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Sample records for cation-dependent o-methyltransferase involved

  1. Characterization and structure of DhpI, a phosphonate O-methyltransferase involved in dehydrophos biosynthesis

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    Lee, Jin-Hee; Bae, Brian; Kuemin, Michael; Circello, Benjamin T.; Metcalf, William W.; Nair, Satish K.; van der Donk, Wilfred A. (UIUC)

    2012-03-15

    Phosphonate natural products possess a range of biological activities as a consequence of their ability to mimic phosphate esters or tetrahedral intermediates formed in enzymatic reactions involved in carboxyl group metabolism. The dianionic form of these compounds at pH 7 poses a drawback with respect to their ability to mimic carboxylates and tetrahedral intermediates. Microorganisms producing phosphonates have evolved two solutions to overcome this hurdle: biosynthesis of monoanionic phosphinates containing two P-C bonds or esterification of the phosphonate group. The latter solution was first discovered for the antibiotic dehydrophos that contains a methyl ester of a phosphonodehydroalanine group. We report here the expression, purification, substrate scope, and structure of the O-methyltransferase from the dehydrophos biosynthetic gene cluster. The enzyme utilizes S-adenosylmethionine to methylate a variety of phosphonates including 1-hydroxyethylphosphonate, 1,2-dihydroxyethylphosphonate, and acetyl-1-aminoethylphosphonate. Kinetic analysis showed that the best substrates are tripeptides containing as C-terminal residue a phosphonate analog of alanine suggesting the enzyme acts late in the biosynthesis of dehydrophos. These conclusions are corroborated by the X-ray structure that reveals an active site that can accommodate a tripeptide substrate. Furthermore, the structural studies demonstrate a conformational change brought about by substrate or product binding. Interestingly, the enzyme has low substrate specificity and was used to methylate the clinical antibiotic fosfomycin and the antimalaria clinical candidate fosmidomycin, showing its promise for applications in bioengineering.

  2. Methylation mediated by an anthocyanin, O-methyltransferase, is involved in purple flower coloration in Paeonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Wu, Jie; Ji, Kui-Xian; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Su, Shang; Shu, Qing-Yan; Ren, Hong-Xu; Liu, Zheng-An; Wang, Liang-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanins are major pigments in plants. Methylation plays a role in the diversity and stability of anthocyanins. However, the contribution of anthocyanin methylation to flower coloration is still unclear. We identified two homologous anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT) genes from purple-flowered (PsAOMT) and red-flowered (PtAOMT) Paeonia plants, and we performed functional analyses of the two genes in vitro and in vivo. The critical amino acids for AOMT catalytic activity were studied by site-directed mutagenesis. We showed that the recombinant proteins, PsAOMT and PtAOMT, had identical substrate preferences towards anthocyanins. The methylation activity of PsAOMT was 60 times higher than that of PtAOMT in vitro. Interestingly, this vast difference in catalytic activity appeared to result from a single amino acid residue substitution at position 87 (arginine to leucine). There were significant differences between the 35S::PsAOMT transgenic tobacco and control flowers in relation to their chromatic parameters, which further confirmed the function of PsAOMT in vivo. The expression levels of the two homologous AOMT genes were consistent with anthocyanin accumulation in petals. We conclude that AOMTs are responsible for the methylation of cyanidin glycosides in Paeonia plants and play an important role in purple coloration in Paeonia spp. PMID:26208646

  3. Cloning and characterization of a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the Alzheimer's drug galanthamine in Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Matthew B; Augustin, Megan M; Starks, Courtney M; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; May, Gregory D; Crow, John A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2014-01-01

    Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This compound is primarily isolated from daffodil (Narcissus spp.), snowdrop (Galanthus spp.), and summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum). Despite its importance as a medicine, no genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of galanthamine have been identified. This absence of genetic information on biosynthetic pathways is a limiting factor in the development of synthetic biology platforms for many important botanical medicines. The paucity of information is largely due to the limitations of traditional methods for finding biochemical pathway enzymes and genes in non-model organisms. A new bioinformatic approach using several recent technological improvements was applied to search for genes in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway, first targeting methyltransferases due to strong signature amino acid sequences in the proteins. Using Illumina sequencing, a de novo transcriptome assembly was constructed for daffodil. BLAST was used to identify sequences that contain signatures for plant O-methyltransferases in this transcriptome. The program HAYSTACK was then used to identify methyltransferases that fit a model for galanthamine biosynthesis in leaf, bulb and inflorescence tissues. One candidate gene for the methylation of norbelladine to 4'-O-methylnorbelladine in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway was identified. This methyltransferase cDNA was expressed in E. coli and the protein purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein was found to be a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase (NpN4OMT) of the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the Alzheimer's drug galanthamine in Narcissus sp. aff. pseudonarcissus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Kilgore

    Full Text Available Galanthamine is an Amaryllidaceae alkaloid used to treat the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. This compound is primarily isolated from daffodil (Narcissus spp., snowdrop (Galanthus spp., and summer snowflake (Leucojum aestivum. Despite its importance as a medicine, no genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of galanthamine have been identified. This absence of genetic information on biosynthetic pathways is a limiting factor in the development of synthetic biology platforms for many important botanical medicines. The paucity of information is largely due to the limitations of traditional methods for finding biochemical pathway enzymes and genes in non-model organisms. A new bioinformatic approach using several recent technological improvements was applied to search for genes in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway, first targeting methyltransferases due to strong signature amino acid sequences in the proteins. Using Illumina sequencing, a de novo transcriptome assembly was constructed for daffodil. BLAST was used to identify sequences that contain signatures for plant O-methyltransferases in this transcriptome. The program HAYSTACK was then used to identify methyltransferases that fit a model for galanthamine biosynthesis in leaf, bulb and inflorescence tissues. One candidate gene for the methylation of norbelladine to 4'-O-methylnorbelladine in the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway was identified. This methyltransferase cDNA was expressed in E. coli and the protein purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein was found to be a norbelladine 4'-O-methyltransferase (NpN4OMT of the proposed galanthamine biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Catechol-O-methyltransferase in vitiligo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Poole, I. C.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Smit, N. P.; Oosting, J.; Westerhof, W.; Pavel, S.

    1994-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine. For melanocytes, the enzyme is of particular importance in preventing the formation of toxic o-quinones during melanin synthesis. It has been suggested that COMT

  6. Molecular Basis of Substrate Promiscuity for the SAM-Dependent O-Methyltransferase NcsB1, Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic Neocarzinostatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, H.; Guenther, E; Luo, Y; Shen, B; Bruner, S

    2009-01-01

    The small molecule component of chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotics is biosynthesized through a convergent route, incorporating amino acid, polyketide, and carbohydrate building blocks around a central enediyne hydrocarbon core. The naphthoic acid moiety of the enediyne neocarzinostatin plays key roles in the biological activity of the natural product by interacting with both the carrier protein and duplex DNA at the site of action. We have previously described the in vitro characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase (NcsB1) in the neocarzinostatin biosynthetic pathway [Luo, Y., Lin, S., Zhang, J., Cooke, H. A., Bruner, S. D., and Shen, B. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 14694-14702]. Here we provide a structural basis for NcsB1 activity, illustrating that the enzyme shares an overall architecture with a large family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent proteins. In addition, NcsB1 represents the first enzyme to be structurally characterized in the biosynthetic pathway of neocarzinostatin. By cocrystallizing the enzyme with various combinations of the cofactor and substrate analogues, details of the active site structure have been established. Changes in subdomain orientation were observed via comparison of structures in the presence and absence of substrate, suggesting that reorientation of the enzyme is involved in binding of the substrate. In addition, residues important for substrate discrimination were predicted and probed through site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical characterization.

  7. Evolution of novel O-methyltransferases from the Vanilla planifolia caffeic acid O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaijun Michael; Rotter, David; Hartman, Thomas G; Pak, Fulya E; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2006-06-01

    The biosynthesis of many plant secondary compounds involves the methylation of one or more hydroxyl groups, catalyzed by O-methyltransferases (OMTs). Here, we report the characterization of two OMTs, Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3, from the orchid Vanilla planifolia Andrews. These enzymes catalyze the methylation of a single outer hydroxyl group in substrates possessing a 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene moiety, such as methyl gallate and myricetin. This is a substrate requirement not previously reported for any OMTs. Based on sequence analysis these enzymes are most similar to caffeic acid O-methyltransferases (COMTs), but they have negligible activity with typical COMT substrates. Seven of 12 conserved substrate-binding residues in COMTs are altered in Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences suggests that Van OMT-2 and Van OMT-3 evolved from the V. planifolia COMT. These V. planifolia OMTs are new instances of COMT-like enzymes with novel substrate preferences.

