for the dendrimer-gene complex and achieved significant improvement in cell uptake and transfection of hard-to-transfect human RPE cells. To improve colloidal stability, we further shielded the gene vector surface through incorporation of PEGylated dendrimer along with dendrimer-TA for DNA complexation. The resultant complexes showed improved stability while minimally affecting transgene delivery, thus improving the translational relevance of this platform.Ocular gene therapy holds promise for the treatment of numerous blinding disorders. Despite the significant progress in the field of viral and non-viral gene delivery to the eye, significant obstacles remain in the way of achieving high-level transgene expression without adverse effects. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and is a key target for a number of gene-based therapeutics. In this study, we addressed the inherent drawbacks of non-viral gene vectors and combined different approaches to design an efficient and safe dendrimer-based gene-delivery platform for delivery to human RPE

  14. An investigation into the role of dendrimers as potential enhancers of the dermal delivery of topically applied chlorhexidine

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, Amy Maryanne

    2013-01-01

    The reduction of bacteria on the skin results in prophylactic and therapeutic benefits by reducing the occurrence of skin infections. Currently, chlorhexidine digluconate, a conventional topical antiseptic, permeates the skin poorly leaving viable opportunistic pathogens below the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. The aim of this study was to use polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers to enhance the topical delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate to improve its antimicrobial efficacy.

  15. PAMAM dendrimer with 4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone - In vitro assessment of neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janaszewska, Anna; Studzian, Maciej; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius;

    2015-01-01

    Cytotoxicity of cationic amino-terminated PAMAM dendrimer and modified PAMAM-pyrrolidone dendrimer was compared. LDH assay and cell visualization technique were employed. Mouse embryonic hippocampal cells (mHippoE-18) were used. The experiments were performed in FBS-deprived medium. Pyrrolidone-m...

  16. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  17. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    are the use of dendrimers as 'glycocarriers' for the controlled multimeric presentation of biologically relevant carbohydrate moieties which are useful for targeting modified tissue in malignant diseases for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Finally, the use of specific types of dendrimers as...

  18. Dendrimers in Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Linping; Ficker, Mario; Christensen, Jørn Bolstad;

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are three-dimensional macromolecular structures originating from a central core molecule and surrounded by successive addition of branching layers (generation). These structures exhibit a high degree of molecular uniformity, narrow molecular weight distribution, tunable size and shape ...... as challenging issues surrounding the future development of dendrimer-based medicines....

  19. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Morales, Javier [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.rosal@uah.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Hernando, María D. [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology – INIA, Crta. de la Coruña, km 7.5, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ulaszewska, Maria M. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); García-Calvo, Eloy [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R. [Advanced Study Institute of Madrid, IMDEA Agua, Parque Científico Tecnológico, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Pesticide Residue Research Group, Department of Hydrogeology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Almería, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation.

  20. Fate and transformation products of amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers under ozonation and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We detected transformation products from dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. • Retro-Michael fragmentation pathway with highly oxygenated structures. • High toxicity of G3 PAMAM dendrimer for green algae. • Reactive oxygen species were associated with the toxic damage. • Transformation mixtures could be more toxic than the parent dendrimer. -- Abstract: This article deals with the degradation of a third-generation (G3) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer under ozonation and irradiation. The identification and quantification of G3 PAMAM dendrimer and its transformation products has been performed by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. The dendrimer was completely depleted by ozone in less than 1 min. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation was attributed to hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. The transformation products were attributed to the oxidation of amines, which resulted in highly oxidized structures with abundance of carboxylic acids, which started from the formation of amine oxide and the scission of the C-N bond of the amide group. We studied the toxicity of treated mixtures for six different organisms: the acute toxicity for the bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, the multigenerational growth inhibition of the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the seed germination phytotoxicity of Licopersicon esculentum, Lactuca sativa and Lolium perenne. Ozonation and irradiation originated transformation products are more toxic than the parent dendrimer. The toxicity of the dendrimer for the green alga was linked to a strong increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species with intense lipid peroxidation

  1. Dendrimers in drug research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    and in vivo cytotoxicity, as well as biopermeability, biostability and immunogenicity. The review deals with numerous applications of dendrimers as tools for efficient multivalent presentation of biological ligands in biospecific recognition, inhibition and targeting. Dendrimers may be used as drugs...... for antibacterial and antiviral treatment and have found use as antitumor agents. The review highlights the use of dendrimers as drug or gene delivery devices in e.g. anticancer therapy, and the design of different host-guest binding motifs directed towards medical applications is described. Other specific examples...

  2. Dendrimer-based nanocarriers demonstrating a high efficiency for loading and releasing anticancer drugs against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Khoa Nguyen, Cuu; Phuong Nguyen, Thi

    2013-12-01

    Dendrimer, a new class of hyper-branched polymer with predetermined molecular weight and well-controlled size, has received much attention in nanobiomedical applications such as drug carrier, gene therapy, disease diagnosis, etc. In this study, pegylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer at generation 3.0 (G 3.0) and carboxylated PAMAM dendrimer G 2.5 were prepared for loading anticancer drugs. For loading cisplatin, carboxylated dendrimer could carry 26.64 wt/wt% of cisplatin. The nanocomplexes have size ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter. The drug nanocarrier showed activity against NCI-H460 lung cancer cell line with half maximal inhibitory (IC50) of 23.11 ± 2.08 μg ml-1. Pegylated PAMAM dendrimers (G 3.0) were synthesized below 40 nm in diameter for carrying 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). For 5-FU encapsulation, pegylated dendrimer showed a high drug-loading efficiency of the drug and a slow release profile of 5-FU. The drug nanocarrier system exhibited an antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells (breast cancer cell) with a half maximal inhibitory (IC50) of 9.92 ± 0.19 μg ml-1. In vivo tumor xenograft study showed that the 5-FU encapsulated pegylation of dendrimer exhibited a significant decrement in volume of tumor which was generated by MCF-7 cancer cells. These positive results from our studies could pave the ways for further research of drugs dendrimer nanocarriers toward cancer chemotherapy.

  3. Dendrimer-based nanocarriers demonstrating a high efficiency for loading and releasing anticancer drugs against cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrimer, a new class of hyper-branched polymer with predetermined molecular weight and well-controlled size, has received much attention in nanobiomedical applications such as drug carrier, gene therapy, disease diagnosis, etc. In this study, pegylated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer at generation 3.0 (G 3.0) and carboxylated PAMAM dendrimer G 2.5 were prepared for loading anticancer drugs. For loading cisplatin, carboxylated dendrimer could carry 26.64 wt/wt% of cisplatin. The nanocomplexes have size ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter. The drug nanocarrier showed activity against NCI-H460 lung cancer cell line with half maximal inhibitory (IC50) of 23.11 ± 2.08 μg ml−1. Pegylated PAMAM dendrimers (G 3.0) were synthesized below 40 nm in diameter for carrying 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). For 5-FU encapsulation, pegylated dendrimer showed a high drug-loading efficiency of the drug and a slow release profile of 5-FU. The drug nanocarrier system exhibited an antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells (breast cancer cell) with a half maximal inhibitory (IC50) of 9.92 ± 0.19 μg ml−1. In vivo tumor xenograft study showed that the 5-FU encapsulated pegylation of dendrimer exhibited a significant decrement in volume of tumor which was generated by MCF-7 cancer cells. These positive results from our studies could pave the ways for further research of drugs dendrimer nanocarriers toward cancer chemotherapy. (paper)

  4. Biomimetics: From Bioinformatics to Rational Design of Dendrimers as Gene Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Durán, Ingrid; Varas-Concha, Ignacio; Almonacid, Daniel Eduardo; González-Nilo, Fernando Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Biomimetics, or the use of principles of Nature for developing new materials, is a paradigm that could help Nanomedicine tremendously. One of the current challenges in Nanomedicine is the rational design of new efficient and safer gene carriers. Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers are a well-known class of nanoparticles, extensively used as non-viral nucleic acid carriers, due to their positively charged end-groups. Yet, there are still several aspects that can be improved for their successful application in in vitro and in vivo systems, including their affinity for nucleic acids as well as lowering their cytotoxicity. In the search of new functional groups that could be used as new dendrimer-reactive groups, we followed a biomimetic approach to determine the amino acids with highest prevalence in protein-DNA interactions. Then we introduced them individually as terminal groups of dendrimers, generating a new class of nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics studies of two systems: PAMAM-Arg and PAMAM-Lys were also performed in order to describe the formation of complexes with DNA. Results confirmed that the introduction of amino acids as terminal groups in a dendrimer increases their affinity for DNA and the interactions in the complexes were characterized at atomic level. We end up by briefly discussing additional modifications that can be made to PAMAM dendrimers to turned them into promising new gene carriers. PMID:26382062

  5. Use of poly (amidoamine dendrimer for dentinal tubule occlusion: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianda Wang

    Full Text Available The occlusion of dentinal tubules is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity, a significant health problem in dentistry and daily life. The in situ mineralization within dentinal tubules is a promising treatment for dentin hypersensitivity as it induces the formation of mineral on the sensitive regions and occludes the dentinal tubules. This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of a whole generation poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer (G3.0 on dentinal tubule occlusion by inducing mineralization within dentinal tubules. Dentin discs were treated with PAMAM dendrimers using two methods, followed by the in vitro characterization using Attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS. These results showed that G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers coated on dentin surface and infiltrated in dentinal tubules could induce hydroxyapatite formation and resulted in effective dentinal tubule occlusion. Moreover, crosslinked PAMAM dendrimers could induce the remineralization of demineralized dentin and thus had the potential in dentinal tubule occlusion. In this in vitro study, dentinal tubules occlusion could be achieved by using PAMAM dendrimers. This could lead to the development of a new therapeutic technique for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity.

  6. Glycopeptide dendrimers. Part II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Ježek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2008), s. 44-65. ISSN 1075-2617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/06/1272; GA MZe QF3115; GA AV ČR KAN200520703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : artificial virus * cascade-release dendrimers * glycopeptide dendrimers * glycoconjugate * glycopeptides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2008

  7. Dendronization of gold and CdSe/cdS (core-shell) quantum dots with tomalia type, thiol core, functionalized poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers containing disulfide cores (i.e., cystamine) and possessing carboxylic acid or hydroxyl terminal groups were reduced with dithiothreitol (DTT) to yield single site, thiol core, functionalized PAMAM dendron reagents. These thiol functionalized dendron reagents were used to surface modify (dendronize) both gold nanoparticles, as well as CdSe/CdS (core-shell) quantum dots (QDs). Dendronization involved self-assembly of the focal point thiol functional dendrons at the metal interface of both gold and CdSe/CdS QDs by ligand exchange of protective surfactants used for their synthesis. The synthesis, characterization and preliminary luminescence studies of these new dendritic hybrids are reported

  8. Lanthanide-cored fluorinated dendrimer complexes: synthesis and luminescence characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eu3+-, Tb3+- and Er3+-cored dendrimer complexes were prepared by self-assembly of three fluorinated dendrons, each with a carboxylate anion focal point, around the lanthanide ion. Energy transfer from the peripheral fluorinated phenyl moieties of the dendrons to the lanthanide cation was evidenced spectroscopically for Eu3+- and Tb3+-cored dendrimer complexes in solution. The excitation of perfluorinated aromatic groups was found to decay with ca. 0.7 ns and a longer decay time 10-13 ns was related to the coordination at the Ln3+ focal point. Luminescence from the lanthanide core decays with lifetime in the range 1-1.5 ms over a wide concentration range (μM-mM), similar to the luminescence decay time of the corresponding acetate ion complexes in D2O. The main quenching mechanism of the lanthanide emission appears to be due to vibrations among surrounding C-H bonds of the intermediate shell of the flexible dendrimer scaffold. Antenna effect and energy harvesting from the surface of the dendrimer and transfer to the core was the main mechanism for luminescecnce in the dendrimer complexes with lanthanide cations

  9. Covalent immobilization of invertase on PAMAM-dendrimer modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun, K.; Cevik, E.; Senel, M., E-mail: msenel@fatih.edu.t [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Soezeri, H. [TUBITAK-UME, National Metrology Institute (Turkey); Baykal, A. [Fatih University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences (Turkey); Abasiyanik, M. F. [Fatih University, Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering (Turkey); Toprak, M. S. [Royal Institute of Technology-KTH, Department of Functional Materials (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of superparamagnetite nanoparticles to enhance invertase immobilization. The amount of immobilized enzyme on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times (i.e., 250%) as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane. Maximum reaction rate (V{sub max}) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized invertase such as; the temperature activity, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated and results revealed that stability of the enzyme is improved upon immobilization.

  10. Electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigen using self-assembled oligophenylethynylenethiol monolayer containing dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical immunosensor for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was fabricated with a self-assembled 4-(2-(4-(acetylthio)phenyl)ethynyl)benzoic acid (APBA) as a bioreceptor. In order to enhance the electrochemical activity of PSA detection, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer was linked on the APBA self-assembled monolayer (SAM). The formation and electrical properties of the SAMs were investigated by surface plasmon resonance and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The surface morphology of PSA sandwich complex onto the APBA SAM was studied by atomic force microscopy.

  11. Macromolecular and dendrimer-based magnetic resonance contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that can provide an assessment of function or molecular expression in tandem with anatomic detail. Over the last 20-25 years, a number of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have been developed to enhance signal by altering proton relaxation properties. This review explores a range of these agents from small molecule chelates, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, to macromolecular structures composed of albumin, polylysine, polysaccharides (dextran, inulin, starch), poly(ethylene glycol), copolymers of cystamine and cystine with GD-DTPA, and various dendritic structures based on polyamidoamine and polylysine (Gadomers). The synthesis, structure, biodistribution, and targeting of dendrimer-based MR contrast agents are also discussed

  12. Macromolecular and dendrimer-based magnetic resonance contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumb, Ambika; Brechbiel, Martin W. (Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Inst., National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)), e-mail: pchoyke@mail.nih.gov; Choyke, Peter (Molecular Imaging Program, National Cancer Inst., National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    2010-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful imaging modality that can provide an assessment of function or molecular expression in tandem with anatomic detail. Over the last 20-25 years, a number of gadolinium-based MR contrast agents have been developed to enhance signal by altering proton relaxation properties. This review explores a range of these agents from small molecule chelates, such as Gd-DTPA and Gd-DOTA, to macromolecular structures composed of albumin, polylysine, polysaccharides (dextran, inulin, starch), poly(ethylene glycol), copolymers of cystamine and cystine with GD-DTPA, and various dendritic structures based on polyamidoamine and polylysine (Gadomers). The synthesis, structure, biodistribution, and targeting of dendrimer-based MR contrast agents are also discussed

  13. Antimicrobial Organometallic Dendrimers with Tunable Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola; Overy, David P; Lanteigne, Martin; McQuillan, Katherine; Kerr, Russell G

    2015-11-01

    Multidrug-resistant pathogens are an increasing threat to public health. In an effort to curb the virulence of these pathogens, new antimicrobial agents are sought. Here we report a new class of antimicrobial organometallic dendrimers with tunable activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria that included methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Mechanistically, these redox-active, cationic organometallic dendrimers induced oxidative stress on bacteria and also disrupted the microbial cell membrane. The minimum inhibitory concentrations, which provide a quantitative measure of the antimicrobial activity of these dendrimers, were in the low micromolar range. AlamarBlue cell viability assay also confirms the antimicrobial activity of these dendrimers. Interestingly, these dendrimers were noncytotoxic to epidermal cell lines and to mammalian red blood cells, making them potential antimicrobial platforms for topical applications. PMID:26452022

  14. Thermoregulated Coacervation, Metal-Encapsulation and Nanoparticle Synthesis in Novel Triazine Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Crescencio, Fermín; Enciso, Alan E; Hasan, Mirza; da Costa, Viviana C P; Annunziata, Onofrio; Redón, Rocío; Coffer, Jeffery L; Simanek, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and solubility behaviors of four generation five (G5) triazine dendrimers are studied. While the underivatized cationic dendrimer is soluble in water, the acetylated and propanoylated derivatives undergo coacervation in water upon increasing temperature. Occurring around room temperature, this behavior is related to a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and is explained by differences in composition, notably, the hydrophobic nature of the terminal groups. Interestingly, the water solubility of the acetylated dendrimer is affected by the addition of selected metal ions. Titrating solutions of acetylated dendrimer at temperatures below the LCST with gold or palladium ions promoted precipitation, but platinum, iridium, and copper did not. Gold nanoparticles having diameters of 2.5 ± 0.8 nm can be obtained from solutions of the acetylated dendrimer at concentrations of gold less than that required to induce precipitation by treating the solution with sodium borohydride. PMID:27187331

  15. Thermoregulated Coacervation, Metal-Encapsulation and Nanoparticle Synthesis in Novel Triazine Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Ramírez-Crescencio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and solubility behaviors of four generation five (G5 triazine dendrimers are studied. While the underivatized cationic dendrimer is soluble in water, the acetylated and propanoylated derivatives undergo coacervation in water upon increasing temperature. Occurring around room temperature, this behavior is related to a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST and is explained by differences in composition, notably, the hydrophobic nature of the terminal groups. Interestingly, the water solubility of the acetylated dendrimer is affected by the addition of selected metal ions. Titrating solutions of acetylated dendrimer at temperatures below the LCST with gold or palladium ions promoted precipitation, but platinum, iridium, and copper did not. Gold nanoparticles having diameters of 2.5 ± 0.8 nm can be obtained from solutions of the acetylated dendrimer at concentrations of gold less than that required to induce precipitation by treating the solution with sodium borohydride.

  16. Targeting of follicle stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated dendrimers to ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Dimple A.; Sunoqrot, Suhair; Bugno, Jason; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Hong, Seungpyo; Burdette, Joanna E.

    2014-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side effects. To address these issues, we have designed poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers to selectively target the follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), which is overexpressed by tumorigenic ovarian cancer cells but not by immature primordial follicles and other non-tumorigenic cells. Fluorescein-labeled generation 5 (G5) PAMAM dendrimers were conjugated with the binding peptide domain of FSH (FSH33) that has a high affinity to FSHR. The targeted dendrimers exhibited high receptor selectivity to FSHR-expressing OVCAR-3 cells, resulting in significant uptake and downregulation of an anti-apoptotic protein survivin, while showing minimal interactions with SKOV-3 cells that do not express FSHR. The selectivity of the FSH33-targeted dendrimers was further validated in 3D organ cultures of normal mouse ovaries. Immunostaining of the conjugates revealed their selective binding and uptake by ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) cells that express FSHR, while sparing the immature primordial follicles. In addition, an in vivo study monitoring tissue accumulation following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the conjugates showed significantly higher accumulation of FSH33-targeted dendrimers in the ovary and oviduct compared to the non-targeted conjugates. These proof-of-concept findings highlight the potential of these FSH33-targeted dendrimers to serve as a delivery platform for anti-ovarian cancer drugs, while reducing their systemic side effects by preventing nonspecific uptake by the primordial follicles.Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Current treatment modalities include a combination of surgery and chemotherapy, which often lead to loss of fertility in premenopausal women and a myriad of systemic side

  17. Controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals via a dendrimer-assisted hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology and size of hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (denoted HAP) can be controlled under hydrothermal treatment assisted with different dendrimers, such as carboxylic terminated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) and polyhydroxy terminated PAMAM. The structure and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IR spectra were also used to investigate the complexation of Ca2+ with PAMAM. The results revealed that the inner cores of the PAMAM dendrimers are hydrophilic and potentially open to calcium ions, since interior nitrogen moieties serve as complexation sites, especially in case of the polyhydroxy terminated PAMAM. And the reasonable mechanism of crystallization was proposed that it can be attributed to the localization of nucleation site: external or interior PAMAM. Additionally, the PAMAM dendrimer with carboxylic and polyhydroxy groups has an effective influence on the size and shape of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanostructures. Different crystal morphology was accomplished by adsorption of different dendrimers onto specific faces of growing crystals, altering the relative growth rates of the different crystallographic faces and leading to different crystal habits

  18. PAMAM dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of different generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodadust, Rouhollah, E-mail: raoul.1357@gmail.com; Unsoy, Gozde [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey); Yalc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, Serap [Ahi Evran University, Department of Food Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Gungor [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Turkey); Gunduz, Ufuk, E-mail: ufukg@metu.edu.tr [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biotechnology (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different generations (G{sub 0}-G{sub 7}) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs). In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for dendrimer coating. Aminosilane-modified MNPs were coated with PAMAM dendrimer. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. TEM images demonstrated that the DcMNPs have monodisperse size distribution with an average particle diameter of 16 {+-} 5 nm. DcMNPs were found to be superparamagnetic through VSM analysis. The synthesis, aminosilane modification, and dendrimer coating of iron oxide nanoparticles were validated by FTIR and XPS analyses. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was studied by inverted light scattering microscopy, and cytotoxicity was determined by XTT analysis. Results demonstrated that the synthesized DcMNPs, with their functional groups, symmetry perfection, size distribution, improved magnetic properties, and nontoxic characteristics could be suitable nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy upon loading with various anticancer agents.

  19. Amine functionalization of cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix with generation 1 PAMAM dendrimer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Jeffrey C Y

    2008-02-01

    A method to functionalize cholecyst-derived extracellular matrix (CEM) with free amine groups was established in an attempt to improve its potential for tethering of bioactive molecules. CEM was incorporated with Generation-1 polyamidoamine (G1 PAMAM) dendrimer by using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N\\'-ethylcarbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide cross-linking system. The nature of incorporation of PAMAM dendrimer was evaluated using shrink temperature measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) assessment, ninhydrin assay, and swellability. The effects of PAMAM incorporation on mechanical and degradation properties of CEM were evaluated using a uniaxial mechanical test and collagenase degradation assay, respectively. Ninhydrin assay and FTIR assessment confirmed the presence of increasing free amine groups with increasing quantity of PAMAM in dendrimer-incorporated CEM (DENCEM) scaffolds. The amount of dendrimer used was found to be critical in controlling scaffold degradation, shrink temperature, and free amine content. Cell culture studies showed that fibroblasts seeded on DENCEM maintained their metabolic activity and ability to proliferate in vitro. In addition, fluorescence cell staining and scanning electron microscopy analysis of cell-seeded DENCEM showed preservation of normal fibroblast morphology and phenotype.

  20. Dendrimer-Linked Antifreeze Proteins Have Superior Activity and Thermal Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Corey A; Drori, Ran; Zalis, Shiran; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter L

    2015-09-16

    By binding to ice, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) depress the freezing point of a solution and inhibit ice recrystallization if freezing does occur. Previous work showed that the activity of an AFP was incrementally increased by fusing it to another protein. Even larger increases in activity were achieved by doubling the number of ice-binding sites by dimerization. Here, we have combined the two strategies by linking multiple outward-facing AFPs to a dendrimer to significantly increase both the size of the molecule and the number of ice-binding sites. Using a heterobifunctional cross-linker, we attached between 6 and 11 type III AFPs to a second-generation polyamidoamine (G2-PAMAM) dendrimer with 16 reactive termini. This heterogeneous sample of dendrimer-linked type III constructs showed a greater than 4-fold increase in freezing point depression over that of monomeric type III AFP. This multimerized AFP was particularly effective at ice recrystallization inhibition activity, likely because it can simultaneously bind multiple ice surfaces. Additionally, attachment to the dendrimer has afforded the AFP superior recovery from heat denaturation. Linking AFPs together via polymers can generate novel reagents for controlling ice growth and recrystallization. PMID:26267368

  1. PAMAM dendrimer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles: synthesis and characterization of different generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of different generations (G0–G7) of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles (DcMNPs). In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles were modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for dendrimer coating. Aminosilane-modified MNPs were coated with PAMAM dendrimer. The characterization of synthesized nanoparticles was performed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) analyses. TEM images demonstrated that the DcMNPs have monodisperse size distribution with an average particle diameter of 16 ± 5 nm. DcMNPs were found to be superparamagnetic through VSM analysis. The synthesis, aminosilane modification, and dendrimer coating of iron oxide nanoparticles were validated by FTIR and XPS analyses. Cellular internalization of nanoparticles was studied by inverted light scattering microscopy, and cytotoxicity was determined by XTT analysis. Results demonstrated that the synthesized DcMNPs, with their functional groups, symmetry perfection, size distribution, improved magnetic properties, and nontoxic characteristics could be suitable nanocarriers for targeted cancer therapy upon loading with various anticancer agents.

  2. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-loaded PAMAM dendrimer-coated magnetic nanoparticles promote apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi Pourianazar, Negar; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-03-01

    One major application of nanotechnology in cancer treatment involves designing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, oligonucleotides, and genes to cancer cells. Nanoparticles should be engineered so that they could target and destroy tumor cells with minimal damage to healthy tissues. This research aims to develop an appropriate and efficient nanocarrier, having the ability of interacting with and delivering CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) to tumor cells. CpG-ODNs activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), which can generate a signal cascade for cell death. In our study, we utilized three-layer magnetic nanoparticles composed of a Fe3O4 magnetic core, an aminosilane (APTS) interlayer and a cationic poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. This will be a novel targeted delivery system to enhance the accumulation of CpG-ODN molecules in tumor cells. The validation of CpG-ODN binding to DcMNPs was performed using agarose gel electrophoresis, UV-spectrophotometer, XPS analyses. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cancer cells based on cell viability by XTT assay and flow cytometric analysis. Our results indicated that the synthesized DcMNPs having high positive charges on their surface could attach to CpG-ODN molecules via electrostatic means. These nanoparticles with the average sizes of 40±10nm bind to CpG-ODN molecules efficiently and induce cell death in MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 tumor cells and could be considered a suitable targeted delivery system for CpG-ODN in biomedical applications. The magnetic core of these nanoparticles represents a promising option for selective drug targeting as they can be concentrated and held in position by means of an external magnetic field. PMID:26898428

  3. A functionalized fluorescent dendrimer as a pesticide nanocarrier: application in pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxia; He, Bicheng; Xu, Zejun; Yin, Meizhen; Yang, Wantai; Zhang, Huaijiang; Cao, Jingjun; Shen, Jie

    2014-12-01

    We report the delivery of a hydrophobic pesticide, thiamethoxam, by water-soluble nanosized cationic dendrimers that contain hydrophobic dendritic polyesters and peripheral amines, demonstrated by DLS, spectral analysis and ITC. The dendrimer-based nanocarrier can efficiently deliver the pesticide into the live cells and largely increase the cytotoxicity of the drug.We report the delivery of a hydrophobic pesticide, thiamethoxam, by water-soluble nanosized cationic dendrimers that contain hydrophobic dendritic polyesters and peripheral amines, demonstrated by DLS, spectral analysis and ITC. The dendrimer-based nanocarrier can efficiently deliver the pesticide into the live cells and largely increase the cytotoxicity of the drug. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05733c

  4. Effect of dendrimers on selected enzymes-Evaluation of nano carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionov, Maksim; Ihnatsyeu-Kachan, Aliaksei; Michlewska, Sylwia; Shcharbina, Natallia; Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria

    2016-02-29

    In the field of nanotechnology, dendrimers represent a new class of highly branched macromolecules that is receiving a stimulating and rising interest. The structural organization of these synthetic macromolecules provides promising opportunities for using them as nano-carriers of drugs or gene material to be delivered to the target cells. For applications of dendrimers as drug carriers, analysis of their specific interactions with biological structures at molecular level is very important. This paper describes the molecular interactions between cationic phosphorus dendrimers of third and fourth generation (CPD G3 and CPD G4) and 3 plasma regulatory proteins, namely aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and l-lactic dehydrogenase. Dendrimer-protein interactions were studied using spectrofluorimetric, circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering techniques. Their morphology in the presence or absence of dendrimers was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The results suggest that both dendrimers form positively charged complexes with HIV-derived peptides. The circular dichroism spectra show that these dendrimers can significantly change the secondary structure of proteins, indicating formation of protein/dendrimer complexes. PMID:26724219

  5. Thermoregulated Coacervation, Metal-Encapsulation and Nanoparticle Synthesis in Novel Triazine Dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Fermín Ramírez-Crescencio; Alan E. Enciso; Mirza Hasan; da Costa, Viviana C.P.; Onofrio Annunziata; Rocío Redón; Jeffery L. Coffer; Simanek, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and solubility behaviors of four generation five (G5) triazine dendrimers are studied. While the underivatized cationic dendrimer is soluble in water, the acetylated and propanoylated derivatives undergo coacervation in water upon increasing temperature. Occurring around room temperature, this behavior is related to a liquid-liquid phase transition with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and is explained by differences in composition, notably, the hydrophobic nature of...

  6. Partially oxidized iridium clusters within dendrimers: size-controlled synthesis and selective hydrogenation of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Tatsuya; Kitazawa, Hirokazu; Yamazoe, Seiji; Tsukuda, Tatsuya

    2016-06-01

    Iridium clusters nominally composed of 15, 30 or 60 atoms were size-selectively synthesized within OH-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 6. Spectroscopic characterization revealed that the Ir clusters were partially oxidized. All the Ir clusters efficiently converted 2-nitrobenzaldehyde to anthranil and 2-aminobenzaldehyde under atmospheric hydrogen at room temperature in toluene via selective hydrogenation of the NO2 group. The selectivity toward 2-aminobenzaldehyde over anthranil was improved with the reduction of the cluster size. The improved selectivity is ascribed to more efficient reduction than intramolecular heterocyclization of a hydroxylamine intermediate on smaller clusters that have a higher Ir(0)-phase population on the surface.Iridium clusters nominally composed of 15, 30 or 60 atoms were size-selectively synthesized within OH-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 6. Spectroscopic characterization revealed that the Ir clusters were partially oxidized. All the Ir clusters efficiently converted 2-nitrobenzaldehyde to anthranil and 2-aminobenzaldehyde under atmospheric hydrogen at room temperature in toluene via selective hydrogenation of the NO2 group. The selectivity toward 2-aminobenzaldehyde over anthranil was improved with the reduction of the cluster size. The improved selectivity is ascribed to more efficient reduction than intramolecular heterocyclization of a hydroxylamine intermediate on smaller clusters that have a higher Ir(0)-phase population on the surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01460g

  7. Complexation Between Weakly Basic Dendrimers and Linear Polyelectrolytes: Effects of Chain Stiffness, Grafts, and pOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Thomas; Pandav, Gunja; Omar, Ahmad; Ganesan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    The unique architecture and high charge density of dendrimer molecules have attracted interest for their utilization in gene delivery applications. The strong binding affinity of cationic dendrimers to genetic materials make them effective gene delivery vectors not only by shielding the nucleic acid (NA) material from degradative enzymes in the blood stream, but also by reducing the overall negative charge of the dendrimer-NA material complex, which in turn creates more favorable interaction with the anionic cell membrane. However, the high cytotoxicities of cationic dendrimers have motivated the development of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated dendrimer molecules, which have been shown to reduce dendrimer cytotoxicity while still retaining transfection ability. In order to gain insight into how the addition of neutral grafts affects the binding affinity and conformations of dendrimer-NA material complexes, we have developed and numerically solved a Self-Consistent Field Theory approach for both grafted and non-grafted annealed charged dendrimer molecules in the presence of linear polyelectrolyte molecules. Specifically, this work examines the effect of linear polyelectrolyte stiffness, grafting chain length, and solution pOH.

  8. Chemistry of Secondary Metabolites (Production, Properties, Biological Activity, etc.: Solubility Study of the Interaction between Pamam G-3 Dendrimer and 5 Fluorouracil in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. PALECZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(amidoamine dendrimers (PAMAM are polymeric macromolecules that can find their use as carriers of small ligand molecules such as cosmetics and drugs. 5- Fluorouracil is a potent oncological drug, whose usage is limited because of its relatively high toxicity.The surface and internal layer groups in PAMAM dendrimer belonging to the third (G3 generation create an open-type structure, which facilitate small ligand molecules to bind with them.The formation equilibrium of PAMAM G3 dendrimer complex with an oncologic drug such as 5 fluorouracil (FU in water at room temperature was examined. Using the results of the drug solubility in dendrimer solutions, the maximal number of drug molecules in the dendrimer-drug complex was evaluated. Solubility results show that PAMAM G3 dendrimer can transfer tens 5 fluorouracil molecules in aqueous solution.This research work was funded from the Polish budget appropriations for science in the years 2013-2015, project number IP2012 022372.

  9. Conformational sensitivity of conjugated poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(amidoamine) molecules to cations adducted upon electrospray ionization – A mass spectrometry, ion mobility and molecular modeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •ESI-MS/MS, IMS and molecular modeling were combined to study PEO-PAMAM conformation. •Protonated and lithiated molecules were studied, with charge states from 2 to 4. •Protonation mostly occurred on PAMAM, with PEO units enclosing the protonated group. •Lithium adduction on PEO units lead to more expanded conformations. •Charge location strongly influenced PEO-PAMAM dissociation behavior. -- Abstract: Tandem mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry experiments were performed on multiply charged molecules formed upon conjugation of a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer with a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linear polymer to evidence any conformational modification as a function of their charge state (2+ to 4+) and of the adducted cation (H+vs Li+). Experimental findings were rationalized by molecular dynamics simulations. The G0 PAMAM head-group could accommodate up to three protons, with protonated terminal amine group enclosed in a pseudo 18-crown-6 ring formed by the PEO segment. This particular conformation enabled a hydrogen bond network which allowed long-range proton transfer to occur during collisionally activated dissociation. In contrast, lithium adduction was found to mainly occur onto oxygen atoms of the polyether, each Li+ cation being coordinated by a 12-crown-4 pseudo structure. As a result, for the studied polymeric segment (Mn = 1500 g mol−1), PEO-PAMAM hybrid molecules exhibited a more expanded shape when adducted to lithium as compared to proton

  10. Photophysical studies of the interactions of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) with copper and zinc ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Cabaña, Z.E. [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Valdés, O. [Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile); Vergara, C.E. [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Camarada, M.B. [Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Biología, Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology (CBIB), República 239, Santiago (Chile); Fundación Fraunhofer Chile Research, M. Sánchez Fontecilla 310 piso 14, Las Condes (Chile); Nachtigall, F.M. [Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile); González-Nilo, F.D. [Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Biología, Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology (CBIB), República 239, Santiago (Chile); Fundación Fraunhofer Chile Research, M. Sánchez Fontecilla 310 piso 14, Las Condes (Chile); Santos, Leonardo S., E-mail: lssantos@utalca.cl [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile)

    2015-08-15

    This study reports the photophysical behavior of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) in the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous solutions using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Theoretical and experimental results confirmed the presence of a strong covalent metal–ligand interaction between PAMAM G0 and copper ion that favored the formation of a ligand–metal charge transfer band coordination complex. In the case of Zn(II), no complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered. Structure analysis identified the presence of aggregate like PAMAM G0–Zn moieties that generated an enhancement in the fluorescence emission of PAMAM G0. - Highlights: • Photophysical behavior of PAMAM G0 dendrimer with Cu and Zn ions was studied. • Strong covalent metal–ligand interaction was confirmed between PAMAM G0–Cu(II). • No complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered in the case of Zn(II). • Dendrimer aggregate generated an enhancement in fluorescence emission.

  11. Photophysical studies of the interactions of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) with copper and zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the photophysical behavior of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) in the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous solutions using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Theoretical and experimental results confirmed the presence of a strong covalent metal–ligand interaction between PAMAM G0 and copper ion that favored the formation of a ligand–metal charge transfer band coordination complex. In the case of Zn(II), no complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered. Structure analysis identified the presence of aggregate like PAMAM G0–Zn moieties that generated an enhancement in the fluorescence emission of PAMAM G0. - Highlights: • Photophysical behavior of PAMAM G0 dendrimer with Cu and Zn ions was studied. • Strong covalent metal–ligand interaction was confirmed between PAMAM G0–Cu(II). • No complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered in the case of Zn(II). • Dendrimer aggregate generated an enhancement in fluorescence emission

  12. Hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Peterca, Mihai; Dulcey, Andrés E; Imam, Mohammad R; Hudson, Steven D; Nummelin, Sami; Adelman, Peter; Heiney, Paul A

    2008-10-01

    The synthesis of a library containing 12 conical dendrons that self-assemble into hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimers is reported. The design principles for this library were accessed by development of a method that allows the identification of hollow spheres, followed by structural and retrostructural analysis of their Pm3n cubic lattice. The first hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimer was made by replacing the tapered dendron, from the previously reported tapered dendritic dipeptide that self-assembled into helical pores, with its constitutional isomeric conical dendron. This strategy generated a conical dendritic dipeptide that self-assembled into a hollow spherical supramolecular dendrimer that self-organizes in a Pm3n cubic lattice. Other examples of hollow spheres were assembled from conical dendrons without a dipeptide at their apex. These are conical dendrons originated from tapered dendrons containing additional benzyl ether groups at their apex. The inner part of the hollow sphere assembled from the dipeptide resembles the path of a spherical helix or loxodrome and, therefore, is chiral. The spheres assembled from other conical dendrons are nonhelical, even when they contain stereocenters on the alkyl groups from their periphery. Functionalization of the apex of the conical dendrons with diethylene glycol allowed the encapsulation of LiOTf and RbOTf in the center of the hollow sphere. These experiments showed that hollow spheres function as supramolecular dendritic capsules and therefore are expected to display functions complementary to those of other related molecular and supramolecular structures. PMID:18771261

  13. DENDRIMER CONJUGATES FOR SELECTIVE OF PROTEIN AGGREGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimer conjugates are presented, which are formed between a dendrimer and a protein solubilising substance. Such dendrimer conjugates are effective in the treatment of protein aggregate-related diseases (e.g. prion-related diseases). The protein solubilising substance and the dendrimer together...

  14. Labeling of polyamidoamine with 125I and its biodistribution in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the biodistribution of 125I labeled dendrimer nanomaterial--polyamidoamine (PAMAM) in mice. Methods: Tyrosine was conjugated to four generation PAMAM by N-Hydroxysuccinimide,then 125I was labeled on PAMAM with chloramines-T method,and purified by dialysis. Labeling rate,radiochemical purity and stability of 125I-PAMAM were detected by radioactive thin layer chromatography scanning. The gamma imaging and biodistribution were detected by in vivo imaging system and gamma counter at one, four, eight, twenty-four and forty-eight hours after intravenous injection. Results: The 1H nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that about two tyrosines were conjugated to PAMAM. The 125I labeling rate was about 56% and radiochemical purity was more than 98%. The radiochemical purity of labeled compound remained more than 90% at 72 hours in vitro. In vivo imaging results showed that PAMAM was mainly accumulated in liver periphery. The gamma counter results showed that PAMAM mainly accumulated in liver, kidney and spleen, the excretion of PAMAM was slow and there has high dose of PAMAM in mice at 48 hours. Conclusion: PAMAM with no chemical modification was mainly accumulated in liver, kidney and spleen, and the excretion of PAMAM was slow, so PAMAM is not fit as drug carrier. PAMAM need to chemical modification to accelerate excretion and prevent the emergence of toxicity caused by accumulation in body. (authors)

  15. DFT investigation of the interaction of gold nanoclusters with poly(amidoamine) PAMAM G0 dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarada, M. B.

    2016-06-01

    The interaction between PAMAM G0 and gold nanoclusters Aun (n = 2, 4, 6, and 8) was studied theoretically at DFT level. Different coordination sites were explored, including internal and superficial coordination. All stable complexes exhibited external interaction with the amine or carbonyl site, while the core site coordination was not favored. The more stable binding of Aun was registered with the terminal amine group, while the binding at the amide site was relatively weaker. The vertical first ionization potential, electron affinity, Fermi level, and the HOMO-LUMO gap of PAMAM and Aun-PAMAM G0 complexes were also analyzed.

  16. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine-coated polyamidoamine dendrimer modulates antibody formation via natural killer cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huliková, Katarína; Benson, Veronika; Svoboda, Jan; Šíma, Petr; Fišerová, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2009), s. 792-799. ISSN 1567-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/06/0477; GA AV ČR IAA500200509; GA AV ČR IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : GlcNAc(8) * antibody formation * NK cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.214, year: 2009

  17. Neutron Reflectometry Investigations of the Interaction of DNA-PAMAM Dendrimers with Model Biological Membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systemic delivery of DNA for gene therapy requires control of DNA compaction by an agent, such a lipid, surfactant or a polymer (e.g. cationic dendrimers) as well as understanding of how this complex interacts with a biological membrane. Poly (amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have been reported to be a promising synthetic gene-transfection agent. We have studied the structure of the complexes formed between DNA and PAMAM dendrimers with SANS, dynamic light scattering and cryo-TEM. Here we noted that the structure of the complex formed strongly depends on the generation of the dendrimer. The results of the adsorption of generation 2 (G2) and 4 (G4) PAMAM dendrimers to surface deposited bilayers, consisting of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidyl choline on silicon surface, have been studied using neutron reflectometry (NR). The NR data shows that the dendrimers are able to penetrate the bilayer. However, the complex is less able to penetrate the bilayer, but rather stays on the top of the bilayer. The dendrimers appear slightly flattened on the surface in comparison with their size in bulk as determined by light scattering. We will also report on the interfacial behavior of the DNA-PAMAM complexes at other types of studies of interfaces, important for biomedical applications, where NR has allowed us to determine the layer structure and composition. (author)

  18. Targeted gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific magnetic resonance contrast enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Swanson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott D Swanson1, Jolanta F Kukowska-Latallo2, Anil K Patri5, Chunyan Chen6, Song Ge4, Zhengyi Cao3, Alina Kotlyar3, Andrea T East7, James R Baker31Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan Medical School, 3Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 4Applied Physics, The University of Michigan, MD, USA; 5Present address: National Cancer Institute at Frederick (Contractor, MD, USA; 6Present address: Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ, USA; 7Present address: Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, ILL, USAAbstract: A target-specific MRI contrast agent for tumor cells expressing high affinity folate receptor was synthesized using generation five (G5 of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer. Surface modified dendrimer was functionalized for targeting with folic acid (FA and the remaining terminal primary amines of the dendrimer were conjugated with the bifunctional NCS-DOTA chelator that forms stable complexes with gadolinium (Gd III. Dendrimer-DOTA conjugates were then complexed with GdCl3, followed by ICP-OES as well as MRI measurement of their longitudinal relaxivity (T1 s−1 mM−1 of water. In xenograft tumors established in immunodeficient (SCID mice with KB human epithelial cancer cells expressing folate receptor (FAR, the 3D MRI results showed specific and statistically significant signal enhancement in tumors generated with targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5-FA compared with signal generated by non-targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5 contrast nanoparticle. The targeted dendrimer contrast nanoparticles infiltrated tumor and were retained in tumor cells up to 48 hours post-injection of targeted contrast nanoparticle. The presence of folic acid on the dendrimer resulted in specific delivery of the nanoparticle to tissues and xenograft tumor cells expressing folate receptor in vivo. We present the specificity of the dendrimer

  19. Imaging Dendrimer-Grafted Graphene Oxide Mediated Anti-miR-21 Delivery With an Activatable Luciferase Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu; Zhang, Beilei; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Yaru; Li, Zhiqiang; Xia, Yuqiong; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of post-transcriptional gene regulators involved in various physiological processes including carcinogenesis, and they have emerged as potential targets for tumor theranostics. However, the employment of antisense oligonucleotides, termed anti-miRs, for antagonizing miRNA functions in vivo has largely been impeded by a lack of effective delivery carriers. Here, we describe the development of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-functionalized nanographene oxide (NGO) conjugate (NGO-PEG-dendrimer) for the efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 into non-small-cell lung cancer cells. To monitor the delivery of anti-miR-21 into cells and tumors, we also constructed an activatable luciferase reporter (Fluc-3xPS) containing three perfectly complementary sequences against miR-21 in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the reporter. Compared with bare dendrimer and Lipofectamine 2000 (Lipo2000), NGO-PEG-dendrimer showed considerably lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency. As demonstrated by in vitro bioluminescence imaging and Western blotting assays, NGO-PEG-dendrimer effectively delivered anti-miR-21 into the cytoplasm and resulted in the upregulation of luciferase intensity and PTEN target protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, transfection with anti-miR-21 by NGO-PEG-dendrimer led to stronger inhibition of cell migration and invasion than did bare dendrimer or Lipo2000 transfection. The intravenous delivery of anti-miR-21 via NGO-PEG-dendrimer induced a significant increase in the bioluminescence signal within the Fluc-3xPS reporter-transplanted tumor areas. These results suggest that NGO-PEG-dendrimer could be an efficient and a potential nanocarrier for delivering RNA oligonucleotides. In addition, the strategy of combining NGO-PEG-dendrimer with an activatable luciferase reporter allows the image-guided monitoring of the delivery process, which can provide insights into the RNA

  20. Dendrimer mediated clustering of bacteria: improved aggregation and evaluation of bacterial response and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leire, Emma; Amaral, Sandra P; Louzao, Iria; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron; Fernandez-Megia, Eduardo; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco

    2016-06-24

    Here, we evaluate how cationic gallic acid-triethylene glycol (GATG) dendrimers interact with bacteria and their potential to develop new antimicrobials. We demonstrate that GATG dendrimers functionalised with primary amines in their periphery can induce the formation of clusters in Vibrio harveyi, an opportunistic marine pathogen, in a generation dependent manner. Moreover, these cationic GATG dendrimers demonstrate an improved ability to induce cluster formation when compared to poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) [p(DMAPMAm)], a cationic linear polymer previously shown to cluster bacteria. Viability of the bacteria within the formed clusters and evaluation of quorum sensing controlled phenotypes (i.e. light production in V. harveyi) suggest that GATG dendrimers may be activating microbial responses by maintaining a high concentration of quorum sensing signals inside the clusters while increasing permeability of the microbial outer membranes. Thus, the reported GATG dendrimers constitute a valuable platform for the development of novel antimicrobial materials that can target microbial viability and/or virulence. PMID:27127812

  1. Selective cytotoxicity of PAMAM G5 core–PAMAM G2.5 shell tecto-dendrimers on melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilrreff P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Priscila Schilrreff,1 Cecilia Mundiña-Weilenmann,2 Eder Lilia Romero,1 Maria Jose Morilla11Programa de Nanomedicinas, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Centro de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, ArgentinaBackground: The controlled introduction of covalent linkages between dendrimer building blocks leads to polymers of higher architectural order known as tecto-dendrimers. Because of the few simple steps involved in their synthesis, tecto-dendrimers could expand the portfolio of structures beyond commercial dendrimers, due to the absence of synthetic drawbacks (large number of reaction steps, excessive monomer loading, and lengthy chromatographic separations and structural constraints of high-generation dendrimers (reduction of good monodispersity and ideal dendritic construction due to de Gennes dense-packing phenomenon. However, the biomedical uses of tecto-dendrimers remain unexplored. In this work, after synthesizing saturated shell core–shell tecto-dendrimers using amine-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM generation 5 (G5 as core and carboxyl-terminated PAMAM G2.5 as shell (G5G2.5 tecto-dendrimers, we surveyed for the first time the main features of their interaction with epithelial cells.Methods: Structural characterization of G5G2.5 was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and microscopic techniques; their hydrodynamic size and Z-potential was also determined. Cellular uptake by human epidermal keratinocytes, colon adenocarcinoma, and epidermal melanoma (SK-Mel-28 cells was determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity was determined by mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, glutathione depletion, and apoptosis/necrosis measurement.Results: The resultant 60%–67% saturated shell, 87,000-dalton G5G2.5 (mean molecular weight interacted with cells in a significantly different

  2. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  3. Dendrimer a versatile polymer in drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shakti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are a unique class of synthetic macromolecules having highly branched, three-dimensional, nanoscale architecture with very low polydispersity and high functionality. Structural advantages allow dendrimers to play an important role in the fields of nanotechnology, pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry. This review discusses several aspects of dendrimers, including preparation, dendrimer-drug coupling chemistry, structural models of dendrimer-based drug delivery systems, and physicochemical and toxicological properties. Dendrimers have emerged as one of the most interesting themes for researchers as a result of their unique architecture and macromolecular characteristics. Several groups are involved in exploring their potential as versatile carriers in drug delivery. The use of dendrimers in drug delivery has been reviewed extensively. The increasing relevance of the potential of dendrimers in drug delivery emphasizes the need to explore the routes by which they can be administered. The high level of control possible over the architectural design of dendrimers; their size, shape, branching length/density, and their surface functionality clearly distinguish these structures as unique and optimum carriers in those applications. The bioactive agents may be encapsulated into the interior of the dendrimers or chemically attached/physically adsorbed onto the dendrimer surface, with the option of tailoring the carrier to the specific needs of the active material and its therapeutic applications. This review clearly demonstrates the potential of this new fourth major class of polymer architecture and indeed substantiates the high hopes for the future of dendrimers.