  8. Structural characterization of the mitomycin 7-O-methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shanteri; Chang, Aram; Goff, Randal D.; Bingman, Craig A.; Grüschow, Sabine; Sherman, David H.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Thorson, Jon S. (Michigan); (UW)

    2014-10-02

    Mitomycins are quinone-containing antibiotics, widely used as antitumor drugs in chemotherapy. Mitomycin-7-O-methyltransferase (MmcR), a key tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of mitomycin in Streptomyces lavendulae, catalyzes the 7-O-methylation of both C9{beta}- and C9{alpha}-configured 7-hydroxymitomycins. We have determined the crystal structures of the MmcR-S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) binary complex and MmcR-SAH-mitomycin A (MMA) ternary complex at resolutions of 1.9 and 2.3 {angstrom}, respectively. The study revealed MmcR to adopt a common S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase fold and the presence of a structurally conserved active site general acid-base pair is consistent with a proton-assisted methyltransfer common to most methyltransferases. Given the importance of C7 alkylation to modulate mitomycin redox potential, this study may also present a template toward the future engineering of catalysts to generate uniquely bioactive mitomycins.

  9. Monolignol 4-O-methyltransferases and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Bhuiya, Mohammad-Wadud; Zhang, Kewei

    2014-11-18

    Modified (iso)eugenol 4-O-methyltransferase enzymes having novel capacity for methylation of monolignols and reduction of lignin polymerization in plant cell wall are disclosed. Sequences encoding the modified enzymes are disclosed.

  10. Polymorphisms in O-methyltransferase genes are associated with stover cell wall digestibility in European maize (Zea mays L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Everton A; Zein, Imad; Chen, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    Background OMT (O-methyltransferase) genes are involved in lignin biosynthesis, which relates to stover cell wall digestibility. Reduced lignin content is an important determinant of both forage quality and ethanol conversion efficiency of maize stover. Results Variation in genomic sequences coding...

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, dopamine, and sleep-wake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Tafti, Mehdi; Landolt, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    Sleep and sleep disorders are complex and highly variable phenotypes regulated by many genes and environment. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is an interesting candidate, being one of the major mammalian enzymes involved in the catabolism of catecholamines. The activity of COMT enzyme is genetically polymorphic due to a guanine-to-adenine transition at codon 158, resulting in a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution. Individuals homozygous for the Val allele show higher COMT activity, and lower dopaminergic signaling in prefrontal cortex (PFC) than subjects homozygous for the Met allele. Since COMT has a crucial role in metabolising dopamine, it was suggested that the common functional polymorphism in the COMT gene impacts on cognitive function related to PFC, sleep-wake regulation, and potentially on sleep pathologies. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may predict inter-individual differences in brain electroencephalography (EEG) alpha oscillations and recovery processes resulting from partial sleep loss in healthy individuals. The Val158Met polymorphism also exerts a sexual dimorphism and has a strong effect on objective daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Since the COMT enzyme inactivates catecholamines, it was hypothesized that the response to stimulant drugs differs between COMT genotypes. Modafinil maintained executive functioning performance and vigilant attention throughout sleep deprivation in subjects with Val/Val genotype, but less in those with Met/Met genotype. Also, homozygous Met/Met patients with narcolepsy responded to lower doses of modafinil compared to Val/Val carriers. We review here the critical role of the common functional COMT gene polymorphism, COMT enzyme activity, and the prefrontal dopamine levels in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness in normal subjects, in narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders, and its impact on the response to psychostimulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase, Cognition and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Strac, Dubravka Svob; Tudor, Lucija; Konjevod, Marcela; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Pivac, Nela

    2018-03-14

    Cognition is a complex trait representing a set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge. Although diverse brain regions are involved, most cognitive processes appear to engage cortical regions. The activity of dopaminergic neurons in prefrontal cortex represents a biological substrate underlying cognitive functions. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most frequent dementia associated with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairment in AD starts slowly with discrete deterioration in memory, language, thinking and reasoning, but it progresses into more severe and debilitating cognitive dysfunction. Cognitive function is affected by the complex interactions between various genetic, epigenetic, developmental and environmental factors. One of the most studied genes, associated with cognitive disturbances, is the gene coding for Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the enzyme with major role in dopamine metabolism and modulation of different brain functions. Therefore, COMT is studied as a target for many neuropsychiatric disorders, including dementias and AD. The COMT Val158/108Met functional polymorphism affects significantly the enzyme activity and consequently cognitive performance associated with altered dopamine function. The association of COMT Val158/108Met polymorphism with some cognitive domains and psychosis in AD was reported in some but not in all studies. Besides COMT Val158/108Met polymorphism, other risk genotypes or haplotypes should be evaluated to determine the association of COMT with cognitive decline in AD. Better understanding of the role of COMT in cognitive processes in AD, as well as integration of neurobiological, genetic, genomic and epigenetic data, might help in developing new potential therapies of cognitive impairments and psychotic symptoms, characteristic features of AD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Plant isoflavone and isoflavanone O-methyltransferase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Liu, Chang-Jun; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-19

    The invention provides enzymes that encode O-methyltransferases (OMTs) from Medicago truncatula that allow modification to plant (iso)flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. In certain aspects of the invention, the genes encoding these enzymes are provided. The invention therefore allows the modification of plants for isoflavonoid content. Transgenic plants comprising such enzymes are also provided, as well as methods for improving disease resistance in plants. Methods for producing food and nutraceuticals, and the resulting compositions, are also provided.

  14. Hypnotizability and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT polymorphysms in Italians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano ePresciuttini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher brain dopamine content depending on lower activity of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT in subjects with high hypnotisability scores (highs has been considered responsible for their attentional characteristics. However, the results of the previous genetic studies on association between hypnotisability and the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4680 (Val158Met were inconsistent. Here, we used a selective genotyping approach to re-evaluate the association between hypnotisability and COMT in the context of a two-SNP haplotype analysis, considering not only the Val158Met polymorphism, but also the closely located rs4818 SNP. An Italian sample of 53 highs, 49 low hypnotizable subjects (lows and 57 controls, were genotyped for a segment of 805 bp of the COMT gene, including Val158Met and the closely located rs4818 SNP. Our selective genotyping approach had 97.1% power to detect the previously reported strongest association at the significance level of 5%. We found no evidence of association at the SNP, haplotype and diplotype levels. Thus, our results challenge the dopamine-based theory of hypnosis and indirectly support recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings reporting the lack of any association between hypnotisability and focused attention abilities.

  15. Analysis of Oxidative Stress Status, Catalase and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Polymorphisms in Egyptian Vitiligo Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehaney, Dina A.; Darwish, Hebatallah A.; Hegazy, Rehab A.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Tawdy, Amira M.; Gawdat, Heba I.; El-Sawalhi, Maha M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin. Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the probable events involved in vitiligo pathogenesis possibly contributing to melanocyte destruction. Evidence indicates that certain genes including those involved in oxidative stress and melanin synthesis are crucial for development of vitiligo. This study evaluates the oxidative stress status, the role of catalase (CAT) and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptians. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as well as CAT exon 9 T/C and COMT 158 G/A polymorphisms were determined in 89 patients and 90 age and sex-matched controls. Our results showed significantly lower TAC along with higher MDA levels in vitiligo patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, genotype and allele distributions of CAT and COMT polymorphisms in cases were not significantly different from those of controls. Moreover, we found no association between both polymorphisms and vitiligo susceptibility. In conclusion, the enhanced oxidative stress with the lack of association between CAT and COMT polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo in our patients suggest that mutations in other genes related to the oxidative pathway might contribute to the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptian population. PMID:24915010

  16. Analysis of oxidative stress status, catalase and catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphisms in Egyptian vitiligo patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Mehaney