  4. Polyester Dendrimers: Smart Carriers for Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Jean–d’Amour K. Twibanire; T. Bruce Grindley

    2014-01-01

    Polyester dendrimers have been shown to be outstanding candidates for biomedical applications. Compared to traditional polymeric drug vehicles, these biodegradable dendrimers show excellent advantages especially as drug delivery systems because they are non-toxic. Here, advances on polyester dendrimers as smart carriers for drug delivery applications have been surveyed. Both covalent and non-covalent incorporation of drugs are discussed.

  5. Cell uptake mechanisms of PAMAM G4-FITC dendrimer in human myometrial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence and severity of diseases which involve smooth muscle dysfunction dictates the need of continued search for novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions. Dendrimers are branched macromolecules with multiple end-groups that can be functionalized for applications which include drug delivery. There is no data regarding the cellular uptake mechanisms used by dendrimers in smooth muscle human myometrial cells (HMC). Polyamidoamine G4 dendrimers were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and the resulting conjugate (G4-FITC) was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy. G4-FITC showed to have no significant effect on the primary culture HMC viability up to 48 h. HMC incubated with G4-FITC were analyzed by laser confocal microscopy. Peri-nuclear fluorescence distribution was observed at 5 h of incubation or more (24, 36, and 48 h). At 24 h, G4-FITC partially co-localized with lysotracker. Uptake of G4-FITC by HMC was slightly inhibited by filipin (8.0 ± 3.9 %) and significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (63.5 ± 3.7 %). In non-electroporated HMC, G4-FITC was never observed inside the cell nucleus. Interestingly, we detected G4-FITC inside the nuclear domain of some electroporated cells. Thus, electroporation changed intracellular G4-FITC localization. Isolated nuclei of HMC incubated with G4-FITC showed fluorescence signal inside the nuclear domain. The results suggest that in HMC, G4-FITC is taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis with endosomal and lysosomal localization at 24 h. The combination of electroporation and dendrimers could be an interesting technology to electrotransfer drugs into smooth muscle cells cytosol and nuclei

  6. Dendrimers and polyamino-phenolic ligands: activity of new molecules against Legionella pneumophila biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Andreozzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila, an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bacterial ability to form biofilms was verified using a crystal violet colorimetric assay and testing cell viability by real-time quantitative PCR and Plate Count assay. The concentration of the chemicals tested as anti-biofilm agents was chosen based on cytotoxicity assays: the highest non-cytotoxic chemical concentration was used for biofilm inhibition assays, with dendrimer concentration ten-fold higher than polyamino-phenolic ligands. While Macrophen and Double Macrophen were the most active substances among polyamino-phenolic ligands, dendrimers were overall two-fold more effective than all other compounds with a reduction up to 85% and 73% of legionella and multi-species biofilms, respectively. Chemical interaction with matrix molecules is hypothesized, based on SEM images and considering the low or absent anti-microbial activity on planktonic bacteria showed by flow cytometry. These data suggest that the studied compounds, especially dendrimers, could be considered as novel molecules in the design of research projects aimed at the development of efficacious anti-biofilm disinfection

  7. Dendrimers and Polyamino-Phenolic Ligands: Activity of New Molecules Against Legionella pneumophila Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Elisa; Barbieri, Federica; Ottaviani, Maria F; Giorgi, Luca; Bruscolini, Francesca; Manti, Anita; Battistelli, Michela; Sabatini, Luigia; Pianetti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila, an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Bacterial ability to form biofilms was verified using a crystal violet colorimetric assay and testing cell viability by real-time quantitative PCR and Plate Count assay. The concentration of the chemicals tested as anti-biofilm agents was chosen based on cytotoxicity assays: the highest non-cytotoxic chemical concentration was used for biofilm inhibition assays, with dendrimer concentration 10-fold higher than polyamino-phenolic ligands. While Macrophen and Double Macrophen were the most active substances among polyamino-phenolic ligands, dendrimers were overall twofold more effective than all other compounds with a reduction up to 85 and 73% of legionella and multi-species biofilms, respectively. Chemical interaction with matrix molecules is hypothesized, based on SEM images and considering the low or absent anti-microbial activity on planktonic bacteria showed by flow cytometry. These data suggest that the studied compounds, especially dendrimers, could be considered as novel molecules in the design of research projects aimed at the development of efficacious anti-biofilm disinfection treatments of water systems in

  8. Cell uptake mechanisms of PAMAM G4-FITC dendrimer in human myometrial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddone, Natalia; Zambrana, Ana I.; Tassano, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Laboratorio de Senalizacion Celular y Nanobiologia (Uruguay); Porcal, Williams [Universidad de la Republica, Grupo de Quimica Medicinal, Instituto de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias-Facultad de Quimica (Uruguay); Cabral, Pablo [Universidad de la Republica, Laboratorio de Radiofarmacia, Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares, Facultad de Ciencias (Uruguay); Benech, Juan C., E-mail: benech@iibce.edu.uy [Instituto de Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable, Laboratorio de Senalizacion Celular y Nanobiologia (Uruguay)

    2013-07-15

    The high incidence and severity of diseases which involve smooth muscle dysfunction dictates the need of continued search for novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions. Dendrimers are branched macromolecules with multiple end-groups that can be functionalized for applications which include drug delivery. There is no data regarding the cellular uptake mechanisms used by dendrimers in smooth muscle human myometrial cells (HMC). Polyamidoamine G4 dendrimers were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and the resulting conjugate (G4-FITC) was characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and atomic force microscopy. G4-FITC showed to have no significant effect on the primary culture HMC viability up to 48 h. HMC incubated with G4-FITC were analyzed by laser confocal microscopy. Peri-nuclear fluorescence distribution was observed at 5 h of incubation or more (24, 36, and 48 h). At 24 h, G4-FITC partially co-localized with lysotracker. Uptake of G4-FITC by HMC was slightly inhibited by filipin (8.0 {+-} 3.9 %) and significantly inhibited by chlorpromazine (63.5 {+-} 3.7 %). In non-electroporated HMC, G4-FITC was never observed inside the cell nucleus. Interestingly, we detected G4-FITC inside the nuclear domain of some electroporated cells. Thus, electroporation changed intracellular G4-FITC localization. Isolated nuclei of HMC incubated with G4-FITC showed fluorescence signal inside the nuclear domain. The results suggest that in HMC, G4-FITC is taken up by clathrin-mediated endocytosis with endosomal and lysosomal localization at 24 h. The combination of electroporation and dendrimers could be an interesting technology to electrotransfer drugs into smooth muscle cells cytosol and nuclei.

  9. Dendrimers and Polyamino-Phenolic Ligands: Activity of New Molecules Against Legionella pneumophila Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Elisa; Barbieri, Federica; Ottaviani, Maria F.; Giorgi, Luca; Bruscolini, Francesca; Manti, Anita; Battistelli, Michela; Sabatini, Luigia; Pianetti, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Legionnaires’ disease is a potentially fatal pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila, an aquatic bacterium often found within the biofilm niche. In man-made water systems microbial biofilms increase the resistance of legionella to disinfection, posing a significant threat to public health. Disinfection methods currently used in water systems have been shown to be ineffective against legionella over the long-term, allowing recolonization by the biofilm-protected microorganisms. In this study, the anti-biofilm activity of previously fabricated polyamino-phenolic ligands and polyamidoamine dendrimers was investigated against legionella mono-species and multi-species biofilms formed by L. pneumophila in association with other bacteria that can be found in tap water (Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae). Bacterial ability to form biofilms was verified using a crystal violet colorimetric assay and testing cell viability by real-time quantitative PCR and Plate Count assay. The concentration of the chemicals tested as anti-biofilm agents was chosen based on cytotoxicity assays: the highest non-cytotoxic chemical concentration was used for biofilm inhibition assays, with dendrimer concentration 10-fold higher than polyamino-phenolic ligands. While Macrophen and Double Macrophen were the most active substances among polyamino-phenolic ligands, dendrimers were overall twofold more effective than all other compounds with a reduction up to 85 and 73% of legionella and multi-species biofilms, respectively. Chemical interaction with matrix molecules is hypothesized, based on SEM images and considering the low or absent anti-microbial activity on planktonic bacteria showed by flow cytometry. These data suggest that the studied compounds, especially dendrimers, could be considered as novel molecules in the design of research projects aimed at the development of efficacious anti-biofilm disinfection treatments of water systems

  10. Multifunctional lactobionic acid-modified dendrimers for targeted drug delivery to liver cancer cells: investigating the role played by PEG spacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fanfan; Wu, Yilun; Zhu, Jingyi; Wen, Shihui; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-09-24

    We report the development of a lactobionic acid (LA)-modified multifunctional dendrimer-based carrier system for targeted therapy of liver cancer cells overexpressing asialoglycoprotein receptors. In this study, generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI) and LA (or polyethylene glycol (PEG)-linked LA, PEG-LA), followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The synthesized G5.NHAc-FI-LA or G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugates (NHAc denotes acetamide groups) were used to encapsulate a model anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). We show that both conjugates are able to encapsulate approximately 5.0 DOX molecules within each dendrimer and the formed dendrimer/DOX complexes are stable under different pH conditions and different aqueous media. The G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA conjugate appears to have a better cytocompatibility, enables a slightly faster DOX release rate, and displays better liver cancer cell targeting ability than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA conjugate without PEG under similar experimental conditions. Importantly, the developed G5.NHAc-FI-PEG-LA/DOX complexes are able to specifically inhibit the growth of the target cells with a better efficiency than the G5.NHAc-FI-LA/DOX complexes at a relatively high DOX concentration. Our results suggest a key role played by the PEG spacer that affords the dendrimer platform with enhanced targeting and therapeutic efficacy of cancer cells. The developed LA-modified multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with a PEG spacer may be used as a delivery system for targeted liver cancer therapy and offers new opportunities in the design of multifunctional drug carriers for targeted cancer therapy applications. PMID:25185074

  11. Dendrimers and their Applications: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mughisa Munir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are the valuable additives in different routes of drug administration and are the most successful agents, because dendrimers provide greater biocompatibility, water solubility and bioavailability. In this review, synthesis structures, method of preparation have been discussed. Interaction mechanisms between dendrimer molecules and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, like simple encapsulation and covalent conjugation and the recent applications of dendrimers have also been focused. Divergent method of poly amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers is found to be more applicable as compare to convergent method and PAMAM are also considered as ideal carriers for drug delivery because of large variety of surface groups, high aqueous solubility, and their unique architecture. 

  12. Selective cytotoxicity of PAMAM G5 core–PAMAM G2.5 shell tecto-dendrimers on melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilrreff, Priscila; Mundiña-Weilenmann, Cecilia; Romero, Eder Lilia; Morilla, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    Background The controlled introduction of covalent linkages between dendrimer building blocks leads to polymers of higher architectural order known as tecto-dendrimers. Because of the few simple steps involved in their synthesis, tecto-dendrimers could expand the portfolio of structures beyond commercial dendrimers, due to the absence of synthetic drawbacks (large number of reaction steps, excessive monomer loading, and lengthy chromatographic separations) and structural constraints of high-generation dendrimers (reduction of good monodispersity and ideal dendritic construction due to de Gennes dense-packing phenomenon). However, the biomedical uses of tecto-dendrimers remain unexplored. In this work, after synthesizing saturated shell core–shell tecto-dendrimers using amine-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) generation 5 (G5) as core and carboxyl-terminated PAMAM G2.5 as shell (G5G2.5 tecto-dendrimers), we surveyed for the first time the main features of their interaction with epithelial cells. Methods Structural characterization of G5G2.5 was performed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and microscopic techniques; their hydrodynamic size and Z-potential was also determined. Cellular uptake by human epidermal keratinocytes, colon adenocarcinoma, and epidermal melanoma (SK-Mel-28) cells was determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity was determined by mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, glutathione depletion, and apoptosis/necrosis measurement. Results The resultant 60%–67% saturated shell, 87,000-dalton G5G2.5 (mean molecular weight) interacted with cells in a significantly different fashion in comparison to their building blocks and to its closest counterpart, PAMAM G6.5. After being actively taken up by epithelial cells, G5G2.5 caused cytotoxicity only on SK-Mel-28 cells, including depletion of intracellular glutathione and fast necrosis that was manifested above 5 μM G5

  13. Electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide using layered films composed of a polycationic dendrimer and nickel(II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate deposited on a carbon fiber electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an electrochemical sensor for nitric oxide that is based on multi-layers of nickel(II) phthalocyaninetetrasulfonate and a polyamidoamine dendrimer assembled on the surface of a carbon-fiber microelectrode. This sensor responds to nitric oxide at a working potential of 800 mV with a sensitivity of 5.54 pA∙μM-1 which, however, depends on the dendrimer layer position deposited on the microelectrode. The limit of detection is as low as 5.5 μM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The electrode exhibits good selectivity for nitric oxide over common interferents including dopamine, nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, norepinephrine, epinephrine and ascorbic acid. (author)

  14. Ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent immunoassay for morphine using a gold electrode modified with CdS quantum dots, polyamidoamine, and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) immunoassay for the ultrasensitive determination of morphine by making use of a gold electrode which was modified with a nanocomposite film containing self-assembled polyamidoamine (PAMAM) CdS quantum dots and electrodeposited gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The highly uniform and well-dispersed quantum dots were capped with PAMAM dendrimers. Due to the synergistic effect of the modified quantum dots and the electrodeposited Au-NPs, the ECL response is dramatically enhanced. Under optimal experimental conditions, the immunoreaction between morphine and anti-morphine antibody resulted in a decrease of the ECL signal because of steric hindrance. The calibration plot is linear in the morphine concentration range from 0.2 to 180 ng•mL−1, with a detection limit as low as 67 pg•mL−1. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of morphine in blood plasma. This kind of assay is expected to pave new avenues in label-free drug assays. (author)

  15. Ordered Layered Dendrimers Constructed from Two Known Dendrimer Families: Inheritance and Emergence of Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Hanna; Rebout, Cyrille; Laurent, Régis; Mallet-Ladeira, Sonia; Sournia-Saquet, Alix; Sárosi, Menyhárt B; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Delavaux-Nicot, Béatrice; Caminade, Anne-Marie

    2016-07-25

    A new concept is presented, namely the synthesis of dendrimers intrinsically composed in alternation of building blocks pertaining to two known families of dendrimers: phosphorhydrazone dendrimers and triazine-piperazine dendrimers. These mixed dendrimers with layered controlled architecture inherit their easy (31) P NMR characterization and their thermal stability from the phosphorhydrazone family, and their decreased solubility from the triazine-piperazine family. However, they have also their own and original characteristics. Both parent families are white powders, whereas the mixed dendrimers are yellow, orange, or red powders, depending on the generation. DFT calculations were carried out on model dendrons to understand these special color features. Remarkably, these dendrimers incorporating redox-active organic entities allow for the first time the monitoring of the growth of an organic dendrimer by electrochemistry while highlighting an even-odd generation behavior. PMID:27140418

  16. Bioconjugates of PAMAM dendrimers with trans-retinal, pyridoxal, and pyridoxal phosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipowicz A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Filipowicz, S WołowiecDepartment of Cosmetology, University of Information Technology and Management in Rzeszów, Rzeszów, PolandBackground: Bioconjugates of a polyamidoamine (PAMAM G3 dendrimer and an aldehyde were synthesized as carriers for vitamins A and B6, and the bioavailability of these vitamins for skin nutrition was investigated.Methods: Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and ultraviolet-visible methods were used to characterize the structure of the bioconjugates and for monitoring release of pyridoxal (Pyr and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP from these bioconjugates in vitro. A skin model permeation of bioconjugates was also studied in a Franz chamber.Results: A transdermal G3 PAMAM dendrimer was used to synthesize bioconjugates with trans-retinal (Ret, pyridoxal (Pyr, or PLP. These nanomolecules, containing up to four covalently linked Ret, Pyr, or PLP (G34Ret, G34Pyr, and G34PLP, were able to permeate the skin, as demonstrated in vitro using a model skin membrane. PLP and Pyr bound to a macromolecular vehicle were active cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase, as shown by 1H NMR spectral monitoring of the progress of the L-alanine + α-ketoglutarate → glutamic acid + pyruvic acid reaction.Conclusion: PAMAM-PLP, PAMAM-Pyr, and PAMAM-Ret bioconjugates are able to permeate the skin. PLP and Pyr are available as cofactors for glutamic pyruvic transaminase.Keywords: PAMAM, trans-retinal, pyridoxal phosphate, pyridoxal, transamination

  17. The unperturbed state of dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganazzoli, Fabio; La Ferla, Roberto

    2000-11-01

    We report a theoretical study of the unperturbed state of dendrimers, which is realized when the second virial coefficient becomes equal to zero. This condition is achieved through a vanishing of the intermolecular free energy, which is obtained by mutual compensation of the two- and three-body interactions between two molecules. This procedure, which permits us to determine the Θ temperature of dendrimers as a function of their generation, is coupled to the problem of the intramolecular conformation, determined by minimization of the intramolecular free energy. The latter accounts for the two- and three-body interactions within the molecule, and for the configurational entropy. We find that the Θ temperature is a decreasing function of the dendrimer generation g, the decrease becoming relatively fast at large g, but is almost independent of the number of segments (one or two in our case) between adjacent branch points. At the Θ temperature, the residual three-body interactions within the molecule not compensated by the two-body attractions induce a significant swelling over the random-walk conformation for g>2.

  18. A Novel Inorganic-Organic Composite Constructed from Cobalt(Ⅱ)-Monosubstituted Polyoxometalates and Poly(amidoamine)-NH2 Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Feng; LIN Shen; LUO Geng-Geng; LIU Chun-Lian

    2007-01-01

    An inorganic-organic composite was prepared by poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer reacting with cobalt(Ⅱ)-monosubstituted polyoxometalates Na5Co11(H2O)PW11O39 (PW11Co) in an aqueous solution. The hybrid composite PW11Co/PAMAM was characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DR-UV-Vis), XPS,XRD and TG/DTA, indicating that the PW11 Co was chemically anchored to PAMAM. The morphologies of the title composite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The catalytic activity was evaluated by oxidation of isobutyraldehyde (IBA) to isobutyric acid (IBAc) in MeCN under mild conditions (20℃, ambient pressure), showing that the title compound is a more effective and recoverable catalyst than corresponding PW11 Co.

  19. N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine-coated polyamidoamine dendrimer promotes tumor-specific B cell responses via natural killer cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huliková, Katarína; Svoboda, Jan; Benson, Veronika; Grobárová, Valeria; Fišerová, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2011), s. 955-961. ISSN 1567-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/09/0477; GA ČR GD310/08/H077; GA AV ČR IAA601680801; GA AV ČR IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : GN8P * B16F10 melanoma * Antibody formation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.376, year: 2011

  20. (99m)Tc-Labeled Multifunctional Low-Generation Dendrimer-Entrapped Gold Nanoparticles for Targeted SPECT/CT Dual-Mode Imaging of Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xiong, Zuogang; Xu, Xiaoying; Luo, Yu; Peng, Chen; Shen, Mingwu; Shi, Xiangyang

    2016-08-10

    Development of cost-effective and highly efficient nanoprobes for targeted tumor single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) dual-mode imaging remains a challenging task. Here, multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (Au DENPs) modified with folic acid (FA) and labeled with (99m)Tc were synthesized for targeted dual-mode SPECT/CT imaging of tumors. Generation 2 (G2) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers (G2-NH2) conjugated with cyclic diethylenetriamine pentaacetic anhydride (cDTPAA) via an amide linkage and FA via a spacer of polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used for templated synthesis of Au core NPs, followed by labeling of (99m)Tc via chelation. The thus created multifunctional Au DENPs were well-characterized. It is shown that particles with an average Au core diameter of 1.6 nm can be dispersed in water, display stability under different conditions, and are cytocompatible in the studied concentration range. Further results demonstrate that the multifunctional nanoprobe is able to be utilized for targeted SPECT/CT dual-mode imaging of cancer cells having FA receptor (FAR)-overexpression in vitro and the established subcutaneous tumor model in vivo within a time frame up to 4 h. The formed multifunctional Au DENPs synthesized using dendrimers of low-generation may be employed as an effective and economic nanoprobe for SPECT/CT imaging of different types of FAR-expressing tumors. PMID:27434031

  1. Water-soluble polyelectrolyte complexes of Astramol poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers with poly(methacrylate) anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiryakova, Marina V; Izumrudov, Vladimir A

    2014-11-26

    Water-soluble complexes formed by pyrenyl-tagged poly(methacrylate) anion with cationic DAB-dendr-(NH2)x of five generations, x = 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 were prepared and studied. The ability of the dendrimers to quench the pyrenyl fluorescence was used to monitor formation/dissociation of the complexes by fluorescence quenching technique. In salt-free solutions, dissociation of the complexes occurred in highly acidic and highly alkaline media independently on the dendrimer generation, whereas stability of the complexes against destruction by added salt (NaCl) enhanced markedly with x increase. Phase separations were dependent on pH and charged ratio of the components, but independent of a dendrimer generation. By contrast, in water-salt solutions the generation had a profound impact on phase diagram manifested by a considerable extension of a heterogeneity region as x increased. These findings strongly suggest that the complexes obey the main regularities ascertained for polyelectrolyte complexes of oppositely charged polyions. The revealed possibility of preparing negatively charged and positively charged complexes with controllable stability and solubility demonstrates potentialities of Astramol dendrimers for design self-assembled and self-adjusted systems attractive for biotechnological and biomedical applications. PMID:25369241

  2. Sandwich-format electrochemiluminescence assays for tumor marker based on PAMAM dendrimer-L-cysteine-hollow gold nanosphere nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ying; Gui, Guofeng; Chai, Yaqin; Liao, Ni; Xiao, Kai; Yuan, Ruo

    2014-03-15

    In this work, a novel polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-L-cysteine-hollow gold nanospheres nanocomposite was fabricated and used as the promoter for the peroxydisulfate/O2 ECL system to detect the concentration of the tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Herein, the carboxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers were decorated with L-cysteine (L-Cys) by EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Then, the hollow gold nanospheres (HGNPs) were employed as effective nano-carriers for the assembly of PAMAM-L-Cys via thiols-Au bonding, which was used for further loading of detection antibody (Ab2) to form the PAMAM-L-Cys-HGNPs-Ab2 bioconjugates. In the presence of target CEA, the sandwiched immuno-structure can be formed between the capture anti-CEA antibodies (Ab1), which self-assembled on deposited gold modified electrode, and the Ab2 on the PAMAM-L-Cys-HGNPs, thereby resulting in a proportional increase in ECL response, due to the significant enhancement of PAMAM-L-Cys-HGNPs toward peroxydisulfate/O2 ECL system. As a result, a sandwich ECL assay for CEA detection was developed with excellent sensitivity of a large concentration variation from 20 fg/mL to 1.0 ng/mL and a detection limit of 6.7 fg mL(-1). PMID:24211458

  3. Graphene Dendrimer-stabilized silver nanoparticles for detection of methimazole using Surface-enhanced Raman scattering with computational assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Tawfik A; Al-Shalalfeh, Mutasem M; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A

    2016-01-01

    Graphene functionalized with polyamidoamine dendrimer, decorated with silver nanoparticles (G-D-Ag), was synthesized and evaluated as a substrate with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for methimazole (MTZ) detection. Sodium borohydride was used as a reducing agent to cultivate silver nanoparticles on the dendrimer. The obtained G-D-Ag was characterized by using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier-transformed infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM image indicated the successful formation of the G-D-Ag. The behavior of MTZ on the G-D-Ag as a reliable and robust substrate was investigated by SERS, which indicated mostly a chemical interaction between G-D-Ag and MTZ. The bands of the MTZ normal spectra at 1538, 1463, 1342, 1278, 1156, 1092, 1016, 600, 525 and 410 cm(-1) were enhanced due to the SERS effect. Correlations between the logarithmical scale of MTZ concentrations and SERS signal intensities were established, and a low detection limit of 1.43 × 10(-12) M was successfully obtained. The density functional theory (DFT) approach was utilized to provide reliable assignment of the key Raman bands. PMID:27572919

  4. Electrochemical characterization of methanol/O2 biofuel cell: Use of laccase biocathode immobilized with polypyrrole film and PAMAM dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the performance of a mediated electron transfer (MET) biocathode for a methanol/O2 biofuel cell. To this end, we employed PAMAM (polyamidoamine) dendrimers for the immobilization of laccase using 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS) in solution or entrapped into polypyrrole films. We used the enzyme immobilized onto the carbon platform obtained either in the presence or in the absence of the electropolymerized film to determine kinetic parameters. The results point to a very similar kinetic rate conversion in both situations; however, substrate affinity seems to increase in the bioelectrode containing the entrapped substrate molecules. The electrochemical characterization tests confirmed that the electropolymerized polypyrrole film was able to retain entrapped ABTS molecules. Additionally, laccase provides enhanced catalytic oxidation current for the mediator compared with the control sample containing PAMAM dendrimer only. Compared to the control sample, which gave power density values around 0.7 μW cm−2, tests employing ABTS as mediator furnished 6 μW cm−2 when the mediator was added in solution and around 25 μW cm−2 when it was entrapped into the biocathode layers. Overall, the developed biocathode is environmentally friendly for immobilization of the enzyme laccase, being satisfactorily stable in the kinetic tests and affording good power data in the biofuel cell tests

  5. Antinematic local order in dendrimer liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiou, Ioannis A.; Ziherl, Primož; Kahl, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    We use monomer-resolved numerical simulations to study the positional and orientational structure of a dense dendrimer solution, focusing on the effects of dendrimers' prolate shape and deformability on the short-range order. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that the nearest-neighbor shell of a tagged particle consists of a mixture of crossed, side-by-side, side-to-end, and end-to-end pair configurations, imposing antinematic rather than nematic order observed in undeformable rodlike ...

  6. New dendrimer - Peptide host - Guest complexes: Towards dendrimers as peptide carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Sontjens, S.H.M.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Christensen, J.B.; Meijer, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    Adamantyl urea and adamantyl thiourea modified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers act as hosts for N-terminal tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-protected peptides and form chloroform-soluble complexes. investigations with NMR spectroscopy show that the peptide is bound to the dendrimer by ionic interactions...

  7. Multifunctional dendrimer-based nanoparticles for in vivo MR/CT dual-modal molecular imaging of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kangan Li,1,4,5,* Shihui Wen,2,* Andrew C Larson,4,5 Mingwu Shen,2 Zhuoli Zhang,4,5 Qian Chen,3 Xiangyang Shi,2,3 Guixiang Zhang1 1Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 4Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, IL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Development of dual-mode or multi-mode imaging contrast agents is important for accurate and self-confirmatory diagnosis of cancer. We report a new multifunctional, dendrimer-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP as a dual-modality contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR/computed tomography (CT imaging of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 poly(amidoamine dendrimers modified with gadolinium chelate (DOTA-NHS and polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether were used as templates to synthesize AuNPs, followed by Gd(III chelation and acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amine groups; multifunctional dendrimer-entrapped AuNPs (Gd-Au DENPs were formed. The formed Gd-Au DENPs were used for both in vitro and in vivo MR/CT imaging of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Both MR and CT images demonstrate that MCF-7 cells and the xenograft tumor model can be effectively imaged. The Gd-Au DENPs uptake, mainly in the cell cytoplasm, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The cell cytotoxicity assay, cell morphology observation, and flow cytometry show that the developed Gd-Au DENPs have good biocompatibility in the given concentration range. Our results

  8. Design, characterization and magnetic properties of Fe3O4-nanoparticle arrays coated with PEGylated-dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The preparation of magnetite Fe3O4 MNPs using the chemical co-precipitation method in presence of biocompatible PAMAM-based dendrimers with end-grafted ethylene glycol ethers is discussed. The magnetic peculiarities of the Fe3O4 MNPs were analyzed by SQUID VSM. Highlights: ► (Poly)ethylene glycol terminated (amidoamine)-based dendrimers are applied. ► Act as stabilizers in Fe3O4 MNPs formation. ► Influence on particle size and morphology is presented. ► Magnetic peculiarities are discussed. - Abstract: Stable magnetic magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) were synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation method of ferrous (Fe2+)/ferric (Fe3+) mixed aqueous salt solutions in presence of well-defined biocompatible low generation (poly)amidoamine (PAMAM)-based dendrimers with end-grafted n ethylene glycol ether (n = 1, 2, 9) moieties, accessible by means of straightforward consecutive divergent synthesis methodologies including addition and amidation cycles. Addition of NH4OH to the respective dendritic nanoreagent containing iron salt solution produced dendritic stabilized uniform shaped magnetite nanoparticles. The structural and magnetic properties of Fe3O4 NPs were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The coherence of affecting the average magnetite particle diameter in range of 5.6 (±1.4)–10.1 (±1.9) nm by the dendritic scaffold, the number and length of the attached ethylene glycol ether termini, as well as the adjusted stabilizer-to-Fe3O4 ratio is discussed along with their magnetic peculiarities.

  9. Lactobionic acid-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles for targeted computed tomography imaging of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Han; Xu, Yanhong; Guo, Rui; Wen, Shihui; Huang, Yunpeng; Liu, Weina; Shen, Mingwu; Zhao, Jinglong; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2014-05-14

    Development of novel nanomaterial-based contrast agents for targeted computed tomography (CT) imaging of tumors still remains a great challenge. Here we describe a novel approach to fabricating lactobionic acid (LA)-modified dendrimer-entrapped gold nanoparticles (LA-Au DENPs) for in vitro and in vivo targeted CT imaging of human hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimers of generation 5 pre-modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate and poly(ethylene glycol)-linked LA were employed as templates to form Au nanoparticles. The remaining dendrimer terminal amines were subjected to an acetylation reaction to form LA-Au DENPs. The prepared LA-Au DENPs were characterized via different methods. Our results reveal that the multifunctional Au DENPs with a Au core size of 2.7 nm have good stability under different pH (5-8) and temperature (4-50 °C) conditions and in different aqueous media, and are noncytotoxic to normal cells but cytotoxic to the targeted hepatocarcinoma cells in the given concentration range. In vitro flow cytometry data show that the LA-Au DENPs can be specifically uptaken by a model hepatocarcinoma cell line overexpressing asialoglycoprotein receptors through an active receptor-mediated targeting pathway. Importantly, the LA-Au DENPs can be used as a highly effective nanoprobe for specific CT imaging of hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro and the xenoplanted tumor model in vivo. The developed LA-Au DENPs with X-ray attenuation property greater than clinically employed iodine-based CT contrast agents hold a great promise to be used as a nanoprobe for targeted CT imaging of human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24712914

  10. DNA Condensation by Partially Acetylated Poly(amido amine Dendrimers: Effects of Dendrimer Charge Density on Complex Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald G. Larson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of poly(amido amine (or PAMAM dendrimers to condense semiflexible dsDNA and penetrate cell membranes gives them great potential in gene therapy and drug delivery but their high positive surface charge makes them cytotoxic. Here, we describe the effects of partial neutralization by acetylation on DNA condensation using light scattering, circular dichroism, and single molecule imaging of dendrimer-DNA complexes combed onto surfaces and tethered to those surfaces under flow. We find that DNA can be condensed by generation-five (G5 dendrimers even when the surface charges are more than 65% neutralized, but that such dendrimers bind negligibly when an end-tethered DNA is stretched in flow. We also find that when fully charged dendrimers are introduced by flow to end-tethered DNA, all DNA molecules become equally highly coated with dendrimers at a rate that becomes very fast at high dendrimer concentration, and that dendrimers remain bound during subsequent flow of dendrimer-free buffer. These results suggest that the presence of dendrimer-free DNA coexisting with dendrimer-bound DNA after bulk mixing of the two in solution may result from diffusion-limited irreversible dendrimer-DNA binding, rather than, or in addition to, the previously proposed cooperative binding mechanism of dendrimers to DNA.

  11. The Janus Face of PAMAM Dendrimers Used to Potentially Cure Nonenzymatic Modifications of Biomacromolecules in Metabolic Disorders—A Critical Review of the Pros and Cons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary Watala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, which is characterised by high blood glucose levels and the burden of various macrovascular and microvascular complications, is a cause of much human suffering across the globe. While the use of exogenous insulin and other medications can control and sometimes prevent various diabetes-associated sequelae, numerous diabetic complications are still commonly encountered in diabetic patients. Therefore, there is a strong need for safe and effective antihyperglycaemic agents that provide an alternative or compounding option for the treatment of diabetes. In recent years, amino-terminated poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers (G2, G3 and G4 have attracted attention due to their protective value as anti-glycation and anti-carbonylation agents that can be used to limit the nonenzymatic modifications of biomacromolecules. The focus of this review is to present a detailed survey of our own data, as well as of the available literature regarding the toxicity, pharmacological properties and overall usefulness of PAMAM dendrimers. This presentation pays particular and primary attention to their therapeutic use in poorly controlled diabetes and its complications, but also in other conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease, in which such nonenzymatic modifications may underlie the pathophysiological mechanisms. The impact of dendrimer administration on the overall survival of diabetic animals and on glycosylation, glycoxidation, the brain-blood barrier and cellular bioenergetics are demonstrated. Finally, we critically discuss the potential advantages and disadvantages accompanying the use of PAMAM dendrimers in the treatment of metabolic impairments that occur under conditions of chronic hyperglycaemia.

  12. Convergent synthesis of dendrimers via the Passerini three-component reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Jo-Ann; Spagnuolo, Lauren A; Rudick, Jonathan G

    2012-07-01

    Tuning properties by programming the surface functional group composition of surface-block dendrimers has been limited to dendrimers with only two types of surface functionality (i.e., surface-diblock dendrimers). The Passerini reaction provides dendrimer products from precursor dendrons in reasonable yields. This proof-of-principle experiment opens the door to making surface-triblock dendrimers. PMID:22702475

  13. Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structure, Flexibility, and Hydrophilicity of PETIM Dendrimers: A Comparison with PAMAM Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchi, Subbarao; Suresh, Gorle; Priyakumar, U Deva; Ayappa, K G; Maiti, Prabal K

    2015-10-15

    A new class of dendrimers, the poly(propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer, has been shown to be a novel hyperbranched polymer having potential applications as a drug delivery vehicle. Structure and dynamics of the amine terminated PETIM dendrimer and their changes with respect to the dendrimer generation are poorly understood. Since most drugs are hydrophobic in nature, the extent of hydrophobicity of the dendrimer core is related to its drug encapsulation and retention efficacy. In this study, we carry out fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the structure of PETIM (G2-G6) dendrimers in salt solution as a function of dendrimer generation at different protonation levels. Structural properties such as radius of gyration (Rg), radial density distribution, aspect ratio, and asphericity are calculated. In order to assess the hydrophilicity of the dendrimer, we compute the number of bound water molecules in the interior of dendrimer as well as the number of dendrimer-water hydrogen bonds. We conclude that PETIM dendrimers have relatively greater hydrophobicity and flexibility when compared with their extensively investigated PAMAM counterparts. Hence PETIM dendrimers are expected to have stronger interactions with lipid membranes as well as improved drug encapsulation and retention properties when compared with PAMAM dendrimers. We compute the root-mean-square fluctuation of dendrimers as well as their entropy to quantify the flexibility of the dendrimer. Finally we note that structural and solvation properties computed using force field parameters derived based on the CHARMM general purpose force field were in good quantitative agreement with those obtained using the generalized Amber force field (GAFF). PMID:26378813

  14. Brief Timelapse on Dendrimer Chemistry: Advances, Limitations, and Expectations

    KAUST Repository

    Ornelas, Catia

    2015-12-09

    © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Dendrimers are well-defined branched macromolecules that have been studied for a wide variety of applications. Possibility to add multiple functionalities in precise locations of the dendritic structure generated great expectations for the application of dendrimers in nanomedicine, however, the number of dendrimer-based formulations that advance to clinical studies has been somewhat deceiving. This is partially due to the nonreproducible pharmokinetic behavior observed for multifunctional dendrimers synthesized through the random-statistical approach that leads to mixtures of products. Therefore, it is crucial to develop multifunctional dendrimers with well-defined structures in order to increase the chances of meeting the clinical expectations placed on dendrimers. This talent article will give an overview of the dendrimer field, discussing the application of dendrimers in nanomedicine, light-harvesting systems, sensing and catalysis, with a critical analysis on the expectations, limitations, advances, current challenges and future directions. Dendrimer timelapse demonstrates constant evolution in dendrimer chemistry enabling their application in nanomedicine, protein mimic, catalysis, light harvesting systems, and sensing. Increasing the variety of functionalities in dendrimers located at precise sites of the dendritic backbone result in versatile multifunctional nanomaterials that in the future might approach the conceptual nanobots.

  15. DENDRIMERS: SYNTHESIS, ITS DOSAGE FORMS AND ADVANTAGE OVER LINEAR POLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANINDER KAUR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study is to improve existing therapies and find new drugs based on dendrimers. Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems are able to increase the selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents. However reticuloendothelial system (RES uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity restrict the use of these nanostructures. These shortcomings are overcome by surface engineering by the dendrimer such as Polyester dendrimer, Citric acid dendrimer, Arginine dendrimer, Glycodendrimers, PEGylated dendrimers, etc.Conclusion: From this present review study, we concluded that dendrimers can work as a useful tool for optimizing drug delivery of such problematic drugs. Also the problem of biocompatibility and toxicity can be overcome by careful surface engineering.

  16. Nitric oxide releasing-dendrimers: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Roveda Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platforms able to storage, release or scavenge NO in a controlled and specific manner is interesting for biological applications. Among the possible matrices for these purposes, dendrimers are excellent candidates for that. These molecules have been used as drug delivery systems and exhibit interesting properties, like the possibility to perform chemical modifications on dendrimers surface, the capacity of storage high concentrations of compounds of interest in the same molecule and the ability to improve the solubility and the biocompatibility of the compounds bonded to it. This review emphasizes the recent progress in the development and in the biological applications of different NO-releasing dendrimers and the nitric oxide release pathways in these compounds.

  17. Uses of Dendrimers for DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Majoral

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors such as DNA microarrays and microchips are gaining an increasingimportance in medicinal, forensic, and environmental analyses. Such devices are based onthe detection of supramolecular interactions called hybridizations that occur betweencomplementary oligonucleotides, one linked to a solid surface (the probe, and the other oneto be analyzed (the target. This paper focuses on the improvements that hyperbranched andperfectly defined nanomolecules called dendrimers can provide to this methodology. Twomain uses of dendrimers for such purpose have been described up to now; either thedendrimer is used as linker between the solid surface and the probe oligonucleotide, or thedendrimer is used as a multilabeled entity linked to the target oligonucleotide. In the firstcase the dendrimer generally induces a higher loading of probes and an easier hybridization,due to moving away the solid phase. In the second case the high number of localized labels(generally fluorescent induces an increased sensitivity, allowing the detection of smallquantities of biological entities.

  18. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO2+) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO2+; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO2+ cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO2+·UO22+, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO2+ species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO2+ have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO2+ cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe3+ and Cr3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO2+·UO22+, NpO2+·Th4+, PuO2+·UO22+, and PuO2+·Th4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M-1

  19. Dendrimer based nanotherapeutics for ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Siva Pramodh

    PAMAM dendrimers are a class of well-defined, hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers that are being investigated for ocular drug and gene delivery. Their favorable properties such as small size, multivalency and water solubility can provide significant opportunities for many biologically unstable drugs and allows potentially favorable ocular biodistribution. This work exploits hydroxyl terminated dendrimers (G4-OH) as drug/gene delivery vehicles that can target retinal microglia and pigment epithelium via systemic delivery with improved efficacy at much lower concentrations without any side effects. Two different drugs Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) conjugated to G4-OH dendrimers showed tailorable sustained release in physiological relevant solutions and were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Dendrimer-TA conjugates enhanced the solubility of TA and were 100 fold more effective at lower concentrations than free TA in its anti-inflammatory activity in activated microglia and in suppressing VEGF production in hypoxic RPE cells. Dendrimers targeted activated microglia/macrophages and RPE and retained for a period of 21 days in I/R mice model. The relative retention of intravitreal and intravenous dendrimers was comparable, if a 30-fold intravenous dose is used; suggesting intravenous route targeting retinal diseases are possible with dendrimers. D-NAC when injected intravenously attenuated retinal and choroidal inflammation, significantly reduced (˜73%) CNV growth at early stage of AMD in rat model of CNV. A combination therapy of D-NAC + D-TA significantly suppressed microglial activation and promoted CNV regression in late stages of AMD without causing side-effects. G4-OH was modified with linker having minimal amine groups and incorporation of TA as a nuclear localization enhancer resulted in compact gene vectors with favorable safety profile and achieved high levels of transgene expression in hard to transfect human retinal pigment

  20. Dendrimers for Vaccine and Immunostimulatory Uses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Boas, Ulrik; Sørensen, Nanna Skall

    2010-01-01

    for efficient immunostimulating compounds (adjuvants) that can increase the efficiency of vaccines, as dendrimers can provide molecularly defined multivalent scaffolds to produce highly defined conjugates with small molecule immunostimulators and/or antigens. The review gives an overview on the use of...... dendrimers as molecularly defined carriers/presenters of small antigens, including constructs that have built-in immunostimulatory (adjuvant) properties, and as stand-alone adjuvants that can be mixed with antigens to provide efficient vaccine formulations. These approaches allow the preparation of...... molecularly defined vaccines with highly predictable and specific properties and enable knowledge-based vaccine design substituting the traditional empirically based approaches for vaccine development and production....

  1. A soluble biocompatible guanidine-containing polyamidoamine as promoter of primary brain cell adhesion and in vitro cell culturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a novel application of an amphoteric water-soluble polyamidoamine named AGMA1 bearing 4-butylguanidine pendants. AGMA1 is an amphoteric, prevailingly cationic polyelectrolyte with isoelectric point of about 10. At pH 7.4 it is zwitterionic with an average of 0.55 excess positive charges per unit, notwithstanding it is highly biocompatible. In this work, it was found that AGMA1 surface-adsorbed on cell culturing coverslips exhibits excellent properties as adhesion and proliferation promoter of primary brain cells such as microglia, as well as of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Microglia cells cultured on AGMA1-coated coverslips substrate displayed the typical resting, ramified morphology of those cultured on poly-L-lysine and poly-L-ornithine, employed as reference substrates. Mixed cultures of primary astrocytes and neuronal cells grown on AGMA1- and poly-L-lysine coated coverslips were morphologically undistinguishable. On both substrates, neurons differentiated axon and dendrites and eventually established perfectly functional synaptic contacts. Quantitative immunocytochemical staining revealed no difference between AGMA1 and poly-L-lysine. Electrophysiological experiments allowed recording neuron spontaneous activity on AGMA1. In addition, cell cultures on both AGMA1 and PLL displayed comparable excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, demonstrating that the synaptic contacts formed were fully functional. (paper)

  2. A soluble biocompatible guanidine-containing polyamidoamine as promoter of primary brain cell adhesion and in vitro cell culturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Noemi; Bianco, Fabio; Matteoli, Michela; Cagnoli, Cinzia; Antonucci, Flavia; Manfredi, Amedea; Mauro, Nicolò; Ranucci, Elisabetta; Ferruti, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports on a novel application of an amphoteric water-soluble polyamidoamine named AGMA1 bearing 4-butylguanidine pendants. AGMA1 is an amphoteric, prevailingly cationic polyelectrolyte with isoelectric point of about 10. At pH 7.4 it is zwitterionic with an average of 0.55 excess positive charges per unit, notwithstanding it is highly biocompatible. In this work, it was found that AGMA1 surface-adsorbed on cell culturing coverslips exhibits excellent properties as adhesion and proliferation promoter of primary brain cells such as microglia, as well as of hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Microglia cells cultured on AGMA1-coated coverslips substrate displayed the typical resting, ramified morphology of those cultured on poly-L-lysine and poly-L-ornithine, employed as reference substrates. Mixed cultures of primary astrocytes and neuronal cells grown on AGMA1- and poly-L-lysine coated coverslips were morphologically undistinguishable. On both substrates, neurons differentiated axon and dendrites and eventually established perfectly functional synaptic contacts. Quantitative immunocytochemical staining revealed no difference between AGMA1 and poly-L-lysine. Electrophysiological experiments allowed recording neuron spontaneous activity on AGMA1. In addition, cell cultures on both AGMA1 and PLL displayed comparable excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, demonstrating that the synaptic contacts formed were fully functional.

  3. Dendrimers in Layer-by-Layer Assemblies: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Sato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the synthesis of dendrimer-containing layer-by-layer (LbL assemblies and their applications, including biosensing, controlled drug release, and bio-imaging. Dendrimers can be built into LbL films and microcapsules by alternating deposition of dendrimers and counter polymers on the surface of flat substrates and colloidal microparticles through electrostatic bonding, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonding, and biological affinity. Dendrimer-containing LbL assemblies have been used to construct biosensors, in which electron transfer mediators and metal nanoparticles are often coupled with dendrimers. Enzymes have been successfully immobilized on the surface of electrochemical and optical transducers by forming enzyme/dendrimer LbL multilayers. In this way, high-performance enzyme sensors are fabricated. In addition, dendrimer LbL films and microcapsules are useful for constructing drug delivery systems because dendrimers bind drugs to form inclusion complexes or the dendrimer surface is covalently modified with drugs. Magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells by iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dendrimer LbL film is also discussed.

  4. Dendrimer effects on peptide and protein fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Boas, Ulrik; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrimers are synthetic, symmetrically branched polymers that can be manufactured to a high degree of definition and therefore present themselves as monodisperse entities. Flexible and globular in shape and compartementalized into a partly inaccessible interior and a highly exposed surface, they...

  5. The Synthesis of Carbosilane Dendrimers for Bioapplications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Strašák, Tomáš; Müllerová, Monika; Čermák, Jan; Malý, J.; Wróbel, D.

    -: -, 2015, s. 111. ISBN N. [EFMC International Symposium on Advances in Synthetic and Medicinal Chemistry /6./. Rehovot (IL), 15.11.2015-18.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05903S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbosilane dendrimers * cytotoxicity * ensapsulation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  6. The Synthesis of Carbosilane Dendrimers for Bioapplications.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenková Šťastná, Lucie; Strašák, Tomáš; Müllerová, Monika; Čermák, Jan; Malý, J.; Wróbel, D.

    - : -, 2015, s. 111. ISBN N. [EFMC International Symposium on Advances in Synthetic and Medicinal Chemistry /6./. Rehovot (IL), 15.11.2015-18.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05903S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbosilane dendrimers * cytotoxicity * ensapsulation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Selective aggregation of PAMAM dendrimer nanocarriers and PAMAM/ZnPc nanodrugs on human atheromatous carotid tissues: a photodynamic therapy for atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Trohopoulos, Panagiotis N.; Stefi, Aikaterina L.; Kollia, Zoe; Gavriil, Vassilios E.; Bourkoula, Athanasia; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Semashko, Vadim V.; Nizamutdinov, Alexey S.; Cefalas, Alkiviadis-Constantinos

    2015-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the action of photons on photosensitive molecules, where atomic oxygen or OH- molecular species are locally released on pathogenic human cells, which are mainly carcinogenic, thus causing cell necrosis. The efficacy of PDT depends on the local nanothermodynamic conditions near the cell/nanodrug system that control both the level of intracellular translocation of nanoparticles in the pathogenic cell and their agglomeration on the cell membrane. Dendrimers are considered one of the most effective and promising drug carriers because of their relatively low toxicity and negligible activation of complementary reactions. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrite delivery of PDT agents has been investigated in the last few years for tumour selectivity, retention, pharmacokinetics and water solubility. Nevertheless, their use as drug carriers of photosensitizing molecules in PDT for cardiovascular disease, targeting the selective necrosis of macrophage cells responsible for atheromatous plaque growth, has never been investigated. Furthermore, the level of aggregation, translocation and nanodrug delivery efficacy of PAMAM dendrimers or PAMAM/zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) conjugates on human atheromatous tissue and endothelial cells is still unknown.

  8. Influence of PAMAM dendrimers on the human insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacka, Olga; Miłowska, Katarzyna; Ionov, Maksim; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Dendrimers are specific class of polymeric macromolecules with wide spectrum of properties. One of the promising activities of dendrimers involves inhibition of protein fibril formation. Aggregation and fibrillation of insulin occurs in insulin-dependent diabetic patients after repeated administration, due to these processes being very easily triggered by the conditions of drug administration. The aim of this work was to study the influence of various generations PAMAM dendrimers on human insulin zeta potential, secondary structure and dithiotreitol (DTT)-induced aggregation. We observed the dependence between the number of positive charges on the surface of the PAMAM dendrimer and the values of zeta potential. Addition of dendrimers to insulin caused insignificant changes in the secondary structure. There was a small decrease in ellipticity, but it did not result in alterations in the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum shape. Dendrimers neither induced protein aggregation nor inhibited the aggregation process induced by DTT, except for 0.01 µmol/l concentration.

  9. Synthesis and Spectral Studies of CdTe–Dendrimer Conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh Srabanti; Saha Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In order to couple high cellular uptake and target specificity of dendrimer molecule with excellent optical properties of semiconductor nanoparticles, the interaction of cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots with dendrimer was investigated through spectroscopic techniques. NH2-terminated dendrimer molecule quenched the photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots. The binding constants and binding capacity were calculated, and the nature of binding was found to be noncovalent. Significant decr...

  10. Ferrocene Entrapped In Polypyrrole Film and PAMAM Dendrimers as Matrix for Mediated Glucose/O2 Biofuel Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The bioanode efficiently transfers electrons between GOx and the electrode surface. • The bioelectrode furnished a high output power. • PAMAM dendrimers retains the enzyme activity and does not change the substrate affinity. • Fc entrapped in polypyrrole network has a considerable shift in catalytic peak potential. - Abstract: We fabricated bioanodes based on PAMAM (polyamidoamine) dendrimers to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx), using ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate (Fc) entrapped in electropolymerized polypyrrole films (Fc-polypyrrole) as mediator. We conducted a comparative study of the GOx kinetic parameters as a function of the enzyme environment; i.e., in solution and immobilized onto carbon platforms. Kinetic studies revealed that the Michaelis-Menten constants (KM) of the anchored and soluble GOx were quite similar, KM = 21.2 (± 0.6) mmol L−1 in solution, and 21.5 (± 0.8) mmol L−1 when immobilized, demonstrating that enzyme immobilization did not affect the enzyme-substrate affinity. However, the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) obtained for the immobilized GOx (Vmax = 0.72 (± 0.03) μmol min−1 mg−1) was lower than the reaction rate achieved for the free enzyme in solution (Vmax = 64 (± 2) μmol min−1 mg−1), due to diffusional effects. Cyclic voltammetry assays confirmed the incorporation of entrapped Fc species into the polypyrrole net films. The performance of the prepared bioelectrodes in a glucose/O2 semi-cell revealed a maximum power density around 130 (± 15) μW cm−2 at pH 5.0, in 100 mmol L−1 glucose. Considering all the electrochemical data and biofuel cell tests, we can infer that the bioanode based on Fc and polypyrrole presented here, is easy to prepare, and the electrocatalyst film efficiently transfers electrons between GOx and the electrode surface. Therefore, it has potential application in glucose/O2 biofuel cells

  11. Alternating deposition films of a polymer and dendrimers bearing diphenylanthracene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jing; WANG Liyan; GAO Jian; YU Xi; WANG Zhiqiang

    2005-01-01

    Two generations of carboxyl-terminated poly (aryl ether) dendrimers bearing 9,10-diphenylanthracene cores are designed and synthesized. Alternating deposition of two dendrimers and poly(4-vinylpyridine) is studied with UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Experimental results indicate that this method to introduce chromophore into multilayer film can effectively prevent desorption of dye molecule. Moreover, it is found that dendrimer can inhibit the aggregation of fluorophore in film using fluorescence spectroscopy. Increase of dendrimer's generation can enhance fluorescence intensity of each fluorophore. This provides a new approach to design luminescent thin film.

  12. Dendrimers as a Potential Drug Delivery System: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nagasamy Venkatesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are synthetic, highly branched, monodisperse macromolecules of nanometer dimensions with exact and large number of functional groups, distributed with unprecedented control, makes them a promising scaffolds, for drug delivery. Dendrimers serves as an ideal vehicle for cancer therapy, immunology, vaccines, antivirals, biosensors for diagnostics, neuron capture therapy, photodynamic therapy and photo thermal therapy. Dendrimers chemistry is one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding areas in the field of chemistry. Prior to the dendrimer technology, nanoparticle drug delivery systems were one of the choicest systems owing to their selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents incorporated into the system. However, few drawbacks such as reticuloendothelial system (RES uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity etc., impede the usage of these nanostructures. Further, these shortcomings shall be circumvented by modifying the surface engineering, such as poly ester dendrimer, arginine dendrimer, glycol dendrimer, PEGylated dendrimers etc., Unique properties of uniform size, water solubility, modifiable surface functionality and availability of internal cavities makes them intriguing carrier for biological and drug delivery system. In the present review, we focused on the bioactive agents that can be easily encapsulated into the interior cavity (or chemical attachment, conjugation (or physically adsorbed on to the dendrimer surface to serve the desired properties of the carrier to cater specific needs of the active components, its characterization and application.

  13. Mixed Matrix PVDF Membranes With in Situ Synthesized PAMAM Dendrimer-Like Particles: A New Class of Sorbents for Cu(II) Recovery from Aqueous Solutions by Ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Madhusudhana Rao; Kuvarega, Alex T; Cho, Manki; Mamba, Bhekie B; Diallo, Mamadou S

    2015-08-18

    Advances in industrial ecology, desalination, and resource recovery have established that industrial wastewater, seawater, and brines are important and largely untapped sources of critical metals and elements. A Grand Challenge in metal recovery from industrial wastewater is to design and synthesize high capacity, recyclable and robust chelating ligands with tunable metal ion selectivity that can be efficiently processed into low-energy separation materials and modules. In our efforts to develop high capacity chelating membranes for metal recovery from impaired water, we report a one-pot method for the preparation of a new family of mixed matrix polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes with in situ synthesized poly(amidoamine) [PAMAM] particles. The key feature of our new membrane preparation method is the in situ synthesis of PAMAM dendrimer-like particles in the dope solutions prior to membrane casting using low-generation dendrimers (G0 and G1-NH2) with terminal primary amine groups as precursors and epichlorohydrin (ECH) as cross-linker. By using a combined thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) and nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) casting process, we successfully prepared a new family of asymmetric PVDF ultrafiltration membranes with (i) neutral and hydrophilic surface layers of average pore diameters of 22-45 nm, (ii) high loadings (∼48 wt %) of dendrimer-like PAMAM particles with average diameters of ∼1.3-2.4 μm, and (iii) matrices with sponge-like microstructures characteristics of membranes with strong mechanical integrity. Preliminary experiments show that these new mixed matrix PVDF membranes can serve as high capacity sorbents for Cu(II) recovery from aqueous solutions by ultrafiltration. PMID:26222014

  14. Carbohydrate-Containing Dendrimers in Biomedical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Reiniš, Milan; Ježek, Jan

    Shawbury: iSmithers, 2011 - (Popa, V.), s. 353-384 ISBN 978-1-84735-437-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1517; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : dendrimers * drug delivery * gene delivery * glycobiology * glycoclusters Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.ismithers.net

  15. One-step Conjugation of Glycyrrhetinic Acid to Cationic Polymers for High-performance Gene Delivery to Cultured Liver Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yue; Shi, Bingyang; Lu, Yiqing; Wen, Shihui; Chung, Roger; Jin, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapies represent a promising therapeutic route for liver cancers, but major challenges remain in the design of safe and efficient gene-targeting delivery systems. For example, cationic polymers show good transfection efficiency as gene carriers, but are hindered by cytotoxicity and non-specific targeting. Here we report a versatile method of one-step conjugation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) to reduce cytotoxicity and improve the cultured liver cell -targeting capability of cationic polymers. We have explored a series of cationic polymer derivatives by coupling different ratios of GA to polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer. These new gene carriers (GA-PPI dendrimer) were systematically characterized by UV-vis,(1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light-scattering, gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. We demonstrate that GA-PPI dendrimers can efficiently load and protect pDNA, via formation of nanostructured GA-PPI/pDNA polyplexes. With optimal GA substitution degree (6.31%), GA-PPI dendrimers deliver higher liver cell transfection efficiency (43.5% vs 22.3%) and lower cytotoxicity (94.3% vs 62.5%, cell viability) than the commercial bench-mark DNA carrier bPEI (25kDa) with cultured liver model cells (HepG2). There results suggest that our new GA-PPI dendrimer are a promising candidate gene carrier for targeted liver cancer therapy. PMID:26902258

  16. Modified gold surfaces by 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol/dendrimer/gold nanoparticles as a platform for the mediated biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadag, Murat; Geyik, Caner; Demirkol, Dilek Odaci [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Ertas, F. Nil [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 35100, Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Timur, Suna, E-mail: suna.timur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2013-03-01

    An electrochemical biosensor mediated by using 6-(Ferrocenyl) hexanethiol (FcSH) was fabricated by construction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface of polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM) modified gold electrode. Glucose oxidase (GOx) was used as a model enzyme and was immobilized onto the gold surface forming a self assembled monolayer via FcSH and cysteamine. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry were used for the characterization of electrochemical response towards glucose substrate. Following the optimization of medium pH, enzyme loading, AuNP and FcSH amount, the linear range for the glucose was studied and found as 1.0 to 5.0 mM with the detection limit (LOD) of 0.6 mM according to S/N = 3. Finally, the proposed Au/AuNP/(FcSH + Cyst)/PAMAM/GOx biosensor was successfully applied for the glucose analysis in beverages, and the results were compared with those obtained by HPLC. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized mediator in SAM layer and dendrimeric structure to expand surface area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au nanoparticles for enhanced electron transfer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Satisfactory Limit of Detection with 0.6 mM.

  17. Direct detection of OTA by impedimetric aptasensor based on modified polypyrrole-dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejri-Omrani, Nawel; Miodek, Anna; Zribi, Becem; Marrakchi, Mouna; Hamdi, Moktar; Marty, Jean-Louis; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2016-05-12

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a carcinogenic mycotoxin that contaminates food such as cereals, wine and beer; therefore it represents a risk for human health. Consequently, the allowed concentration of OTA in food is regulated by governmental organizations and its detection is of major agronomical interest. In the current study we report the development of an electrochemical aptasensor able to directly detect trace OTA without any amplification procedure. This aptasensor was constructed by coating the surface of a gold electrode with a film layer of modified polypyrrole (PPy), which was thereafter covalently bound to polyamidoamine dendrimers of the fourth generation (PAMAM G4). Finally, DNA aptamers that specifically binds OTA were covalently bound to the PAMAM G4 providing the aptasensor, which was characterized by using both Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) techniques. The study of OTA detection by the constructed electrochemical aptasensor was performed using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and revealed that the presence of OTA led to the modification of the electrical properties of the PPy layer. These modifications could be assigned to conformational changes in the folding of the aptamers upon specific binding of OTA. The aptasensor had a dynamic range of up to 5 μg L(-1) of OTA and a detection limit of 2 ng L(-1) of OTA, which is below the OTA concentration allowed in food by the European regulations. The efficient detection of OTA by this electrochemical aptasensor provides an unforeseen platform that could be used for the detection of various small molecules through specific aptamer association. PMID:27114221

  18. On the geometry and conformation of starburst dendrimers

    CERN Document Server

    De Pádua, A B; Moraes, F; Padua, Antonio de; Moraes, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we propose a geometrical model for the study of conformational properties of a starburst dendrimer with the topology of a truncated Bethe lattice. A convenient embedding of the Bethe lattice in the hyperbolic plane is used to study the architecture of the dendrimer. As results, we find an upper bound for the molecular size and the density profile.

  19. Synthesis and Spectral Studies of CdTe–Dendrimer Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Srabanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to couple high cellular uptake and target specificity of dendrimer molecule with excellent optical properties of semiconductor nanoparticles, the interaction of cysteine-capped CdTe quantum dots with dendrimer was investigated through spectroscopic techniques. NH2-terminated dendrimer molecule quenched the photoluminescence of CdTe quantum dots. The binding constants and binding capacity were calculated, and the nature of binding was found to be noncovalent. Significant decrease in luminescence intensity of CdTe quantum dots owing to noncovalent binding with dendrimer limits further utilization of these nanoassemblies. Hence, an attempt is made, for the first time, to synthesize stable, highly luminescent, covalently linked CdTe–Dendrimer conjugate in aqueous medium using glutaric dialdehyde (G linker. Conjugate has been characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In this strategy, photoluminescence quantum efficiency of CdTe quantum dots with narrow emission bandwidths remained unaffected after formation of the conjugate.

  20. Nanoscale effects in dendrimer-mediated targeting of neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fan; Mishra, Manoj K; Zhang, Zhi; Kambhampati, Siva P; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Kannan, Sujatha

    2016-09-01

    Neuroinflammation, mediated by activated microglia and astrocytes, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders. Systemically-administered dendrimers target neuroinflammation and deliver drugs with significant efficacy, without the need for ligands. Elucidating the nanoscale aspects of targeting neuroinflammation will enable superior nanodevices for eventual translation. Using a rabbit model of cerebral palsy, we studied the in vivo contributions of dendrimer physicochemical properties and disease pathophysiology on dendrimer brain uptake, diffusion, and cell specific localization. Neutral dendrimers move efficiently within the brain parenchyma and rapidly localize in glial cells in regions of injury. Dendrimer uptake is also dependent on the extent of blood-brain-barrier breakdown, glial activation, and disease severity (mild, moderate, or severe), which can lend the dendrimer to be used as an imaging biomarker for disease phenotype. This new understanding of the in vivo mechanism of dendrimer-mediated delivery in a clinically-relevant rabbit model provides greater opportunity for clinical translation of targeted brain injury therapies. PMID:27267631

  1. Counterion Condensation and Effective Charge of PAMAM Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Scheler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PAMAM dendrimers are used as a model system to investigate the effects of counterion condensation and the effective charge for spherical polyelectrolytes. Because of their amino groups, PAMAM dendrimers are weak polyelectrolytes. Lowering the pH results in an increasing protonation of the amino groups which is monitored via the proton chemical shifts of the adjacent CH2 groups. The effective charge is determined from a combination of diffusion and electrophoresis NMR. The fraction of the charges, which are effective for the interaction with an external electric field or other charges, decreases with increasing generation (size of the dendrimers.

  2. From dendrimers to fractal polymers and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles N. Moorefield

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of dendritic chemistry has facilitated materials research by allowing precise control of functional component placement in macromolecular architecture. The iterative synthetic protocols used for dendrimer construction were developed based on the desire to craft highly branched, high molecular weight, molecules with exact mass and tailored functionality. Arborols, inspired by trees and precursors of the utilitarian macromolecules known as dendrimers today, were the first examples to employ predesigned, 1 → 3 C-branched, building blocks; physical characteristics of the arborols, including their globular shapes, excellent solubilities, and demonstrated aggregation, combined to reveal the inherent supramolecular potential (e.g., the unimolecular micelle of these unique species. The architecture that is a characteristic of dendritic materials also exhibits fractal qualities based on self-similar, repetitive, branched frameworks. Thus, the fractal design and supramolecular aspects of these constructs are suggestive of a larger field of fractal materials that incorporates repeating geometries and are derived by complementary building block recognition and assembly. Use of terpyridine-M2+-terpyridine (where, M = Ru, Zn, Fe, etc connectivity in concert with mathematical algorithms, such as forms the basis for the Seirpinski gasket, has allowed the beginning exploration of fractal materials construction. The propensity of the fractal molecules to self-assemble into higher order architectures adds another dimension to this new arena of materials and composite construction.

  3. Single perylene diimide dendrimers as single-photon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on a number of perylene diimide multichromophores with different dendritic geometries, with the particular goal of characterizing their performance as single-photon sources at room temperature. The quality of the different perylene diimide-containing dendrimers as single-photon sources was evaluated by determining the Mandel parameter. Values similar to ones reported previously for perylene monoimide dendrimers were found. The different arrangements of the chromophores in the different dendrimers do not noticeably affect their efficiency as single-photon emitters. Due to the formation of oxygen-enhanced long dark states, anaerobic conditions are found to be the best for optimizing their performance, which is in contrast with the case for perylene monoimide containing dendrimers

  4. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Carbazole Unit as a Core Chromophore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrimers, which are prepared by repetition of a given set of reactions using either divergent or convergent strategies, are highly branched and regular macromolecules with well-defined structures and have served as functional objects in nanotechnology and nano-materials science. Following conventional organic small molecules and polymers, dendrimers are now regarded as the third class of materials for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and have attracted much attention due to their distinguished properties. Dendrimers contain three distinct structural parts that are the core, end-groups, and branched units connecting core and periphery. For light-emitting dendrimers, the core is usually selected as the luminescent chromophore, and the dendrons and their periphery are charge transporting units and can also tune the solubility. In contrast to linear polymers, dendrimers are sphere-like with dimensions of the order of nanometers depending on the generation number. By careful structural design, dendrimers combine the potential advantages of both small molecules and polymers. Therefore, the innovative strategy different from conventional convergent and divergent routes has been required to simplify dendrimer synthesis. Recent solid chemistry is the click chemistry which is the copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between alkyne and azide developed by Sharpless and Tornφe. This reaction has many advantages: very high yields, mild and simple reaction conditions, oxygen and water tolerance, and easy isolation of product. This reaction is clearly a breakthrough in the synthesis of dendrimers and dendritic and polymer materials. We have developed the fusion and stitching methods for the synthesis of various dendrimers using click chemistry between an alkyne and an azide. Overall, this method was found to be a straightforward strategy for the synthesis of triazole-based dendrimers. Taking advantage of this fact, herein we report a feasible route

  5. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Carbazole Unit as a Core Chromophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Choul; Lee, Jae Wook [Dong-A Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sungho [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Dendrimers, which are prepared by repetition of a given set of reactions using either divergent or convergent strategies, are highly branched and regular macromolecules with well-defined structures and have served as functional objects in nanotechnology and nano-materials science. Following conventional organic small molecules and polymers, dendrimers are now regarded as the third class of materials for use in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and have attracted much attention due to their distinguished properties. Dendrimers contain three distinct structural parts that are the core, end-groups, and branched units connecting core and periphery. For light-emitting dendrimers, the core is usually selected as the luminescent chromophore, and the dendrons and their periphery are charge transporting units and can also tune the solubility. In contrast to linear polymers, dendrimers are sphere-like with dimensions of the order of nanometers depending on the generation number. By careful structural design, dendrimers combine the potential advantages of both small molecules and polymers. Therefore, the innovative strategy different from conventional convergent and divergent routes has been required to simplify dendrimer synthesis. Recent solid chemistry is the click chemistry which is the copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between alkyne and azide developed by Sharpless and Tornφe. This reaction has many advantages: very high yields, mild and simple reaction conditions, oxygen and water tolerance, and easy isolation of product. This reaction is clearly a breakthrough in the synthesis of dendrimers and dendritic and polymer materials. We have developed the fusion and stitching methods for the synthesis of various dendrimers using click chemistry between an alkyne and an azide. Overall, this method was found to be a straightforward strategy for the synthesis of triazole-based dendrimers. Taking advantage of this fact, herein we report a feasible route

  6. Dendrimers in drug delivery and targeting: Drug-dendrimer interactions and toxicity issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Madaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are the emerging polymeric architectures that are known for their defined structures, versatility in drug delivery and high functionality whose properties resemble with biomolecules. These nanostructured macromolecules have shown their potential abilities in entrapping and/or conjugating the high molecular weight hydrophilic/hydrophobic entities by host-guest interactions and covalent bonding (prodrug approach respectively. Moreover, high ratio of surface groups to molecular volume has made them a promising synthetic vector for gene delivery. Owing to these properties dendrimers have fascinated the researchers in the development of new drug carriers and they have been implicated in many therapeutic and biomedical applications. Despite of their extensive applications, their use in biological systems is limited due to toxicity issues associated with them. Considering this, the present review has focused on the different strategies of their synthesis, drug delivery and targeting, gene delivery and other biomedical applications, interactions involved in formation of drug-dendrimer complex along with characterization techniques employed for their evaluation, toxicity problems and associated approaches to alleviate their inherent toxicity.

  7. Host-Guest Chemistry of Dendrimers in the Gas Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Zhenhui; Schalley, Christoph A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Since the early days of dendrimer chemistry, mass spectrometry has been an important analytical method for determining the purity and the detection of defects in dendrimers. Meanwhile, growing evidence demonstrates the great potential of mass spectrometry for the investigation of non-covalent dendritic host-guest complexes. Mass spectrometry provides an efficient means to isolate them in the high vacuum inside a mass spectrometer under environment-free conditions. Gas-phas...

  8. Polyphenylene Dendrimers with Perylene Diimide as a Luminescent Core

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andreas; Weil, Tanja; Sinigersky, Veselin; Wiesler, Uwe-Martin; Vosch, Tom; Hofkens, Johan; De Schryver, Frans C.; Müllen, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    A novel synthesis is presented of a fourfold ethynyl-substituted perylene diimide dye 4, which acts as a core molecule for the buildup of polyphenylene dendrimers. Around the luminescent core 4, a first-generation (5), a second-generation (6), and a third-generation (7) polyphenylene dendritic environment consisting of pentaphenylbenzene building blocks are constructed. The dendrimers 5 and 6 are synthesized by an exclusively divergent route, whereas for 7, a combination of a divergent and co...

  9. A simple model for the anomalous intrinsic viscosity of dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuyuan; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia; Jin, Liping; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic viscosity of dendrimers in solution shows several anomalous behaviors that have hitherto not been explained within the existing theoretical frameworks of either Zimm or Rouse. Here we propose a simple two-zone model based on the radial segmental density profile of the dendrimers and combine a non-draining core with a free-draining outer region description, to arrive at a simple formula that captures most of the main features in the intrinsic viscosity data obtained in experiments.

  10. Synthesis and Investigation of Soluble Polymer-supported Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE, Cheng; LU, Cui-Fen; CHEN, Zu-Xing; YANG, Gui-Chun

    2006-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-supported dendrimers have been synthesized using 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine(TCT) as dendrons and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane as linkers with high loading capacity, excellent solubility and thermal stability by divergent method. The new synthesized PEG-supported G2.0 dendrimer has 10 times as large functional group loading capacity as commercial PEG3400 with overall yield 44.0%.

  11. Low potential stable glucose detection at dendrimers modified polyaniline nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Nogueira Santos; Demétrio Artur Werner Soares; Alvaro Antonio Alencar de Queiroz

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of nanostructured materials for development of biosensors is a growing field in medical diagnostics. In this work a glucose biosensor based on bioactive polyglycerol (PGLD) and chitosan dendrimers (CHD) was developed. PGLD and CHD were bioconjugated with the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) to obtain dendrimers with glucose sensing properties. Polyaniline nanotubes (PANINT´s) were used as electron mediator due to their high ability to promote electron-transfer reactions involving ...

  12. Biomimetic poly(amidoamine hydrogels as synthetic materials for cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenardi Cristina

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poly(amidoamines (PAAs are synthetic polymers endowed with many biologically interesting properties, being highly biocompatible, non toxic and biodegradable. Hydrogels based on PAAs can be easily modified during the synthesis by the introduction of functional co-monomers. Aim of this work is the development and testing of novel amphoteric nanosized poly(amidoamine hydrogel film incorporating 4-aminobutylguanidine (agmatine moieties to create RGD-mimicking repeating units for promoting cell adhesion. Results A systematic comparative study of the response of an epithelial cell line was performed on hydrogels with agmatine and on non-functionalized amphoteric poly(amidoamine hydrogels and tissue culture plastic substrates. The cell adhesion on the agmatine containing substrates was comparable to that on plastic substrates and significantly enhanced with respect to the non-functionalized controls. Interestingly, spreading and proliferation on the functionalized supports are slower than on plastic exhibiting the possibility of an easier control of the cell growth kinetics. In order to favor the handling of the samples, a procedure for the production of bi-layered constructs was also developed by means the deposition via spin coating of a thin layer of hydrogel on a pre-treated cover slip. Conclusion The obtained results reveal that PAAs hydrogels can be profitably functionalized and, in general, undergo physical and chemical modifications to meet specific requirements. In particular the incorporation of agmatine warrants good potential in the field of cell culturing and the development of supported functionalized hydrogels on cover glass are very promising substrates for applications in cell screening devices.

  13. Using of Hyperbranched Poly(amidoamine as Pretanning Agent for Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Amin Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although chrome is considered as the major tanning agent in the production of all types of hides and leather worldwide, it represents a serious source of environmental pollution. Therefore, polyamidoamine hyperbranched polymer (HPAM was involved in pretanning of the depickled hides to enhance the chromium uptake during the tanning process. The key parameters which affect the exhaustion and fixation of chrome tan including shrinkage temperature of the tanned leather were studied. The results showed a significant improvement in the chrome exhaustion, the shrinkage temperature, and the texture and softness of the leather treated by HPAM.

  14. Biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Caminade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are hyperbranched and perfectly defined macromolecules, constituted of branches emanating from a central core in an iterative fashion. Phosphorhydrazone dendrimers constitute a special family of dendrimers, possessing one phosphorus atom at each branching point. The internal structure of these dendrimers is hydrophobic, but hydrophilic terminal groups can induce the solubility of the whole structure in water. Indeed, the properties of these compounds are mainly driven by the type of terminal groups their bear; this is especially true for the biological properties. For instance, positively charged terminal groups are efficient for transfection experiments, as drug carriers, as anti-prion agents, and as inhibitor of the aggregation of Alzheimer's peptides, whereas negatively charged dendrimers have anti-HIV properties and can influence the human immune system, leading to anti-inflammatory properties usable against rheumatoid arthritis. This review will give the most representative examples of the biological properties of water-soluble phosphorhydrazone dendrimers, organized depending on the type of terminal groups they bear.

  15. Intracellular Environment-Responsive Stabilization of Polymer Vesicles Formed from Head-Tail Type Polycations Composed of a Polyamidoamine Dendron and Poly(L-lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of effective drug carriers, nanocapsules that respond to micro-environmental changes including a decrease in pH and a reductive environment were prepared by the stabilization of polymer vesicles formed from head-tail type polycations, composed of a polyamidoamine dendron head and a poly(L-lysine tail (PAMAM dendron-PLL, through the introduction of disulfide bonds between the PLL tails. Disulfide bonds were successfully introduced through the reaction of Lys residues in the PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles with 2-iminothiolane. The stabilization of PAMAM dendron-PLL polymer vesicles was confirmed by dynamic light scattering measurements. In acid-base titration experiments, nanocapsules cross-linked by disulfide bonds had a buffering effect during the cellular uptake process. The PAMAM dendron-PLL nanocapsules were used to incorporate the fluorescent dyes rhodamine 6G and fluorescein as a drug model. Cationic rhodamine 6G was generally not released from the nanocapsules because of the electrostatic barrier of the PLL membrane. However, the nanocapsules were destabilized at high glutathione concentrations corresponding to intracellular concentrations. Rhodamine 6G was immediately released from the nanocapsules because of destabilization upon the cleavage of disulfide bonds. This release of rhodamine 6G from the nanocapsules was also observed in HeLa cells by laser confocal microscopy.

  16. DESIGN AND PHOTOFUNCTIONS OF DENDRIMER-ENCAPSULATED POLY(PHENYLENEETHYNYLENE)S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-lin Jiang; Takafumi Sato; Takuzo Aida

    2001-01-01

    A series of dendrimer-encapsulated poly(phenyleneethynylene)s 4~6 were synthesized. The light-harvesting antenna fimctions of dendrimer frameworks together with the blue-light emitting activities of 4~6 were highlighted.

  17. Intrinsic viscosity of model starburst dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodynamic radii (Rη) calculated from intrinsic viscosities of poly(amido amide) (PAMAM) starburst dendrimers increasing generation number. This would seem to support a structure with strongly stretched tiers, which is relatively hollow near the core, and with most end groups near the surface. However, a computer simulation due to Lescanec and Muthukumar supports a more folded structure with higher density near the core and with end groups dispersed throughout the molecule. Here we calculate the hydrodynamic radii of the Lescanec-Muthukumar model using intrinsic viscosity formulas developed by Zimm and Fixman. The Lescanec-Muthukumar starbursts with relatively stiff spacers have hydrodynamic radii in good agreement with the experimental PAMAM radii, in spite of their folded structure. The hydrodynamic radius is sensitive both to the molecular size and to the density. As the number of generations increases, the molecules become more dense and the hydrodynamic radius increases more rapidly than the radius of gyration. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Investigation of interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles and bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the interactions between dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and the protein serum albumin. The investigation was based on the fluorescence quenching of tryptophan residue of serum albumin after binding with the dendrimer-coated magnetite nanoparticles. The extent of the interactions between bovine serum albumin and dendrimer-coated MNPs strongly depends on their surface groups and pH value

  19. Development and in vitro Evaluation of Antigen-Loaded Poly(amidoamine) Nanoparticles for Respiratory Epithelium Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Hermanns, I.; Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Engbersen, J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    A poly(amidoamine) with disulfide linkages in the main chain and 4-hydroxybutyl and ω-carboxy-PEG groups (9:1 ratio) as side chains was prepared by Michael addition polymerization of cystamine bisacrylamide with 4-hydroxybutylamine and ω-carboxy-PEG-amine. To develop therapeutic protein formulations

  20. An enhanced biosensor for glutamate based on self-assembled carbon nanotubes and dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanobiocomposites-doped polypyrrole film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Longhua [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu Yihua [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)]. E-mail: yhzhu@ecust.edu.cn; Yang Xiaoling [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Li Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2007-07-30

    An enhanced amperometric biosensor based on incorporating one kind of unique nanobiocomposite as dopant within an electropolymerized polypyrrole film has been investigated. The nanobiocomposite was synthesized by self-assembling glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated platinum nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) onto multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs). {zeta}-Potentials and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the uniform growth of the layer-by-layer nanostructures onto the carboxyl-functionalized CNTs. The size of Pt nanoparticles is approximately 3 nm. The (GLDH/Pt-DENs) {sub n}/CNTs/Ppy hybrid film was obtained by electropolymerization of pyrrole onto glassy carbon electrodes and characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and other electrochemical measurements. All methods indicated that the (GLDH/Pt-DENs) {sub n}/CNTs nanobiocomposites were entrapped within the porous polypyrrole film and resulted in a hybrid film that showed a high electrocatalytic ability toward the oxidation of glutamate at a potential 0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl. The biosensor shows performance characteristics with high sensitivity (51.48 {mu}A mM{sup -1}), rapid response (within 3 s), low detection limit (about 10 nM), low level of interference and excellent reproducibility and stability.

  1. A Cytochrome P450 3A4 Biosensor Based on Generation 4.0 PAMAM Dendrimers for the Detection of Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael; Agarwal, Neha; Kim, Jungtae

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP, P450) are a large family of heme-active-site proteins involved in many catalytic processes, including steroidogenesis. In humans, four primary enzymes are involved in the metabolism of almost all xenobiotics. Among these enzymes, CYP3A4 is responsible for the inactivation of the majority of used drugs which makes this enzyme an interesting target for many fields of research, especially pharmaceutical research. Since the late 1970s, attempts have been made to construct and develop electrochemical sensors for the determination of substrates. This paper is concerned with the establishment of such a CYP3A4-containing biosensor. The sensor was constructed by adsorption of alternating layers of sub-nanometer gold particle-modified PAMAM (poly-amido-amine) dendrimers of generation 4.0, along with the enzyme by a layer-by-layer assembly technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to elucidate the sensor assembly. Additionally, the biosensor was tested by cyclic voltammetry using caffeine as a substrate. PMID:27548239

  2. Ethylendiamine core PAMAM dendrimers/siRNA complexes as in vitro silencing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, A P; Romero, E L; Morilla, M J

    2009-10-01

    We have screened the formation of complexes between ethylendiamine (EDA) core polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (D) and a short interfering RNA (siRNA) as a function of three variables: the ionic strength of the medium (lacking or containing 150 mM NaCl), the D generation (G4, G5, G6 and G7) and the N/P ratio (nitrogen amines in D/phosphate in siRNA). It was observed that all D formed complexes with siRNA, being the size of the complexes strictly dependent on the ionic strength of the media. The strong electrostatic interactions occurring in NaCl lacking medium made siRNA-D complexes (siRNA-D) smaller than those obtained in NaCl containing medium (30-130 nm, +25 mV zeta potential vs. several microm-800 nm, 0 zeta potential, respectively). Not surprisingly, both the uptake and inhibition of EGFP expression in cell culture, resulted dependent on siRNA-D size. siRNA-D prepared in NaCl containing medium were poorly captured and presented a basal activity on phagocytic (J-774-EGFP) cells, being inactive on non-phagocytic cells (T98G-EGFP). However, the smaller siRNA-D prepared in NaCl lacking medium were massively captured, exhibiting the highest inhibition of EGFP expression at 50 nM siRNA (non-cytotoxic concentration). Remarkably, siRNA-G7 produced the highest inhibition of EGFP expression both in T98G-EGFP (35%) and J-774-EGFP (45%) cells, in spite of inducing a lower protection of siRNA against RNase A degradation. Taken together, our results showed that modifying the chemical structure of D is not the only way of achieving siRNA-D suitable for silencing activity. The simple use of a low ionic strength preparation media has been critical to get small siRNA-D that could be captured by cells and in particular, siRNA-G7 but not those formed by lower generation D, possessed structural constraints other than size that could favor its silencing activity. PMID:19577619

  3. Potential Antitumor Dendrimers: Synthesis and Characterizations of Rhenium(Ⅰ) and Cis-platin Containing Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xinxin; Chit-Kay Chu

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The chemistry of dendrimers is a fast developing field and has brought about a tsunami of research activity since Vogtle reported the first preparation in 1978. These hyperbranched macromolecules have grown out of chemists' imagination and have challenged synthetic chemists with their architectural complexity and intriguity. The potentials of these macromolecules are extensive and are synthesized using both organic and inorganic cores from which different scaffoldings are built, and upon which functionalities are attached for specific applications. The synthesis and characterizations of cisplatin and rhenium(Ⅰ) containing PAMAM derivatives will be discussed.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation in vitro in cancer cells AR42J of the radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-Tyr3-Octreotide-dendrimer similar of somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project was preparing a multimeric system through the conjugation of several molecules of the peptide Tyr3-Octreotide to a dendrimer molecule based on Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM), as well as radiolabeled with 99mTc and evaluating its behavior like new radiopharmaceutical similar of somatostatin. The dendrimer PAMAM generation 3.5 that possesses terminal groups of sodium carboxylate, was functionalized to peptide Tyr3-Octreotide through a reaction of peptide coupling with HATU (hexafluorophosphate (V) of 1-oxide-3-(bis(dimethylamino)methylene)-3H-[1,2,3]triazole[4,5-b]pyridine) as activating agent of carboxylate groups using the Size Exclusion Chromatography (Sec) as purification method. The product was characterized by Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, Mid-infrared and Far-infrared, Elemental analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry and Differential scanning calorimetry. The radiolabeled with 99mTc was carried out using a direct method that involves the reduction of the anion TcO4- with stannous chloride, so that the dendrimer is capable of coordinating to the technetium forming a chelate compound. The radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled compound was determined by thin layer chromatography using a sodium chloride solution to 20% (m/v) as mobile phase and was verified by molecular exclusion chromatography. The radiolabeled compound was possible to obtain it with a radiochemical purity superior to 90%. Also, the specific and not specific union was evaluated of the synthesized compound in mouse pancreas cancer cells AR42J, positive to somatostatin receptors, showing specific recognition for this receptors type with high cellular internalization. The biodistribution studies were carried out in BALB/c mice at different post injection times and in nude mice with induced tumors AR42J. The results showed that the 99mTc-PAMAM-Tyr3-Octreotide is excreted by via renal as hepatobiliary with a

  5. Modeling Dendrimers Charge Interaction in Solution: Relevance in Biosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lombardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules obtained by stepwise controlled, reaction sequences. The ability to be designed for specific applications makes dendrimers unprecedented components to control the structural organization of matter during the bottom-up synthesis of functional nanostructures. For their applications in the field of biotechnology the determination of dendrimer structural properties as well as the investigation of the specific interaction with guest components are needed. We show how the analysis of the scattering structure factor S(q, in the framework of current models for charged systems in solution, allows for obtaining important information of the interdendrimers electrostatic interaction potential. The finding of the presented results outlines the important role of the dendrimer charge and the solvent conditions in regulating, through the modulation of the electrostatic interaction potential, great part of the main structural properties. This charge interaction has been indicated by many studies as a crucial factor for a wide range of structural processes involving their biomedical application. Due to their easily controllable properties dendrimers can be considered at the crossroad between traditional colloids, associating polymers, and biological systems and represent then an interesting new technological approach and a suitable model system of molecular organization in biochemistry and related fields.

  6. Antiviral mechanism of polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Maly, Marek; De la Mata, Francisco J; Gómez, Rafael; Pion, Marjorie; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-derived platforms, such as dendrimers, are very attractive in several biological applications. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown great potential as antiviral agents in the development of novel microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV-1. In this work, we studied the mechanism of two sulfated and naphthylsulfonated functionalized carbosilane dendrimers, G3-S16 and G2-NF16. They are able to inhibit viral infection at fusion and thus at the entry step. Both compounds impede the binding of viral particles to target cell surface and membrane fusion through the blockage of gp120-CD4 interaction. In addition, and for the first time, we demonstrate that dendrimers can inhibit cell-to-cell HIV transmission and difficult infectious synapse formation. Thus, carbosilane dendrimers' mode of action is a multifactorial process targeting several proteins from viral envelope and from host cells that could block HIV infection at different stages during the first step of infection. PMID:27103798

  7. Organometallic rotaxane dendrimers with fourth-generation mechanically interlocked branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Jun; Wang, Xu-Qing; Sun, Bin; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Shi, Jiameng; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua; Yang, Hai-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically interlocked molecules, such as catenanes, rotaxanes, and knots, have applications in information storage, switching devices, and chemical catalysis. Rotaxanes are dumbbell-shaped molecules that are threaded through a large ring, and the relative motion of the two components along each other can respond to external stimuli. Multiple rotaxane units can amplify responsiveness, and repetitively branched molecules—dendrimers—can serve as vehicles for assembly of many rotaxanes on single, monodisperse compounds. Here, we report the synthesis of higher-generation rotaxane dendrimers by a divergent approach. Linkages were introduced as spacer elements to reduce crowding and to facilitate rotaxane motion, even at the congested periphery of the compounds up to the fourth generation. The structures were characterized by 1D multinuclear (1H, 13C, and 31P) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF-MS, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and microscopy-based methods including atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AFM and TEM studies of rotaxane dendrimers vs. model dendrimers show that the rotaxane units enhance the rigidity and reduce the tendency of these assemblies to collapse by self-folding. Surface functionalization of the dendrimers with ferrocenes as termini produced electrochemically active assemblies. The preparation of dendrimers with a well-defined topological structure, enhanced rigidity, and diverse functional groups opens previously unidentified avenues for the application of these materials in molecular electronics and materials science. PMID:25902491

  8. Synthesis, aggregation, and chiroptical properties of chiral, amphiphilic dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufersweiler, M J; Rohde, J M; Chaumette, J L; Sarazin, D; Parquette, J R

    2001-09-21

    The syntheses of amphiphilic dendrimers based on 3,5-dihydroxybenzyl alcohol containing tri- or tetrafunctional chiral central cores and allyl ester termini are described. Water solubility is imparted to the dendrimers via a palladium-catalyzed deprotection of the peripheral allyl esters. This method affords complete deprotection of the carboxylate surface because, in contrast to the basic hydrolysis of methyl ester termini, the solubility of partially hydrolyzed intermediates is maintained throughout the course of the deprotection, thereby avoiding precipitation during the reaction. Chiroptical analysis indicates that the structure of the dendrimers collapses in water, resulting in an increased steric effect upon the central core that is manifested by lower optical rotatory power. However, contributions to the chiroptical properties from the dendron branch segments were not evident in water or organic media, suggesting that chiral substructures were not developing in the branch segments of the dendrimers. Multiangle light scattering studies revealed that the dendrimers experienced significant aggregation in aqueous media that decreased at higher generations. This behavior could be rationalized by a change in conformational preference from a disklike conformation at low generations to a more globular conformation at higher generations. PMID:11559197

  9. On Topological Indices of Certain Families of Nanostar Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Mohamad Nazri; Hasni, Roslan; Arif, Nabeel Ezzulddin; Imran, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A topological index of graph G is a numerical parameter related to G which characterizes its molecular topology and is usually graph invariant. In the field of quantitative structure-activity (QSAR)/quantitative structure-activity structure-property (QSPR) research, theoretical properties of the chemical compounds and their molecular topological indices such as the Randić connectivity index, atom-bond connectivity (ABC) index and geometric-arithmetic (GA) index are used to predict the bioactivity of different chemical compounds. A dendrimer is an artificially manufactured or synthesized molecule built up from the branched units called monomers. In this paper, the fourth version of ABC index and the fifth version of GA index of certain families of nanostar dendrimers are investigated. We derive the analytical closed formulas for these families of nanostar dendrimers. The obtained results can be of use in molecular data mining, particularly in researching the uniqueness of tested (hyper-branched) molecular graphs. PMID:27347913

  10. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Arseneault

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in designing and building dendrimers. In the last five years, advances in click chemistry saw a wider use of other click reactions and a notable increase in the complexity of the reported structures. This review covers key developments in the click chemistry field applied to dendrimer synthesis from 2010 to 2015. Even though this is an expert review, basic notions and references have been included to help newcomers to the field.

  11. MONODISPERSED AND NANOSIZED DENDRIMER/POLYSTYRENE LATEX PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changfeng Yi; Zushun Xu; Warren T. Ford

    2004-01-01

    Emulsion polymerization of styrene was carried out using dendrimer DAB-dendr-(NH2)64 as seed. The size and size distribution of the emulsion particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the effects of emulsion polymerization conditions on the preparation of emulsion particle were investigated. It has been found that the nanosized dendrimer/polystyrene polymer emulsion particles obtained were in the range of 26~64 nm in diameter, and were monodisperse; the size and size distribution of emulsion particles were influenced by the contents of dendrimer DAB-dendr-(NH2)64, emulsifier and initiator, as well as the pH value.

  12. Covalent immobilization of bioactive poly(amidoamine)s onto plasma-functionalized PLGA surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to the surface modification of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to render it adhesive to poly(amidoamine) (PAA) hydrogels, thus allowing fabrication of entirely biodegradable and biomimetic multilayered composite biomaterials with the PLGA film playing the role of reinforcing material, for instance imparting resistance to stitching, is N2/H2 plasma treatment of PLGA surfaces aimed at introducing amine groups and covalently immobilizing PAAs. Grafting of linear PAAs, demonstrated by XPS analysis, is reported first. Coherent PAA/PLGA composite hydrogels with embedded PLGA films can be obtained likewise. They are soft, elastic and resistant to osmotic shock. In contrast, hydrogels prepared from untreated PLGA films delaminate on swelling. Accessible hybrid PAA/PLGA materials may expand PLGA’s biomedical applications. (paper)

  13. Electrical Properties of Multi-Pyrene/Porphyrin-Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Euguenii Martínez-Klimov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers bearing pyrene donor groups have been obtained and act as efficient light-harvesting antennae capable of transferring light energy through space from their periphery to their core. The light-harvesting ability increases with each generation due to an increase in the number of peripheral pyrenes. In order to evaluate the photovoltaic properties of the compounds, thermal evaporated thin films were produced and the voltage response in the presence of visible light was obtained. The energy transfer efficiency was found to be almost quantitative for the first and second generations. The dendrimers have the potential to become integral components of molecular photonic devices.

  14. Disorder-enhanced exciton delocalization in an extended dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouthier, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    The exciton dynamics in a disordered extended dendrimer is investigated numerically. Because a homogeneous dendrimer exhibits few highly degenerate energy levels, a dynamical localization arises when the exciton is initially located on the periphery. However, it is shown that the disorder lifts the degeneracy and favors a delocalization-relocalization transition. Weak disorder enhances the delocalized nature of the exciton and improves any quantum communication, whereas strong disorder prevents the exciton from propagating in accordance with the well-known Anderson theory. PMID:25215792

  15. Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimer as an amphoteric adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ran; Jang, Jun-Won; Park, Jae-Woo

    2016-11-01

    Carboxymethyl chitosan-modified magnetic-cored dendrimers (CCMDs) were successfully synthesized in a three step method. The synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, thermogravimetry analysis, zeta potential analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The CCMD exhibited selective adsorption for anionic and cationic compounds at specific pH conditions. With the substitution of amino groups of MD with carboxymethyl chitosan moieties, the adsorption sites for cationic compounds were greatly increased. Since the adsorption onto CCMD was mainly electrostatic interaction, the adsorption of MB and MO was significantly affected by the pHs. The optimal adsorption pH values were 3 and 11 for MO and MB. The maximal adsorption of MO and MB on the CCMD at pH values of 3 and 11 were 20.85mgg(-1) and 96.31mgg(-1), respectively. Reuse of the CCMD as an adsorbent was experimentally tested through adsorption and desorption with simple pH control. More than 99% and 91% of the initial adsorption of MB and MO on the CCMD was maintained with five consecutive recycling. PMID:27351905

  16. Effect of electron donating groups on polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Young; Nanah, Cyprien N; Held, Rich A; Clark, Amanda R; Huynh, Uyen G T; Maraskine, Marina C; Uzarski, Rebecca L; McCracken, John; Sharma, Ajit

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have reported the beneficial effects of antioxidants in human diseases. Among their biological effects, a majority of antioxidants scavenge reactive radicals in the body, thereby reducing oxidative stress that is associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidant dendrimers are a new class of potent antioxidant compounds reported recently. In this study, six polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers with or without electron donating groups (methoxy group) were synthesized in order to elucidate the influence of electron donating groups (EDG) on their antioxidant activities. Syringaldehyde (2 ortho methoxy groups), vanillin (1 ortho methoxy group), and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0 methoxy group) were derivatized with propargylamine to form building blocks for the dendrimers. All the six dendrimers contain polyether cores, which were synthesized by attaching pentaerythritol and methyl α-d-glucopyranoside to in-house prepared spacer units. To prepare generation 1 antioxidant dendrimers, microwave energy and granulated metallic copper catalyst were used to link the cores and building blocks together via alkyne-azide 1,3-cycloaddition click chemistry. These reaction conditions resulted in high yields of the target dendrimers that were free from copper contamination. Based on DPPH antioxidant assay, antioxidant dendrimers decorated with syringaldehyde and vanillin exhibited over 70- and 170-fold increase in antioxidant activity compared to syringaldehyde and vanillin, respectively. The antioxidant activity of dendrimers increased with increasing number of EDG groups. Similar results were obtained when the dendrimers were used to protect DNA and human LDL against organic carbon and nitrogen-based free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant dendrimers did not show any pro-oxidant activity on DNA in the presence of physiological amounts of copper. Although the dendrimers showed potent antioxidant activities against carbon and nitrogen free radicals

  17. A New Convergent Approach to Unsymmetrically Branched Polyether Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xiaoping; WANG Feng; WANG Xiaolong; ZHOU Zhaoli

    2001-01-01

    @@ Dendrimers are perfect monodisperse macromolecules with a regular and highly branched three-dimensional architecture. The combination of discrete numbers of functionality in one molecular and high densities of active groups, typical for dendritic molecules, has attracted a lot of attention in the fields of medicinal chenistry (e.g. in drug delivery system), host-guest chemistry and catalysis chemistry[1].

  18. Photoluminescence study of tetra-dendron dendrimers derived from ethylenediamine cores and di-dendron dendrimers derived from mono-Boc-protected ethylenediamine cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong UV absorbance spectra and fluorescence spectra from tetra-dendron dendrimers derived from ethylenediamine cores with different terminal groups (-NH2, -COOCH3) or di-dendron dendrimers derived from mono-Boc-protected ethylenediamine cores were studied under different conditions by varying experimental parameters such as pH value and concentration. The result shows a rapid increase of fluorescence intensity at low pH. It was reasonable that the formation of a fluorescence-emitting moiety had a close relationship to protonated tertiary amine groups in tetra-dendron dendrimers derived from ethylenediamine cores or di-dendron dendrimers derived from mono-Boc-protected ethylenediamine cores. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the concentration of two dendrimers plays an important role in fluorescence intensity. The increase in fluorescence intensity was linear with respect to concentration at low concentration regions but the intensity increases slowly at high concentration regions.

  19. Multivalency in the gas phase: H/D exchange reactions unravel the dynamic "rock 'n' roll" motion in dendrimer-dendrimer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhenhui; Schlaich, Christoph; Schalley, Christoph A

    2013-10-25

    Noncovalent dendrimer-dendrimer complexes were successfully ionized by electrospray ionization of partly protonated amino-terminated polypropylene amine (POPAM) and POPAM dendrimers fully functionalized with benzo[21]crown-7 on all branches. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) experiments conducted on dendrimer-dendrimer complexes in the high vacuum of a mass spectrometer give rise to a complete exchange of all labile NH hydrogen atoms. As crown ethers represent noncovalent protective groups against HDX reactions on the ammonium group to which they are coordinated, this result provides evidence for a very dynamic binding situation: each crown is mobile enough to move from one ammonium binding site to another. Schematically, one might compare this motion with two rock 'n' roll dancers that swirl around each other without completely losing all contact at any time. Although the multivalent attachment certainly increases the overall affinity, the "microdynamics" of individual site binding and dissociation remains fast. PMID:24105808

  20. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K. G.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2016-06-01

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl- counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl- concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K+ ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections.Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent

  1. Interaction of phosphorus dendrimers with HIV peptides—Fluorescence studies of nano-complexes formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, dendrimers emerge as an alternative approach for delivery of HIV peptides to dendritic cells. Gp160, NH-EIDNYTNTIYTLLEE-COOH; P24, NH-DTINEEAAEW-COOH and Nef, NHGMDDPEREVLEWRFDSRLAF-COOH peptides were complexed with two types of positively charged phosphorus-containing dendrimers (CPD). Fluorescence polarization, dynamic light scattering, transmission and electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were chosen to evaluate the dendriplexes stability. We were able to show that complexes were stable in time and temperature. This is crucial for using these peptide/dendrimer nano-complexes in a new vaccine against HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: • The phosphorus dendrimers as nanocarriers of HIV-peptides are proposed. • The complexes of dendrimers and HIV-peptides were stable in time, temperature. • The results convince that phosphorus dendrimers could be consider as anti-HIV vaccine candidates

  2. Interaction of phosphorus dendrimers with HIV peptides—Fluorescence studies of nano-complexes formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciepluch, Karol, E-mail: ciepluch@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Ionov, Maksim [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Majoral, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS (LCC), 205 Route de Narbonne, F-31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles [Laboratorio InmunoBiología Molecular, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Bryszewska, Maria [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska Street 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-04-15

    In this study, dendrimers emerge as an alternative approach for delivery of HIV peptides to dendritic cells. Gp160, NH-EIDNYTNTIYTLLEE-COOH; P24, NH-DTINEEAAEW-COOH and Nef, NHGMDDPEREVLEWRFDSRLAF-COOH peptides were complexed with two types of positively charged phosphorus-containing dendrimers (CPD). Fluorescence polarization, dynamic light scattering, transmission and electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were chosen to evaluate the dendriplexes stability. We were able to show that complexes were stable in time and temperature. This is crucial for using these peptide/dendrimer nano-complexes in a new vaccine against HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: • The phosphorus dendrimers as nanocarriers of HIV-peptides are proposed. • The complexes of dendrimers and HIV-peptides were stable in time, temperature. • The results convince that phosphorus dendrimers could be consider as anti-HIV vaccine candidates.

  3. Synthesis and self-assembly of PAMAM/PAA Janus dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus dendrimers have two differently functionalized segments which are located on opposite sides. They have many excellent properties and broad application prospects. In this study, poly(amido amine)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAMAM/PAA) Janus dendrimers were prepared by click chemistry. One of the first steps taken was the synthesis of N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM dendrimers with primary amine groups at the periphery. Second, by amide coupling between propargylic acid and N-Boc-G3.0 PAMAM, PAMAM dendrimers with alkyne were successfully synthesized. After being dissolved in aqueous solutions with different pH, Janus dendrimers spontaneously form flowerlike micellar, Janus particles, and spherical micelles due to primary amino, tertiary amino, and carboxyl groups in the dendrimers. This self-assembly behavior depending on pH changes has a number of potential applications in the field of materials. (papers)

  4. Dendrimer Nanoscaffolds for Potential Theranostics of Prostate Cancer with a Focus on Radiochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Su-Tang; Kumar, Amit; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Sun, Xiankai

    2013-01-01

    Dendrimers are a class of structurally defined macromolecules featured with a central core, a low-density interior formed by repetitive branching units, and a high-density exterior terminated with surface functional groups. In contrast to their polymeric counterparts, dendrimers are nano-sized and symmetrically shaped, which can be reproducibly synthesized in a large scale with monodispersity. These unique features have made dendrimers of increasing interest for drug delivery and other biomed...

  5. Copper Granule-Catalyzed Microwave-Assisted Click Synthesis of Polyphenol Dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Choon Young; Held, Rich; Sharma, Ajit; Baral, Rom; Nanah, Cyprien; Dumas, Dan; Jenkins, Shannon; Upadhaya, Samik; Du, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Syringaldehyde and vanillin-based antioxidant dendrimers were synthesized via microwave-assisted alkyne-azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using copper granules as a catalyst. The use of Cu(I) as a catalyst resulted in copper contaminated dendrimers. In order to produce copper-free antioxidant dendrimers for biological applications, Cu(I) was substituted with copper granules. Copper granules were ineffective at both room temperature and under reflux conditions (< 5% yield). However, it was an ex...

  6. Poly(Propylene Imine) Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Wrońska; Aleksandra Felczak; Katarzyna Zawadzka; Martyna Poszepczyńska; Sylwia Różalska; Maria Bryszewska; Dietmar Appelhans; Katarzyna Lisowska

    2015-01-01

    Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX) against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3). The concentrations of dendrimers u...

  7. Dendrimers Containing Ferrocene and Porphyrin Moieties: Synthesis and Cubic Non-Linear Optical Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Eric G. Morales-Espinoza; Sanchez-Montes, Karla E.; Elena Klimova; Tatiana Klimova; Lijanova, Irina V.; Maldonado, José L.; Gabriel Ramos-Ortíz; Simón Hernández-Ortega; Marcos Martínez-García

    2010-01-01

    Dendrons with ferrocenyl ended groups joined by styryl moieties were attached to a porphyrin core. All the dendrons used for dendrimer synthesis showed trans configuration. The chemical structure of the first generation dendron was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic studies. The structure of the synthesized dendrimers was confirmed by 1H- and 13C-NMR, electrospray mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Cubic non-linear optical behavior of the ferrocene and porphyrin-containing dendrimers ...

  8. Energy and Electron Transfer Studies of Triarylamine-based Dendrimers and Cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Zieschang, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    In this work the synthesis of dendritic macromolecules and small redox cascades was reported and studies of their energy and electron transfer properties discussed. The chromophores in the dendrimers and the redox cascades are linked via triazoles, which were built up by CuAAC. Thereby, a synthetic concept based on building blocks was implemented, which allowed the exchange of all basic components. Resulting structures include dendrimers composed exclusively of TAAs (G1–G3), dendrimers wit...

  9. Synthesis of poly(amidoamine)-dendrimer-silver nanoparticles composite for application as bactericides

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Namazkar; Salasiah Endud; Zohreh Asadollahi

    2014-01-01

    As awareness of sanitation, disease transmission factors and personal protection increases, researchers have focused on developing materials with antibacterial properties. Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer has unique antibacterial properties that make it an ideal candidate for medical applications. In this study, poly (amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers from Generations 0.5- 4.0 were synthesized using divergent methods. Silver was combined with PAMAM dendrimers from the Generation 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 to form c...

  10. pH controlled gating of toxic protein pores by dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Taraknath; Kanchi, Subbarao; Ayappa, K G; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-07-14

    Designing effective nanoscale blockers for membrane inserted pores formed by pore forming toxins, which are expressed by several virulent bacterial strains, on a target cell membrane is a challenging and active area of research. Here we demonstrate that PAMAM dendrimers can act as effective pH controlled gating devices once the pore has been formed. We have used fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the cytolysin A (ClyA) protein pores modified with fifth generation (G5) PAMAM dendrimers. Our results show that the PAMAM dendrimer, in either its protonated (P) or non-protonated (NP) states can spontaneously enter the protein lumen. Protonated dendrimers interact strongly with the negatively charged protein pore lumen. As a consequence, P dendrimers assume a more expanded configuration efficiently blocking the pore when compared with the more compact configuration adopted by the neutral NP dendrimers creating a greater void space for the passage of water and ions. To quantify the effective blockage of the protein pore, we have calculated the pore conductance as well as the residence times by applying a weak force on the ions/water. Ionic currents are reduced by 91% for the P dendrimers and 31% for the NP dendrimers. The preferential binding of Cl(-) counter ions to the P dendrimer creates a zone of high Cl(-) concentration in the vicinity of the internalized dendrimer and a high concentration of K(+) ions in the transmembrane region of the pore lumen. In addition to steric effects, this induced charge segregation for the P dendrimer effectively blocks ionic transport through the pore. Our investigation shows that the bio-compatible PAMAM dendrimers can potentially be used to develop therapeutic protocols based on the pH sensitive gating of pores formed by pore forming toxins to mitigate bacterial infections. PMID:27328315

  11. Enhanced ionic mobility in Organic Ionic Plastic Crystal – Dendrimer solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first study of the characterisation of the organic ionic plastic crystal (OIPC) N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate (C2mpyrBF4) upon mixing with a dendrimer additive. Whereas previous reports of OIPC composite formation (i.e. with ceramics and polymers) have typically reported a decrease in the conductivity when lithium salt had been added, the addition of dendrimer is shown to lead to a substantial enhancement in the lithium containing system, approaching 3 orders of magnitude at 30 °C. Mechanical analysis indicates that dendrimer addition leads to a softer more ductile material while microscopy shows that the dendrimer is uniformly distributed and that the crystal microstructure is substantially disrupted, ultimately adopting a dendritic microstructure at 1 mol% dendrimer content. Thermal analysis indicates a new phase in the lithium OIPC system, the crystallisation of which is suppressed in the presence of dendrimer. Instead, a decrease in the phase transition enthalpies indicates a large increase in the amorphous component of the Lithium OIPC, particularly for the most conductive system -C2mpyrBF4 + 10 mol% LiBF4 + 0.1 mol% dendrimer. Variable temperature powder X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of a new distinct phase and its absence in the presence of dendrimer. A change in the progression of the thermal phase behaviour of the OIPC in the presence of dendrimer is also shown, exhibiting the phase I (high temperature) structure at temperatures below the phase II-I transition

  12. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-10-01

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti

  13. In Silico Characterization of the Binding Affinity of Dendrimers to Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs): Can PBPs be Potential Targets for Antibacterial Dendrimers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shaimaa; Vepuri, Suresh B; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Kalhapure, Rahul; Suleman, Nadia; Govender, Thirumala

    2016-04-01

    We have shown that novel silver salts of poly (propyl ether) imine (PETIM) dendron and dendrimers developed in our group exhibit preferential antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus. This led us to examine whether molecular modeling methods could be used to identify the key structural design principles for a bioactive lead molecule, explore the mechanism of binding with biological targets, and explain their preferential antibacterial activity. The current article reports the conformational landscape as well as mechanism of binding of generation 1 PETIM dendron and dendrimers to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in order to understand the antibacterial activity profiles of their silver salts. Molecular dynamics at different simulation protocols and conformational analysis were performed to elaborate on the conformational features of the studied dendrimers, as well as to create the initial structure for further binding studies. The results showed that for all compounds, there were no significant conformational changes due to variation in simulation conditions. Molecular docking calculations were performed to investigate the binding theme between the studied dendrimers and PBPs. Interestingly, in significant accordance with the experimental data, dendron and dendrimer with aliphatic cores were found to show higher activity against S. aureus than the dendrimer with an aromatic core. The latter showed higher activity against MRSA. The findings from this computational and molecular modeling report together with the experimental results serve as a road map toward designing more potent antibacterial dendrimers against resistant bacterial strains. PMID:26743758

  14. Surface interactions induced by polyelectrolytes, dendrimers, and dendronized polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Ionel

    2010-01-01

    Dans cette thèse, les interactions de surfaces induites par des polyélectrolytes linéaires, des dendrimères et des polymères dendronizés ont été étudiées. Les études ont été menées avec la microscopie à force atomique (AFM) et complétées par la réflectométrie. Première, l'influence de la force ionique sur l'adsorption de polyélectrolytes linéaires et du dendrimères sur des surfaces de silice planaires est étudiée. Les plateaux d'adsorption augmentent fortement avec la force ionique. Après, le...

  15. Understanding Peptide Dendrimer Interactions with Model Cell Membrane Mimics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Tania Kjellerup

    fusion method, which presents improved means for studying drug-membrane interactions in the future. The interaction mechanism of a family of dendrimers was examined and in particular one dendrimer (BALY) was extensively studied by the combined use of quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy......Since mass production of antimicrobial agents was established 70 years ago these miracle-drugs have been integral tools in modern medicine, saving an uncountable number of lives. However, bacteria are now consistently and with alarming rates developing resistance towards common antibiotics. Very...... few new drugs have been marketed over the last decades, making it impossible to keep pace with the disturbing levels of multi-drug resistant bacteria. Research in the area of novel drugs, which are less prone to induce resistance, and in-depth knowledge on their uptake mechanisms is thus of paramount...

  16. Enzyme-triggered formation of enzyme-tyramine concatamers on nanogold-functionalized dendrimer for impedimetric detection of Hg(II) with sensitivity enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenli; Tang, Dianyong; Shu, Jian; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2016-01-15

    A new impedimetric sensing strategy based on enzyme-triggered formation of enzyme-tyramine concatamers on the nanogold-functionalized poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer was designed for sensitive detection of mercury(II) (Hg(2+)) ion, coupling with enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation towards 4-choloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) on thymine (T)-rich single-stranded DNA1-modified electrode. Initially, nanogold-decorated PAMAM dendrimer (AuNP-PAMAM) was synthesized by the in-situ reduction method, and then functionalized with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and another T-rich oligomer (DNA2). Upon target Hg(2+) introduction, probe DNA2 on the AuNP-PAMAM bound to the DNA1 on the electrode owing to the T-Hg(2+)-T coordination chemistry between the two DNA strands. Accompanying the AuNP-PAMAM, the carried HRP could trigger the formation of HRP-tyramine concatamer via the classical tyramine signal amplification strategy in the presence of HRP-tyramine conjugates and hydrogen peroxide. The concatenated HRP molecules in the concatamer catalyzed the 4-CN oxidation to produce an insoluble precipitation on the electrode, thereby resulting in the local alteration in the conductivity. Under optimal conditions, two signal-generation tags including HRP-AuNP-DNA2 and HRP-AuNP-PAMAM-DNA2 with or without tyramine signal amplification strategy (i.e., four schemes) were used for impedimetric detection of target Hg(2+) on the basis of the same assay format. A low detection limit (LOD) of 0.4pM and a wide dynamic working range of 0.001-100nM Hg(2+) by using HRP-AuNP-PAMAM-DNA2 with tyramine signal amplification strategy were obtained in comparison with those of other strategies. The assay had a good repeatability and showed an intermediate precision of down to 9.6%. In addition, the methodology also exhibited high specificity and selectivity towards target Hg(2+) against other metal ions, and was applicable for monitoring Hg(2+) in the spiked drinking water samples. PMID:26301998

  17. Recent Advances in Click Chemistry Applied to Dendrimer Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Arseneault; Caroline Wafer; Jean-François Morin

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are monodisperse polymers grown in a fractal manner from a central point. They are poised to become the cornerstone of nanoscale devices in several fields, ranging from biomedicine to light-harvesting. Technical difficulties in obtaining these molecules has slowed their transfer from academia to industry. In 2001, the arrival of the “click chemistry” concept gave the field a major boost. The flagship reaction, a modified Hüisgen cycloaddition, allowed researchers greater freedom in...

  18. Elasticity of DNA and the effect of Dendrimer Binding

    CERN Document Server

    Mogurampelly, Santosh; Netz, Roland R; Maiti, Prabal K

    2013-01-01

    Negatively charged DNA can be compacted by positively charged dendrimers and the degree of compaction is a delicate balance between the strength of the electrostatic interaction and the elasticity of DNA. We report various elastic properties of short double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and the effect of dendrimer binding using fully atomistic molecular dynamics and numerical simulations. In equilibrium at room temperature, the contour length distribution P(L) and end-to-end distance distribution P(R) are nearly Gaussian, the former gives an estimate of the stretch modulus {\\gamma}_1 of dsDNA in quantitative agreement with the literature value. The bend angle distribution P({\\theta}) of the dsDNA also has a Gaussian form and allows to extract a persistence length, L_p of 43 nm. When the dsDNA is compacted by positively charged dendrimer, the stretch modulus stays invariant but the effective bending rigidity estimated from the end-to-end distance distribution decreases dramatically due to backbone charge neutralization...

  19. Conformations and dynamics of dendrimers and cascade macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    The Rouse-Zimm discrete hydrodynamic model is extended to acyclic macromolecules of any topology, and particular attention is devoted to starlike dendrimers and other symmetric cascade structures. As a first approximation, freely rotating models are built for branched structures by means of appropriate choices of topology-dependent stiffness parameters. Relevant dynamic observables (depending on the spectrum of viscoelastic relaxation rates) are studied as functions of local stiffness, of branching topology, and of dendrimer generational growth. The present results show that a moderate increase of local stiffness accounts for the molecular dimensions of dendrimers as previously calculated by Mansfield and Klushin [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3994 (1992)] by Monte Carlo methods, and reproduces with good precision their results for the intrinsic viscosity (upper-bound calculations). Thus omission of excluded-volume interactions within the present models can be at least partially compensated for by suitable choices of local stiffness parameters, provided that the chain portions between branching points are not very long. In addition, the inaccuracy caused by preaveraging of hydrodynamic interactions (as estimated by computing exact and preaveraged first cumulant of the structure factor) does not seem to obscure the essential conclusions.

  20. Bioreducible cross-linked polymers based on G1 peptide dendrimer as potential gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yan; Wang, Hai-Jiao; Cao, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-11-24

    A series of cationic polymers based on low generation (G1) peptide dendrimer were synthesized with disulfide-containing linkages. The DNA binding abilities of the target polymers were studied by gel electrophoresis and fluorescence quenching assay. The bioreducible property of the disulfide-containing polymers P2 and P3 was also investigated in the presence of dithiothreitol (DTT). Results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assays reveal that these materials may condense DNA into nanoparticles with proper sizes and zeta-potentials. In vitro cell experiments show that compared to branched 25 KDa PEI, P2 and P3 may exhibit much higher gene transfection efficiency and lower cytotoxicity in both HEK293 and U-2OS cells. Additionally, polymer prepared from Michael addition gives better gene transfection ability, while polymer prepared from ring-opening reaction has better serum tolerance. Results indicate that these polymers might be promising non-viral gene vectors for their easy preparation, very low cytotoxicity, and good transfection efficiency. PMID:25282264

  1. Optimized dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoparticles and enhanced carbon nanotube nanoprobes for amplified electrochemical immunoassay of E. coli in dairy product based on enzymatically induced deposition of polyaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinai; Shen, Jianzhong; Ma, Haile; Jiang, Yuxiang; Huang, Chenyong; Han, En; Yao, Boshui; He, Yunyao

    2016-06-15

    A highly sensitive immunosensor was reported for Escherichia coli assay in dairy product based on electrochemical measurement of polyaniline (PAn) that was catalytically deposited by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labels. Herein, the immunosensor was developed by using poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (PAMAM(Au)) as sensing platform. Importantly, the optimal HAuCl4/PAMAM ratio was investigated to design the efficient PAMAM(Au) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were proven to not only increase the amount of immobilized capture antibody (cAb), but also accelerate the electron transfer process. Moreover, the {dAb-CNT-HRP} nanoprobes were prepared by exploiting the amplification effect of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for loading detection antibody (dAb) and enormous HRP labels. After a sandwich immunoreaction, the quantitatively captured nanoprobes could catalyze oxidation aniline to produce electroactive PAn for electrochemical measurement. On the basis of signal amplification of the PAMAM(Au)-based immunosensor and the {dAb-CNT-HRP} nanoprobes, the proposed strategy exhibited a linear relationship between the peak current of PAn and the logarithmic value of E. coli concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(2) to 1.0 × 10(6) cfu mL(-1) with a detection limit of 50 cfu mL(-1) (S/N=3), and the electrochemical detection of E. coli could be achieved in 3h. The electrochemical immunosensor was also used to determine E. coli in dairy product (pure fresh milk, infant milk powder, yogurt in shelf-life and expired yogurt), and the recoveries of standard additions were in the range of 96.8-108.7%. Overall, this method gave a useful protocol for E. coli assay with high sensitivity, acceptable accuracy and satisfying stability, and thus provided a powerful tool to estimate the quality of dairy product. PMID:26908184

  2. Expand classical drug administration ways by emerging routes using dendrimer drug delivery systems: a concise overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignani, Serge; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2013-10-01

    Drugs are introduced into the body by numerous routes such as enteral (oral, sublingual and rectum administration), parenteral (intravascular, intramuscular, subcutaneous and inhalation administration), or topical (skin and mucosal membranes). Each route has specific purposes, advantages and disadvantages. Today, the oral route remains the preferred one for different reasons such as ease and compliance by patients. Several nanoformulated drugs have been already approved by the FDA, such as Abelcet®, Doxil®, Abraxane® or Vivagel®(Starpharma) which is an anionic G4-poly(L-lysine)-type dendrimer showing potent topical vaginal microbicide activity. Numerous biochemical studies, as well as biological and pharmacological applications of both dendrimer based products (dendrimers as therapeutic compounds per se, like Vivagel®) and dendrimers as drug carriers (covalent conjugation or noncovalent encapsulation of drugs) were described. It is widely known that due to their outstanding physical and chemical properties, dendrimers afforded improvement of corresponding carried-drugs as dendrimer-drug complexes or conjugates (versus plain drug) such as biodistribution and pharmacokinetic behaviors. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent progresses of dendrimers as nanoscale drug delivery systems for the delivery of drugs using enteral, parenteral and topical routes. In particular, we focus our attention on the emerging and promising routes such as oral, transdermal, ocular and transmucosal routes using dendrimers as delivery systems. PMID:23415951

  3. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  4. Photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus-based dendrimers and human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with photo-physical and structural interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA). Viologens are derivatives of 4,4′-bipyridinium salts. Aiming to rationalize the parameters governing such interactions eight types of these polycationic dendrimers in which the generation, the number of charges, the nature of the core and of the terminal groups vary from one to another, were designed and used. The influence of viologen-based dendrimers' on human serum albumin has been investigated. The photo-physical interactions of the two systems have been monitored by fluorescence quenching of free L-tryptophan and of HSA tryptophan residue. Additionally, using circular dichroism (CD) the effect of dendrimers on the secondary structure of albumin was measured. The obtained results show that viologen dendrimers interact with human serum albumin quenching its fluorescence either by collisional (dynamic) way or by forming complexes in a ground state (static quenching). In some cases the quenching is accompanied by changes of the secondary structure of HSA. - Highlights: ► Photo-physical interactions between viologen phosphorus dendrimers and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated. ► The viologen dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tryptophan in HSA. ► CD spectra to explain the changes in secondary structure of albumin after exposition of dendrimers.

  5. Synthesis of poly(amidoamine-dendrimer-silver nanoparticles composite for application as bactericides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Namazkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As awareness of sanitation, disease transmission factors and personal protection increases, researchers have focused on developing materials with antibacterial properties. Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer has unique antibacterial properties that make it an ideal candidate for medical applications. In this study, poly (amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers from Generations 0.5- 4.0 were synthesized using divergent methods. Silver was combined with PAMAM dendrimers from the Generation 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 to form colloidal solutions. The antimicrobial capabilities of Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer (Generation 2.0 were tested against four types of gram positive and negative bacteria. Its bactericidal activities were revealed for all four types of bacteria that could not grow in samples containing 600 ppm of Silver-PAMAM-dendrimer (Generation 2.0.

  6. Poly(Propylene Imine Dendrimers and Amoxicillin as Dual-Action Antibacterial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Wrońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides acting as antimicrobial compounds, dendrimers can be considered as agents that improve the therapeutic effectiveness of existing antibiotics. In this work we present a new approach to using amoxicillin (AMX against reference strains of common Gram-negative pathogens, alone and in combination with poly(propylene imine (PPI dendrimers, or derivatives thereof, in which 100% of the available hydrogen atoms are substituted with maltose (PPI 100%malG3. The concentrations of dendrimers used remained in the range non-toxic to eukaryotic cells. The results indicate that PPI dendrimers significantly enhance the antibacterial effect of amoxicillin alone, allowing antibiotic doses to be reduced. It is important to reduce doses of amoxicillin because its widespread use in medicine could lead to the development of bacterial resistance and environmental pollution. This is the first report on the combined antibacterial activity of PPI surface-modified maltose dendrimers and amoxicillin.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of boronated polyglycerol dendrimers as potential agent for neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) generation 5 was used to obtain a boronated macromolecule for boron neutron capture therapy. The PGLD dendrimer was synthesized by the ring opening polymerization of deprotonated glycidol using polyglycerol as core functionality in a step-growth processes denominated divergent synthesis. The PGLD dendritic structure was confirmed by gel permeation chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization techniques. The synthesized dendrimer presented low dispersion in molecular weights (Mw/Mn = 1.05) and a degree of branching of 0.82, which characterize the polymer dendritic structure. Quantitative neutron capture radiography was used to investigate the boron-10 enrichment of the polyglycerol dendrimer. The in vitro cytotoxicity to Chinese hamster ovary cells of 10B-PGLD dendrimer indicate lower cytotoxicity, suggesting that the macromolecule is a biocompatible material. (author)

  8. A new microscopic insight into membrane penetration and reorganization by PETIM dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R; Kanchi, Subbarao; C, Roobala; Lakshminarayanan, A; Seeck, Oliver H; Maiti, Prabal K; Ayappa, K G; Jayaraman, N; Basu, J K

    2014-10-14

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymeric nanoparticles whose structure and topology, largely, have determined their efficacy in a wide range of studies performed so far. An area of immense interest is their potential as drug and gene delivery vectors. Realizing this potential, depending on the nature of cell surface-dendrimer interactions, here we report controlled model membrane penetration and reorganization, using a model supported lipid bilayer and poly(ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimers of two generations. By systematically varying the areal density of the lipid bilayers, we provide a microscopic insight, through a combination of high resolution scattering, atomic force microscopy and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, into the mechanism of PETIM dendrimer membrane penetration, pore formation and membrane re-organization induced by such interactions. Our work represents the first systematic observation of a regular barrel-like membrane spanning pore formation by dendrimers, tunable through lipid bilayer packing, without membrane disruption. PMID:25115726

  9. Modular degradable dendrimers enable small RNAs to extend survival in an aggressive liver cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H; Miller, Jason B; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T; Zhu, Hao; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2016-01-19

    RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer's own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs. PMID:26729861

  10. A novel dendritic nanocarrier of polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD for “smart” small interfering RNA delivery and in vitro antitumor effects by human ether-à-go-go-related gene silencing in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li G

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Guanhua Li,1,2 Zuojun Hu,1 Henghui Yin,1 Yunjian Zhang,1 Xueling Huang,1 Shenming Wang,1 Wen Li2 1Department of Vascular and Thyroid Surgery, 2Key Laboratory of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: The application of RNA interference techniques is promising in gene therapeutic approaches, especially for cancers. To improve safety and efficiency of small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery, a triblock dendritic nanocarrier, polyamidoamine-polyethylene glycol-cyclic RGD (PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, was developed and studied as an siRNA vector targeting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG in human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Structure characterization, particle size, zeta potential, and gel retardation assay confirmed that complete triblock components were successfully synthesized with effective binding capacity of siRNA in this triblock nanocarrier. Cytotoxicity data indicated that conjugation of PEG significantly alleviated cytotoxicity when compared with unmodified PAMAM. PAMAM-PEG-cRGD exerted potent siRNA cellular internalization in which transfection efficiency measured by flow cytometry was up to 68% when the charge ratio (N/P ratio was 3.5. Ligand-receptor affinity together with electrostatic interaction should be involved in the nano-siRNA endocytosis mechanism and we then proved that attachment of cRGD enhanced cellular uptake via RGD-integrin recognition. Gene silencing was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and PAMAM-PEG-cRGD-siRNA complex downregulated the expression of hERG to 26.3% of the control value. Furthermore, gene knockdown of hERG elicited growth suppression as well as activated apoptosis by means of abolishing vascular endothelial growth factor secretion and triggering caspase-3 cascade in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells. Our study demonstrates that this novel triblock polymer, PAMAM-PEG-cRGD, exhibits negligible

  11. Design and physicochemical characterization of poly(amidoamine) nanoparticles and the toxicological evaluation in human endothelial cells: applications to peptide delivery to the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coue, G.M.J.P.C.; Freese, C.; Unger, R.E.; Kirkpatrick, C.J.; Pickl, K.E.; Sinner, F.M.; Engbersen, J.F.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated nanoparticles formulated by self-assembly of a biodegradable poly(amidoamine) (PAA) and a fluorescently labeled peptide, in their capacity to internalize in endothelial cells and deliver the peptide, with possible applications for brain drug delivery. The nanoparticles

  12. Improved Synthesis Strategy of Poly(amidoamine)s for Biomedical Applications: Catalysis by “Green” Biocompatible Earth Alkaline Metal Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zintchenko, Arkadi; Aa, van der Leonardus J.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine)s (PAAs) have received significant attention due to their good biocompatibility and fast biodegradation profile which gives these polymers high potential in biomedical applications. Conventional synthesis of PAAs via aza-type Michael addition reaction of primary amines to bis-acrylam

  13. Low potential stable glucose detection at dendrimers modified polyaniline nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Nogueira Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of nanostructured materials for development of biosensors is a growing field in medical diagnostics. In this work a glucose biosensor based on bioactive polyglycerol (PGLD and chitosan dendrimers (CHD was developed. PGLD and CHD were bioconjugated with the enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx to obtain dendrimers with glucose sensing properties. Polyaniline nanotubes (PANINT´s were used as electron mediator due to their high ability to promote electron-transfer reactions involving GOx. The PGLD-GOx and CHD-GOx were entrapped in PANINT´s during template electrochemical polymerization of aniline. The prepared PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s and CHD-GOx/PANINT´s biosensors exhibit a strong and stable amperometric response to glucose even at a low potential of +100 mV. The based PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s and CHD-GOx/PANINT´s biosensors showed a good performance in glucose concentrations range in human blood. A comparison of the sensitivities to glucose showed that both biosensors have a linearity range between 0.02 and 10 mM, though PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s is more sensitive (10.41 vs. 7.04 nA.mM-1. The difference in the biosensor behavior and the high sensitivity of the PGLD-GOx/PANINT´s may be due to the specific organization of GOx layer at surface of the modifier macromolecule PGLD and their distribution in PANINT´s. The enzyme affinity for the substrate, K Mapp remains quite good after GOx immobilization on PGLD and CHD dendrimers and entrapment of the bioconjugates in PANINT´s.

  14. Nanoparticulate platinum films on gold using dendrimer-based wet chemical method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Raghu; Sheela Berchmans; K L N Phani; V Yegnaraman

    2005-11-01

    There is a growing interest in devising wet chemical alternatives for physical deposition methods for applications involving thin films, e.g., catalysis. Deposition of platinum on thin gold films is often a problem leading to incomplete coverage and improper adhesion to solid surfaces. Gold substrates often need pre-activation for achieving complete coverage. We demonstrate here that dendrimers with proper functionalities and size work as well-defined nucleating agents and adhesion promoters. This feature is demonstrated using an amine-terminated dendrimer of generation 4.0. This approach allows one to obtain adherent nanoparticulate films of platinum on gold. Unlike other nucleating agents and adhesion promoting compounds, dendrimers have a well-defined ordered structure in terms of their space filling ability. The stability of the films obtained with adsorbed dendrimers is emonstrated using the electrocatalytic reactions of fuels like methanol. The films formed without dendrimers cannot sustain the electro-oxidation currents due to the instability of the films while the films formed with dendrimers can sustain currents for longer duration and for several cycles. The dendrimer-derived Pt films exhibit higher catalytic activity compared to other methods.

  15. Promoting siRNA delivery via enhanced cellular uptake using an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liu, Cheng; Zhou, Jiehua; Chen, Chao; Qu, Fanqi; Rossi, John J.; Rocchi, Palma; Peng, Ling

    2015-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) with small interfering RNA (siRNA) is expected to offer an attractive means to specifically and efficiently silence disease-associated genes for treating various diseases provided that safe and efficient delivery systems are available. In this study, we have established an arginine-decorated amphiphilic dendrimer composed of a hydrophobic alkyl chain and a hydrophilic PAMAM dendron bearing arginine terminals as nonviral vector for siRNA delivery. Indeed, this dendrimer proved to be very effective at delivering siRNAs in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells and in human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells, leading to improved gene silencing compared to the corresponding nonarginine decorated dendrimer. Further investigation confirmed that this dendrimer was granted with the capacity to form stable nanoparticles with siRNA and significantly enhance cellular uptake of siRNA. In addition, this dendrimer revealed no discernible cytotoxicity. All these findings demonstrate that decoration of the dendrimer surface with arginine residues is indeed a useful strategy to improve the delivery ability of dendrimers.

  16. Carboxymethyl chitosan-poly(amidoamine) dendrimer core-shell nanoparticles for intracellular lysozyme delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Jun; Wen, Yan; Zhu, Chuanshun; Yang, Jun; Yao, Fanglian

    2013-11-01

    Intracellular delivery of native, active proteins is challenging due to the fragility of most proteins. Herein, a novel polymer/protein polyion complex (PIC) nanoparticle with core-shell structure was prepared. Carboxymethyl chitosan-grafted-terminal carboxyl group-poly(amidoamine) (CM-chitosan-PAMAM) dendrimers were synthesized by amidation and saponification reactions. (1)H NMR was used to characterize CM-chitosan-PAMAM dendrimers. The TEM images and results of lysozyme loading efficiency indicated that CM-chitosan-PAMAM dendrimers could self-assemble into core-shell nanoparticles, and lysozyme was efficiently encapsulated inside the core of CM-chitosan-PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles. Activity of lysozyme was completely inhibited by CM-chitosan-PAMAM Dendrimers at physiological pH, whereas it was released into the medium and exhibited a significant enzymatic activity in an acidic intracellular environment. Moreover, the CM-chitosan-PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity in the range of concentrations below 3.16 mg/ml. The results indicated that these CM-chitosan-PAMAM dendrimers have excellent properties as highly potent and non-toxic intracellular protein carriers, which would create opportunities for novel applications in protein delivery. PMID:24053810

  17. Study of separation of PAMAM dendrimers by capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Pavla; Svobodová, Jana; Mikšík, Ivan; Tomás, H.

    Paris : Ecole Supérieure de Physique et Chimie Industrielles de Paris, 2006. s. 59-59. [ITP 2006 - International Symposium on Capillary Electroseparation Techniques /15./. 28.08.2006-30.08.2006, Paris] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/2539; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/06/1044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : dendrimer * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Graphene oxide-cationic polymer conjugates: Synthesis and application as gene delivery vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Mohsen; Nia, Azadeh Hashem; Abnous, Khalil; Eshghi, Hossein; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine as the interface between nanotechnology and medical sciences is a new area that has attracted the attention of vast groups of researchers. Carbon nanomaterials are common platform for synthesis of nanoparticles for biomedical applications due to their low cytotoxicity and feasible internalization into mammalian cell lines (Yang et al., 2007; Arora et al., 2014; Oh and Park, 2014). Synthesis of vectors based on various cationic polymers polyethylenimine (PEI), polypropylenimine (PPI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and their derivatives were considered as a strategy for transferring plasmid DNA and treatment of genetic diseases. Considering the low cytotoxicity of graphene, chemical modification of its surface has led to fabrication of novel gene delivery systems based on graphene and graphene oxide. Herein we report the synthesis of three groups of vectors based on conjugation of graphene oxide (GO) with alkylated derivatives of three different cationic polymers (polyethylenimine (PEI), polypropylenimine (PPI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM)) through different linkers including surface carboxyl group, glycine and spermidine. Two main challenges in design of gene delivery vectors is decreasing cytotoxicity while improving the transfection efficiency. All synthesized vectors showed significantly lower cellular toxicity compared to bare polymer. A plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to evaluate the transfection efficiency of nanoparticles both qualitatively using live cell fluorescent imaging and quantitatively using flow cytometry and each vector was compared to its polymer base. Most successful conjugation strategy was observed in the case of PEI conjugates among which most efficient vector was PEI-GO conjugate bearing glycine linker. This vector was 9 fold more effective in terms of the percent of EGFP transfected cells. PMID:27072918

  19. Charge-Dependent Dynamics of Polyelectrolyte Dendrimer and Its Correlation with Invasive Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Li, Xin [ORNL; Liu, Emily [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Porcar, L. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Wu, Bin [ORNL; Mamontov, Eugene [ORNL; Egami, T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL; Diallo, Souleymane Omar [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to investigate the local dynamics of polyelectrolyte dendrimers dissolved in deuterium oxide (D2O) and its dependence on molecular charge. Enhanced segmental dy-namics upon increase in molecular charge is observed, consistent with quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements. A strong coupling between the intra-dendrimer local hydration level and segmental dynamics is also revealed. Compelling evidence shows these findings originate from the electrostatic interaction between the hydrocarbon components of dendrimer and invasive water. This combined study provides fundamental insight into the dynamics of charged polyelectrolytes and the solvating water molecules.

  20. Electron injection from graphene quantum dots to poly(amido amine) dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. N.; Inciong, M. R.; Santiago, S. R.; Kao, C. W.; Shu, G. W.; Yuan, C. T.; Shen, J. L.; Yeh, J. M.; Chen-Yang, Y. W.

    2016-04-01

    The steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) are used to study the electron injection from graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers. The PL is enhanced by depositing GQDs on the surfaces of the PAMAM dendrimers. The maximum enhancement of PL with a factor of 10.9 is achieved at a GQD concentration of 0.9 mg/ml. The dynamics of PL in the GQD/PAMAM composite are analyzed, evidencing the existence of electron injection. On the basis of Kelvin probe measurements, the electron injection from the GQDs to the PAMAM dendrimers is accounted for by the work function difference between them.

  1. Study of the complexation of oxacillin in 1-(4-Carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon Stefan; Ficker, Mario; Petersen, Johannes Fabritius;

    2013-01-01

    The complexation of oxacillin to three generations of 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimers was studied with NMR in CD3OD and CDCl3. The stochiometries, which were determined from Job plots, were found to be both solvent- and generation-dependent. The dissociation constants (K......) and Gibbs energies for complexation of oxacillin into the 1-(4-carbomethoxypyrrolidone)-terminated PAMAM dendrimer hosts were determined by (1)H NMR titrations and showed weaker binding of oxacillin upon increasing the size (generation) of the dendrimer....

  2. Controlling the interfacial concentrations of I3− and Li+ ions in illuminated ruthenium (II) complex-sensitized nanoparticulate TiO2 photoanodes chemically coated by poly(amidoamide) dendrimers generation 4.0 for enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruthenium (II) complex-sensitized TiO2 electrodes were chemically coated with NH2-terminated poly(amidoamide) dendrimers generation 4.0 in order to improve the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells using these photoanodes. The presence of dendrimers in these photodevices produced a global photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 6.78%, which was higher than that obtained for photocells without them (5.43%). The experimental results indicated that this treatment of the dye-sensitized TiO2 electrodes allowed for controlling the concentrations of I3− anions and Li+ cations into the dendrimers-modified dyed-TiO2 pores during operation of the photocells. Consequently, the charge interception reaction and the charge accumulation process at the conduction band of the TiO2 electrodes were simultaneously balanced by the establishment of I2···NH2, NH···I− and C = O···Li+ bonds at the branches of the confined dendrimers for increasing their global conversion efficiency

  3. Optimization of PAMAM-gold nanoparticle conjugation for gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Elizabeth R.; Lin, Adam Y.; Yan, Jiaxi; Luo, Laureen; Foster, Aaron E.; Drezek, Rebekah A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of efficient and biocompatible non-viral vectors for gene therapy remains a great challenge, and exploiting the properties of both nanoparticle carriers and cationic polymers is an attractive approach. In this work, we have developed gold nanoparticle (AuNP) polyamidoamine (PAMAM) conjugates for use as non-viral transfection agents. AuPAMAM conjugates were prepared by crosslinking PAMAM dendrimers to carboxylic-terminated AuNPs via EDC and sulfo-NHS chemistry. EDC and sulfo-NH...

  4. Investigation of Dendriplexes by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Emma-Dune Leriche; Marie Hubert-Roux; Carlos Afonso; Catherine M. Lange; Martin C. Grossel; Florian Maire; Corinne Loutelier-Bourhis

    2014-01-01

    Highly branched polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers presenting biological activities have been envisaged as non-viral gene delivery vectors. They are known to associate with nucleic acid (DNA) in non-covalent complexes via electrostatic interactions. Although their transfection efficiency has been proved, PAMAMs present a significant cytotoxicity due to their cationic surface. To overcome such a drawback, different chemical modifications of the PAMAM surface have been reported such as the attac...

  5. Enzyme-linked DNA dendrimer nanosensors for acetylcholine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Ryan; Morales, Jennifer M.; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Ruckh, Timothy T.; Clark, Heather A.

    2015-10-01

    It is currently difficult to measure small dynamics of molecules in the brain with high spatial and temporal resolution while connecting them to the bigger picture of brain function. A step towards understanding the underlying neural networks of the brain is the ability to sense discrete changes of acetylcholine within a synapse. Here we show an efficient method for generating acetylcholine-detecting nanosensors based on DNA dendrimer scaffolds that incorporate butyrylcholinesterase and fluorescein in a nanoscale arrangement. These nanosensors are selective for acetylcholine and reversibly respond to levels of acetylcholine in the neurophysiological range. This DNA dendrimer architecture has the potential to overcome current obstacles to sensing in the synaptic environment, including the nanoscale size constraints of the synapse and the ability to quantify the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neurotransmitter release. By combining the control of nanosensor architecture with the strategic placement of fluorescent reporters and enzymes, this novel nanosensor platform can facilitate the development of new selective imaging tools for neuroscience.

  6. Synthetic Strategies towards Fullerene-Rich Dendrimer Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Nierengarten

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sphere-shaped fullerene has attracted considerable interest not least due to the peculiar electronic properties of this carbon allotrope and the fascinating materials emanating from fullerene-derived structures. The rapid development and tremendous advances in organic chemistry allow nowadays the modification of C60 to a great extent by pure chemical means. It is therefore not surprising that the fullerene moiety has also been part of dendrimers. At the initial stage, fullerenes have been examined at the center of the dendritic structure mainly aimed at possible shielding effects as exerted by the dendritic environment and light-harvesting effects due to multiple chromophores located at the periphery of the dendrimer. In recent years, also many research efforts have been devoted towards fullerene-rich nanohybrids containing multiple C60 units in the branches and/or as surface functional groups. In this review, synthetic efforts towards the construction of dendritic fullerene-rich nanostructures have been compiled and will be summarized herein.

  7. From structure to function via complex supramolecular dendrimer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao-Jan; Zhang, Shaodong; Percec, Virgil

    2015-06-21

    This tutorial review summarizes strategies elaborated for the discovery and prediction of programmed primary structures derived from quasi-equivalent constitutional isomeric libraries of self-assembling dendrons, dendrimers and dendronized polymers. These libraries demonstrate an 82% predictability, defined as the percentage of similar primary structures resulting in at least one conserved supramolecular shape with internal order. A combination of structural and retrostructural analysis that employs methodologies transplanted from structural biology, adapted to giant supramolecular assemblies was used for this process. A periodic table database of programmed primary structures was elaborated and used to facilitate the emergence of a diversity of functions in complex dendrimer systems via first principles. Assemblies generated by supramolecular and covalent polymer backbones were critically compared. Although by definition complex functional systems cannot be designed, this tutorial hints to a methodology based on database analysis principles to facilitate design principles that may help to mediate an accelerated emergence of chemical, physical and most probably also societal, political and economic complex systems on a shorter time scale and lower cost than by the current methods. This tutorial review is limited to the simplest, synthetically most accessible self-assembling minidendrons, minidendrimers and polymers dendronized with minidendrons that are best analyzed and elucidated at molecular, supramolecular and theoretical levels, and most used in other laboratories. These structures are all interrelated, and their principles expand in a simple way to their higher generations. PMID:25325787

  8. Record Multiphoton Absorption Cross-Sections by Dendrimer Organometalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Peter V; Watson, Laurance A; Barlow, Adam; Wang, Genmiao; Cifuentes, Marie P; Humphrey, Mark G

    2016-02-12

    Large increases in molecular two-photon absorption, the onset of measurable molecular three-photon absorption, and record molecular four-photon absorption in organic π-delocalizable frameworks are achieved by incorporation of bis(diphosphine)ruthenium units with alkynyl linkages. The resultant ruthenium alkynyl-containing dendrimers exhibit strong multiphoton absorption activity through the biological and telecommunications windows in the near-infrared region. The ligated ruthenium units significantly enhance solubility and introduce fully reversible redox switchability to the optical properties. Increasing the ruthenium content leads to substantial increases in multiphoton absorption properties without any loss of optical transparency. This significant improvement in multiphoton absorption performance by incorporation of the organometallic units into the organic π-framework is maintained when the relevant parameters are scaled by molecular weights or number of delocalizable π-electrons. The four-photon absorption cross-section of the most metal-rich dendrimer is an order of magnitude greater than the previous record value. PMID:26797727

  9. Organometallic Silicon-Containing Dendrimers and Their Electrochemical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Isabel

    Dendrimers constitute a unique class of macromolecular architectures that differs from all other synthetic macromolecules in its perfectly branched topology, which is constructed from a multifunctional central core and expands to the periphery that becomes denser with increasing generation number (see Chapter 1) [1-5]. Since the pioneering works published in the late 1970s and the mid-1980s [6-8], the design and synthesis of these tree-like, well-defined molecules, which exhibit a unique combination of chemical and physical properties, is a field which has sustained dramatic growth and has generated enthusiastic studies at the frontiers of organic, inorganic, supramolecular and polymer chemistry, and more recently in the fields of nanoscience, biotechnology and medicine [1-5, 9, 10]. Whereas the initial interest in dendrimers was focused on the synthetic and structural characterization challenges that pose their fractal geometries, nanometer sizes and monodisperse nature, in the last decade the emphasis has been placed mainly on modification of the properties of dendritic molecules by their functionalization

  10. Cationic micellar nanoparticles for DNA and doxorubicin co-delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Tao; Zou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Zhong, Yue-Chun; Zhao, Yi; Zhu, Hui-Er; Wang, Guan-Hai; Zhang, Li-Ming; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2014-11-01

    Cationic micellar nanoparticles for chemotherapeutic drugs and therapeutic gene co-delivery were prepared based on a poly-(N-ε-carbobenzyloxy-l-lysine) (PZLL) and dendritic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) block copolymer (PZLL-D3). PZLL-D3 was synthesized by a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cyclization (click) reaction between α-alkyne-PZLL and azide focal point PAMAM dendrons. Its structure was characterized by (1)H NMR and FTIR, and its buffering capability was determined by acid-base titration. MTT, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry studies showed that PZLL-D3 revealed low in vitro cytotoxicity, strong pDNA condensation ability, protection of pDNA against deoxyribonuclease I degradation and high gene transfection efficiency in 293T and HeLa cells. In addition, the micellar nanoparticles delivered pDNA and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously and efficiently to tumor cells, and the DOX loaded nanoparticles showed sustained in vitro release at pH=7.4 and 5.8. PMID:25280725

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Transition Metal Hybrid Azobenzene Dendrimers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cai-Ping; LIU Ping; WU Ke-Chen

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report a theoretical exploration of the responses of organic azo-benzene dendrimers. The polarizabilities, the first and second hyperpolarizabilities of the azobenzene monomers (GO), and the first, second and third generation (G1, G2 and G3, respectively) are investigated by semi-empirical methods. The calculated results show that the nonlinear optical (NLO)properties of these organic dendrimers are mainly determined by the azobenzene chromospheres.Additionally, the values of β and γ increase almost in proportion to the number of chromophores. On the other hand, two types of transition metal hybrid azobenzene dendrimers (core-hybrid and branch-end hybrid according to the sites combined with transition metals) are simulated and discussed in detail in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The calculated results reveal that the NLO responses of these metal dendrimers distinctly varied as a result of altering the charge transfer transition scale and the excitation energies.

  12. Synthesis of Dendrimer Containing Dialkylated-fluorene Unit as a Core Chromophore via Click Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seung Choul; Lee, Jae Wook [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Ho [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The convergent synthetic strategy for the emissive dendrimers having the chromophore at core via the coppercatalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between alkyne and azide was described. 2,7-Diazido-9,9-dioctyl- 9H-fluorene, designed to serve as the core in dendrimer, was stitched with the alkyne-functionalized Frechettype and PAMAM dendrons by the click chemistry leading to the formation of the corresponding fluorescent dendrimers in high yields. The preliminary photoluminescence studies indicated that 2,7-diazido-9,9-dioctyl- 9H-fluorene showed no fluorescence due to the quenching effect from the electron-rich α-nitrogen of the azido group but the dendrimers fluoresced due to the elimination of the quenching through the formation of the triazole ring.

  13. Converting Nonliquid Crystals into Liquid Crystals by N-Methylation in the Central Linker of Triazine-Based Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Hsieh, Jei-Way; Lai, Long-Li; Cheng, Kung-Lung; Liu, Shih-Hsien; Lee, Jey-Jau; Hsu, Hsiu-Fu

    2016-06-17

    Two triazine-based dendrimers were successfully prepared in 60-75% yields. These newly prepared dendrimers 2a and 2b containing the -NMe(CH2)2NMe- and the -NMe(CH2)4NMe- linkers between two G3 dendrons, respectively, exhibit columnar phases during the thermal process. However, the corresponding dendrimers 1a and 1b containing the -NH(CH2)2NH- and the -NH(CH2)4NH- linkers between two G3 dendrons, respectively, do not show any LC phases on thermal treatment. Computational investigations on molecular conformations reveal that N-methylation of the dendritic central linker leads dendrimers to possess more isomeric conformations and thus successfully converts non-LC dendrimers (1a and 1b) into LC dendrimers (2a and 2b). PMID:27203100

  14. Multiscale Modeling for Host-Guest Chemistry of Dendrimers in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Ha Kim; Lamm, Monica H

    2012-01-01

    Dendrimers have been widely used as nanostructured carriers for guest species in a variety of applications in medicine, catalysis, and environmental remediation. Theory and simulation methods are an important complement to experimental approaches that are designed to develop a fundamental understanding about how dendrimers interact with guest molecules. This review focuses on computational studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the relevant physicochemical parameters at play in ...

  15. Dendrimers destabilize proteins in a generation-dependent manner involving electrostatic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gichm, Lise; Christensen, Casper; Boas, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    Dendrimers are well-defined chemical polymers with a characteristic branching pattern that gives rise to attractive features such as antibacterial and antitumor activities as well as drug delivery properties. In addition, dendrimers can solubilize prion protein aggregates at very low concentrations...... mediated by electrostatics, confirmed by studies on four other proteins. Ability to precipitate and destabilize are positively correlated, in contrast to conventional small-molecule denaturants and stabilizers, indicating that surface immobilization of denaturing groups profoundly affects its interactions...

  16. The key role of the scaffold on the efficiency of dendrimer nanodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fruchon, Séverine; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Poupot, Mary; Ouali, Armelle; Maraval, Alexandrine; Garzoni, Matteo; Maly, Marek; Furer, Victor; Kovalenko, Valeri; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are well-defined macromolecules whose highly branched structure is reminiscent of many natural structures, such as trees, dendritic cells, neurons or the networks of kidneys and lungs. Nature has privileged such branched structures for increasing the efficiency of exchanges with the external medium; thus, the whole structure is of pivotal importance for these natural networks. On the contrary, it is generally believed that the properties of dendrimers are essentially related to the...

  17. Effect of Electron Donating Groups on Polyphenol-based Antioxidant Dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Choon Young; Nanah, Cyprien; Held, Rich; Clark, Amanda; Huynh, Uyen; Maraskine, Marina C.; Uzarski, Rebecca L.; McCracken, John; Sharma, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the beneficial effects of antioxidants in human diseases. Among their biological effects, a majority of antioxidants scavenge reactive radicals in the body, thereby reducing oxidative stress that is associated with the pathogenesis of many diseases. Antioxidant dendrimers are a new class of potent antioxidant compounds reported recently. In this study, six polyphenol-based antioxidant dendrimers with or without electron donating groups (methoxy group) were synth...

  18. Polycationic triazine-based dendrimers: effect of peripheral groups on transfection efficiency†

    OpenAIRE

    Mintzer, Meredith A.; Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas; Simanek, Eric E

    2009-01-01

    A panel of eight, second generation triazine dendrimers differing in the number of amines, guanidines, hydroxyls and aliphatic groups on the periphery was synthesized and assayed for gene transfer in an attempt to correlate the effects of surface functionality on transfection efficiency. The physicochemical and biological properties of the dendrimers and dendriplexes, such as condensation of DNA, size, surface charge and morphology of dendriplexes, toxicity and ultimately transfection efficie...

  19. Synthesis of New Functionalized Citric Acid-based Dendrimers as Nanocarrier Agents for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Motamedi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Citric acid-polyethylene glycol-citric acid (CPEGC triblock dendrimers can serve as potential delivery systems. Methods: In this investigation, CPEGC triblock dendrimers were synthesized and then imidazole groups were conjugated onto the surface of the G1, G2 and G3 of the obtained dendrimers. In order to study the type of the interactions between the functionalized dendrimers and a drug molecule, Naproxen which contains acidic groups, was examined as a hydrophobic drug in which the interactions would be of the electrostatic kind between its acidic groups and the lone pair electrons of nitrogen atom in imidazole groups. The quantity of the trapped drug and also the amount of its release were measured with UV spectrometric method in pH 1, 7.4 and 10. The average diameter of the nanocarriers was measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS technique Results: The size range of particles was determined to be 16-50 nm for different generations. The rate of the release increased in pH=10 in all generations due to the increase in Naproxen solubility and the hydrolysis of the esteric bonds in the mentioned pH. The results showed that the amount of the trapped drug increased with the increase in the generation of the dendrimer and pH. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we suggest CPEGC triblock dendrimers possess great potential to be used as drug/gene delivery system.

  20. Intracellular Trafficking of Polyamidoamine – Polyethylene Glycol Block Copolymers in DNA Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bonner, Daniel K.; Leung, Cheuk; Chen-Liang, Jane; Chingozha, Loice; Langer, Robert; Hammond, Paula T.

    2011-01-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids has the potential to revolutionize medicine by allowing previously untreatable diseases to be clinically addressed. Viral delivery systems have shown immunogenicity and toxicity dangers, but synthetic vectors have lagged in transfection efficiency. Previously, we have developed a modular, linear-dendritic block copolymer architecture with high gene transfection efficiency compared to commercial standards. This rationally designed system makes use of a cationic de...

  1. Light-fuelled transport of large dendrimers and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Jenni E; Liljeström, Ville; Lim, Jongdoo; Simanek, Eric E; Ras, Robin H A; Priimagi, Arri; Kostiainen, Mauri A

    2014-05-14

    This work presents a facile water-based supramolecular approach for light-induced surface patterning. The method is based upon azobenzene-functionalized high-molecular weight triazine dendrimers up to generation 9, demonstrating that even very large globular supramolecular complexes can be made to move in response to light. We also demonstrate light-fuelled macroscopic movements in native biomolecules, showing that complexes of apoferritin protein and azobenzene can effectively form light-induced surface patterns. Fundamentally, the results establish that thin films comprising both flexible and rigid globular particles of large diameter can be moved with light, whereas the presented material concepts offer new possibilities for the yet marginally explored biological applications of azobenzene surface patterning. PMID:24785836

  2. Charge Transport in Dendrimer Melt using Multiscale Modeling Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bag, Saientan; Maiti, Prabal K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a theoretical calculation of the charge carrier mobility in two different dendrimeric melt system (Dendritic phenyl azomethine with Triphenyl amine core and Dendritic Carbazole with Cyclic Phenylazomethine as core), which have recently been reported1 to increase the efficiency of Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by interface modification. Our mobility calculation, which is a combination of molecular dynamics simulation, first principles calculation and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation, leads to mobilities that are in quantitative agreement with available experimental data. We also show how the mobility depends on the dendrimer generation. Furthermore, we examine the variation of mobility with external electric field and external reorganization energy. Physical mechanisms behind observed electric field and generation dependencies of mobility are also explored.

  3. Self-organizing properties of dendrimers and potential applications

    OpenAIRE

    Losson, Myriam; Descheneaux, R; Pugin, R

    2006-01-01

    La nanotechnologie est une science fondamentale et appliquée, à la frontière entre la physique, la chimie, l’ingénierie et les sciences de la vie. Basée sur une approche dite “bottom-up” cette thèse a permis, dans un premier temps, d’étudier la possibilité d’utiliser une matrice de dendrimères commerciaux (PAMAM) afin de promouvoir l’auto-organisation de cyanines en agrégats-J. Parallèlement à cette thématique, nous nous sommes aussi intéressés à l’étude des propriétés d’auto-assemblage de de...

  4. Cation-cation interaction in neptunyl(V) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original manuscript was prepared by Professor N.N. Krot of Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1997. Saeki tried to translate that into Japanese and to add some new data since 1997. The contents include the whole picture of cation-cation interactions mainly in 5-valence neptunium compounds. Firstly, characteristic structures of neptunium are summarized of the cation-cation bonding in compounds. Secondly, it is mentioned how the cation-cation bonding affects physical and chemical properties of the compounds. Then, characterization-methods for the cation-cation bonding in the compounds are discussed. Finally, the cation-cation interactions in compounds of other actinide-ions are shortly reviewed. (author)

  5. Dendrisomes: vesicular structures derived from a cationic lipidic dendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Sakthivel, Thiagarajan; Florence, Alexander T

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of a novel synthetic lipidic cationic lysine-based dendron (partial dendrimer) in aqueous media and its ability, with and without cholesterol, to self-assemble into higher order structures was studied to gain an understanding of these structures as potential drug carriers. The dendron was prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. A reverse-phase evaporation (REV) technique was used to prepare cationic vesicular aggregates of the dendron with different molar ratios of cholesterol. The size and zeta potential of these supramolecular aggregates or "dendrisomes" was determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS). Dendrisome morphology and thermotropic properties were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Radiolabeled penicillin G was used as a model of a negatively charged water-soluble compound to investigate the encapsulation efficiency of the dendrisomes. In vitro release of the drug was determined using as a comparator a REV liposome formulation. Dendrisomes of all compositions have higher encapsulation efficiencies and slower release rates compared to the comparator. Cholesterol was found both to increase the size of the aggregates from around 310 to 560 nm and to increase shape irregularities, but did not change the positive zeta potential, in the order of +50 mV, of the dendrisomes. Cholesterol decreases penicillin G entrapment efficiency but increases solute leakage at 25 degrees C. PMID:15761934

  6. Cyclopropanation reactions catalysed by dendrimers possessing one metalloporphyrin active site at the core: linear and sigmoidal kinetic behaviour for different dendrimer generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinš, P.; de Cózar, A.; Rivilla, I.; Nováková, Kateřina; Zangi, R.; Cvačka, Josef; Arrastia, I.; Arrieta, A.; Drašar, P.; Miranda, J. I.; Cossío, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 8 (2016), s. 1120-1131. ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1951 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cyclopropanation * catalysis * kinetic analysis * dendrimers * molecular dynamics * DOSY Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.641, year: 2014

  7. Synthesis and evaluation in vitro in cancer cells AR42J of the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide-dendrimer similar of somatostatin; Sintesis y evaluacion in vitro en celulas de cancer AR42J del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotido-dendrimero analogo de la somatostatina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orocio R, E.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this project was preparing a multimeric system through the conjugation of several molecules of the peptide Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide to a dendrimer molecule based on Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM), as well as radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc and evaluating its behavior like new radiopharmaceutical similar of somatostatin. The dendrimer PAMAM generation 3.5 that possesses terminal groups of sodium carboxylate, was functionalized to peptide Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide through a reaction of peptide coupling with HATU (hexafluorophosphate (V) of 1-oxide-3-(bis(dimethylamino)methylene)-3H-[1,2,3]triazole[4,5-b]pyridine) as activating agent of carboxylate groups using the Size Exclusion Chromatography (Sec) as purification method. The product was characterized by Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, Mid-infrared and Far-infrared, Elemental analysis, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, Thermogravimetry and Differential scanning calorimetry. The radiolabeled with {sup 99m}Tc was carried out using a direct method that involves the reduction of the anion TcO{sub 4}{sup -} with stannous chloride, so that the dendrimer is capable of coordinating to the technetium forming a chelate compound. The radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled compound was determined by thin layer chromatography using a sodium chloride solution to 20% (m/v) as mobile phase and was verified by molecular exclusion chromatography. The radiolabeled compound was possible to obtain it with a radiochemical purity superior to 90%. Also, the specific and not specific union was evaluated of the synthesized compound in mouse pancreas cancer cells AR42J, positive to somatostatin receptors, showing specific recognition for this receptors type with high cellular internalization. The biodistribution studies were carried out in BALB/c mice at different post injection times and in nude mice with induced tumors AR42J. The results showed that the {sup 99m}Tc-PAMAM-Tyr{sup 3}-Octreotide is

  8. Phenylboronic acid-functionalized polyamidoamine-mediated Bcl-2 siRNA delivery for inhibiting the cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Yang, Jiebing; Xing, Zhen; Han, Haobo; Wang, Tingting; Zhang, Aijun; Yang, Yan; Li, Quanshun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the conjugation of phenylboronic acid (PBA) to amine-terminated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) was successfully conducted to prepare a tumor-targeted gene carrier PBA-functionalized PAMAM (PPP) for Bcl-2 siRNA delivery, using a heterobifunctional crosslinker NHS-PEG5k-Mal. The carrier possessed favorable capacity for siRNA condensation and could protect siRNA from the degradation against RNase and serum. The introduction of PBA could facilitate the cellular uptake and further transfection of Bcl-2 siRNA demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. Meanwhile, PPP-mediated transfection of Bcl-2 siRNA could significantly inhibit the expression of Bcl-2 gene at both mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, owing to the knock-down of Bcl-2, PPP/siRNA could significantly inhibit the cell proliferation by inducing the cell apoptosis, and also enhance the antitumor efficiency of doxorubicin by suppressing the resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapeutics. In conclusion, the PPP-mediated Bcl-2 siRNA delivery could potentially be an effective platform for solving the drug resistance and further achieving the combined chemotherapy and gene therapy in tumor treatment. PMID:27371891

  9. Methotrexate Nanoparticles Prepared with Codendrimer from Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and Oligoethylene Glycols (OEG) Dendrons: Antitumor Efficacy in Vitro and in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanna; Guo, Yifei; Li, Ran; Wang, Ting; Han, Meihua; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    The novel methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles (MTX/PGD NPs) prepared with amphiphilic codendrimer PGD from polyamidoamine and oligothylene glycol dendrons were obtained via antisolvent precipitation method augmented by ultrasonication. Based on the excellent hydrophility of PGD, the drug-loaded nanoparticles could be investigated easily with the high drug-loading content (~85.2%, w/w). The MTX/PGD NPs possessed spherical morphology, nanoscaled particle size (approximately 182.4 nm), and narrow particle size distribution. Release of MTX from MTX/PGD NPs showed a sustained release manner and completed within 48 h. Hemolytic evaluation indicated MTX/PGD NPs presented good blood compatibility, and the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles against breast cancer cells in vitro, biodistribution in tumor tissue, and antitumor efficacy in vivo were enhanced significantly compared to MTX injection. According to the higher drug-loading content, enhanced antitumor efficacy, and appropriate particle size, MTX/PGD NPs as the drug delivery systems could have potential application for cancer chemotherapy in clinic. PMID:27388443

  10. Methotrexate Nanoparticles Prepared with Codendrimer from Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) and Oligoethylene Glycols (OEG) Dendrons: Antitumor Efficacy in Vitro and in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanna; Guo, Yifei; Li, Ran; Wang, Ting; Han, Meihua; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-07-01

    The novel methotrexate-loaded nanoparticles (MTX/PGD NPs) prepared with amphiphilic codendrimer PGD from polyamidoamine and oligothylene glycol dendrons were obtained via antisolvent precipitation method augmented by ultrasonication. Based on the excellent hydrophility of PGD, the drug-loaded nanoparticles could be investigated easily with the high drug-loading content (~85.2%, w/w). The MTX/PGD NPs possessed spherical morphology, nanoscaled particle size (approximately 182.4 nm), and narrow particle size distribution. Release of MTX from MTX/PGD NPs showed a sustained release manner and completed within 48 h. Hemolytic evaluation indicated MTX/PGD NPs presented good blood compatibility, and the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles against breast cancer cells in vitro, biodistribution in tumor tissue, and antitumor efficacy in vivo were enhanced significantly compared to MTX injection. According to the higher drug-loading content, enhanced antitumor efficacy, and appropriate particle size, MTX/PGD NPs as the drug delivery systems could have potential application for cancer chemotherapy in clinic.

  11. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Li, Shari; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-12-01

    Dendrimer-encapsulated ruthenium nanoparticles (DEN-Ru) have been used as catalysts in lithium-O2 batteries for the first time. Results obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanoparticles synthesized by the dendrimer template method are ruthenium oxide instead of metallic ruthenium reported earlier by other groups. The DEN-Ru significantly improve the cycling stability of lithium (Li)-O2 batteries with carbon black electrodes and decrease the charging potential even at low catalyst loading. The monodispersity, porosity and large number of surface functionalities of the dendrimer template prevent the aggregation of the ruthenium nanoparticles making their entire surface area available for catalysis. The potential of using DEN-Ru as stand-alone cathode materials for Li-O2 batteries is also explored.

  12. Dendrimers and Dendrons as Versatile Building Blocks for the Fabrication of Functional Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally, hydrogels were fabricated using either polymerization of monomers or through crosslinking of polymers. In recent years, dendrimers and dendrons have been employed as well-defined building blocks in these materials. The multivalent and multifunctional nature of dendritic constructs offers advantages in either formulation or the physical and chemical properties of the obtained hydrogels. This review highlights various approaches utilized for the fabrication of hydrogels using well-defined dendrimers, dendrons and their polymeric conjugates. Examples from recent literature are chosen to illustrate the wide variety of hydrogels that have been designed using dendrimer- and dendron-based building blocks for applications, such as sensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  13. Novel perfluorocyclobutane (PFCB)-containing polymers and dendrimers for photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Wong, Sharon; Kang, Seok H.; Luo, Jingdong; Haller, Marnie; Jen, Alex K. Y.; Barto, Richard R.; Frank, Curtis W.

    2002-11-01

    A wide variety of aromatic trifluorovinyl ether monomers and highly fluorinated crosslinkable dendrimers have been developed via novel synthetic strategies. Through the thermal dimerization of trifluorovinyl ether moieties on the monomers or on the periphery of dendrimers, these monomers or dendrimers can be melt or solution polymerized to form perfluorocyclobutane(PFCB)-containing prepolymers with good processability for optical waveguide fabrication. By further thermal crosslinking, the resulting thermoset materials possess low optical loss (0.3-0.4 dB/cm at 1310 nm with 1% of DR-1 or DCM doping), high thermal stability (Tg: 100-400 °C), good thermo-optic property, high solvent and humid resistance, and excellent mechanical flexibility. The combination of processability and performance in these PFCB-containing thermoset materials make them as ideal candidates for the fabrication of high-performance polymeric planar lightwave circuit components with the applications in the telecom and datacom optical networks.

  14. Thermal stability of second generation carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Campus Universitario, Universidad de Alcala, Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy (Romania)

    2013-10-15

    Thermal analysis has a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical industry, in designing new molecules, control of raw materials, stability, compatibility studies, and development of new formulations. This paper evaluates the thermodynamic properties of two second generation G2 carbosilane dendrimers with peripheral ammonia groups by differential scanning calorimetry and TG/FTIR coupled techniques. The physical transformations have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics have been estimated and analyzed. Both dendrimers are stable up to 150 Degree-Sign C, have the Tg at 75 and 59 Degree-Sign C and melting temperatures at 113 and 128 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The decomposition process proved to be very complex and takes place in three steps in nitrogen atmosphere and four steps in air, for both types of dendrimers. IR spectroscopic analysis was used to observe the evolution of the gaseous products versus temperature.

  15. The key role of the scaffold on the efficiency of dendrimer nanodrugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Anne-Marie; Fruchon, Séverine; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Poupot, Mary; Ouali, Armelle; Maraval, Alexandrine; Garzoni, Matteo; Maly, Marek; Furer, Victor; Kovalenko, Valeri; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Pavan, Giovanni M; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Dendrimers are well-defined macromolecules whose highly branched structure is reminiscent of many natural structures, such as trees, dendritic cells, neurons or the networks of kidneys and lungs. Nature has privileged such branched structures for increasing the efficiency of exchanges with the external medium; thus, the whole structure is of pivotal importance for these natural networks. On the contrary, it is generally believed that the properties of dendrimers are essentially related to their terminal groups, and that the internal structure plays the minor role of an 'innocent' scaffold. Here we show that such an assertion is misleading, using convergent information from biological data (human monocytes activation) and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations on seven families of dendrimers (13 compounds) that we have synthesized, possessing identical terminal groups, but different internal structures. This work demonstrates that the scaffold of nanodrugs strongly influences their properties, somewhat reminiscent of the backbone of proteins. PMID:26169490

  16. Synthesis of an amphiphilic dendrimer-like block copolymer and its application on drug delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuaipeng

    2014-10-27

    Dendrimer-like amphiphilic copolymer is a kind of three-dimensional spherical structure polymer. An amphiphilic dendrimer-like diblock copolymer, PEEGE-G2-b-PEO(OH)12, constituted of a hydrophobic poly(ethoxyethyl glycidol ether) inner core and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) outer layer, has been successfully synthesized by the living anionic ring-opening polymerization method. The intermediates and targeted products were characterized with 1H NMR spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The application on drug delivery of dendrimer-like diblock copolymer PEEGE-G2-b-PEO(OH)12 using DOX as a model drug was also studied. The drug loading content and encapsulation efficiency were found at 13.07% and 45.75%, respectively. In vitro release experiment results indicated that the drug-loaded micelles exhibited a sustained release behavior under acidic media.

  17. Dendrimer functionalized radiation grafted hydrogels for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films were modified by γ-ray radiation grafting of 2- hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA). The covalent immobilization of polyglycerol dendrimer (PGLD) on LDPEG- HEMA surface was performed by using dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC)/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) method. The occurrence of grafting polymerization of HEMA and further immobilization of PGLD was quantitatively confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence, respectively. The LDPEG- HEMA surface topography after PGLD coupling was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophilicity of the LDPE-G-HEMA film was remarkably improved compared to that of the ungrafted LDPE. The core level XPS ESCA spectrum of HEMA-grafted LDPE showed two strong peaks at ∼286.6 eV (from hydroxyl groups and ester groups) and ∼289.1 eV (from ester groups) due to HEMA brushes grafted onto LDPE surfaces. The results from the cell adhesion studies shows that MCT3-E1 cells tended to spread more slowly on LDPE-G-HEMA than on LDPE-G-HEMA-i-PGLD. (author)

  18. Gadolinium MRI Contrast Agents Based on Triazine Dendrimers: Relaxivity and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jongdoo; Turkbey, Baris; Bernardo, Marcelino; Bryant, L. Henry; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Nakajima, Takahito; Choyke, Peter L; Simanek, Eric E; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Four gadolinium (Gd)-based macromolecular contrast agents, G3-(Gd-DOTA)24, G5-(Gd-DOTA)96, G3-(Gd-DTPA)24, and G5-(Gd-DTPA)96, were prepared that varied in the size of dendrimer (generation three and five), the type of chelate group (DTPA or DOTA), and the theoretical number of metallated chelates (24 and 96). Synthesis relied on a dichlorotriazine derivatized with a DOTA or DTPA ligand that was incorporated into the dendrimer and ultimately metallated with Gd ions. Paramagnetic characteristi...

  19. X-ray computed tomography contrast agents prepared by seeded growth of gold nanoparticles in PEGylated dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Chie [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Organization for the 21st Century, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Umeda, Yasuhito; Harada, Atsushi; Kono, Kenji [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro, E-mail: c-kojima@21c.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Photon Medical Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 1-20-1 Handayama, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192 (Japan)

    2010-06-18

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) are a potential x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agent. A biocompatible and bioinactive surface is necessary for application of gold nanoparticle to CT imaging. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-attached dendrimers have been used as a drug carrier with long blood circulation. In this study, the Au NPs were grown in the PEGylated dendrimer to produce a CT contrast agent. The Au NPs were grown by adding gold ions and ascorbic acid at various equivalents to the Au NP-encapsulated dendrimer solution. Both size and surface plasmon absorption of the grown Au NPs increased with adding a large number of gold ions. The x-ray attenuation of the Au NPs also increased after the seeded growth. The Au NPs grown in the PEG-attached dendrimer at the maximum under our conditions exhibited a similar CT value to a commercial iodine agent, iopamidol, in vitro. The Au NP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer and iopamidol were injected into mice and CT images were obtained at different times. The Au NP-loaded PEGylated dendrimer achieved a blood pool imaging, which was greater than a commercial iodine agent. Even though iopamidol was excreted rapidly, the PEGylated dendrimer loading the grown Au NP was accumulated in the liver.

  20. Investigations on dendrimer space reveal solid and liquid tumor growth-inhibition by original phosphorus-based dendrimers and the corresponding monomers and dendrons with ethacrynic acid motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Brahmi, Nabil; Mignani, Serge M.; Caron, Joachim; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Bousmina, Mosto M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Cresteil, Thierry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The well-known reactive diuretic ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), with low antiproliferative activities, was chemically modified and grafted onto phosphorus dendrimers and the corresponding simple branched phosphorus dendron-like derivatives affording novel nanodevices showing moderate to strong antiproliferative activities against liquid and solid tumor cell lines, respectively.The well-known reactive diuretic ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), with low antiproliferative activities, was chemically modified and grafted onto phosphorus dendrimers and the corresponding simple branched phosphorus dendron-like derivatives affording novel nanodevices showing moderate to strong antiproliferative activities against liquid and solid tumor cell lines, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05983b

  1. Facile preparation of highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots within hyperbranched poly(amidoamine)s and their application in bio-imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yunfeng; Liu, Lin; Pang, Huan; Zhou, Hongli; Zhang, Guanqing; Ou, Yangyan; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Du, Jimin; Xiao, Wangchuan

    2014-01-01

    A new strategy for facile preparation of highly luminescent CdTe quantum dots (QDs) within amine-terminated hyperbranched poly(amidoamine)s (HPAMAM) was proposed in this paper. CdTe precursors were first prepared by adding NaHTe to aqueous Cd2+ chelated by 3-mercaptopropionic sodium (MPA-Na), and then HPAMAM was introduced to stabilize the CdTe precursors. After microwave irradiation, highly fluorescent and stable CdTe QDs stabilized by MPA-Na and HPAMAM were obtained. The CdTe QDs showed a h...

  2. Expanding the structural diversity of self-assembling dendrons and supramolecular dendrimers via complex building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percec, Virgil; Won, Betty C; Peterca, Mihai; Heiney, Paul A

    2007-09-12

    The design and synthesis of the first examples of AB4 and AB5 dendritic building blocks with complex architecture are reported. Structural and retrostructural analysis of supramolecular dendrimers self-assembled from hybrid dendrons based on different combinations of AB4 and AB5 building blocks with AB2 and AB3 benzyl ether dendrons demonstrated that none of these new hybrid dendrons exhibit the previously encountered conformations of libraries of benzyl ether dendrons. These hybrid dendrons enabled the discovery of some highly unusual tapered and conical dendrons generated by the intramolecular back-folding of their repeat units and of their apex. The new back-folded tapered dendrons have double thickness and self-assemble into pine-tree-like columns exhibiting a long-range 7/2 helical order. The back-folded conical dendrons self-assemble into spherical dendrimers. Non-back-folded truncated conical dendrons were also discovered. They self-assemble into spherical dendrimers with a less densely packed center. The discovery of dendrons displaying a novel crown-like conformation is also reported. Crown-like dendrons self-assemble into long-range 5/1 helical pyramidal columns. The long-range 7/2 and 5/1 helical structures were established by applying, for the first time, the helical diffraction theory to the analysis of X-ray patterns obtained from oriented fibers of supramolecular dendrimers. PMID:17705390

  3. Effects of solute-solute interactions on protein stability studied using various counterions and dendrimers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtiss P Schneider

    Full Text Available Much work has been performed on understanding the effects of additives on protein thermodynamics and degradation kinetics, in particular addressing the Hofmeister series and other broad empirical phenomena. Little attention, however, has been paid to the effect of additive-additive interactions on proteins. Our group and others have recently shown that such interactions can actually govern protein events, such as aggregation. Here we use dendrimers, which have the advantage that both size and surface chemical groups can be changed and therein studied independently. Dendrimers are a relatively new and broad class of materials which have been demonstrated useful in biological and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery, perturbing amyloid formation, etc. Guanidinium modified dendrimers pose an interesting case given that guanidinium can form multiple attractive hydrogen bonds with either a protein surface or other components in solution, such as hydrogen bond accepting counterions. Here we present a study which shows that the behavior of such macromolecule species (modified PAMAM dendrimers is governed by intra-solvent interactions. Attractive guanidinium-anion interactions seem to cause clustering in solution, which inhibits cooperative binding to the protein surface but at the same time, significantly suppresses nonnative aggregation.

  4. APPLICABILITY OF DENDRIMERS IN REAL LIFE PRACTICES: AN INTERFACE BETWEEN CHEMISTRY & BIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Bina Rani; Raaz Maheshwari; Upma Singh; Magan Prasad; Chauhan, A K

    2012-01-01

    It is very tough to achieve 100 per cent branching in monodispersed samples and macromolecules. The profound branching makes the material unique for specialized applications. The objective of the article is to highlight the different dendritic morphologies in different kind of materials. Also, this article delineates the chemistry and numerous applications of dendrimers in day-to-day life.

  5. Generation dependent singlet–singlet annihilation within multichromophoric dendrimers studied by polychromatic transient absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordens, Sven; Belder, Gino De; Lor, Marc; Schweitzer, Gerd; Auweraer, Mark Van der; Weil, Tanja; Herrmann, Andreas; Wiesler, Uwe-M.; Müllen, Klaus; Schryver, Frans C. De

    2003-01-01

    Intramolecular kinetic processes in a series of shape-persistent meta- and para-substituted polyphenylene dendrimers bearing different peryleneimide chromophores at the rim have been investigated using time-resolved polychromatic transient absorption measurements. The influence of the generation num

  6. Dendrimer-curcumin conjugate: a water soluble and effective cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Shawon; Saloum, Darin; Dolai, Sukanta; Sun, Chong; Averick, Saadyah; Raja, Krishnaswami; Fata, Jimmie E

    2013-12-01

    Curcumin, which is derived from the plant Curcuma longa, has received considerable attention as a possible anti-cancer agent. In cell culture, curcumin is capable of inducing apoptosis in cancer cells at concentrations that do not affect normal cells. One draw-back holding curcumin back from being an effective anti-cancer agent in humans is that it is almost completely insoluble in water and therefore has poor absorption and subsequently poor bioavailability. Here we have generated a number of curcumin derivatives (tetrahydro-curcumin, curcumin mono-carboxylic acid, curcumin mono-galactose, curcumin mono-alkyne and dendrimer-curcumin conjugate) to test whether any of them display both cytotoxicity and water solubility. Of those tested only dendrimer-curcumin conjugate exhibited both water solubility and cytotoxicity against SKBr3 and BT549 breast cancer cells. When compared to curcumin dissolved in DMSO, dendrimer-curcumin conjugate dissolved in water was significantly more effective in inducing cytotoxicity, as measured by the MTT assay and effectively induced cellular apoptosis measured by caspase-3 activation. Since dendrimer-curcumin conjugate is water soluble and capable of inducing potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cell lines, it may prove to be an effective anti-cancer therapy to be used in humans. PMID:23387971

  7. Optimization and in vivo toxicity evaluation of G4.5 PAMAM dendrimer-risperidone complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jimena Prieto

    Full Text Available Risperidone is an approved antipsychotic drug belonging to the chemical class of benzisoxazole. This drug has low solubility in aqueous medium and poor bioavailability due to extensive first-pass metabolism and high protein binding (>90%. Since new strategies to improve efficient treatments are needed, we studied the efficiency of anionic G4.5 PAMAM dendrimers as nanocarriers for this therapeutic drug. To this end, we explored dendrimer-risperidone complexation dependence on solvent concentration, pH and molar relationship. The best dendrimer-risperidone incorporation (46 risperidone molecules per dendrimer was achieved with a mixture of chloroform:methanol 50∶50 v/v solution pH 3. In addition, to explore the possible effects of this complex, in vivo studies were carried out in the zebrafish model. Changes in the development of dopaminergic neurons and motoneurons were studied using tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin, respectively. Physiological changes were studied through histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin to observe possible morphological brain changes. The most significant changes were observed when larvae were treated with free risperidone, and no changes were observed when larvae were treated with the complex.

  8. Cationic Antimicrobial Peptide Cytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Laverty, Garry; Gilmore, Brendan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy serves as a valuable tool for assessing the structural integrity and viability of eukaryotic cells. Through the use of calcein AM and the DNA stain 4,6-diamidino-2 phenylindole (DAPI), cell viability and membrane integrity can be qualified. Our group has previously shown the ultra-short cationic antimicrobial peptide H-OOWW-NH2; the amphibian derived 27-mer peptide Maximin-4and the ultra-short lipopeptide C12-OOWW-NH2 to be effective against a range of bacterial biofil...

  9. Small Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Structure of PAMAM Dendrimer Encapsulation With Small Molecules in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dendrimers have very unique structural and physicochemical properties and many potential important applications, such as drug delivery, and therefore have been attracting research interests. It is interesting and important to investigate the interaction of

  10. Investigation of drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors with synchrotron radiation hard X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis is an advanced method of quantitative elemental analysis. It is a scientific platform for life science, material science, and environmental science. Purpose: In this present study, the drug loading behavior of dendrimers nano-vectors was investigated by using the method of Synchrotron Radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis. Methods: The copper (Ⅱ) ions were loaded into acetyl-modified generation 5(G5) PAMAM dendrimers. We monitored and imaged the distribution of copper in A549 cell by Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) to observe the cellular uptake of copper-dendrimers conjugates. Results: The results of hard X-ray fluorescence mapping showed a stronger fluorescence of Cu in the cells treated with G5-Ac-Cu than that of control. Conclusions: This investigation provided a method of using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis to study the drug loading behavior of dendrimers. (authors)

  11. Supramolecular coordination polymer formed from artificial light-harvesting dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hosoowi; Jeong, Young-Hwan; Kim, Joo-Ho; Kim, Inhye; Lee, Eunji; Jang, Woo-Dong

    2015-09-30

    We report the formation of supramolecular coordination polymers formed from multiporphyrin dendrimers (PZnPM; M = FB or Cu), composed of the focal freebase porphyrin (PFB) or cupper porphyrin (PCu) with eight zinc porphyrin (PZn) wings, and multipyridyl porphyrins (PyPM; M = FB or Cu), PFB or PCu with eight pyridyl groups, through multiple axial coordination interactions of pyridyl groups to PZns. UV-vis absorption spectra were recorded upon titration of PyPFB to PZnPFB. Differential spectra, obtained by subtracting the absorption of PZnPFB without guest addition as well as the absorption of PyPFB, exhibited clear isosbestic points with saturation binding at 1 equiv addition of PyPFB to PZnPFB. Job's plot analysis also indicated 1:1 stoichiometry for the saturation binding. The apparent association constant between PZnPFB and PyPFB (2.91 × 10(6) M(-1)), estimated by isothermal titration calorimetry, was high enough for fibrous assemblies to form at micromolar concentrations. The formation of a fibrous assembly from PZnPFB and PyPFB was visualized by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). When a 1:1 mixture solution of PZnPFB and PyPFB (20 μM) in toluene was cast onto mica, fibrous assemblies with regular height (ca. 2 nm) were observed. TEM images obtained from 1:1 mixture solution of PZnPFB and PyPFB (0.1 wt %) in toluene clearly showed the formation of nanofibers with a regular diameter of ca. 6 nm. Fluorescence emission measurement of PZnPM indicated efficient intramolecular energy transfer from PZn to the focal PFB or PCu. By the formation of supramolecular coordination polymers, the intramolecular energy transfer changed to intermolecular energy transfer from PZnPM to PyPM. When the nonfluorescent PyPCu was titrated to fluorescent PZnPFB, fluorescence emission from the focal PFB was gradually decreased. By the titration of fluorescent PyPFB to nonfluorescent PZnPCu, fluorescence emission from PFB in PyPFB was gradually increased

  12. pH-activatable nanoparticles for tumor-specific drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Karen C.

    To address the need for a tumor-specific drug delivery system that can achieve both prolonged circulation and cellular retention at the tumor site, nanocomplexes of Zwitterionic Chitosan (ZWC) and Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) generation 5 were designed. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been widely explored as carriers of therapeutics and imaging agents, however, amine-terminated PAMAM dendrimers are rarely utilized in systemic applications due to its cytotoxicity and risk of opsonization, caused by its cationic charge. Such undesirable effects may be mitigated by shielding the PAMAM dendrimer surface with polymers that reduce the charges. However, this shielding may also interfere with PAMAM dendrimers' ability to interact with target cells, thus reducing cellular uptake and overall efficacy of the delivery system. ZWC, a new chitosan derivative, has a unique pH-sensitive charge profile and can shield the cationic surface of PAMAM dendrimers and block adsorption of serum proteins to allow for prolonged circulation. The hypothesis of this approach is that ZWC is anionic and able to coat PAMAM in neutral pH but becomes positive in the acidic tumor microenvironment, revealing the polycationic drug carrier. We expect that ZWC will provide (i) stealth coating for PAMAM drug carrier during circulation (pH 7.4) and (ii) be removed from the PAMAM drug carrier at acidic pH (pH ~6.3), allowing for cellular interaction. The cationic charge of PAMAM has been demonstrated to facilitate uptake and drug delivery to tumor cells via interactions with the negatively charged cell surface. Stable electrostatic complexes of ZWC and PAMAM dendrimers were formed at pH 7.4, as demonstrated by fluorescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of ZWC coating protected red blood cells and fibroblast cells from hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of PAMAM dendrimers, respectively. Confocal microscopy showed that the protective effect of ZWC disappeared at low pH as

  13. Controlled delivery of Gemcitabine Hydrochloride using mannosylated poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Namrata; Jain, Keerti, E-mail: keertijain02@gmail.com; Gupta, Umesh, E-mail: umeshgupta175@gmail.com; Jain, N. K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. H. S. Gour Central University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the present investigation was to deliver Gemcitabine Hydrochloride (GmcH), an anticancer bioactive, specifically to lung tumor cells using mannosylated 4.0G poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (M-PPI). 4.0G poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers was synthesized using ethylenediamine as core and conjugated with mannose by ring opening reactions, followed by Schiff’s reaction in the presence of sodium acetate buffer (pH 4.0). Synthesized PPI dendrimers and mannose-conjugated dendrimers were characterized using IR, NMR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. GmcH was loaded into PPI and M-PPI dendrimers using equilibrium dialysis method to develop the formulations, GmcH-PPI and GmcH-M-PPI, respectively. The developed formulations were evaluated for drug loading, in vitro release kinetics, in vitro stability, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, pharmacokinetic, and biodistribution studies. The dendrimeric formulation of GmcH showed pH-sensitive release with faster release at acidic pH, i.e., pH 4.0 in comparison with physiological pH 7.4. M-PPI conjugate showed significant reduction in hemolytic toxicity as compared to plain 4.0G PPI dendrimers towards human erythrocytes. In the cytotoxicity studies with A-549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line, the GmcH-M-PPI formulation showed the lowest IC{sub 50} value. Further, the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies of free drug GmcH, GmcH-PPI, and GmcH-M-PPI in albino rats of Sprague–Dawley strain suggested the mean residence time of GmcH-M-PPI conjugate to be significantly higher (24.85 h) than free GmcH and GmcH-PPI. Deposition of drug (396.1 ± 4.7 after 2 h) in lung was found to be significantly higher with GmcH-M-PPI formulation in comparison with Gmch and GmcH-PPI.

  14. Ion exchange behaviour of polymeric zirconium cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric zirconium cations formed in weakly acid solutions (pH2) are taken up strongly into macroporous cation exchange resins, while uptake into normal cation exchange resins (pore diameter about 1 nm) is low. Macroporous cation exchange resins loaded with polymeric Zr cations are shown to function as ligand exchange sorbents. (Authors)

  15. Low cytotoxicity fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer as gene carriers for monitoring the delivery of siRNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual detection of gene vectors has attracted a great deal of attention due to the application of these vectors in monitoring and evaluating the effect of gene carriers in living cells. A non-viral vector, the fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer (F-PAMAM), was synthesized through conjugation of PAMAM dendrimers and fluorescein. In vitro and ex vivo experiments show that F-PAMAM exhibits superphotostability, low cytotoxicity and facilitates endocytosis by A549 cells. The vector has a high siRNA binding affinity and it increases the efficiency of cy5-siRNA delivery in A549 cells, in comparison with a cy5-siRNA monomer. Our results provide a new method for simultaneously monitoring the delivery of siRNA and its non-viral carriers in living cells

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of New Conjugated Fluorenyl-Porphyrin Dendrimers for Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dandan; Zhang, Xu; Mongin, Olivier; Paul, Frédéric; Paul-Roth, Christine O

    2016-04-11

    A new family of conjugated meso-tetraphenylporphyrin-based dendrimers with four (TPP1, TPP2), eight (TPP3, TPP4, TPP5) and up to sixteen (TPP6) fluorenyl groups has been synthesized and fully characterized. These tetraphenylporphyrin-cored dendrimers present peripheral alkynyl π-conjugated dendrons with fluorenyl termini. The meso-aryl rings of these porphyrins are functionalized either in para- (TPP1, TPP2, and TPP3) or meta-positions (TPP4, TPP5, and TPP6). Their detailed luminescence properties are discussed in reference to two porphyrins lacking fluorenyl dendrons (TPP-H1,2,3 and TPP-H4,5,6 ). A strong dependence of their luminescence quantum yield and lifetime on their structures is stated, their nonlinear optical properties were also discussed. PMID:26933931

  17. Dendrimer-Templated Ultrasmall and Multifunctional Photothermal Agents for Efficient Tumor Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengjie; Wang, Yitong; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-04-26

    Ultrasmall and multifunctional nanoparticles are highly desirable for photothermal cancer therapy, but the synthesis of these nanoparticles remains a huge challenge. Here, we used a dendrimer as a template to synthesize ultrasmall photothermal agents and further modified them with multifunctional groups. Dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENPs) including copper sulfide, platinum, and palladium nanoparticles possessed a sub-5 nm size and exhibited an excellent photothermal effect. DENPs were further modified with TAT or RGD peptides to facilitate their cellular uptake and targeting delivery to tumors. They were also decorated with fluorescent probes for real-time imaging and tracking of the particles' distribution. The in vivo study revealed RGD-modified DENPs efficiently reduced the tumor growth upon near-infrared irradiation. In all, our study provides a facile and flexible scaffold to prepare ultrasmall and multifunctional photothermal agents. PMID:27054555

  18. Low cytotoxicity fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer as gene carriers for monitoring the delivery of siRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Lingmei [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Huang, Saipeng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Chen, Zhao [Xi’an Jiaotong University, School of Science (China); Li, Yanchao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China); Liu, Ke [Sichuan University, State Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, The Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yliu@iccas.ac.cn; Du, Libo, E-mail: dulibo@iccas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, Center for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry (China)

    2015-09-15

    Visual detection of gene vectors has attracted a great deal of attention due to the application of these vectors in monitoring and evaluating the effect of gene carriers in living cells. A non-viral vector, the fluorescent PAMAM dendrimer (F-PAMAM), was synthesized through conjugation of PAMAM dendrimers and fluorescein. In vitro and ex vivo experiments show that F-PAMAM exhibits superphotostability, low cytotoxicity and facilitates endocytosis by A549 cells. The vector has a high siRNA binding affinity and it increases the efficiency of cy5-siRNA delivery in A549 cells, in comparison with a cy5-siRNA monomer. Our results provide a new method for simultaneously monitoring the delivery of siRNA and its non-viral carriers in living cells.

  19. Enhancement of cytotoxicity by combining pyrenyl-dendrimers and arene ruthenium metallacages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Zava, Olivier; Dyson, Paul J; Deschenaux, Robert; Therrien, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Three generations of pyrenyl bis-MPA dendrimers with two different end-groups, acetonide (pyr(Gn)) or alcohol (pyr(Gn-OH)) (n = 1-3), were synthesized, and the pyrenyl group of the dendritic molecules was encapsulated in the arene ruthenium metallacages, [Ru(6)(p-cymene)(6)(OO∩OO)(3)(tpt)(2)](6+) (OO∩OO = 5,8-dioxydo-1,4-naphtaquinonato (donq) [1](6+) and 6,11-dioxydo-5,12-naphtacenedionato (dotq) [2](6+); tpt =2,4,6-tri(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,5-triazine). The host-guest properties of [guest⊂1](6+) and [guest⊂2](6+) were studied in solution by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods, thus allowing the determination of the affinity constants. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of these water-soluble host-guest systems and the pyrenyl-dendrimers was evaluated on human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:22716166

  20. UV-Photodimerization in Uracil-substituted dendrimers for high density data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Vestberg, Robert; Ivanov, Mario Tonev; Hvilsted, Søren; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2007-01-01

    Two series of uracil-functionalized dendritic macromolecules based on poly (amidoamine) PAMAM and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethylpropionic acid) bis-MPA backbones were prepared and their photoinduced (2 pi+2 pi) cycloaddition reactions upon exposure to UV light at 257 nm examined. Dendrimers up to 4th...... generation were synthesized and investigated as potential materials for high capacity optical data storage with their dimerization efficiency compared to uracil as a reference compound. This allows the impact of increasing the generation number of the dendrimers, both the number of chromophores, as well as...... irradiated at 257 nm with an intensity of 70 mW/cm(2) could be obtained suggesting future use as recording media for optical data storage. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Peptide and glycopeptide dendrimers and analogous dendrimeric structures and their biomedical applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Niederhafner, Petr; Ježek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2011), s. 301-370. ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1517; GA AV ČR KAN200520703; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : glycopeptide dendrimers * prions * drug and gene delivery * cancer * nanomedicine * nanotechnology * nanomaterials Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011

  2. Multiple antigen peptide dendrimer elicits antibodies for detecting rat and mouse growth hormone binding proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar, Roberto M.; Talamantes, Frank J.; Bustamante, Juan J.; Muñoz, Jesus; Treviño, Lisa R.; Martinez, Andrew O.; Haro, Luis S.

    2009-01-01

    The membrane-bound rat growth hormone receptor (GH-R) and an alternatively spliced isoform, the soluble rat GH binding protein (GH-BP), are comprised of identical N-terminal GH binding domains, however, their C-terminal sequences differ. Immunological reagents are needed to distinguish between the two isoforms in order to understand their respective roles in mediating the actions of GH. Accordingly, a tetravalent multiple antigen peptide (MAP) dendrimer with four identical branches of a C-ter...

  3. Design of dendrimer-based drug delivery nanodevices with enhanced therapeutic efficacies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam

    2007-03-01

    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorable, `peripheral' functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug delivery. They have significant potential compared to liposomes and nanoparticles, because of the reduced macrophage update, increased cellular transport, and the ability to modulate the local environment through functional groups. We are developing nanodevices based on dendritic systems for drug delivery, that contain a high drug payload, ligands, and imaging agents, resulting in `smart' drug delivery devices that can target, deliver, and signal. In collaboration with the Children's Hospital of Michigan, Karmanos Cancer Institute, and College of Pharmacy, we are testing the in vitro and in vivo response of these nanodevices, by adapting the chemistry for specific clinical applications such as asthma and cancer. These materials are characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence/confocal microscopy, and appropriate animal models. Our results suggest that: (1) We can prepare drug-dendrimer conjugates with drug payloads of greater than 50%, for a variety of drugs; (2) The dendritic polymers are capable of transporting and delivering drugs into cells faster than free drugs, with superior therapeutic efficiency. This can be modulated by the surface functionality of the dendrimer; (3) For chemotherapy drugs, the conjugates are a factor of 6-20 times more effective even in drug-resistant cell lines; (4) For corticosteroidal drugs, the dendritic polymers provide higher drug residence times in the lung, allowing for passive targeting. The ability of the drug-dendrimer-ligand conjugates to target specific asthma and cancer cells is currently being explored using in vitro and in vivo animal models.

  4. 8-Hydroxyquinoline Dansylates Modified with PAMAM Dendrimer as Fluorescent Fe3+ Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowu Sha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of fluorescent sensors based on 8-hydroxyquinoline dansylate as core and dendritic PAMAM as shell were synthesized. Their fluorescence characteristic and fluorescent sensing behavior toward metal ions were studied in water/methanol (1: 1, v/v. The sensors exhibit good selectivity and sensitivity for Fe3+ ion and to some extent for Cr3+ ion. The third generation dendrimer has the better sensitivity than the first and second generations.

  5. 8-Hydroxyquinoline Dansylates Modified with PAMAM Dendrimer as Fluorescent Fe3+ Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Yaowu Sha; Jin-Hui Wang; Qi Zhang

    2010-01-01

    A series of fluorescent sensors based on 8-hydroxyquinoline dansylate as core and dendritic PAMAM as shell were synthesized. Their fluorescence characteristic and fluorescent sensing behavior toward metal ions were studied in water/methanol (1: 1, v/v). The sensors exhibit good selectivity and sensitivity for Fe3+ ion and to some extent for Cr3+ ion. The third generation dendrimer has the better sensitivity than the first and second generations.

  6. Investigation of Dendrimer-based nanoparticles cellular uptake and cell tracking in a semiautomated microfluidic platform

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Mariana Rodrigues; Maia, Fátima Raquel; Reis, R. L.; Oliveira, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic device such as Kima Pump and Vena8 biochip is able to realize functions that are not easily imaginable in conventional biological analysis, such as highly parallel, sophisticated high-throughput analysis and single-cell analysis in a well-defined manner [1]. Cancer cell tracking within the microfluidic model will be achieved by grafting fluorescent label probe Fluorescein-5(6)-isothiocyanate (FITC) to dendrimer nanoparticles allowing cell visualization by immunofluorescen...

  7. Generation dependent singlet–singlet annihilation within multichromophoric dendrimers studied by polychromatic transient absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Jordens, Sven; Belder, Gino De; Lor, Marc; Schweitzer, Gerd; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Weil, Tanja; Herrmann, Andreas; Wiesler, Uwe-M.; Müllen, Klaus; de Schryver, Frans C.

    2003-01-01

    Intramolecular kinetic processes in a series of shape-persistent meta- and para-substituted polyphenylene dendrimers bearing different peryleneimide chromophores at the rim have been investigated using time-resolved polychromatic transient absorption measurements. The influence of the generation number and different substitution patterns upon these processes was revealed by comparing different compounds. In particular, in multichromophoric systems a singlet–singlet annihilation process was de...

  8. Synthesis of linear comb-like tetrameric peptide and glycopeptide dendrimers with Tn antigen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vepřek, Pavel; Knytlová, K.; Hajdúch, M.; Trnka, T.; Sejbal, J.; Ježek, Jan

    Kingswinford : Mayflower Worldwide Ltd, 2003 - (Epton, R.), s. 267-270 ISBN 0-9515735-4-3. [Inovation and Perspectives in Solid Phase Synthesis & Combinatorial Libraries. Southampton (GB), 18.09.2001-22.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0690 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : glycopeptide dendrimers * Tn antigen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Vibrational spectra study of phosphorus dendrimer containing azobenzene, ammonium and carbamate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2013-06-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the first generation dendrimers, possessing carbamate (G1) or ammonium (G2) terminal groups were studied. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for dendrimers on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). These calculations of G2 gave the frequencies of vibrations, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities for the E- and Z-forms of azobenzene unit. The energy difference between the E- and Z-forms of G2 is 27.36 kcal/mol. The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that dendrimers molecules have a concave lens structure with planar -O-C6H4-CHdbnd N-N(CH3)Pdbnd S, and -O-C6H4-Ndbnd N-C6H4-CHdbnd N-NH-Cdbnd O-CH2-N fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of dendrimers G1 and G2 were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed. The strong band 1605 cm-1 in the IR spectra show marked changes of the optical density in dependence of substituents in the aromatic ring. The differences in the IR and Raman spectra of G2 for the E- and Z-forms of azobenzene units were cleared up. During structural isomerization of azobenzene units, redistribution of band intensities appears to a much higher extent than frequency shifts.

  10. Porous Polymersomes with Encapsulated Gd-labeled Dendrimers as Highly Efficient MRI Contrast Agents**

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Thorek, Daniel L.J.; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The use of nanovesicles with encapsulated Gd as MR contrast agents has largely been ignored due to the detrimental effects of the slow water exchange rate through the vesicle bilayer on the relaxivity of encapsulated Gd. Here, we describe the facile synthesis of a composite MR contrast platform, consisting of dendrimer conjugates encapsulated in porous polymersomes. These nanoparticles exhibit improved permeability to water flux and a large capacity to store chelated Gd within the aqueous lum...

  11. Functional dendrimer modified ultra-hydrophilic trapping copolymer network towards highly efficient cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiming; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2016-06-01

    Highly efficient isolation of living tumor cells possesses great significance in research of cancer. Hence, we have designed the 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) derivative dendrimer-functionalized 3D network polyacrylamide/poly (methyl methacrylate) copolymer as capture substrate which is easily prepared, template free and low-cost. The structure of copolymer is compared to "fishing net" in order to increase the contact between cells and substrates. The application of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers provides abundant amino groups to react with APBA which is just like "baits" that can bond with sialic acid in the cytomembrane to realize cell capture. The 3D network structure trammels cancer cells, offers great reaction space and displays hydrophilic surface, which has immensely improved the contact probability of cells and materials. Due to the 3D network structure and dendrimer, this material can achieve a high capture efficiency of 87±5% in 45min. The viability of captured cells is nearly 100%, as a result of the soft and hydrophilic surface and hypotoxicity of this copolymer. PMID:27130129

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride-based microemulsions with an added dendrimer - Structural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidich, Nina; Francesca Ottaviani, M; Hoffman, Roy E; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-12-01

    Omega fatty acids, mainly the triglyceride of docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA), are considered important nutraceuticals. These compounds are water-insoluble and their transport across membranes depends on their carriers. Dendrimers are known as drug carriers across cell membranes and also as permeation enhancers. The solubilization of TG-DHA and dendrimer into a microemulsion (ME) system serving as a carrier could be used for a targeted delivery in the future. The interactions between TG-DHA and second generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (PPI-G2) and their effect on structural transitions of ME were explored along the water dilution line using electron paramagnetic resonance and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR along with other analytical techniques. The microviscosity, order parameter, and micropolarity of all studied systems decrease upon water dilution. Incorporation of TG-DHA reduces the microviscosity, order, and micropolarity, whereas PPI-G2 leads to an increase in these parameters. The effect of PPI-G2 is more pronounced at relative high contents (1 and 5wt%) where PPI-G2 interacts with the hydrophilic headgroups of the surfactants. In the macroscale, the effects of TG-DHA and PPI-G2 differ mostly in the bicontinuous region, where macroviscosity increases upon TG-DHA incorporation and decreases upon solubilization of 5wt% PPI-G2. From DSC measurements it was concluded that in the presence of TG-DHA the PPI-G2 is intercalated easily at the interface. PMID:27571688

  13. Dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles as multiple stimuli responsive and enzymatic drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Noronha, Glen; Dietrich, Sascha; Lang, Heinrich; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2015-04-01

    Two different chain lengths of (poly)ethylene glycol-PAMAM dendrimers namely, L6-PEG-PAMAM and S6-PEG-PAMAM with six end-grafted ethylene glycol ether-tentacles of type CH2CH2C(O)O(CH2CH2O)9CH3 and CH2CH2C(O)O(CH2CH2O)2C2H5, respectively, were synthesized. These dendrimers have multiple σ-donor capabilities and therefore, were used for stabilizing the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Both the dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (L6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs and S6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs) were characterized by different spectroscopic and microstructural techniques. The nanoparticles were mesoporous and superparamagnetic and therefore, explored for their possible use in delivery of cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In the developed drug delivery system, achieving high drug-loading efficiency with controllable release were the main challenges. The change in zeta potential and quenching of fluorescence intensity suggests chemical interaction between DOX and the nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was calculated to be over 95% with a sustained pH and temperature sensitive release. Further, enzyme cathepsin B has also been used to degrade the dendritic shell to trigger sustained drug release in the vicinity of tumor cells.

  14. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers. PMID:26278524

  15. Piezoelectric sensor for sensitive determination of metal ions based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. H.; Shen, C. Y.; Lin, Y. M.; Du, J. C.

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metal ions arising from human activities are retained strongly in water; therefore public water supplies must be monitored regularly to ensure the timely detection of potential problems. A phosphate-modified dendrimer film was investigated on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for sensing metal ions in water at room temperature in this study. The chemical structures and sensing properties were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and QCM measurement, respectively. This phosphate-modified dendrimer sensor can directly detect metal ions in aqueous solutions. This novel sensor was evaluated for its capacity to sense various metal ions. The sensor exhibited a higher sensitivity level and shorter response time to copper(II) ions than other sensors. The linear detection range of the prepared QCM based on the phosphate-modified dendrimer was 0.0001 ∼ 1 μM Cu(II) ions (R2 = 0.98). The detection properties, including sensitivity, response time, selectivity, reusability, maximum adsorption capacity, and adsorption equilibrium constants, were also investigated.

  16. Dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles as multiple stimuli responsive and enzymatic drug delivery vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different chain lengths of (poly)ethylene glycol-PAMAM dendrimers namely, L6-PEG-PAMAM and S6-PEG-PAMAM with six end-grafted ethylene glycol ether-tentacles of type CH2CH2C(O)O(CH2CH2O)9CH3 and CH2CH2C(O)O(CH2CH2O)2C2H5, respectively, were synthesized. These dendrimers have multiple σ-donor capabilities and therefore, were used for stabilizing the magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles. Both the dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (L6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs and S6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs) were characterized by different spectroscopic and microstructural techniques. The nanoparticles were mesoporous and superparamagnetic and therefore, explored for their possible use in delivery of cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In the developed drug delivery system, achieving high drug-loading efficiency with controllable release were the main challenges. The change in zeta potential and quenching of fluorescence intensity suggests chemical interaction between DOX and the nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was calculated to be over 95% with a sustained pH and temperature sensitive release. Further, enzyme cathepsin B has also been used to degrade the dendritic shell to trigger sustained drug release in the vicinity of tumor cells

  17. Dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles as multiple stimuli responsive and enzymatic drug delivery vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Sudeshna; Noronha, Glen [Metallurgical and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Dietrich, Sascha; Lang, Heinrich [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Institute of Chemistry, Straße der Nationen 62, d-09111 Chemnitz (Germany); Bahadur, Dhirendra, E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in [Metallurgical and Materials Science Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Two different chain lengths of (poly)ethylene glycol-PAMAM dendrimers namely, L6-PEG-PAMAM and S6-PEG-PAMAM with six end-grafted ethylene glycol ether-tentacles of type CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C(O)O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 9}CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}C(O)O(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 2}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, respectively, were synthesized. These dendrimers have multiple σ-donor capabilities and therefore, were used for stabilizing the magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles. Both the dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (L6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs and S6-PEG-PAMAM-MNPs) were characterized by different spectroscopic and microstructural techniques. The nanoparticles were mesoporous and superparamagnetic and therefore, explored for their possible use in delivery of cancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). In the developed drug delivery system, achieving high drug-loading efficiency with controllable release were the main challenges. The change in zeta potential and quenching of fluorescence intensity suggests chemical interaction between DOX and the nanoparticles. The loading efficiency was calculated to be over 95% with a sustained pH and temperature sensitive release. Further, enzyme cathepsin B has also been used to degrade the dendritic shell to trigger sustained drug release in the vicinity of tumor cells.

  18. Coordination of a Ru(II)-Complex to a Tetrafunctional P-ligand: a Model for Ru-P Carbosilane dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    van Koten, G; Beerens, H I; Wijkens, P.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Verpoort, F.; Verdonck, L.

    2000-01-01

    Organophosphine-functionalised carbosilane (CS) dendrimers (5, 6) can be synthesised in high yield. Furthermore, new kinds of metallodendrimers (7, 8) are obtained by coordination of a Ru(II) complex, containing the tridentate triamine ligand: 2, 6-bis[(dimethylamino)methyl]pyridine, to these P-functionalised CS-dendrimers.

  19. Effect of cationic polyelectrolytes on the performance of paper diagnostics for blood typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLiesh, Heather; Sharman, Scot; Garnier, Gil

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect that two common types of cationic polyelectrolytes used in papermaking might have on the performance of paper diagnostics using blood typing as an example. The results were analyzed in terms of red blood cells (RBC) retention and antibody-antigen specificity. Two questions were addressed: (1) can poly(amido-amine) epichlorohydrin (PAE) typically used for paper wet strength affect the diagnostic performance? (2) can high molecular weight cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) employed as retention aid enhance or affect the selectivity and sensitivity of paper diagnostics? A series of paper varying in type of fibers and drying process were constructed with PAE and tested for blood typing performance. Residual PAE has no significant effect on blood typing paper diagnostics under normal conditions. Positives are unaffected with PAE, while negatives lose slight sharpness as some RBCs are unselectively retained. CPAM, the most common retention aid, can also be used to retain cells and biomolecules on paper. Paper towel was treated with CPAM solutions varying in polymer concentration and charge density and tested for blood typing. We found that CPAM dried on paper can retain RBC. CPAM affects the negative tests by retaining non-specifically individual RBC on fibers. RBC retention increases non-linearly with the CPAM charge density and concentration. As expected, wet CPAM retain RBCs at concentrations higher than 0.1wt%. As paper diagnostics are becoming a reality, more realistic papers than the Whatman filter paper will be engineered. This study provides guidance on how best use the required polymeric wet-strength and retention agents. PMID:26101819

  20. Probing the absorption and release of nitroaromatic vapours from fluorescent dendrimer films for the detection of explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a study into three generations of fluorescent carbazole-based dendrimers that exhibit strong binding with nitroaromatic compounds accompanied by photoluminescence (PL) quenching, making them attractive sensing materials for the detection of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The absorption and release of the (deuterated) TNT analogue, 4-nitrotoluene (pNT), from thin films of the dendrimers were studied with a combination of time-correlated neutron reflectometry and PL spectroscopy. When saturated with pNT the PL of the films was quenched and could only be recovered with a nitrogen gas flow upon heating to 40-80°C. Although the majority of the absorbed pNT was removed by this method the neutron reflectometry showed that the recovered films still contained residual quantities of pNT. However, the proportion of the PL recovered increased strongly with generation with the third generation dendrimer exhibiting full recovery. This result is attributed to a combination of two effects. Firstly, the dendrimer films present a range of binding sites for nitroaromatic molecules, with molecules bound to the higher energy sites remaining after the thermal recovery. Secondly, the exciton diffusion coefficient decreases with dendrimer generation, inhibiting the PL quenching by the bound pNT.

  1. Ligand-Receptor Interaction-Mediated Transmembrane Transport of Dendrimer-like Soft Nanoparticles: Mechanisms and Complicated Diffusive Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Junshi; Chen, Pengyu; Dong, Bojun; Huang, Zihan; Zhao, Kongyin; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-05-01

    Nearly all nanomedical applications of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles rely on the functionality of attached ligands. Understanding how the ligands interact with the receptors in cell membrane and its further effect on the cellular uptake of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles is thereby a key issue for their better application in nanomedicine. However, the essential mechanism and detailed kinetics for the ligand-receptor interaction-mediated transmembrane transport of such unconventional nanoparticles remain poorly elucidated. Here, using coarse-grained simulations, we present the very first study of molecular mechanism and kinetics behaviors for the transmembrane transport of dendrimer-like soft nanoparticles conjugated with ligands. A phase diagram of interaction states is constructed through examining ligand densities and membrane tensions that allows us to identify novel endocytosis mechanisms featured by the direct wrapping and the penetration-extraction vesiculation. The results provide an in-depth insight into the diffusivity of receptors and dendrimer in the membrane plane and demonstrate how the ligand density influences receptor diffusion and uptake kinetics. It is interesting to find that the ligand-conjugated dendrimers present superdiffusive behaviors on a membrane, which is revealed to be driven by the random fluctuation dynamics of the membrane. The findings facilitate our understanding of some recent experimental observations and could establish fundamental principles for the future development of such important nanomaterials for widespread nanomedical applications. PMID:27049403

  2. Dynamical Interactions of 5-Fluorouracil Drug with Dendritic Peptide Vectors: The Impact of Dendrimer Generation, Charge, Counterions, and Structured Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Sergio; Seal, Prasenjit; Ouyang, Defang; Parekh, Harendra S; Kannam, Sridhar Kumar; Smith, Sean C

    2016-06-30

    Molecular dynamics simulations are utilized to investigate the interactions between the skin cancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and peptide-based dendritic carrier systems. We find that these drug-carrier interactions do not conform to the traditional picture of long-time retention of the drug within a hydrophobic core of the dendrimer carrier. Rather, 5FU, which is moderately soluble in its own right, experiences weak, transient chattering interactions all over the dendrimer, mediated through multiple short-lived hydrogen bonding and close contact events. We find that charge on the periphery of the dendrimer actually has a negative effect on the frequency of drug-carrier interactions due to a counterion screening effect that has not previously been observed. However, charge is nevertheless an important feature since neutral dendrimers are shown to have a significant mutual attraction that can lead to clustering or agglomeration. This clustering is prevented due to charge repulsion for the titrated dendrimers, such that they remain independent in solution. PMID:27267604

  3. Tweaking Dendrimers and Dendritic Nanoparticles for Controlled Nano-bio Interactions: Potential Nanocarriers for Improved Cancer Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugno, Jason; Hsu, Hao-Jui; Hong, Seungpyo

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticles have shown great promise in the treatment of cancer, with a demonstrated potential in targeted drug delivery. Among a myriad of nanocarriers that have been recently developed, dendrimers have attracted a great deal of scientific interests due to their unique chemical and structural properties that allow for precise engineering of their characteristics. Despite this, the clinical translation of dendrimers has been hindered due to their drawbacks, such as scale-up issues, rapid systemic elimination, inefficient tumor accumulation, and limited drug loading. In order to overcome these limitations, a series of reengineered dendrimers have been recently introduced using various approaches, including: i) modifications of structure and surfaces; ii) integration with linear polymers; and iii) hybridization with other types of nanocarriers. Chemical modifications and surface engineering have tailored dendrimers to improve their pharmacokinetics and tissue permeation. Copolymerization of dendritic polymers with linear polymers has resulted in various amphiphilic copolymers with self-assembly capabilities and improved drug loading efficiencies. Hybridization with other nanocarriers integrates advantageous characteristics of both systems, which includes prolonged plasma circulation times and enhanced tumor targeting. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the newly emerging drug delivery systems that involve reengineering of dendrimers in an effort to precisely control their nano-bio interactions, mitigating their inherent weaknesses. PMID:26453160

  4. Anionic sulfonated and carboxylated PPI dendrimers with the EDA core: synthesis and characterization of selective metal complexing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallego, Sandra; Cangiotti, Michela; Fiorani, Luigi; Fattori, Alberto; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles; Gomez, Rafael; Ottaviani, M Francesca; de la Mata, F Javier

    2013-04-28

    Herein we describe the synthesis and characterization of new sulfonated and carboxylated poly(propyleneimino) (PPI) dendrimers with the ethylenediamino (EDA) core, at generations 1, 2 and 3. By means of UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy, using Cu(2+) as a probe, we concluded that these dendrimers show a specific pattern in the coordination of metal ions. In agreement with the UV-Vis studies, EPR spectra of carboxylated compounds are constituted by 3 different signals which appear and then disappear with increasing copper concentration, corresponding to the saturation of different copper complexation sites. At the lowest copper concentration up to a 1:1 molar ratio between Cu(II) and the dendrimer, the spectrum is characteristic of a CuN2O2 coordination at the core of the dendrimer. The spectrum appearing at higher Cu(II) concentrations indicates a peripheral location of the ions coordinating one nitrogen and 3 oxygen atoms in a square planar geometry in restricted mobility conditions. For the highest concentrations tested, copper ions are confined at the external dendrimer surface with CuO4 coordination. For sulfonate systems, the EPR results are in line with a weaker interaction of Cu(II) with the nitrogen sites and a stronger interaction with the oxygen (SO3(-)) groups with respect to the interactions measured by EPR for carboxylate systems. PMID:23462972

  5. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India); Kulhari, Hitesh [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Medicinal Chemistry & Pharmacology Division (India); Jeengar, Manish Kumar [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Departmentof Pharmacology (India); Khan, Wahid, E-mail: wahid@niperhyd.ac.in; Sistla, Ramakrishna, E-mail: sistla@iict.res.in, E-mail: rksistla@yahoo.com [National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmaceutics (India)

    2015-06-15

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by {sup 1}HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere{sup ®}). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors.

  6. p-Hydroxy benzoic acid-conjugated dendrimer nanotherapeutics as potential carriers for targeted drug delivery to brain: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrimers which are discrete nanostructures/nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for many nanomedicine applications. Ligand-conjugated dendrimer facilitate the delivery of therapeutics in a targeted manner. Small molecules such as p-hydroxyl benzoic acid (pHBA) were found to have high affinity for sigma receptors which are prominent in most parts of central nervous system and tumors. The aim of this study was to synthesize pHBA-dendrimer conjugates as colloidal carrier for site-specific delivery of practically water insoluble drug, docetaxel (DTX) to brain tumors and to determine its targeting efficiency. pHBA, a small molecule ligand was coupled to the surface amine groups of generation 4-PAMAM dendrimer via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with DTX. The conjugation was confirmed by 1HNMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. In vitro release of drug from DTX-loaded pHBA-conjugated dendrimer was found to be less as compared to unconjugated dendrimers. The prepared drug delivery system exhibited good physico-chemical stability and decrease in hemolytic toxicity. Cell viability and cell uptake studies were performed against U87MG human glioblastoma cells and formulations exerted considerable anticancer effect than plain drug. Conjugation of dendrimer with pHBA significantly enhanced the brain uptake of DTX which was shown by the recovery of a higher percentage of the dose from the brain following administration of pHBA-conjugated dendrimers compared with unconjugated dendrimer or formulation in clinical use (Taxotere®). Therefore, pHBA conjugated dendrimers could be an efficient delivery vehicle for the targeting of anticancer drugs to brain tumors

  7. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl-, NO3-, C2O42-) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu2+, Zn2+, UO22+, Fe3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Th4+) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author)

  8. The SPL7013 dendrimer destabilizes the HIV-1 gp120-CD4 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Bidisha; Saurabh, Suman; Sahoo, Anil Kumar; Dixit, Narendra M.; Maiti, Prabal K.

    2015-11-01

    The poly (l-lysine)-based SPL7013 dendrimer with naphthalene disulphonate surface groups blocks the entry of HIV-1 into target cells and is in clinical trials for development as a topical microbicide. Its mechanism of action against R5 HIV-1, the HIV-1 variant implicated in transmission across individuals, remains poorly understood. Using docking and fully atomistic MD simulations, we find that SPL7013 binds tightly to R5 gp120 in the gp120-CD4 complex but weakly to gp120 alone. Further, the binding, although to multiple regions of gp120, does not occlude the CD4 binding site on gp120, suggesting that SPL7013 does not prevent the binding of R5 gp120 to CD4. Using MD simulations to compute binding energies of several docked structures, we find that SPL7013 binding to gp120 significantly weakens the gp120-CD4 complex. Finally, we use steered molecular dynamics (SMD) to study the kinetics of the dissociation of the gp120-CD4 complex in the absence of the dendrimer and with the dendrimer bound in each of the several stable configurations to gp120. We find that SPL7013 significantly lowers the force required to rupture the gp120-CD4 complex and accelerates its dissociation. Taken together, our findings suggest that SPL7013 compromises the stability of the R5 gp120-CD4 complex, potentially preventing the accrual of the requisite number of gp120-CD4 complexes across the virus-cell interface, thereby blocking virus entry.The poly (l-lysine)-based SPL7013 dendrimer with naphthalene disulphonate surface groups blocks the entry of HIV-1 into target cells and is in clinical trials for development as a topical microbicide. Its mechanism of action against R5 HIV-1, the HIV-1 variant implicated in transmission across individuals, remains poorly understood. Using docking and fully atomistic MD simulations, we find that SPL7013 binds tightly to R5 gp120 in the gp120-CD4 complex but weakly to gp120 alone. Further, the binding, although to multiple regions of gp120, does not occlude

  9. Constitutional Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design, Synthesis and Conformational and Structural Properties; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of six constitutional isomers of dendrimer-like star polymers is described. Each of the polymers have comparable molecular weights ((approx) 80,000 g/mol), narrow polydispersities ( and lt; 1.19) and an identical number of branching junctures (45) and surface hydroxyl functionalities (48). The only difference in the six isomers is the placement of the branching junctures. The polymers are constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) with branching junctures derived from 2,2'-bis(hydroxylmethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) emanating from a central core. The use of various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons coupled with the ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactones allowed a modular approach to the dendrimer-like star polymer isomers. The most pronounced effects on the physical properties/morphology and hydrodynamic volume was for those polymers in which the branching was distributed throughout the sample in a dendrimer-like fashion. The versatility of this approach has provided the possibility of understanding the relationship between architecture and physical properties. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to determine the hydrodynamic radius Rh and radius of gyration Rg respectively. The relationship between Rg and molecular weight was indicative of a compact star-like structure, and did not show advanced bias towards either the dense core or dense shell models. The radial density distribution of the isomers was therefore modeled according to a many arm star polymer, and good agreement was found with experimental measures of Rh/Rg

  10. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence reactions between the [Ru(bpy)3](2+) complex and PAMAM GX.0 dendrimers in an aqueous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Ruiz, A; Grueso, E; Perez-Tejeda, P

    2015-10-01

    Electrogenerated chemiluminescence, ECL, reactions between tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II), [Ru(bpy)3](2+), and PAMAM GX.0 (X=1 and 2) dendrimers in an aqueous medium were carried out at pH10 (fully deprotonated dendrimer surface). ECL was detected in the presence of GX.0 dendrimers without addition of any known coreactant. Atomic force microscopy, AFM, measurements for GX.0 dendrimers in the presence of the [Ru(bpy)3](2+) complex were also done. AFM images showed the existence of aggregates (pillars) of globular shape, as well as interdendrimer networks forming fibers in the x-y direction for dendrimer aqueous solutions. ECL and AFM results in cooperation suggest that the coreactant effect of the end amine groups is improved by both the dendritic branched shells and the globular z-type aggregates. The ECL efficiency trends as a function of [GX.0] (whole range) can be interpreted taking into account the coreactant effect modulated by the presence of the z and x-y type aggregates. Importantly, ECL efficiency values can be taken as a measure of the change induced on the dendrimer aggregation in aqueous solutions when their concentrations rise. Redox potentials of the [Ru(bpy)3](3+/2+) couple in the presence of the G1.0 and G2.0 dendrimers were also determined. PMID:26190671

  11. Cationic speciation in nonaqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic spectra of solutions of d transition elements in the superacids HF, H2SO4, HSO3F, and CF3SO3H and in chloroaluminate melts indicate that in acidic monaqueous media the elements are present as solvated cations, whereas in basic media the speciation is anionic, the same situation as in aqueous solutions. Further, in very highly acidic media, cations in very low oxidation states are stable (e.g., Ti2+), but these disproportionate on addition of base to the system. In this paper spectra, where available, of U, Np, and Pu in oxidation states III and IV in aqueous media, in protonic superacids, and in chloroaluminates are presented to postulate cationic speciation of these early actinides in highly acidic media

  12. Vibration and Fluorescence Spectra of Porphyrin- CoredBis(methylol-propionic Acid Dendrimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Minaev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bis-MPA dendron-coated free-base tetraphenylporphyrin and zinc-tetraphenyl-porphyrin (TPPH2 and TPPZn were studied in comparison with simple porphyrins (H2P, ZnP by theoretical simulation of their infrared, Raman and electronic absorption spectra, as well as fluorescense emission. Infrared and fluorescence spectra of the dendrimers were measured and interpreted along with time-resolved measurements of the fluorescence. The 0-1 emission band of the dendron substituted TPPZn was found to experience a "heavy substitution"-effect. The 0-1 vibronic emission signal is associated with a longer decay time (approx. 7 - 8 ns than the 0-0 emission (approx. 1 - 1.5 ns. The former contributed with more relative emission yield for larger dendron substituents, in agreement with the appearance of steady-state emission spectra showing increased contribution from the 0-1 vibronic fluorescence band at 650 nm. No such substitution effect was observed in the electronic or vibrational spectra of the substituted free-base variant, TPPH2. Vibration spectra of the parent porphyrins (H2P, ZnP, TPPH2 and TPPZn were calculated by density functional theory (DFT using the B3LYP/6-31G** approximation and a detailed analysis of the most active vibration modes was made based on both literature and our own experimental data. Based on the results of theoretical calculations the wide vibronic bands in the visible region were assigned. The vibronic structure also gave a qualitative interpretation of bands in the electronic absorption spectra as well as in fluorescence emission depending on the size of dendrimer substitution. From the results of time-dependent DFT calculations it is suggested that the TPPZn-cored dendrimers indicate strong vibronic interaction and increased Jahn-Teller distortion of the prophyrin core for larger dendrimer generations. Specifically, this leads to the entirely different behaviour of the emission spectra upon substitution of the TPPH2 and TPPZn

  13. Enzyme-responsive doxorubicin release from dendrimer nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sang Joon Lee,1,* Young-Il Jeong,2,* Hyung-Kyu Park,3 Dae Hwan Kang,2,4 Jong-Suk Oh,3 Sam-Gyu Lee,5 Hyun Chul Lee31Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 2Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, 3Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, 4Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Gyeongnam, 5Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Since cancer cells are normally over-expressed cathepsin B, we synthesized dendrimer-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol (MPEG-doxorubicin (DOX conjugates using a cathepsin B-cleavable peptide for anticancer drug targeting.Methods: Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide was conjugated with the carboxylic acid end groups of a dendrimer, which was then conjugated with MPEG amine and doxorubicin by aid of carbodiimide chemistry (abbreviated as DendGDP. Dendrimer-MPEG-DOX conjugates without Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly peptide linkage was also synthesized for comparison (DendDP. Nanoparticles were then prepared using a dialysis procedure.Results: The synthesized DendGDP was confirmed with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The DendDP and DendGDP nanoparticles had a small particle size of less than 200 nm and had a spherical morphology. DendGDP had cathepsin B-sensitive drug release properties while DendDP did not show cathepsin B sensitivity. Further, DendGDP had improved anticancer activity when compared with doxorubicin or DendDP in an in vivo CT26 tumor xenograft model, ie, the volume of the CT26 tumor xenograft was significantly inhibited when compared with xenografts treated with doxorubicin or DendDP nanoparticles. The DendGDP nanoparticles were found to be relatively concentrated in the tumor tissue and

  14. Investigation on Aqueous Solution Properties of Dendrimer PPI%树状高分子PPI水溶液性质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敏; 严晓虎; 余学海

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous solution properties of dendrimer PPI[Poly(propylene imine)] were studied by measuring viscosity parameters. Particularly on the extremely dilute concentration region were focused on. The adsorption constant k, critical concentration ca, intrinsic viscosity[η], intermolecular association constant Km and hydrodynamic contact concentration cs were calculated. And the generation number dependence of these parameters were also studied. From the results, the unique behavior of dendrimer solution was explained preliminary. The adsorption phenomenon of polymer solution is general, and the adsorption theory is also fit for dendrimers. Furthermore, the dynamic contact concentration cs was determined by a simple viscosity method for the first time.

  15. Synthesis of Non-Cytotoxic Poly(Ester-Amine Dendrimers as Potential Solubility Enhancers for Drugs: Methotrexate as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guadarrama

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the synthesis of two new families of dendrimers based on the esterification of N-alkylated 3-amine-1-propanol with two different cores, adipic acid (1st and 2nd generations and ethylenediamine (generation 1.5, both with carboxylic acid end groups, offering a wide variety of further modifications at the periphery. According to the cytotoxic evaluation of the dendrimers and their possible degradation products within cell lines, these materials could be considered as innocuous. In preliminary studies, the synthesized dendrimers proved to be potential enhancers of solubility of highly hydrophobic drugs, like methotrexate, widely used in chemotherapy.

  16. Translational and rotational diffusion of flexible PEG and rigid dendrimer probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salami, S.; Rondeau-Mouro, C.; Barhoum, M.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mariette, F.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of rigid dendrimer and flexible PEG probes in sodium caseinate dispersions and acid gels, including both translational diffusion and rotational diffusion, were studied by NMR. Above the onset of the close-packing limit (C ~ 10 g/100 g H2O), translational diffusion of the probe depended

  17. Synthesis and In Vitro Cancer Cell Targeting of Folate-Functionalized Biodegradable Amphiphilic Dendrimer-Like Star Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Weiqiang; Zhou, Jing; Wang, Yong; Zhu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    By coupling a well-defined PLLA star polymer with six carboxylic acid-terminated polyester dendrons based on 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, a biodegradable dendrimer-like star polymer (DLSP) with multiple carboxylic acid groups at the outer surface was successfully synthesized. Conjugation of

  18. Research progress in cation-π interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cation-π interaction is a potent intermolecular interaction between a cation and an aromatic system,which has been viewed as a new kind of binding force,as being compared with the classical interactions(e.g. hydrogen bonding,electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions). Cation-π interactions have been observed in a wide range of biological contexts. In this paper,we present an overview of the typical cation-π interactions in biological systems,the experimental and theoretical investigations on cation-π interactions,as well as the research results on cation-π interactions in our group.

  19. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  20. Promising Low-Toxicity of Viologen-Phosphorus Dendrimers against Embryonic Mouse Hippocampal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Majoral

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new class of viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (VPDs has been recently shown to possess the ability to inhibit neurodegenerative processes in vitro. Nevertheless, in the Central Nervous Systems domain, there is little information on their impact on cell functions, especially on neuronal cells. In this work, we examined the influence of two VPD (VPD1 and VPD3 of zero generation (G0 on murine hippocampal cell line (named mHippoE-18. Extended analyses of cell responses to these nanomolecules comprised cytotoxicity test, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation studies, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm assay, cell death detection, cell morphology assessment, cell cycle studies, as well as measurements of catalase (CAT activity and glutathione (GSH level. The results indicate that VPD1 is more toxic than VPD3. However, these two tested dendrimers did not cause a strong cellular response, and induced a low level of apoptosis. Interestingly, VPD1 and VPD3 treatment led to a small decline in ROS level compared to untreated cells, which correlated with slightly increased catalase activity. This result indicates that the VPDs can indirectly lower the level of ROS in cells. Summarising, low-cytotoxicity on mHippoE-18 cells together with their ability to quench ROS, make the VPDs very promising nanodevices for future applications in the biomedical field as nanocarriers and/or drugs per se.

  1. Self-Assembled Films of Dendrimers and Metallophthalocyanines as FET-Based Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Figueiredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH3+ groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase. Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H+ ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing.

  2. Molecular Modeling of PEGylated Peptides, Dendrimers, and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwankyu Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG has been conjugated to many drugs or drug carriers to increase their solubility and circulating lifetime, and reduce toxicity. This has motivated many experimental studies to understand the effect of PEGylation on delivery efficiency. To complement the experimental findings and uncover the mechanism that cannot be captured by experiments, all-atom and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD simulations have been performed. This has become possible, due to recent advances in simulation methodologies and computational power. Simulations of PEGylated peptides show that PEG chains wrap antimicrobial peptides and weaken their binding interactions with lipid bilayers. PEGylation also influences the helical stability and tertiary structure of coiled-coil peptides. PEGylated dendrimers and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs were simulated, showing that the PEG size and grafting density significantly modulate the conformation and structure of the PEGylated complex, the interparticle aggregation, and the interaction with lipid bilayers. In particular, simulations predicted the structural transition between the dense core and dense shell of PEGylated dendrimers, the phase behavior of self-assembled complexes of lipids, PEGylated lipids, and SWNTs, which all favorably compared with experiments. Overall, these new findings indicate that simulations can now predict the experimentally observed structure and dynamics, as well as provide atomic-scale insights into the interactions of PEGylated complexes with other molecules.

  3. Self-assembled films of dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines as FET-based glucose biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Nirton C S; Figueiredo, Alessandra; de Queiroz, Alvaro A A; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Guimarães, Francisco E G

    2011-01-01

    Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET) type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL) films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO) as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH(3)(+) groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase). Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA) in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H(+) ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing. PMID:22163704

  4. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2–3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2–3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape. (paper)

  5. Thermodynamic stability and structural properties of cluster crystals formed by amphiphilic dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Dominic A.; Mladek, Bianca M.; Likos, Christos N.; Blaak, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    We pursue the goal of finding real-world examples of macromolecular aggregates that form cluster crystals, which have been predicted on the basis of coarse-grained, ultrasoft pair potentials belonging to a particular mathematical class [B. M. Mladek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 045701 (2006)]. For this purpose, we examine in detail the phase behavior and structural properties of model amphiphilic dendrimers of the second generation by means of monomer-resolved computer simulations. On augmenting the density of these systems, a fluid comprised of clusters that contain several overlapping and penetrating macromolecules is spontaneously formed. Upon further compression of the system, a transition to multi-occupancy crystals takes place, the thermodynamic stability of which is demonstrated by means of free-energy calculations, and where the FCC is preferred over the BCC-phase. Contrary to predictions for coarse-grained theoretical models in which the particles interact exclusively by effective pair potentials, the internal degrees of freedom of these molecules cause the lattice constant to be density-dependent. Furthermore, the mechanical stability of monodisperse BCC and FCC cluster crystals is restricted to a bounded region in the plane of cluster occupation number versus density. The structural properties of the dendrimers in the dense crystals, including their overall sizes and the distribution of monomers are also thoroughly analyzed.

  6. The synthesis and characterization of biotin-silver-dendrimer nanocomposites as novel bioselective labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a synthesis of a novel nanoparticle label with selective biorecognition properties based on a biotinylated silver-dendrimer nanocomposite (AgDNC). Two types of labels, a biotin-AgDNC (bio-AgDNC) and a biotinylated AgDNC with a poly(ethylene)glycol spacer (bio-PEG-AgDNC), were synthesized from a generation 7 (G7) hydroxyl-terminated ethylenediamine-core-type (2-carbon core) PAMAM dendrimer (DDM) by an N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DDC) biotin coupling and a NaBH4 silver reduction method. Synthesized conjugates were characterized by several analytical methods, such as UV-vis, FTIR, AFM, TEM, ELISA, HABA assay and SPR. The results show that stable biotinylated nanocomposites can be formed either with internalized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a DMM polymer backbone ('type I') or as externally protected ('type E'), depending on the molar ratio of the silver/DMM conjugate and type of conjugate. Furthermore, the selective biorecognition function of the biotin is not affected by the AgNPs' synthesis step, which allows a potential application of silver nanocomposite conjugates as biospecific labels in various bioanalytical assays, or potentially as fluorescence cell biomarkers. An exploitation of the presented label in the development of electrochemical immunosensors is anticipated.

  7. Efficacy of HIV antiviral polyanionic carbosilane dendrimer G2-S16 in the presence of semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceña-Diez, Rafael; García-Broncano, Pilar; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective microbicide to prevent the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 is urgently needed. Unfortunately, the majority of microbicides, such as poly(L-lysine)-dendrimers, anionic polymers, or antiretrovirals, have proved inactive or even increased the risk of HIV infection in clinical trials, most probably due to the fact that these compounds failed to prevent semen-exposed HIV infection. We showed that G2-S16 dendrimer exerts anti-HIV-1 activity at an early stage of viral replication, blocking the gp120/CD4/CCR5 interaction and providing a barrier to infection for long periods, confirming its multifactorial and nonspecific ability. Previously, we demonstrated that topical administration of G2-S16 prevents HIV transmission in humanized BLT mice without irritation or vaginal lesions. Here, we demonstrated that G2-S16 is active against mock- and semen-exposed HIV-1 and could be a promising microbicide against HIV infection. PMID:27313457

  8. Homogeneous alignment of liquid crystalline dendrimers confined in a slit-pore. A simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workineh, Zerihun G.; Vanakaras, Alexandros G.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present results from isobaric-isothermal (NPT) Monte Carlo simulation studies of model liquid crystalline dendrimer (LCDr) systems confined in a slit-pore made of two parallel flat walls. The dendrimers are modelled as a collection of spherical and ellipsoidal particles corresponding to the junction points of the dendritic core and to the mesogenic units respectively. Assuming planar uniform (unidirectional) soft anchoring of the mesogenic units on the substrates we investigate the conformational and alignment properties of the LCDr system at different thermodynamic state points. Tractable coarse grained force fields have been used from our previous work. At low pressures the interior of the pore is almost empty, since almost all LCDrs are anchored to the substrates forming two-dimensional smectic-like structures with the mesogens aligned along the aligning direction of the substrates. As the pressure grows the LCDrs occupy the whole pore. However, even at low temperatures, the smectic organization does not transmit in the interior of the pore and is preserved for distances of 2-3 mesogenic diameters from the walls. For this reason, the global orientational order decreases with increasing pressure (density). In the vicinity (2-3 mesogenic diameters) of the pore walls, mesogenic units preserve the smectic structure whose layers are separated by layers of spherical beads. In this region individual LCDrs possess a rod like shape.

  9. An Alkane-Soluble Dendrimer as Electron-Transport Layer in Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhiming; Zhao, Sen; Pei, Jian; Wang, Jian; Ying, Lei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-08-10

    Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have attracted broad interest due to their solution-processable properties. It is well-known that to achieve better performance, organic light-emitting diodes require multilayer device structures. However, it is difficult to realize multilayer device structures by solution processing for PLEDs. Because most semiconducting polymers have similar solubility in common organic solvents, such as toluene, xylene, chloroform, and chlorobenzene, the deposition of multilayers can cause layers to mix together and damage each layer. Herein, a novel semiorthogonal solubility relationship was developed and demonstrated. For the first time, an alkane-soluble dendrimer is utilized as the electron-transport layer (ETL) in PLEDs via a solution-based process. With the dendrimer ETL, the external quantum efficiency increases more than threefold. This improvement in the device performance is attributed to better exciton confinement, improved exciton energy transfer, and better charge carrier balance. The semiorthogonal solubility provided by alkane offers another process dimension in PLEDs. By combining them with water/alcohol-soluble polyelectrolytes, more exquisite multilayer devices can be fabricated to achieve high device performance, and new device structures can be designed and realized. PMID:27435357

  10. Ligand anchored poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers for brain targeting: Comparative in vitro and in vivo assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemant K; Gajbhiye, Virendra; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K

    2016-11-15

    The present investigation was aimed at developing various ligands-anchored dendrimers and comparing their brain targeting potential at one platform. Sialic acid (S), glucosamine (G) and concanavalin A (C) anchored poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendritic nanoconjugates were developed and evaluated for delivery of anti-cancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX) to the brain. MTT assay on U373MG human astrocytoma cells indicated IC50 values of 0.40, 0.65, 0.95, 2.00 and 3.50μM for PTX loaded SPPI, GPPI, CPPI, PPI formulations, and free PTX, respectively. The invivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in rats showed significantly higher accumulation of PTX in brain as compared to free PTX. The order of targeting potential of various ligands under investigation was found as sialic acid>glucosamine>concanavalin A. Thus, it can be concluded that sialic acid, glucosamine and Con A can be used as potential ligands to append PPI dendrimers for enhanced delivery of anticancer drugs to the brain for higher therapeutic outcome. PMID:27501037

  11. Preparation of unconventional dendrimers that contain rigid NH-triazine linkages and peripheral tert-butyl moieties for CO2 -selective adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Hua; Tsai, Meng-Rong; Chang, Yen-Tzu; Lai, Long-Li; Lu, Kuang-Lieh; Cheng, Kung-Lung

    2013-08-01

    Three unconventional dendrimers that contained rigid NH-triazine linkages and peripheral tert-butyl moieties were prepared by using a convergent approach and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Based on a thermogravimetric analysis study, these dendrimers were observed to display thermal stability at about 300 °C. The NH-triazine moiety, which possessed protonated and proton-free nitrogen sites (like the imidazole unit), displayed the capture of polarizable CO2 molecules through hydrogen-bond and/or dipole-quadrupole interactions. In addition, the adsorption of various amounts of CO2 and N2 at different pressures suggests that the dendritic pores, which arise from the stacking of the middle co-planar and rim protuberant dendrimers, Gn -N∼N-Gn (n=1-3), either swell or shrink at high pressure, thus indicating that these dendrimers may have a breathing ability. PMID:23794529

  12. Conception de dendrimères liquides-cristallins pour la fonctionnalisation de nanoparticules d'or et de composés inorganiques et organiques

    OpenAIRE

    Frein, Stéphane; Deschenaux, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ce travail de thèse a pour sujet principal la synthèse et la caractérisation de dendrimères liquides-cristallins. Trois dendrimères ont été synthétisés. Le premier est un dendrimère poly(aryl ester) fonctionnalisé par des unités mésogènes cyanobiphényles et qui développe des phases lamellaires ou nématique. Il a été synthétisé jusqu’à la troisième génération, avec différents groupes fonctionnels sur son coeur (thiol, disulfure, alcool, acide, alcyne). Le deuxième dendrimère synthétisé est de ...

  13. Polyelectrolyte Condensation Induced by Linear Cations

    OpenAIRE

    Guáqueta, Camilo; Luijten, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We examine the role of the condensing agent in the formation of polyelectrolyte bundles, via grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations. Following recent experiments we use linear, rigid divalent cations of various lengths to induce condensation. Our results clarify and explain the experimental results for short cations. For longer cations we observe novel condensation behavior owing to alignment of the cations. We also study the role of the polyelectrolyte surface charge density, and find a non...

  14. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  15. Synthesis of Non-Cytotoxic Poly(Ester-Amine) Dendrimers as Potential Solubility Enhancers for Drugs: Methotrexate as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Guadarrama; María Teresa Ramírez Apan; Jorge A. Cruz-Morales; Delia Soto-Castro

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of two new families of dendrimers based on the esterification of N-alkylated 3-amine-1-propanol with two different cores, adipic acid (1st and 2nd generations) and ethylenediamine (generation 1.5), both with carboxylic acid end groups, offering a wide variety of further modifications at the periphery. According to the cytotoxic evaluation of the dendrimers and their possible degradation products within cell lines, these materials could be considered as innoc...

  16. Organometallic cation-exchanged phyllosilicates

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Shay

    1991-01-01

    Organotin (IV) complexes formed between 0 01 M dimethyltin dichloride solutions prepared at pH 2 6 and 4 0, and trimethyltin chloride prepared at pH 3 4, with Na- 119 montmori 1lonite clay have been characterised using Sn Mflssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and water sorption isotherms Following cation exchange, Mttssbauer spectroscopy identified two tin species in the dimethyltin (IV)-exchanged clay prepared at pH 2 6 A cis specie...

  17. Calorimetric study of cationic photopolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The photopolymerization of penta-erythritol tetra-glycidyl ether (initiator Degacure KI-85) was studied by a du Pont 910 type DSC. From our experimental results the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) During the cationic polymerization reaction the lifetime of the initiating centers are long compared to the lifetime of free radicals in case of radical polymerization. (2) The rate of deactivation of the initiating centers increases with increasing temperature. (author)

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Chiral Dendrimer-Triamine-Coordinated Gd-MRI Contrast Agents Evaluated by in Vivo MRI and Estimated by in Vitro QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Miyake

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we developed novel chiral dendrimer-triamine-coordinated Gd-MRI contrast agents (Gd-MRI CAs, which showed longitudinal relaxivity (r1 values about four times higher than that of clinically used Gd-DTPA (Magnevist®, Bayer. In our continuing study of pharmacokinetic differences derived from both the chirality and generation of Gd-MRI CAs, we found that the ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to circulate within the body can be directly evaluated by in vitro MRI (7 T. In this study, the association constants (Ka of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs to bovine serum albumin (BSA, measured and calculated with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM in vitro, were found to be an extremely easy means for evaluating the body-circulation ability of chiral dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs. The Ka values of S-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs were generally greater than those of R-isomeric dendrimer Gd-MRI CAs, which is consistent with the results of our previous MRI study in vivo.

  19. The development of folate-PAMAM dendrimer conjugates for targeted delivery of anti-arthritic drugs and their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in arthritic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekar, Durairaj; Sistla, Ramakrishna; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khar, Roop K; Diwan, Prakash V

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize folate-dendrimer conjugates as suitable vehicle for site specific delivery of anti-arthritic drug (indomethacin) to inflammatory regions and to determine its targeting efficiency, biodistribution in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Folic acid was coupled to the surface amino groups of G4-PAMAM dendrimer (G4D) via a carbodiimide reaction and loaded with indomethacin. The conjugates were characterized by (1)H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. The drug content and percent encapsulation efficiency increased with increasing folate content for the dendrimer conjugates. The in vitro release rate was decreased for the folate conjugates when compared with unconjugated dendrimer (DNI). The plasma concentration profile showed a biphasic curve indicating rapid distribution followed by slow elimination. The AUC(0-infinity), half-life and residence time of indomethacin in inflamed paw was higher for folate-dendrimer conjugates. The time-averaged relative drug exposure (r(e)) of the drug in paw and overall drug targeting efficiency (T(e)) were higher for folate conjugate with 21 folate moieties (4.1 and 2.78, respectively) when compared with DNI (1.91 and 1.88, respectively). This study demonstrated the superiority of active targeting over dendrimer mediated passive targeting and also for the first time, folate-mediated targeting of an anti-arthritic drug to the inflammatory tissues. PMID:16996126

  20. Formation of complexes between PAMAM-NH2 G4 dendrimer and L-α-tryptophan and L-α-tyrosine in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Adam; Urbaniak, Pawel; Belica, Sylwia; Sekowski, Szymon; Bryszewska, Maria; Palecz, Bartlomiej

    2014-07-01

    Interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the side substituents of aromatic amino acids are widely used in the biochemical studies on proteins and their interactions with ligand molecules. That is why the aim of our study was to characterize the formation of complexes between PAMAM-NH2 G4 dendrimer and L-α-tryptophan and L-α-tyrosine in water. The number of L-α-tryptophan and L-α-tyrosine molecules attached to the macromolecule of PAMAM-NH2 G4 dendrimer and the formation constants of the supramolecular complexes formed have been determined. The macromolecule of PAMAM-NH2 G4 can reversibly attach about 25 L-α-tryptophan molecules with equilibrium constant K equal to 130 ± 30 and 24 ± 6 L-α-tyrosine molecules. This characterization was deduced on the basis of the solubility measurements of the amino acids in aqueous dendrimer solutions, the 1H NMR and 2D-NOESY measurements of the dendrimer solutions with the amino acids, the equilibrium dialysis and the circular dichroism measurements of the dendrimer aqueous solutions with L-α-tryptophan. Our date confirmed the interactions of L-α-tryptophan and L-α-tyrosine with the dendrimer in aqueous solution and indicated a reversible character of the formed complexes.

  1. PAMAM Nanoparticles Promote Acute Lung Injury by Inducing Autophagic Cell Death through the Akt-TSC2-mTOR Signaling Pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenggang Li; Haolin Liu; Yang Sun; Hongliang Wang; Feng Guo; Shuan Rao; Jiejie Deng; Yanli Zhang; Yufa Miao; Chenying Guo; Jie Meng; Xiping Chen; Limin Li; Dangsheng Li; Haiyan Xu; Heng Wang; Bo Li; Chengyu Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an important and emerging industry with a projected annual market of around one trillion US dollars by 2011–2015. Concerns about the toxicity of nanomaterials in humans, however, have recently been raised. Although studies of nanoparticle toxicity have focused on lung disease the molecular link between nanoparticle exposure and lung injury remained unclear. In this report, we show that cationic Starburst polyamidoamine dendrimer (PAMAM), a class of nanomaterials that are being widely developed for clinical applications can induce acute lung injury in vivo. PAMAM triggers autophagic cell death by deregulating the Akt-TSC2-mTOR signaling pathway. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine rescued PAMAM dendrimer-induced cell death and ameliorated acute lung injury caused by PAMAM in mice. Our data provide a molecular explanation for nanoparticle-induced lung injury, and suggest potential remedies to address the growing concerns of nanotechnology safety.

  2. Enhanced activity of carbosilane dendrimers against HIV when combined with reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs: searching for more potent microbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vacas-Córdoba E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enrique Vacas-Córdoba,1–3 Marta Galán,3,4 Francisco J de la Mata,3,4 Rafael Gómez,3,4 Marjorie Pion,1–3 M Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández1–3 1Laboratorio InmunoBiología Molecular, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 2Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; 3Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, (CIBER-BBN, Madrid, Spain; 4Dendrimers for Biomedical Applications Group (BioInDen, University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain Abstract: Self-administered topical microbicides or oral preexposure prophylaxis could be very helpful tools for all risk groups to decrease the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection rates. Up until now, antiretrovirals (ARVs have been the most advanced microbicide candidates. Nevertheless, the majority of clinical trials has failed in HIV-1 patients. Nanotechnology offers suitable approaches to develop novel antiviral agents. Thereby, new nanosystems, such as carbosilane dendrimers, have been shown to be safe and effective compounds against HIV with great potential as topical microbicides. In addition, because most of the attempts to develop effective topical microbicides were unsuccessful, combinatorial strategies could be a valid approach when designing new microbicides. We evaluated various combinations of anionic carbosilane dendrimers with sulfated (G3-S16 and naphthyl sulfonated (G2-NF16 ended groups with different ARVs against HIV-1 infection. The G3-S16 and G2-NF16 dendrimers showed a synergistic or additive activity profile with zidovudine, efavirenz, and tenofovir in the majority of the combinations tested against the X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 in cell lines, as well as in human primary cells. Therefore, the combination of ARVs and polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers enhances the antiviral potency of the individual compounds, and our findings support further clinical research on combinational approaches as

  3. Inorganic Mercury Sequestration by a Poly(ethylene imine Dendrimer in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Salvador Serrano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the G-2 poly(ethylene imine dendrimer L, derived from ammonia as initiating core, with Hg(II and HgCl42− was studied in aqueous solution by means of potentiometric (pH-metric measurements. Speciation of these complex systems showed that L is able to form a wide variety of complexes including 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 3:2 metal-to-ligand species, of different protonation states, as well as the anion complexes [(H7LHgCl4]5+ and [(H8LHgCl4]6+. The stability of the metal complexes is very high, making L an excellent sequestering agent for Hg(II, over a large pH range, and a promising ligand for the preparation of functionalized activated carbons to be employed in the remediation and the prevention of environmental problems.

  4. Supramolecular Assemblies of Poly(propyleneimine) Dendrimers Driven by Simple Monovalent Counterions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtesadi, Seyed Ali; Haso, Fadi; Kashfipour, Marjan Alsadat; Lillard, Robert, , Dr.; Liu, Tianbo, , Dr.; Tianbo Liu's group Team, Dr.; Lillard's group Collaboration, Dr.

    Polyelectrolytes (PE) are fascinating class of polymers carrying dissociative ionic groups which give them unique properties in solutions and at charged surfaces. The properties of these polymers in solution are mainly depending on the fraction of dissociated ionic groups, the quality of solvent and salt concentration. Describing the solution properties of polyelectrolytes have always been an obstacle for polymer scientists due to their different behavior as a result of their dual character of being highly charged electrolytes and at macromolecular size. The question we tried to address was what happens to solution behavior of charged polyelectrolytes when they reach to the nano-scale size which can neither be considered as point charges nor colloids. Second generation of poly(propyleneimine) dendrimer in different solvent qualities, salt concentrations, pH and temperatures were studied using techniques such as LLS, TEM, AFM and zeta-potential, and dominant controlling factors over their self-assembly into hollow spherical ``Blackberry'' like nanoparticles was investigated.

  5. Non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics of phenylene ethynylene dendrimer using a multiconfigurational Ehrenfest approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Makhov, Dmitry V; Tretiak, Sergei; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V

    2016-04-21

    Photoinduced dynamics of electronic and vibrational unidirectional energy transfer between meta-linked building blocks in a phenylene ethynylene dendrimer is simulated using a multiconfigurational Ehrenfest in time-dependent diabatic basis (MCE-TDDB) method, a new variant of the MCE approach developed by us for dynamics involving multiple electronic states with numerous abrupt crossings. Excited-state energies, gradients and non-adiabatic coupling terms needed for dynamics simulation are calculated on-the-fly using the Collective Electron Oscillator (CEO) approach. A comparative analysis of our results obtained using MCE-TDDB, the conventional Ehrenfest method and the surface-hopping approach with and without decoherence corrections is presented. PMID:27004611

  6. Covalent immobilization of lipases on monodisperse magnetic microspheres modified with PAMAM-dendrimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported an immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto PAMAM-dendrimer-grafted magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a modified solvothermal reduction method. The dendritic magnetic nanoparticles were amply characterized by several instrumental measurements, and the CRL was covalently anchored on the three generation supports with glutaraldehyde as coupling reagent. The amount of immobilized enzyme was up to 150 mg/g support and the factors related with the enzyme activity were investigated. The immobilization of lipase improved their performance in wider ranges of pH and temperature. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with free enzyme and can be reused 10 cycles with the enzymatic activity remained above 90 %. The properties of lipase improved obviously after being immobilized on the dendritic supports. The inactive immobilized lipase could be regenerated with glutaraldehyde and Cu2+, respectively. This synthetic strategy was facile and eco-friendly for applications in lipase immobilization

  7. Six Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design and Synthesis; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of polymer properties through the synthesis of complex macromolecular architectures is central to many areas of research and advanced technological applications. properties of novel materials are altered mainly through modification of their constitution. Examples of constitutional changes include the use of different monomers, variable molecular weights, block structures, grafted branching and so on. Living polymerization techniques has facilitated the preparation of these structures. The use of new multifunctional initiators has enhanced the availability of for example star polymers, which are believed to have smaller hydrodynamic volume and lower melt viscosity than their linear counterparts. Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers are other classes of macromolecules which have received a lot of attention due to their unique architectures

  8. Designing Dendrimer and Miktoarm Polymer Based Multi-Tasking Nanocarriers for Efficient Medical Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sharma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To address current complex health problems, there has been an increasing demand for smart nanocarriers that could perform multiple complimentary biological tasks with high efficacy. This has provoked the design of tailor made nanocarriers, and the scientific community has made tremendous effort in meeting daunting challenges associated with synthetically articulating multiple functions into a single scaffold. Branched and hyper-branched macromolecular architectures have offered opportunities in enabling carriers with capabilities including location, delivery, imaging etc. Development of simple and versatile synthetic methodologies for these nanomaterials has been the key in diversifying macromolecule based medical therapy and treatment. This review highlights the advancement from conventional “only one function” to multifunctional nanomedicine. It is achieved by synthetic elaboration of multivalent platforms in miktoarm polymers and dendrimers by physical encapsulation, covalent linking and combinations thereof.

  9. Covalent immobilization of lipases on monodisperse magnetic microspheres modified with PAMAM-dendrimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Weiwei [Lanzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology (China); Zhang, Yimei [Suzhou Research Academy of North China Electric Power University (China); Hou, Chen; Pan, Duo; He, Jianjun; Zhu, Hao, E-mail: zhuhao07@lzu.edu.cn [Lanzhou University, State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Chemistry and Resources Utilization of Gansu Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Institute of Biochemical Engineering and Environmental Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    This paper reported an immobilization of Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) onto PAMAM-dendrimer-grafted magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by a modified solvothermal reduction method. The dendritic magnetic nanoparticles were amply characterized by several instrumental measurements, and the CRL was covalently anchored on the three generation supports with glutaraldehyde as coupling reagent. The amount of immobilized enzyme was up to 150 mg/g support and the factors related with the enzyme activity were investigated. The immobilization of lipase improved their performance in wider ranges of pH and temperature. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with free enzyme and can be reused 10 cycles with the enzymatic activity remained above 90 %. The properties of lipase improved obviously after being immobilized on the dendritic supports. The inactive immobilized lipase could be regenerated with glutaraldehyde and Cu{sup 2+}, respectively. This synthetic strategy was facile and eco-friendly for applications in lipase immobilization.

  10. HIV-1 antiviral behavior of anionic PPI metallo-dendrimers with EDA core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallego, Sandra; Díaz, Laura; Jiménez, José Luis; Gómez, Rafael; de la Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2015-06-15

    The development of novel strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection is of outstanding relevance. Metal complexes of Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) derived from sulfonated and carboxylated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers with ethylenediamine core were evaluated as tunable antiviral agents against HIV-1. After demonstrating their biocompatibility, specific trends in the antiviral properties were found, related to both the dendritic scaffold (peripheral group, generation) and the bound metal ions (sort, amount). In HEC-1A and VK-2 cell lines, as model of the first barrier against HIV-1 infection, a high preventive inhibitory action was found, which also avoided virus internalization inside cells and inhibited both CCR5 and CXCR4 HIV-1 strains. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as model of the second barrier, a dual preventive and therapeutic behavior was observed. A rational design of such metallodendrimers opens new avenues for the production of versatile and efficient treatments against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26005027

  11. Low generation polyamine dendrimers bearing flexible tetraethylene glycol as nanocarriers for plasmids and siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Zhang, Issan; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Maysinger, Dusica; Roy, René

    2016-02-01

    Low G1 generation polyamine dendrimers built around programmable, flexible, and short tetraethyleneglycol branches were readily prepared in a divergent manner using a combination of orthogonal AB3 or AB5 units and highly efficient chemical transformations based on Cu(i) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CUAAC) and thiol-ene click reactions. The constructs showed that the G1 polyamines with only twelve and eighteen amine surface groups can successfully deliver siRNA in human cells, with transfection efficiency comparable to that of Lipofectamine 2000®. Measurements of cell viability following transfection of plasmid DNA and siRNA showed that the dendritic polyamines are less cytotoxic than Lipofectamine 2000® and are thus preferable for biological applications.Low G1 generation polyamine dendrimers built around programmable, flexible, and short tetraethyleneglycol branches were readily prepared in a divergent manner using a combination of orthogonal AB3 or AB5 units and highly efficient chemical transformations based on Cu(i) catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CUAAC) and thiol-ene click reactions. The constructs showed that the G1 polyamines with only twelve and eighteen amine surface groups can successfully deliver siRNA in human cells, with transfection efficiency comparable to that of Lipofectamine 2000®. Measurements of cell viability following transfection of plasmid DNA and siRNA showed that the dendritic polyamines are less cytotoxic than Lipofectamine 2000® and are thus preferable for biological applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06757j

  12. Polyglycerol dendrimers immobilized on radiation grafted poly-HEMA hydrogels: Surface chemistry characterization and cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) on low density polyethylene (LDPE) films and subsequent immobilization of poly(glycerol) dendrimer (PGLD) has been performed with the aim to improve cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of the polymer, in order to enhance their properties for bone tissue engineering scaffolding applications. Radiation grafting of PHEMA onto LDPE was promoted by γ-ray radiation. The covalent immobilization of PGLD on LDPE-g-PHEMA surface was performed by using a dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC)/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) method. The occurrence of grafting polymerization of PHEMA and further immobilization of PGLD was quantitatively confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence, respectively. The LDPE-g-PHEMA surface topography after PGLD coupling was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophilicity of the LDPE-g-PHEMA film was remarkably improved compared to that of the ungrafted LDPE. The core level XPS ESCA spectrum of PHEMA-grafted LDPE showed two strong peaks at 286.6 eV (from hydroxyl groups and ester groups) and 289.1 eV (from ester groups) due to PHEMA brushes grafted onto LDPE surfaces. The results from the cell adhesion studies show that MCT3-E1 cells tended to spread more slowly on the LDPE-g-PHEMA than on the LDPE-g-PHEMA-i-PGLD. - Highlights: • Radiation-grafted PHEMA hydrogels have been obtained by simultaneous gamma-irradiation of LDPE and HEMA monomer. • PGLD dendrimer was immobilized onto PHEMA for application in tissue engineering. • The microstructural characterization of LDPE-g-PHEMA-i-PGLD by RMN, XPS, AFM and MALDI-TOF are made. • Measurements of water uptake and contact angle of LDPE-g-PHEMA are compared to those of LDPE-g-PHEMA-i-PGLD. • The MC3T-E1 osteoblast cell adhesion and growth on LDPE-g-PHEMA-i-PGLD were studied

  13. Regulatory activity of azabisphosphonate-capped dendrimers on human CD4+ T cell proliferation enhances ex-vivo expansion of NK cells from PBMCs for immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caminade Anne-Marie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoptive cell therapy with allogenic NK cells constitutes a promising approach for the treatment of certain malignancies. Such strategies are currently limited by the requirement of an efficient protocol for NK cell expansion. We have developed a method using synthetic nanosized phosphonate-capped dendrimers allowing such expansion. We are showing here that this is due to a specific inhibitory activity towards CD4+ T cell which could lead to further medical applications of this dendrimer. Methods Mononuclear cells from human peripheral blood were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of nanosized phosphonate-capped dendrimers on interleukin-2 driven CD4+T cell expansion. Proliferation status was investigated using flow cytometry analysis of CFSE dilution and PI incorporation experiments. Magnetic bead cell sorting was used to address activity towards individual or mixed cell sub-populations. We performed equilibrium binding assay to assess the interaction of fluorescent dendrimers with pure CD4+ T cells. Results Phosphonate-capped dendrimers are inhibiting the activation, and therefore the proliferation; of CD4+ T cells in IL-2 stimulated PBMCs, without affecting their viability. This allows a rapid enrichment of NK cells and further expansion. We found that dendrimer acts directly on T cells, as their regulatory property is maintained when stimulating purified CD4+ T cells with anti-CD3/CD28 microbeads. Performing equilibrium binding assays using a fluorescent analogue, we show that the phosphonate capped-dendrimers are specifically interacting with purified CD4+ T cells. Ultimately, we found that our protocol prevents the IL-2 related expansion of regulatory T cells that would be deleterious for the activity of infused NK cells. Conclusion High yield expansion of NK cells from human PBMCs by phosphonate-capped dendrimers and IL-2 occurs through the specific inhibition of the CD4+ lymphocyte compartment. Given the

  14. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.; Holland, D.; Bland, J.; Johnson, C. E.; Thomas, M. F.

    2003-02-01

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2].

  15. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb2O3]x - [ZnCl2]1-x where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb)2(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn)2(OSb)2

  16. Cation coordination in oxychloride glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J A [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Holland, D [Physics Department, Warwick University, Coventry (United Kingdom); Bland, J [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Johnson, C E [Physics Department, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Thomas, M F [Physics Department, University of Liverpool, PO Box 147, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-19

    Glasses containing mixtures of cations and anions of nominal compositions [Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}]{sub x} - [ZnCl{sub 2}]{sub 1-x} where x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00, have been studied by means of neutron diffraction and Raman and Moessbauer spectroscopy. There is preferential bonding within the system with the absence of Sb-Cl bonds. Antimony is found to be threefold coordinated to oxygen, and zinc fourfold coordinated. The main contributing species are of the form [Sb(OSb){sub 2}(OZn)] and [Zn(ClZn){sub 2}(OSb){sub 2}].

  17. Use of laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPAS) to determine equilibrium constants of cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser Induced PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (LIPAS) is a relatively new, photothermal technique to examine solutions. Studies in the past have shown it to be more sensitive than conventional absorption spectroscopy, while, yielding the same information thus allowing lower concentrations to be used. This study is using LIPAS to examine solutions to determine the equilibrium constants of cation-cation complexes. It has been found that actinyl(V) cations form cation-cation complexes with a variety of cations, including actinyl(VI) cations. The radioactive nature of the actinide elements requires special handling techniques and also require limits be placed on the amount of material that can be used. The sensitivity of some oxidation states of the actinides to oxygen also presents a problem. Preliminary results will be presented for actinyl(V)-actinyl(VI) cation-cation complexes that were studied using a remote LIPAS system incorporating fiber optics for transmission of laser signals

  18. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičak, H.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  19. Low-generation dendrimers with a calixarene core and based on a chiral C2-symmetric pyrrolidine as iminosugar mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marradi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of low-generation dendrimers based on a simple calix[4]arene scaffold by insertion of the iminosugar-analogue C2-symmetric 3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine is described. This methodology allows a rapid incorporation of a considerable number of iminosugar-like moieties in a reduced volume and in a well-defined geometry. The inclusion of alkali-metal ions (sodium and potassium in the polar cavity defined by the acetamide moieties at the lower rim of the calixarene was demonstrated, which allows also the rigidification of the dendrimer structure and the iminosugar presentation in the clusters. The combination of the supramolecular properties of calixarenes with the advantage of a dendrimeric presentation of repetitive units opens up the possibility of generating well-defined multivalent and multifaceted systems with more complex and/or biologically relevant iminosugars.

  20. A Facile Strategy to Prepare Dendrimer-stabilized Gold Nanorods with Sub-10-nm Size for Efficient Photothermal Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Hanling; Wang, Yitong; Yu, Xiangtong; Zhang, Sanjun; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-03-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles are promising photothermal agents with the potential of clinical translation. However, the safety concerns of Au photothermal agents including the potential toxic compositions such as silver and copper elements in their structures and the relative large size-caused retention and accumulation in the body post-treatment are still questionable. In this article, we successfully synthesized dendrimer-stabilized Au nanorods (DSAuNRs) with pure Au composition and a sub-10-nm size in length, which represented much higher photothermal effect compared with dendrimer-encapsulated Au nanoparticles due to their significantly enhanced absorption in the near-infrared region. Furthermore, glycidol-modified DSAuNRs exhibited the excellent biocompatibility and further showed the high photothermal efficiency of killing cancer cells in vitro and retarding tumor growth in vivo. The investigation depicted an optimal photothermal agent with the desirable size and safe composition.

  1. Semi-combinatorial approach for the preparation of linear comb-like glycopeptide dendrimers with Tn antigen using maleimide ligation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vepřek, Pavel; Hajdúch, M.; Kelkar, Shripad; Trnka, T.; Ježek, Jan

    Napoli : Edizioni Ziino, 2002 - (Benedetti, E.; Pedone, C.), s. 648-649 ISBN 88-900948-1-8. [Peptides 2002. European Peptide Symposium /27./. Sorrento (IT), 31.08.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0690 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Tn antigen * maleimide ligation * glycopeptide dendrimer Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  2. Synthesis of Dendrimer-supported Chiral Bis(oxazoline) Ligands and Their Applications in Aldol Reaction via Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-min; YANG Bai-yuan; ZHANG Yi-li; QU Xue; FAN Qing-hua

    2004-01-01

    Chiral bis(oxazoline) ligands have been applied in many enatioselective reactions.Recently, studies of the immobilization of bis(oxazoline) on both soluble and insoluble supports have been of great interest. Among the different methods to anchor the homogeneous catadysts, a soluble, polymer-supported catalyst usually achieves higher stereoselectivity and activity because the catalysis can be separated and recycled via simple methods such as solvent precipitation.Dendrimers are highly branched macromolecules having precisely defined molecular structures with nano-scale size. Compared with soluble polymer supports, the dendrimer architecture may offer better control of the deposition of the catalytic species in soluble polymer-based catalysts. Therefore,such catalysts may fill the gap between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and combine the advantages of both.In this paper, we report the synthesis of bis(oxazoline)-centered dendrimers and their application in Mukaiyama aldol reaction in aqueous media. It was found that the dendritic chiral bis(oxazolines)showed the similar reactivities and enantioselectivities in the asymmetric copper-catalyzed aldol reaction in aqueous media in comparison to the corresponding small molecular ligands.

  3. Functionalization of a Triazine Dendrimer Presenting Four Maleimides on the Periphery and a DOTA Group at the Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changsuk; Ji, Kun; Simanek, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    A readily and rapidly accessible triazine dendrimer was manipulated in four steps with 23% overall yield to give a construct displaying four maleimide groups and DOTA. The maleimide groups of the dendrimer are sensitive to hydrolysis under basic conditions. The addition of up to four molecules of water can be observed via mass spectrometry and HPLC. The evolution in the alkene region of the ¹H-NMR--the transformation of the maleimide singlet to the appearance of two doublets--is consistent with imide hydrolysis and not the Michael addition. The hydrolysis events that proceeded over hours are sufficiently slower than the desired thiol addition reactions that occur in minutes. The addition of thiols to maleimides can be accomplished in a variety of solvents. The thiols examined derived from cysteine and include the protected amino acid, a protected dipeptide, and native oligopeptides containing either 9 or 18 amino acids. The addition reactions were monitored with HPLC and mass spectrometry in most cases. Complete substitution was observed for small molecule reactants. The model peptides containing nine or eighteen amino acids provided a mixture of products averaging between 3 and 4 substitutions/dendrimer. The functionalization of the chelate group with gadolinium was also accomplished easily. PMID:26978338

  4. Mastering Dendrimer Self-Assembly for Efficient siRNA Delivery: From Conceptual Design to In Vivo Efficient Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Posocco, Paola; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Cheng, Qiang; Laurini, Erik; Zhou, Jiehua; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Yang; Tang, Jingjie; Col, Valentina Dal; Yu, Tianzhu; Giorgio, Suzanne; Fermeglia, Maurizio; Qu, Fanqi; Liang, Zicai; Rossi, John J; Liu, Minghua; Rocchi, Palma; Pricl, Sabrina; Peng, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Self-assembly is a fundamental concept and a powerful approach in molecular science. However, creating functional materials with the desired properties through self-assembly remains challenging. In this work, through a combination of experimental and computational approaches, the self-assembly of small amphiphilic dendrons into nanosized supramolecular dendrimer micelles with a degree of structural definition similar to traditional covalent high-generation dendrimers is reported. It is demonstrated that, with the optimal balance of hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, one of the self-assembled nanomicellar systems, totally devoid of toxic side effects, is able to deliver small interfering RNA and achieve effective gene silencing both in cells - including the highly refractory human hematopoietic CD34(+) stem cells - and in vivo, thus paving the way for future biomedical implementation. This work presents a case study of the concept of generating functional supramolecular dendrimers via self-assembly. The ability of carefully designed and gauged building blocks to assemble into supramolecular structures opens new perspectives on the design of self-assembling nanosystems for complex and functional applications. PMID:27244195

  5. Vibrational spectra study of fluorescent dendrimers built from the cyclotriphosphazene core with terminal dansyl and carbamate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukova, I. I.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Fuchs, S.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2011-08-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the "Janus"-type dendrimers, possessing five carbamate groups on one side and five fluorescent dansyl derivatives on the other side, with amide G1 and hydrazone G2 central linkages were studied. These surface-block dendrimers are obtained by the coupling of two different dendrons. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the zero generation dendrons, built from the hexafunctional cyclotriphosphazene core, with five dansyl terminal groups and one carbamate G0 v and one oxybenzaldehyde function G0v have been recorded. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for dendron G0v on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that dendron molecule G0v has a concave lens structure with planar -O-C6H4-CHdbnd O fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of dendron G0v were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed. The strong band 1597 cm -1 show marked changes of the optical density in dependence of substituents in the aromatic ring. The frequencies of ν(N-H) bands in the IR spectra reveal the presence of the different types of H-bonds in the dendrimers.

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Filion, Mario C; Phillips, Nigel C

    1997-01-01

    The effect of liposome phospholipid composition has been assumed to be relatively unimportant because of the presumed inert nature of phospholipids.We have previously shown that cationic liposome formulations used for gene therapy inhibit, through their cationic component, the synthesis by activated macrophages of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α).In this study, we have evaluated the ability of different cationic lipids to reduce footpad inf...

  7. Preparation of dendrimer funcationalized carbon nanotube/Pd nanoparticles composite for nonenzymatic glucose biosensing%树状聚合物功能化碳纳米管/钯纳米复合物的制备及其非酶葡萄糖传感应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯代红; 赖国松; 张海丽

    2014-01-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was covalently grafted with carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for the in situ deposition of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs).Based on the electrode modification with the as -prepared CNTs-PAM-AM/Pd NPs nanocomposites and the further coating of chitosan on its surface , a nonenzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor was developed.Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize and optimize the performance of the sensor.Under the optimal conditions, this sensor exhibited a rapid amperometric response towards glucose (less than 3 s), and a wide linear range from 0.03 to 61.7 m mol・ L-1 was obtained with a detection limit of 11.5μmol・L-1 (S/N=3).This biosensor has low cost , good stability, selectivity and repeatability, thus indicating great potentials for practical applications.%将树状聚合物(PAMAM)通过共价反应嫁接在羧基化碳纳米管(CNTs)表面后用于钯纳米粒子(Pd NPs)的原位沉积,制备成CNTs-PAMAM/Pd NPs复合物。通过壳聚糖包埋将制备的该钯纳米复合物用于玻碳电极的修饰,并通过交流阻抗法和循环伏安法对电极性能进行表征和优化,制备成可用于葡萄糖的安培检测的非酶电化学传感器。实验表明,在最佳实验条件下该传感器可在较短时间内(<3 s)实现对葡萄糖的快速稳态安培响应,并可在从0.03 mmol/L至61.7 mmol/L较宽线性范围内实现对葡萄糖的准确测定,检出限为11.5μmol/L。该传感器成本低廉,性质稳定,且具有较好的选择性和重复性,因而在实际应用中具有较好的发展前景。

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, M C; Phillips, N C

    1997-10-01

    1. The effect of liposome phospholipid composition has been assumed to be relatively unimportant because of the presumed inert nature of phospholipids. 2. We have previously shown that cationic liposome formulations used for gene therapy inhibit, through their cationic component, the synthesis by activated macrophages of the pro-inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). 3. In this study, we have evaluated the ability of different cationic lipids to reduce footpad inflammation induced by carrageenan and by sheep red blood cell challenge. 4. Parenteral (i.p. or s.c) or local injection of the positively charged lipids dimethyldioctadecylammomium bromide (DDAB), dioleyoltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), dimyristoyltrimethylammonium propane (DMTAP) or dimethylaminoethanecarbamoyl cholesterol (DC-Chol) significantly reduced the inflammation observed in both models in a dose-dependent manner (maximum inhibition: 70-95%). 5. Cationic lipids associated with dioleyol- or dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine retained their anti-inflammatory activity while cationic lipids associated with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) showed no anti-inflammatory activity, indicating that the release of cationic lipids into the macrophage cytoplasm is a necessary step for anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of cationic lipids was abrogated by the addition of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-poly(ethylene)glycol-2000 (DPPE-PEG2000) which blocks the interaction of cationic lipids with macrophages. 6. Because of the significant role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the inflammatory process we have determined whether the cationic lipids used in this study inhibit PKC activity. The cationic lipids significantly inhibited the activity of PKC but not the activity of a non-related protein kinase, PKA. The synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is not dependent on PKC activity for its

  9. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  10. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Reinhoudt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selectiverecognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure andselectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometricion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  11. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturgeon, Matthew R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, Hai [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Park, Andrew M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pivovar, Bryan S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  12. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  13. Effects of dopamine concentration on energy transfer between dendrimer-QD and dye-labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is currently used to assess Parkinson's disease, and is a key method for determining the progression of disease based on the gross findings of patients. However, this method cannot quantify the extent of disease of patients, which means the administration of drugs cannot be determined on a real-time basis. Thalamotomy also causes discomfort and pain to the patients, and adversely affects treatment as it is performed following the onset of symptoms. Accordingly, the dopamine concentration, which is one of the key factors in determining this disease, needs to be detected quantitatively at ordinary times. Hence, the development of a bio-kit or a bio-sensor is essential for effectively prescribing the correct dopamine concentration in a customizable manner. In this study, the effect of dopamine level on this phenomenon was observed using the Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomenon generated between a donor and acceptor. By confirming the photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime data, it was demonstrated that the degree of energy transfer increased with increasing dopamine concentration. To apply this phenomenon to an optical sensor, a glass surface was modified with a quantum dot (QD)-encapsulated dendrimer, and analyzed using the contact angle and ATR-FTIR. The topology of surface was determined by an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  14. Dendrimer Molecules:A Short Profile%树形大分子研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振江

    2001-01-01

    综述了树形大分子研究进展,介绍了树形大分子的合成及策略,讨论了树形大分子的结构特征,指出了树形大分子的理论及应用前景.对树形大人子的述语规范,树形大分子的结构层次划分的核(core)-本体(mantle)-表层(shell)的概念以及三个结构层次间的关系,和收敛合成法中的"瓣"(lobe)的概念和应用等进行了讨论.%The synthesis,structrue,tbeoretical and practival prospects,as well as the research his-tory of dendrimer molecules(DM)were reviewed briefly.The concepts concerning the bierarchi-cal structure of DM in three lcvels:I)core(C);ii)mantle(M);and iii)ahell(S),the idea of LOBE in convergent synthesis strategy,and the terminology of Dmin literature ware discussed.

  15. Optimized Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles entrapped in dendrimer for dual contrasting role in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haribabu, Viswanathan; Farook, Abubacker Sulaiman; Goswami, Nirmalya; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Girigoswami, Agnishwar

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has acquired importance as a major tool for diagnosis and staging of cancers in humans. Injection of certain imaging agents have proved to improve contrast between normal and cancer cells on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using the principles of MR contrast imaging, we have designed a dual mode (T1 and T2) contrast agent based on folic acid functionalized manganese ferrite nanoparticles (MNP) entrapped in 3G polyamidoamide (PAMAM) dendrimers. The ratio of Mn:Fe was tuned to achieve optimal performance. This multifunctional nanocarrier system was developed for targeting cancer cells to produce both T1 and T2 contrast which in turn helps in better diagnosis and staging of cancer. FTIR spectroscopy, X-Ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering measurements were employed to characterize the multifunctional system at different stages of engineering. The ratio of relaxivities r2 /r1 is 4.6 at 1.5 T for the MNP prepared with 0.5 molar ratio of Mn/Fe based on MR images obtained from phantom and tumor bearing mouse. The value of r2 /r1 shows that the 0.5 molar ratio of Mn/Fe can be used to prepare MNP for the production of dual mode contrast in MR imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 817-824, 2016. PMID:26460478

  16. Detection of TNT using a sensitive two-photon organic dendrimer for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently a need for superior stand-off detection schemes for protection against explosive weapons of mass destruction. Fluorescence detection at small distances from the target has proven to be attractive. A novel unexplored route in fluorescence chemical sensing that utilizes the exceptional spectroscopic capabilities of nonlinear optical methods is two-photon excited fluorescence. This approach utilizes infra-red light for excitation of remote sensors. Infra-red light suffers less scattering in porous materials which is beneficial for vapor sensing and has greater depth of penetration through the atmosphere, and there are fewer concerns regarding eye safety in remote detection schemes. We demonstrate this method using a novel dendritic system which possesses both excellent fluorescence sensitivity to the presence of TNT with infra-red pulses of light and high two-photon absorption (TPA) response. This illustrates the use of TPA for potential stand-off detection of energetic materials in the infra-red spectral regions in a highly two-photon responsive dendrimer

  17. Stabilization/solidification of lead in MSWI fly ash with mercapto functionalized dendrimer Chelator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Zhou, Weixiao; Zhao, Huangpu; Tian, Zhipeng; Li, Fengting; Wu, Yinan

    2016-04-01

    This work compares the performance of stabilizing Pb by Sodium sulfide (Na2S), Sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), thiourea (H2NCSNH2), and mercapto functionalized dendrimer (TEPA-SNa) in MSWI fly ash, including leaching toxicity analysis and leaching behavior analysis, as a function of pH. The leaching toxicity in fly ash indicated that leaching value of Pb stabilized by Na2S, Na3PO4, and H2NCSNH2 has remained higher than the limit value (0.25mg/L) with a dosage of 10%. However, the leaching value associated with TEPA-SNa approaches zero at a dosage of 3%. The effective leaching test results showed the leaching amount of Pb stabilized by TEPA-SNa with a dosage of 3% to be 3.58mg/kg less than the maximum allowable amount of leaching (5mg/kg), but the amount of Pb leached by Na2S, Na3PO4, and H2NCSNH2 was much higher than 5mg/kg. The leaching behavior of Pb as a function of pH showed that the leaching concentration of Pb stabilized by TEPA-SNa can approach zero at a dosage of 5% no matter how the pH changes. In summary, TEPA-SNa can interact with Pb(2+) in the acid-base environment and effectively immobilize Pb(2+) in fly ash in the long term. PMID:26876776

  18. Screening of efficient siRNA carriers in a library of surface-engineered dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Chang, Hong; Lv, Jia; Jiang, Cong; Li, Zhenxi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Mingming; Liu, Chongyi; Wang, Xinyu; Shao, Naimin; He, Bingwei; Shen, Wanwan; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2016-01-01

    Polymers are widely used as non-viral carriers for siRNA delivery, but concern has also arisen in their limited efficacy and inherent toxicity. Whilst many of previous efforts have been documented towards improving the performance of polymers via chemical modifications, the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these ligand-modified polymers are not well understood. To address this issue, we systemically prepared a library of surface-engineered dendrimers (>300) as the screening pool to discover efficient siRNA carriers. The modified ligands include alkyls and fluoroalkyls, amino acids, benzene derivatives and heterocyclic compounds. Gene silencing results showed that the lead material shows excellent efficacy even in hard-to-transfect cells such as mesenchymal stem cells. The SAR studies revealed that ligands containing appropriate hydrophobicity, or ligands with both hydrophobic and functional atoms/groups are essential for polymers to achive efficient knockdown efficacy. A second-generation library designed based on the above principles further confirms the proposed design criteria. The results enable the future rational design of potent siRNA carriers. PMID:27121799

  19. Cationic ruthenium alkylidene catalysts bearing phosphine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Koji; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of highly active catalysts and the success of ionic liquid immobilized systems have accelerated attention to a new class of cationic metathesis catalysts. We herein report the facile syntheses of cationic ruthenium catalysts bear-ing bulky phosphine ligands. Simple ligand exchange using silver(I) salts of non-coordinating or weakly coordinating anions pro-vided either PPh3 or chelating Ph2P(CH2)nPPh2 (n = 2 or 3) ligated cationic catalysts. The structures of these newly reported...

  20. Cation substitution in two coccolithophore species

    OpenAIRE

    Melteig, Hanna Elina

    2016-01-01

    Few things would be better than getting rid of CO2 while producing useful materials. Coccolithophores use CO2 in their photorespiration, in addition to using CO2 to produce coccoliths – small platelets made of calcite. Ca is a central cation in this process, and the goal of this project is to investigate to what extent other divalent cations can partially substitute for Ca and become part of the growing coccolith. The long term goal is to enable algae to harvest cations and produce mate...

  1. Composite polyester membranes with embedded dendrimer hosts and bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles: synthesis, characterisation and application to water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinga, S. P., E-mail: sitholespr@yahoo.com; Arotiba, O. A. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Applied Chemistry (South Africa); Krause, R. W. M. [Rhodes University, Department of Chemistry (South Africa); Mapolie, S. F. [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science (South Africa); Diallo, M. S. [Graduate School of EEWS, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) (Korea, Republic of); Mamba, B. B., E-mail: bmamba@uj.ac.za [University of Johannesburg, Department of Applied Chemistry (South Africa)

    2013-06-15

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and evaluation of new composite membranes with embedded dendrimer hosts and Fe/Ni nanoparticles. These new reactive membranes consist of films of cyclodextrin-poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers ({beta}-CD-PPI) that are deposited onto commercial polysulfone microporous supports and crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride (TMC). The membranes were subsequently loaded with Fe/Ni nanoparticles and evaluated as separation/reactive media in aqueous solutions using 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as model pollutant. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the composite membranes were characterised using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy and measurements of contact angle, water intake, porosity and water permeability. The sorption capacity and catalytic activity of the membranes were evaluated using ion chromatography, atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The sizes of the embedded Fe/Ni nanoparticles in the membranes ranged from 40 to 66 nm as confirmed by HR-TEM. The reaction rates for the dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol ranged from 0.00148 to 0.00250 min{sup -1}. In all cases, we found that the reaction by-products consisted of chloride ions and mixtures of compounds including phenol (m/z = 93), 2,4-dichlorophenol (m/z = 163) and 4-chlorophenol (m/z = 128). The overall results of this study suggest that {beta}-CD-PPI dendrimers are promising building blocks for the synthesis of composite and reactive membranes for the efficient removal of chlorinated organic pollutants from water.

  2. Development of water-soluble polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers as novel and highly potent topical anti-HIV-2 microbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Verónica; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; Diniz, Ana Rita; Borrego, Pedro; Rodes, Berta; de La Mata, Francisco Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Taveira, Nuno; Muñoz-Fernández, Mª Ángeles

    2015-08-01

    The development of topical microbicide formulations for vaginal delivery to prevent HIV-2 sexual transmission is urgently needed. Second- and third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers with a silicon atom core and 16 sulfonate (G2-S16), napthylsulfonate (G2-NS16) and sulphate (G3-Sh16) end-groups have shown potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity. However, their antiviral activity against HIV-2 and mode of action have not been probed. Cytotoxicity, anti-HIV-2, anti-sperm and antimicrobial activities of dendrimers were determined. Analysis of combined effects of triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir was performed by using CalcuSyn software. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-2 infection through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays: attachment, internalization in PBMCs, inactivation and cell-based fusion. Vaginal irritation and histological analysis in female BALB/c mice were evaluated. Our results suggest that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 exert anti-HIV-2 activity at an early stage of viral replication inactivating the virus, inhibiting cell-to-cell HIV-2 transmission, and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and the HIV-2 entry. Triple combinations with tenofovir and raltegravir increased the anti-HIV-2 activity, consistent with synergistic interactions (CIwt: 0.33-0.66). No vaginal irritation was detected in BALB/c mice after two consecutive applications for 2 days with 3% G2-S16. Our results have clearly shown that G2-S16, G2-NS16 and G3-Sh16 have high potency against HIV-2 infection. The modes of action confirm their multifactorial and non-specific ability, suggesting that these dendrimers deserve further studies as potential candidate microbicides to prevent vaginal/rectal HIV-1/HIV-2 transmission in humans.

  3. VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel): A candidate dendrimer – microbicide for the prevention of HIV and HSV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Richard; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2007-01-01

    Microbicides are compounds that applied vaginally or rectally, protect the user from sexually transmitted infections. Although no commercial product is yet available, many candidates are under development. A leading candidate, VivaGel™ (SPL7013 Gel) is the product of nanotechnology. The active ingredient is SPL7013, a dendrimer that was designed specifically with HIV and HSV antiviral activity and human safety in mind. SPL7013 has demonstrated efficacy against human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus in in vitro and animal models. VivaGel™ appears to be well tolerated in both animals and humans. This review summarizes the studies of VivaGel™ and its active ingredient, SPL7013. PMID:18203424

  4. Synthesis, spectral characterization, electron microscopic study and thermogravimetric analysis of a phosphorus containing dendrimer with diphenylsilanediol as core unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dadapeer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A phosphorus containing dendrimer with a diphenylsilanediol core was synthesized using a divergent method. Several types of reactions were performed on dendrons of several sizes, either at the level of the core or the surface. The giant Schiff’s base macro molecule possesses 12 imine bonds and 8 hydroxy groups on the terminal phenyl groups. The structures of the intermediate compounds were confirmed by IR, GCMS and 31P NMR. The final compound was characterized by 1H, 13C, 31P NMR, MALDI-TOF MS and CHN analysis. Scanning electron microscopic and thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetric studies were also performed on the final dendritic molecule.

  5. Cationization of heparin for film applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimkovic, I.; Mendichi, R.; Kelnar, Ivan; Filip, J.; Hricovíni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, 22 January (2015), s. 551-558. ISSN 0144-8617 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : heparin * cationization * NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.074, year: 2014

  6. Cation locations and dislocations in zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Luis James

    The focus of this dissertation is the extra-framework cation sites in a particular structural family of zeolites, chabazite. Cation sites play a particularly important role in the application of these sieves for ion exchange, gas separation, catalysis, and, when the cation is a proton, acid catalysis. Structural characterization is commonly performed through the use of powder diffraction and Rietveld analysis of powder diffraction data. Use of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance, in the study of the local order of the various constituent nuclei of zeolites, complements well the long-range order information produced by diffraction. Recent developments in solid state NMR techniques allow for increased study of disorder in zeolites particularly when such phenomena test the detection limits of diffraction. These two powerful characterization techniques, powder diffraction and NMR, offer many insights into the complex interaction of cations with the zeolite framework. The acids site locations in SSZ-13, a high silica chabazite, and SAPO-34, a silicoaluminophosphate with the chabazite structure, were determined. The structure of SAPO-34 upon selective hydration was also determined. The insensitivity of X-rays to hydrogen was avoided through deuteration of the acid zeolites and neutron powder diffraction methods. Protons at inequivalent positions were found to have different acid strengths in both SSZ-13 and SAPO-34. Other light elements are incorporated into zeolites in the form of extra-framework cations, among these are lithium, sodium, and calcium. Not amenable by X-ray powder diffraction methods, the positions of such light cations in fully ion-exchanged versions of synthetic chabazite were determined through neutron powder diffraction methods. The study of more complex binary cation systems were conducted. Powder diffraction and solid state NMR methods (MAS, MQMAS) were used to examine cation site preferences and dislocations in these mixed-akali chabazites

  7. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  8. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  9. Silica-based cationic bilayers as immunoadjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Ribeiro Ana M; da Costa Maria; Faquim-Mauro Eliana; Santana Mariana RA; Lincopan Nilton

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Silica particles cationized by dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB) bilayer were previously described. This work shows the efficiency of these particulates for antigen adsorption and presentation to the immune system and proves the concept that silica-based cationic bilayers exhibit better performance than alum regarding colloid stability and cellular immune responses for vaccine design. Results Firstly, the silica/DODAB assembly was characterized at 1 mM NaCl, pH 6...

  10. Cations and activated sludge floc structure

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chul

    2002-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the effect of cations on activated sludge characteristics and also to determine their influence on digestion performance. For this purpose, cations in solution and in floc were evaluated along with various activated sludge characteristics and the collected waste activated sludge underwent both anaerobic and aerobic digestion. It was found that large amounts of biopolymer (protein + polysaccharide) remained in the effluent of WWTP that received high in...

  11. Divalent cation shrinks DNA but inhibits its compaction with trivalent cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongu, Chika; Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Yuko; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Chen, Ning; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2016-05-01

    Our observation reveals the effects of divalent and trivalent cations on the higher-order structure of giant DNA (T4 DNA 166 kbp) by fluorescence microscopy. It was found that divalent cations, Mg(2+) and Ca(2+), inhibit DNA compaction induced by a trivalent cation, spermidine (SPD(3+)). On the other hand, in the absence of SPD(3+), divalent cations cause the shrinkage of DNA. As the control experiment, we have confirmed the minimum effect of monovalent cation, Na(+) on the DNA higher-order structure. We interpret the competition between 2+ and 3+ cations in terms of the change in the translational entropy of the counterions. For the compaction with SPD(3+), we consider the increase in translational entropy due to the ion-exchange of the intrinsic monovalent cations condensing on a highly charged polyelectrolyte, double-stranded DNA, by the 3+ cations. In contrast, the presence of 2+ cation decreases the gain of entropy contribution by the ion-exchange between monovalent and 3+ ions.

  12. Anti-plasmodial action of de novo-designed, cationic, lysine-branched, amphipathic, helical peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Naveen K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lack of vaccine and rampant drug resistance demands new anti-malarials. Methods In vitro blood stage anti-plasmodial properties of several de novo-designed, chemically synthesized, cationic, amphipathic, helical, antibiotic peptides were examined against Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR Green assay. Mechanistic details of anti-plasmodial action were examined by optical/fluorescence microscopy and FACS analysis. Results Unlike the monomeric decapeptides {(Ac-GXRKXHKXWA-NH2 (X = F,ΔF (Fm, ΔFm IC50 >100 μM}, the lysine-branched,dimeric versions showed far greater potency {IC50 (μM Fd 1.5 , ΔFd 1.39}. The more helical and proteolytically stable ΔFd was studied for mechanistic details. ΔFq, a K-K2 dendrimer of ΔFm and (ΔFm2 a linear dimer of ΔFm showed IC50 (μM of 0.25 and 2.4 respectively. The healthy/infected red cell selectivity indices were >35 (ΔFd, >20 (ΔFm2 and 10 (ΔFq. FITC-ΔFd showed rapid and selective accumulation in parasitized red cells. Overlaying DAPI and FITC florescence suggested that ΔFd binds DNA. Trophozoites and schizonts incubated with ΔFd (2.5 μM egressed anomalously and Band-3 immunostaining revealed them not to be associated with RBC membrane. Prematurely egressed merozoites from peptide-treated cultures were found to be invasion incompetent. Conclusion Good selectivity (>35, good resistance index (1.1 and low cytotoxicity indicate the promise of ΔFd against malaria.

  13. Polystyrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate stationary phase grafted with poly (amidoamine) dendrimers for ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dandan; Lou, Chaoyan; Zhang, Peimin; Zhang, Jiajie; Wang, Nani; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan

    2016-07-22

    In this work, a novel ion exchange stationary phase based on different generations of poly (amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) was developed for the determination of inorganic anions and carbohydrates. Synthesis of the PAMAM was carried out with the polymerization reaction of ethylenediamine and methyl acrylate. The synthesized PAMAM was then grafted to the polystyrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate (PS-GMA) to form PAMAM-based beads. These beads were finally modified with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) to generate the anion exchanger, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), brunauer-emmett-teller (BET), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and elemental analysis. Elemental analysis, breakthrough curves and capacity factors showed that more epoxy groups and higher PAMAM generations in stationary phase could result in higher anion exchange capacity. The efficiency, durability and stability of the proposed anion exchanger were investigated by using six inorganic anions (fluoride, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate and sulfate) and four carbohydrates (trehalose, glucose, maltotriose and galacturonic acid) as analytes, respectively. The reliability of the proposed ion chromatographic stationary phase was demonstrated by determining the content of galacturonic acid in polysaccharides from Poria cocos and Atractylodes macrocephala. The relative standard deviations of retention time, peak height, and peak area for galacturonic acid were 0.39%, 1.22%, and 2.02%, respectively. The spiked recoveries were in the range of 88.29%-100.51% for plant polysaccharides. Due to the good structural homogeneity, intense internal porosity, biological compatibility and high density of active groups in PAMAM, this grafted stationary phase showed good ion-exchange characteristics, especially in biological charged molecules. PMID:27311659

  14. An Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Developed on a Nanocomposite Platform of Gold and Poly(propyleneimine Dendrimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo Arotiba

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical DNA nanobiosensor was prepared by immobilization of a 20mer thiolated probe DNA on electro-deposited generation 4 (G4 poly(propyleneimine dendrimer (PPI doped with gold nanoparticles (AuNP as platform, on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE. Field emission scanning electron microscopy results confirmed the codeposition of PPI (which was linked to the carbon electrode surface by C-N covalent bonds and AuNP ca 60 nm. Voltammetric interrogations showed that the platform (GCE/PPI-AuNP was conducting and exhibited reversible electrochemistry (E°′ = 235 mV in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS due to the PPI component. The redox chemistry of PPI was pH dependent and involves a two electron, one proton process, as interpreted from a 28 mV/pH value obtained from pH studies. The charge transfer resistance (Rct from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS profiles of GCE/PPI-AuNP monitored with ferro/ferricyanide (Fe(CN63-/4- redox probe, decreased by 81% compared to bare GCE. The conductivity (in PBS and reduced Rct (in Fe(CN63-/4- values confirmed PPI-AuNP as a suitable electron transfer mediator platform for voltammetric and impedimetric DNA biosensor. The DNA probe was effectively wired onto the GCE/PPI-AuNP via Au-S linkage and electrostatic interactions. The nanobiosensor responses to target DNA which gave a dynamic linear range of 0.01 - 5 nM in PBS was based on the changes in Rct values using Fe(CN63-/4- redox probe.

  15. Ultrasensitive Lipopolysaccharides Detection Based on Doxorubicin Conjugated N-(Aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) as Electrochemiluminescence Indicator and Self-Assembled Tetrahedron DNA Dendrimers as Nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shunbi; Dong, Yongwang; Yuan, Yali; Chai, Yaqin; Yuan, Ruo

    2016-05-17

    The preparation of self-assembled DNA nanostructure with different sizes and shapes has been one of the most promising research areas in recent years, while the application of these DNA nanostructures in biosensors is far from fully developed. Here, we presented a novel carrier system to construct an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for ultrasensitive determination of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the basis of self-assembled tetrahedron DNA dendrimers. Doxorubicin (Dox), a well-known intercalator of double stranded DNA (dsDNA), was conjugated with the ECL luminophore of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) to form a new type of ECL indicators (Dox-ABEI), which could noncovalently attach to dsDNA through intercalation. Based on this property, self-assembled tetrahedron DNA dendrimers were employed as an efficient nanocarrier to achieve a high loading efficiency for Dox-ABEI with significantly amplified ECL signal output. Streptavidin (SA) and biotin, a typical ligand-receptor pair, has been chosen to anchor the tetrahedron DNA dendrimers on the electrode surface. Moreover, by converting LPS content into DNA output, catalyzed hairpin assembly (CHA) target recycling signal amplification strategy was also adopted to enhance the sensitivity of the ECL aptasensor. With combining the loading power of the tetrahedron DNA dendrimers for ECL indicators, the inherent high sensitivity of ECL technique and target recycling for signal amplification, the proposed strategy showed a detection limit of 0.18 fg/mL for LPS. PMID:27087505

  16. Self-assembled and covalently linked capillary coating of diazoresin and cyclodextrin-derived dendrimer for analysis of proteins by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Chi, Ming; Han, Yuxing; Cong, Hailin; Tang, Jianbin; Peng, Qiaohong

    2016-05-15

    Self-assembled and covalently linked capillary coatings of cyclodextrin-derived (CD) dendrimer were prepared using photosensitive diazoresin (DR) as a coupling agent. Layer by layer (LBL) self-assembled DR/CD-dendrimer coatings based on ionic bonding was fabricated first on the inner surface of capillary, and subsequently converted into covalent bonding after treatment with UV light through a unique photochemistry reaction of DR. Protein adsorption on the inner surface of capillary was suppressed by the DR/CD-dendrimer coating, and thus a baseline separation of lysozyme (Lys), myoglobin (Mb), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ribonuclease A (RNase A) was achieved using capillary electrophoresis (CE). Compared with the bare capillary, the DR/CD-dendrimer covalently linked capillary coatings showed excellent protein separation performance with good stability and repeatability. Because of the replacement of highly toxic and moisture sensitive silane coupling agent by DR in the covalent coating preparation, this method may provide an environmentally friendly and simple way to prepare the covalently coated capillaries for CE. PMID:26992496

  17. SIALYLTn dendrimers are high affinity ligands for CD69 and protect CD69+T and NK cells from tumor-induced apoptosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vančurová, Markéta; Pompach, Petr; Mihók, Ĺuboslav; Vrbacký, M.; Hovorka, Ondřej; Fišerová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Bezouška, Karel

    Poprad: Molecular determinants, 2006, s. 59-59. [EFIS Tatra Immunology Conference /7./. Štrbské Pleso (SK), 24.06.2006-28.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : dendrimers * ligands Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  18. On the scent of asymmetrical dandelion dendrimers. Part I. Starting materials from the regiospecific aminolysis of N 3P 3Cl 6 by amino-alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sournies, François; Zai, Karine; Vercruysse, Karine; Labarre, Marie-Christine; Labarre, Jean-François

    1997-07-01

    Starting materials for the design of asymmetrical dandelion dendrimers were synthesized upon the preliminary fixation of suitable amino-alcohols on hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene, N 3P 3Cl 6, as "blockers". Further linkage of diamines on solid supports leads to the expected asymmetrical moieties.

  19. Synthesis of nanomagnetic fluids and their UV spectrophotometric response with aliphatic organic acids and 1st tier dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Shivani R.; Singh, Man

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of Magnetic nanoparticles were made using coprecipitation method on mixing Fe+3 and Fe+2 in 2:1 ratio with aqueous 8M NaOH which on heating at 90°C for 2 h has yielded 85% magnetic (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MNPs), characterized by XRD, VSM, SEM, and HR-TEM. The formic acid (FA), oxalic acid (OA) and citric acid (CA), the series of aliphatic organic acids along with Trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridimethyl malonate (TTDMM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridiethyl malonate (TTDEM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridipropyl malonate (TTDPM), trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridibutyl malonate (TTDBM) and trimesoyl 1, 3, 5 tridihexyl malonate (TTDHM) 1st tier dendrimers were used separately for preparing nanomagnetic fluid. From 25 to 150 µM MNPs at an interval of 25 µM were dispersed in 150 µM of acids and dendrimers separately with DMSO. UV-VIS spectrophotometry showed a maximum MNPs dispersion with TTDMM against others and found to be most stable nanomagnetic fluid on account of capping type mechanism of acids.

  20. Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain an Undifferentiated State on Dendrimer-Immobilized Surface with d-Glucose Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Taya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In serial passaging cultures of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells, we employed a dendrimer-immobilized substrate that displayed d-glucose as a terminal ligand. The d-glucose-displaying dendrimer (GLU/D surface caused the ES cells to form loosely attached spherical colonies, while those on a gelatin-coated surface formed flatter colonies that were firmly attached to the surface. Despite the morphological similarities between the colonies on the GLU/D surface and aggregates on a conventional bacteriological dish, immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses revealed the maintenance of cells within the spherical colonies on the GLU/D surface in an undifferentiated state with very low expressions of primitive endoderm markers. On the bacteriological dish, however, the cells within the aggregates showed a different cellular state with partial differentiation into the primitive endoderm lineage, and the expression level increased gradually along with the number of passages. These results indicate that the GLU/D surface can be a potential tool for controlling the ES cell morphology and then govern their self-renewal and fate.

  1. Human relaxin gene expression delivered by bioreducible dendrimer polymer for post-infarct cardiac remodeling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sook; Choi, Joung-Woo; Oh, Jung-Eun; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Sung Wan

    2016-08-01

    In consensus, myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as irreversible cell death secondary to prolonged ischemia in heart. The aim of our study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of anti-fibrotic human Relaxin-expressing plasmid DNA with hypoxia response element (HRE) 12 copies (HR1) delivered by a dendrimer type PAM-ABP polymer G0 (HR1/G0) after MI on functional, hemodynamic, geometric, and cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in rats. HR1/G0 demonstrated significantly improved LV systolic function, hemodynamic parameters, and geometry on 1 wk and 4 wks after MI in rats, compared with I/R group. The resolution of regional wall motional abnormalities and the increased blood flow of infarct-related coronary artery supported functional improvements of HR1/G0. Furthermore, HR1/G0 polyplex showed favorable post-infarct cardiac ECM remodeling reflected on the favorable cardiac ECM compositions. Overall, this is the first study, which presented an advanced platform for the gene therapy that reverses adverse cardiac remodeling after MI with a HR1 gene delivered by a bioreducible dendrimer polymer in the cardiac ECM. PMID:27174688

  2. Modification of poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun fibers and films with poly(propylene imine) dendrimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliliazar, Sh.; Akbari, S.; Kish, M. H.

    2016-02-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) electrospun fibers and films were modified with the second generation of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (PPI-G2) by three different approaches, namely, sodium hydroxide hydrolysis, plasma treatment and direct application of PPI-G2. For the first and the second approaches, PLLA was modified by sodium hydroxide hydrolysis or plasma treatment to produce carboxylic acid groups. Then, the carboxylic acid groups were activated by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDAC) and N,N‧-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide (DCC) as a hetero bi-functional cross-linker. The cross-linkers promoted the grafting of carboxylic acid groups on the modified PLLA with NH2 groups of PPI-G2. In the third approach, the PPI-G2 dendrimer was directly used as an aminolysis agent for the functionalization of PLLA in a one step process. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of sbnd NH2 groups of PPI-G2 on the modified PLLA samples, resulting from each one of the three modification methods. Studies by SEM shows bead free electrospun fibers. Also, FE-SEM shows nano-cracks on the surface of films after modification. Contact angle, drug release tests, antibacterial effects and the dying results confirmed that these functionalization methods increased hydrophilicity and reactive side-chains of PLLA in the wet chemical process resulted in providing host-guest properties on the PLLA surface for adsorbing various kinds of guest molecules.

  3. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.G. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada S/N Col. Pueblito de Rocha, 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, 66451 Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bustos, E., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-09-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 {+-} 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  4. Inclusion of thiol DAB dendrimer/CdSe quantum dots based in a membrane structure: Surface and bulk membrane modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fluorescent nanocomposite based in CdSe quantum dots (QDs) coated by thiol polypropylenimine (DAB). ► Bulk chemical characterization by TEM and EDAX ► Inclusion of the S-DAB-CdSe QDs in a cellulosic support and its characterization by Fluorescence and XPS. ► Electrical characterization by Impedance Spectroscopy of dry and wet samples containing a heavy metal. -- Abstract: The behavior of a fluorescent nanocomposite, obtained by means of a thiol polypropylenimine dendrimer of third generation coated with CdSe quantum dots, and embedded in a hydrophilic cellulosic membrane as support is electrochemically studied in order to evaluate its applicability as a sensor in liquid media. The characterization of the nanocomposite by TEM and EDAX shows uniform nano morphology (size comprised in the range 60–90 nm) and composition, respectively. The analysis of the engineered hybrid cellulose-dendrimer quantum dots material by confocal fluorescence microscopy indicates almost mono-dispersion distribution of the nanocomposite when irradiated under UV light, while its presence on the film surface was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Impedance spectroscopy measurements performed with dry membrane samples show a decrease in the conductivity and dielectric constant of the modified membrane in comparison with the raw support. Electrical changes in the modified film associated to the presence of Cd(II) uptakes from a Cl2Cd solution were also obtained. These results support the possible application of this nanocomposite material as heavy metal sensor in liquid media

  5. Detection of Lymph Node Involvement in Hematologic Malignancies Using Micromagnetic Resonance Lymphangiography with a Gadolinum-Labeled Dendrimer Nanoparticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisataka Kobayashi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of lymphoma should reflect their counterparts in humans; however, it can be difficult to ascertain whether an induced disease is intralymphatic or extralymphatic based on direct visualization. Current imaging methods are insufficient for identifying lymphatic and intralymphatic involvement. To differentiate intralymphatic from extralymphatic involvement, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based lymphangiography method and tested it on two animal models of lymphoma. A gadolinium (Gd-labeled dendrimer nanoparticle (generation-6; ~220 kDa/f10 nm was injected interstitially into mice bearing hematologic malignancies to perform dynamic micromagnetic resonance lymphangiography (micro-MRL. Both a standard T1-weighted 3D fast spoiled gradient echo and a T2/T1-weighted 3D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA-C were compared in an imaging study to differentiate intralymphatic from extralymphatic involvement of tumors. The lymphatics and lymph nodes were visualized with both methods in all cases. In addition, 3D-FIESTA-C depicted both the lymphatic system and the extralymphatic tumor. In an animal model, 3D-FIESTA-C demonstrated that the bulk of the tumor thought to be intralymphatic was actually extralymphatic. In conclusion, micro-MRL, using Gd-labeled dendrimer nanoparticles with the combined method, can define both the normal and abnormal lymphatics and can distinguish intralymphatic from extralymphatic diseases in mouse models of malignant lymphoma.

  6. Accelerators for forming cationic technetium complexes useful as radiodiagnostic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to compositions for making cationic radiodiagnostic agents and, in particular, to accelerator compounds for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents, kits for preparing such 99mTc-labelled cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium, and methods for labelling such cationic radiodiagnostic agents with technetium

  7. Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivello, J.V.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this project is to make use of products obtained from renewable plant sources as monomers for the direct production of polymers which can be used for a wide range of plastic applications. In this report is described progress in the synthesis and polymerization of cationically polymerizable monomers and oligomers derived from botanical oils, terpenes, natural rubber, and lignin. Nine different botanical oils were obtained from various sources, characterized and then epoxidized. Their photopolymerization was carried out using cationic photoinitiators and the mechanical properties of the resulting polymers characterized. Preliminary biodegradation studies are being conducted on the photopolymerized films from several of these oils. Limonene was cationically polymerized to give dimers and the dimers epoxidized to yield highly reactive monomers suitable for coatings, inks and adhesives. The direct phase transfer epoxidation of squalene and natural rubber was carried out. The modified rubbers undergo facile photocrosslinking in the presence of onium salts to give crosslinked elastomers. 12 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Cation Effect on Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-Yong; LIU Bo; SONG Zhi-Tang; FENG Song-Lin

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of cations in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) and H2O2 on copper chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). On the base of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and material removal rate (MRR) results, it is found that ammonia shows the highest MRR as well as good surface after CMP, while KOH demon-strates the worst performance. These results reveal a mechanism that sma//molecules with lone-pairs rather than molecules with steric effect and common inorganic cations are better for copper CMP process, which is indirectly confirmed by open circuit potential (OCP).

  9. Synthesis of silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers for the effective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers were synthesized. • SiO2-G0-SA∼SiO2-G2.0-SA were promising adsorbents for the removal of Hg(II). • The pseudo-second-order model described adequately the adsorption kinetics data. • The film diffusion mechanism dominated the adsorption processes of Hg(II). • Langmuir model provide best correlation of the experimental data. - Abstract: A series of silica gel supported salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers (SiO2-G0-SA∼SiO2-G2.0-SA) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TGA, and porous structure analysis. The feasibility of these adsorbents for the removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solution was first described and the adsorption mechanism was proposed. The adsorption was found to depend on solution pH, the generation number of salicylaldehyde modified PAMAM dendrimers, contact time, temperature, and initial concentration. Results showed that the optimal pH was about 6 and the adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of generation number. Density functional theory (DFT) method was used to investigate the coordination geometries and the chelating mechanism. Adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model with film diffusion process as rate controlling step. Adsorption isotherms revealed that adsorption capacities increased with the increasing of temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models were employed to analyze the equilibrium data. The adsorption can be well described by Langmuir isotherm model and took place by chemical mechanism. The thermodynamics properties indicated the adsorption processes were spontaneous and endothermic nature. The maximum adsorption capacity of SiO2-G0-SA, SiO2-G1.0-SA, and SiO2-G2.0-SA were 0.91, 1.52, and 1.81 mmol g−1, respectively. The considerable higher adsorption capacity compared with other adsorbents indicates SiO2-G0-SA∼SiO2-G2.0-SA

  10. Method for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations, medium for encapsulating and isolating hazardous cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, S.R.; Anderson, K.B.; Song, K.; Yuchs, S.E.; Marshall, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    The problems associated with the disposal of toxic metals in an environmentally acceptable manner continues to plague industry. Such metals as nickel, vanadium, molybdenum, cobalt, iron, and antimony present physiological and ecological challenges that are best addressed through minimization of exposure and dispersion. A method for encapsulating hazardous cations is provided comprising supplying a pretreated substrate containing the cations; contacting the substrate with an organo-silane compound to form a coating on the substrate; and allowing the coating to cure. A medium for containing hazardous cations is also provided, comprising a substrate having ion-exchange capacity and a silane-containing coating on the substrate.

  11. Mixed cation effect in sodium aluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.;

    , network structure, and the resistances associated with the deformation processes in mixed cation glasses by partially substituting magnesium for calcium and calcium for lithium in sodium aluminosilicate glasses. We use Raman and 27Al NMR spectroscopies to obtain insights into the structural and...

  12. Sorption of alkylammonium cations on montmorillonite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátilová, Z.; Wojtowicz, P.; Vaculíková, Lenka; Šugárková, Věra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, 3/147/ (2007), s. 59-65. ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/0871 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : montmorillonite * adsorption * alkylammonium cations Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  13. Cationic flotation of some lithium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cationic flotation of some lithium ores (spodumene, amblygonite, petalite, lepidolite) is studied by the measure of zeta potential and micro-flotation tests in Hallimond tube. The effect of some modifier agents (corn starch, meta sodium silicate) on the lithium flotation is studied. (M.A.C.)

  14. Simultaneous anion and cation mobility in polypyrrole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; Vidanapathirana, K.;

    2003-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) polymer films permanently doped with large, immobile anion dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS) have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry in order to clarify the roles of cations and anions in the aqueous electrolyte as mobile ions in the film. Aqueous solutions of 0.05-0.1 M alk...

  15. Amperometric biosensor based on carbon nanotubes coated with polyaniline/dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles for glucose detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lihuan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhu Yihua, E-mail: yhzhu@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2009-05-05

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor based on the nanocomposites of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT) coated with polyaniline (PANI) and dendrimer-encapsulated Pt nanoparticles (Pt-DENs) is prepared. CNT coated with protonated PANI is in situ synthesized and Pt-DENs is absorbed on PANI/CNT composite surface by self-assembly method. Then Glucose oxidase (GOx) is crosslink-immobilizated onto Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT composite film. The results show that the fabricated GOx/Pt-DENs/PANI/CNT electrode exhibits excellent response performance to glucose, such as low detection limit (0.5 {mu}M), wide linear range (1 {mu}M-12 mM), short response time (about 5 s), high sensitivity (42.0 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) and stability (83% remains after 3 weeks).

  16. Dendrimer teknolojisi kullanılarak aromaterapi özelliğine sahip pamuklu fonksiyonel kumaş eldesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barış, Berkay; Atav, Rıza

    2012-01-01

    Günümüzde tekstil terbiyesinde önem kazanmaya başlamış olan kavramlardan biri nano-teknolojidir. Tekstil terbiyesinde nano-teknolojik ürünler kullanılarak konvansiyonel yöntemlere kıyasla birçok avantajlar sağlanabilmektedir. Bu anlamda henüz tekstil terbiyesinde kullanımı oldukça yeni olan bir nano-teknolojik ürün de dendrimerdir. Bu çalışmada dendrimer teknolojisi kullanılarak pamuklu kumaşlara aromaterapi fonksiyonelliği kazandırılması amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda dendrimerl...

  17. Cation-cation interactions, magnetic communication and reactivity of the pentavalent uraniumion [U(NR)2]+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Liam P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schelter, Eric J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Ping [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gsula, Robyn L [NON LANL; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jacqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The dimeric bis(imido) uranium complex [{l_brace}U(NtBu)2(I)(tBu2bpy){r_brace}2] (see picture; U green, N blue, I red) has cation-cation interactions between [U(NR)2]+ ions. This f1-f1 system also displays f orbital communication between uranium(V) centers at low temperatures, and can be oxidized to generate uranium(VI) bis(imido) complexes.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of carbosilane dendrimers of the third to the sixth generations with terminal butyl groups in the range from T->0 to 600K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work temperature dependences of heat capacity of carbosilane dendrimers with butyl terminal groups of the third and the fourth generations as well as of the fifth and the sixth generations have been determined first in the range from 6 to 340K and between 6 and 600K, respectively, by precision adiabatic vacuum and dynamic calorimetry. In the above temperature ranges the physical transformations have been detected and their thermodynamic characteristics have been estimated and analyzed. The experimental data were used to calculate standard thermodynamic functions, namely the heat capacity Cpo(T), enthalpy Ho(T)-Ho(0), entropy So(T)-So(0) and Gibbs function Go(T)-Ho(T), for the range from T->0 to (340-600)K. Linear dependences of changing the corresponding thermodynamic functions of the dendrimers on their molecular weight and the number of butyl groups on an outer sphere have been determined

  19. Selective aggregation of PAMAM dendrimer nanocarriers and PAMAM/ZnPc nanodrugs on human atheromatous carotid tissues: a photodynamic therapy for atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Spyropoulos-Antonakakis, Nikolaos; Sarantopoulou, Evangelia; Trohopoulos, Panagiotis N; Stefi, Aikaterina L; Kollia, Zoe; Gavriil, Vassilios E; Bourkoula, Athanasia; Petrou, Panagiota S.; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Semashko, Vadim V; Nizamutdinov, Alexey S; Cefalas, Alkiviadis-Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the action of photons on photosensitive molecules, where atomic oxygen or OH− molecular species are locally released on pathogenic human cells, which are mainly carcinogenic, thus causing cell necrosis. The efficacy of PDT depends on the local nanothermodynamic conditions near the cell/nanodrug system that control both the level of intracellular translocation of nanoparticles in the pathogenic cell and their agglomeration on the cell membrane. Dendrimers ar...

  20. Structurally Distinct Cation Channelrhodopsins from Cryptophyte Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2016-06-01

    Microbial rhodopsins are remarkable for the diversity of their functional mechanisms based on the same protein scaffold. A class of rhodopsins from cryptophyte algae show close sequence homology with haloarchaeal rhodopsin proton pumps rather than with previously known channelrhodopsins from chlorophyte (green) algae. In particular, both aspartate residues that occupy the positions of the chromophore Schiff base proton acceptor and donor, a hallmark of rhodopsin proton pumps, are conserved in these cryptophyte proteins. We expressed the corresponding polynucleotides in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and studied electrogenic properties of the encoded proteins with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. Despite their lack of residues characteristic of the chlorophyte cation channels, these proteins are cation-conducting channelrhodopsins that carry out light-gated passive transport of Na(+) and H(+). These findings show that channel function in rhodopsins has evolved via multiple routes. PMID:27233115

  1. Radiation chemistry of aromatic dimer radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    π-π Interactions of aromatic molecules are paid attention much in many fields, especially biology, chemistry, and applied physics, represented as protein, DNA, electron donor-accepter complexes, charge transfers, and self assembly molecules. Aromatic molecules including benzene rings are the simplest case to study the π-π interactions. To interpret the charge resonance (CR) structure in the dimer radical cations, spectroscopic and ESR methods have been carried out. The spectroscopic study on the dimer radical ion of molecules with two chromophores would be profitable to identify the electronic and configurational properties. In this article, dynamics of the dimer radical cation of benzenes, polystyrenes, and resist polymers is described on the basis of direct observation of CR band by the nanosecond pulse radiolysis and low temperature γ-radiolysis methods. (author)

  2. Mechanism of adsorption of cations onto rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption behavior of cations onto granite was investigated. The distribution coefficient (Kd) of Sr2+ and Ba2+ onto granite was determined in the solution of which pH was ranged from 3.5 to 11.3 and ionic strength was set at 10-2 and 10-1. The Kd values were found to increase with increasing pH and with deceasing ionic strength. The obtained data were successfully analyzed by applying an electrical double layer model. The optimum parameter values of the double layer electrostatics and adsorption reactions were obtained, and the mechanism of adsorption of cations onto granite was discussed. Feldspar was found to play an important role in their adsorption. (author)

  3. Planar Chiral, Ferrocene-Stabilized Silicon Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth K; Klare, Hendrik F T; Fröhlich, Roland; Oestreich, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The preparation of a series of planar chiral, ferrocenyl-substituted hydrosilanes as precursors of ferrocene-stabilized silicon cations is described. These molecules also feature stereogenicity at the silicon atom. The generation and (29) Si NMR spectroscopic characterization of the corresponding silicon cations is reported, and problems arising from interactions of the electron-deficient silicon atom and adjacent C(sp(3) )-H bonds or aromatic π donors are discussed. These issues are overcome by tethering another substituent at the silicon atom to the ferrocene backbone. The resulting annulation also imparts conformational rigidity and steric hindrance in such a way that the central chirality at the silicon atom is set with complete diastereocontrol. These chiral Lewis acid catalysts were then tested in difficult Diels-Alder reactions, but no enantioinduction was seen. PMID:26929105

  4. Ultrafast dynamics of water in cationic micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J

    2007-03-28

    The effect of confinement on the dynamical properties of liquid water is investigated for water enclosed in cationic reverse micelles. The authors performed mid-infrared ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy on the OH-stretch vibration of isotopically diluted HDO in D(2)O in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelles of various sizes. The authors observe that the surfactant counterions are inhomogeneously distributed throughout the reverse micelle, and that regions of extreme salinity occur near the interfacial Stern layer. The authors find that the water molecules in the core of the micelles show similar orientational dynamics as bulk water, and that water molecules in the counterion-rich interfacial region are much less mobile. An explicit comparison is made with the dynamics of water confined in anionic sodium bis(2-ethythexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles. The authors find that interfacial water in cationic CTAB reverse micelles has a higher orientational mobility than water in anionic AOT reverse micelles. PMID:17411144

  5. Ultrafast dynamics of water in cationic micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; Woutersen, Sander; Bakker, Huib J.

    2007-03-01

    The effect of confinement on the dynamical properties of liquid water is investigated for water enclosed in cationic reverse micelles. The authors performed mid-infrared ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy on the OH-stretch vibration of isotopically diluted HDO in D2O in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) reverse micelles of various sizes. The authors observe that the surfactant counterions are inhomogeneously distributed throughout the reverse micelle, and that regions of extreme salinity occur near the interfacial Stern layer. The authors find that the water molecules in the core of the micelles show similar orientational dynamics as bulk water, and that water molecules in the counterion-rich interfacial region are much less mobile. An explicit comparison is made with the dynamics of water confined in anionic sodium bis(2-ethythexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles. The authors find that interfacial water in cationic CTAB reverse micelles has a higher orientational mobility than water in anionic AOT reverse micelles.

  6. Proton dynamics investigation for dimethyl ammonium cation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton dynamics in dimethyl ammonium cation has been investigated by means of NMR and spin echo methods in polycrystalline salts [NH2(CH3)2]+Bi2J9- and [NH2(CH3)2]+SbJ9-. Spin-lattice relaxation time as well as second moment of NMR line have been measured for influence study of crystal structure changes on proton dynamics

  7. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  8. Rabbit cationic protein enhances leukocyte adhesiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Oseas, R S; Allen, J; Yang, H. H.; Baehner, R. L.; Boxer, L A

    1981-01-01

    Cationic protein purified from rabbit peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was demonstrated to incite autoaggregation of the rabbit PMN and promote adhesiveness of human PMN to endothelial cells. PMN aggregation induced by supernatants derived from secretory PMN was blocked by a specific anticationic protein antibody. These studies reveal that a positively charged protein derived from the PMN can alter surface properties of the PMN itself and imply a role for this protein in PMN immo...

  9. MicroRNA-mediated signal amplification coupled with GNP/dendrimers on a mass-sensitive biosensor and its applications in intracellular microRNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingshu; Wang, Yujie; Yang, Guangxu; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2016-11-15

    Here, a mass-sensitive microRNA sensing surface is developed by utilizing a probe DNA/gold nanoparticles (GNP)/dendrimer composite coupling with an enzymatic amplification process. The probe DNA/GNP/dendrimer composite is prepared via the covalent coupling between the NH2 groups in PAMAM or DNA and the COOH group on GNP. Target microRNA binds to a stem-loop-structured DNA on maganatic NPs, forming a heteroduplex. By enzyme recycling amplification, a large number of linker sequences are produced on MNPs. Via the combination of probe DNA, the linker DNA on MNPs and a capture DNA on gold chip, the DNA/GNP/dendrimer probe could be assembled on the surface of gold chip inducing a sensitive frequency response. It presents an excellent performance in microRNA-203 quantification with a detection linear range of 1.0×10(-11)-1.0×10(-9)M. Both the success in discriminating expressing miroRNA-203 in MCF-7 cell and the well agreement with the commercial qRT-PCR detection method implied its potential application in early cancer diagnosis for future. PMID:27311115

  10. The Preparation and Application of Dendrimer Modified CdTe/CdS Near Infrared Quantum Dots for Brain Cancer Cells Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The most notable obstacle of brain cancer diagnosis is the inability of delivering imaging agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Recently, quantum dots (QDs has been demonstrated as an ideal image agent for brain imaging due to their ultra-small size for crossing BBB. The plolyamidoamine dendrimers modified CdTe/CdS core/shell near-infrared (NIR region QDs was successfully synthesized in aqueous solution, and then was characterized by UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM, etc. Our results reveal that the dendrimers modified CdTe/CdS QDs exhibits good water-dispersity and stable NIR fluorescence in various biological environments. In addition, this NIR QDs demonstrates a good biocompatibility and sensitive photoluminescence responses in brain tumor cell imaging. In a word, this type of dendrimers modified NIR CdTe/CdS QDs has huge potential applications in brain imaging.

  11. Ultra-small lipid-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticles as a promising strategy for antibiotic delivery: In vitro and in silico studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Sandeep J; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Rambharose, Sanjeev; Mocktar, Chunderika; Vepuri, Suresh B; Soliman, Mahmoud; Govender, Thirumala

    2016-05-17

    The purpose of this study was to explore the preparation of a new lipid-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticle (LDHN) system to effectively deliver vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Spherical LDHNs with particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 52.21±0.22nm, 0.105±0.01, and -14.2±1.49mV respectively were prepared by hot stirring and ultrasonication using Compritol 888 ATO, G4 PAMAM- succinamic acid dendrimer, and Kolliphor RH-40. Vancomycin encapsulation efficiency (%) in LDHNs was almost 4.5-fold greater than in lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles formulated using Eudragit RS 100. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform-infrared studies confirmed the formation of LDHNs. The interactions between the drug-dendrimer complex and lipid molecules using in silico modeling revealed the molecular mechanism behind the enhanced encapsulation and stability. Vancomycin was released from LDHNs over the period of 72h with zero order kinetics and super case II transport mechanism. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against S. aureus and MRSA were 15.62μg/ml and 7.81μg/ml respectively. Formulation showed sustained activity with MIC of 62.5μg/ml against S. aureus and 500μg/ml against MRSA at the end of 72 and 54h period respectively. The results suggest that the LDHN system can be an effective strategy to combat resistant infections. PMID:26992817

  12. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayanna; S R Mahadeva Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the task of identifying the speaker using limited training and testing data is addressed. Speaker identification system is viewed as four stages namely, analysis, feature extraction, modelling and testing. The speaker identification performance depends on the techniques employed in these stages. As demonstrated by different experiments, in case of limited training and testing data condition, owing to less data, existing techniques in each stage will not provide good performance. This work demonstrates the following: multiple frame size and rate (MFSR) analysis provides improvement in the analysis stage, combination of mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), its temporal derivatives $(\\Delta,\\Delta \\Delta)$, linear prediction residual (LPR) and linear prediction residual phase (LPRP) features provides improvement in the feature extraction stage and combination of learning vector quantization (LVQ) and gaussian mixture model – universal background model (GMM–UBM) provides improvement in the modelling stage. The performance is further improved by integrating the proposed techniques at the respective stages and combining the evidences from them at the testing stage. To achieve this, we propose strength voting (SV), weighted borda count (WBC) and supporting systems (SS) as combining methods at the abstract, rank and measurement levels, respectively. Finally, the proposed hierarchical combination (HC) method integrating these three methods provides significant improvement in the performance. Based on these explorations, this work proposes a scheme for speaker identification under limited training and testing data.

  13. Low cation coordination in oxide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Lawrie [State University of New York, Stony Brook; Benmore, Chris J [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Du, Jincheng [University of North Texas; Weber, Richard [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Tumber, Sonia [Materials Development, Inc., Evanston, IL; Parise, John B [Stony Brook University (SUNY)

    2014-01-01

    The complete set of Faber-Ziman partial pair distribution functions for a rare earth oxide liquid were measured for the first time by combining aerodynamic levitation, neutron diffraction, high energy x-ray diffraction and isomorphic substitution using Y2 O3 and Ho2 O3 melts. The average Y- O coordination is measured to be 5.5(2), which is significantly less than the octahedral coordination of crystalline Y2 O3 (or Ho2 O3 ). Investigation of high temperature La2 O3 , ZrO2 , SiO2 , and Al2 O3 melts by x-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations also show lower-than-crystal cation- oxygen coordination. These measurements suggest a general trend towards lower M-O coordination compared to their crystalline counterparts. It is found that this coordination number drop is larger for lower field strength, larger radius cations and is negligible for high field strength (network forming) cations. These findings have broad implications for predicting the local structure and related physical properties of metal-oxide melts and oxide glasses.

  14. Cation-Exchange Equilibria with Fused Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solute distributions of alkali metal, alkaline- earth, transition metal, and actinide ions have been studied in fused salt-cation exchanger systems. The fused salts employed were alkali halides and nitrates. The cation exchangers used were natural zeolites, synthetic zeolites, high-porosity glasses, and molten oxide mixtures. The molten exchangers were composed of Na2O and B2O3 in various proportions. The relative quantities not only determined the exchanger capacity and electrolyte penetration but also produced distribution coefficients for a given solute which varied over several orders of magnitude. Moreover, they produced marked reversals in the selectivity series. Additional studies on the anion distributions, miscibility diagrams, vapour pressures and diffusion rates in these systems have elucidated the mechanisms involved and the relation of selectivity to solute properties, system thermodynamics, exchanger structure and available functional groups. In the region of high Na2O composition, the distribution coefficients for mono-, di- and trivalent cations in NaCl have not only the same order of selectivity found in Dowex 50-HCl systems but also similar values for the distribution coefficients. The results are summarized qualitatively and compared to behaviour in aqueous systems (Table VII). (author)

  15. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  16. POSS基树枝状大分子的合成与应用%Synthesis and Application of Dendrimers Based on Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚敏; 王嘉骏; 顾雪萍; 冯连芳

    2012-01-01

    Dendrimer is one type of macromolecules with well-defined, highly-branched and nano-scaled architectures, composed of three distinct domains: core, branches and terminal groups. Its potential functions and applications are explored based on the unique physical and chemical features due to special molecular architecture. Using polyhedral oligomerie silsesquioxanes (POSS) as the core of dendrimers is an effective and facile way to simplify the tedious repetitive steps of preparation and separation. Since POSS allows eight branches to radiate from a silicon-oxygen rigid cubic core, the dendrimers can be constructed in a well-controlled globular, three- dimensional framework, and large numbers of peripheral groups can be obtained at relatively low generation numbers. As a kind of novel nano-hybrid supermolecules, POSS-based dendrimers have attracted considerable interest in materials science. In this review, we briefly introduce the synthetic approaches of some typical POSS- based dendrimers categorized by the different chemical composition of branching units, and then focus on the potential functions and applications of this nano-hybrid material in the fields of catalysis, gene and drug delivery, liquid crystals, light harvesting and energy transfer. The specific and excellent properties imparted by the incorporation of POSS into dendrimers are also presented. Finally, the advances of POSS-based dendrimers are prospected.%树枝状大分子(dendrimer)是一种高度支化、纳米尺度的人工合成大分子,具有独特的物理化学性能和重要的应用前景。利用具有8个可官能化顶点的多面体低聚倍半硅氧烷(POSS)作为树枝状大分子的核心,可在一定程度上简化树枝状大分子繁琐的合成与分离过程,在低代数时就可获得较大的表面官能团密度,并使树枝状分子呈现球形对称结构。POSS基树枝状大分子结合了POSS和树枝状分子结构与性能的优势,是一类

  17. Inorganic magnetic support for sodium cation scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different magnetic iron oxide-silica matrices with polyoxaalkyl units have been obtained in a multi-step synthesis. The structures of the matrices were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while their surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The scavenging ability was studied by ultraviolet-visible measurements. The results demonstrate very good scavenging efficiency of compounds studied against sodium cations (Na+). The complexing abilities of the magnetic iron oxide-silica surfaces were compared with those of the previously studied analogously modified non-magnetic silica surfaces.

  18. Aggregate Formed by a Cationic Fluorescence Probe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN, Juan; SANG, Da-Yong; JI, Guo-Zhen

    2007-01-01

    The aggregation behavior of a cationic fluorescence probe 10-(4,7,10,13,16-pentaoxa-1-azacyclooctadecyl-methyl)anthracen-9-ylmethyl dodecanoate (1) was observed and studied by a fluorescence methodology in acidic and neutral conditions. By using the Py scale, differences between simple aggregates and micelles have been discussed. The stability of simple aggregates was discussed in terms of hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. The absence of excimer emission of the anthrancene moiety of probe 1 in neutral condition was attributed to the photoinduced electron transfer mechanism instead of photodimerization.

  19. Mobility of cations in magnesium aluminate spinel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, J.R.; Sonder, E.; Weeks, R.A.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1986-04-15

    Transport of cations in magnesium aluminate spinel due to an applied electric field at approximately 1000 /sup 0/C has been measured by observing changes in elemental concentrations near the cathode and anode surfaces using ion backscattering techniques. The results indicate that magnesium ions are the mobile species at 1000 /sup 0/C and that these ions combine with ambient oxygen at the cathode surface to form a MgO layer. Quantitative interpretation of the data leads to the conclusion that the ionic transference number of spinel becomes approximately 0.5 after treatment in an electric field.

  20. Mobility of cations in magnesium aluminate spinel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of cations in magnesium aluminate spinel due to an applied electric field at approximately 1000 0C has been measured by observing changes in elemental concentrations near the cathode and anode surfaces using ion backscattering techniques. The results indicate that magnesium ions are the mobile species at 1000 0C and that these ions combine with ambient oxygen at the cathode surface to form a MgO layer. Quantitative interpretation of the data leads to the conclusion that the ionic transference number of spinel becomes approximately 0.5 after treatment in an electric field