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin. Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the probable events involved in vitiligo pathogenesis possibly contributing to melanocyte destruction. Evidence indicates that certain genes including those involved in oxidative stress and melanin synthesis are crucial for development of vitiligo. This study evaluates the oxidative stress status, the role of catalase (CAT and catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms in the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptians. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA levels as well as CAT exon 9 T/C and COMT 158 G/A polymorphisms were determined in 89 patients and 90 age and sex-matched controls. Our results showed significantly lower TAC along with higher MDA levels in vitiligo patients compared with controls. Meanwhile, genotype and allele distributions of CAT and COMT polymorphisms in cases were not significantly different from those of controls. Moreover, we found no association between both polymorphisms and vitiligo susceptibility. In conclusion, the enhanced oxidative stress with the lack of association between CAT and COMT polymorphisms and susceptibility to vitiligo in our patients suggest that mutations in other genes related to the oxidative pathway might contribute to the etiology of generalized vitiligo in Egyptian population.

  17. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of O-Methyltransferase from Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica cv. Alphonso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidley, Hemangi G; Oak, Pranjali S; Deshpande, Ashish B; Pujari, Keshav H; Giri, Ashok P; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-05-01

    Flavour of ripe Alphonso mango is invariably dominated by the de novo appearance of lactones and furanones during ripening. Of these, furanones comprising furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone) are of particular importance due to their sweet, fruity caramel-like flavour characters and low odour detection thresholds. We isolated a 1056 bp complete open reading frame of a cDNA encoding S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferase from Alphonso mango. The recombinantly expressed enzyme, MiOMTS showed substrate specificity towards furaneol and protocatechuic aldehyde synthesizing mesifuran and vanillin, respectively, in an in vitro assay reaction. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis showed fruit-specific expression of MiOMTS transcripts. Quantitative real-time PCR displayed ripening-related expression pattern of MiOMTS in both pulp and skin of Alphonso mango. Also, early and significantly enhanced accumulation of its transcripts was detected in pulp and skin of ethylene-treated fruits. Ripening-related and fruit-specific expression profile of MiOMTS and substrate specificity towards furaneol is a suggestive of its involvement in the synthesis of mesifuran in Alphonso mango. Moreover, a significant trigger in the expression of MiOMTS transcripts in ethylene-treated fruits point towards the transcriptional regulation of mesifuran biosynthesis by ethylene.

  18. A Highly Specific O-Methyltransferase for Nororientaline Synthesis Isolated from Argemone platyceras Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueffer, M; Nagakura, N; Zenk, M H

    1983-12-01

    A highly specific new enzyme, S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (6-O-methyl-norlaudanosoline)-5'-O-methyltransferase which catalyses the formation of nor-orientaline from 6-O-methyl-norlaudanosoline and SAM was discovered, partially purified, and characterized. ARGEMONE PLATYCERAS cell suspension cultures served as enzyme source.

  19. Methyl Transfer in Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Mediated by Indole Glucosinolate O-Methyltransferase 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfalz, Marina; Mukhaimar, Maisara; Perreau, François; Kirk, Jayne; Hansen, Cecilie Ida Cetti; Olsen, Carl Erik; Agerbirk, Niels; Kroymann, Juergen

    2016-12-01

    Indole glucosinolates (IGs) are plant secondary metabolites that are derived from the amino acid tryptophan. The product of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) IG core biosynthesis, indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (I3M), can be modified by hydroxylation and subsequent methoxylation of the indole ring in position 1 (1-IG modification) or 4 (4-IG modification). Products of the 4-IG modification pathway mediate plant-enemy interactions and are particularly important for Arabidopsis innate immunity. While CYP81Fs encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and IGMTs encoding indole glucosinolate O-methyltransferases have been identified as key genes for IG modification, our knowledge about the IG modification pathways is not complete. In particular, it is unknown which enzyme is responsible for methyl transfer in the 1-IG modification pathway and whether this pathway plays a role in defense, similar to 4-IG modification. Here, we analyze two Arabidopsis transfer DNA insertion lines with targeted metabolomics. We show that biosynthesis of 1-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (1MOI3M) from I3M involves the predicted unstable intermediate 1-hydroxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (1OHI3M) and that IGMT5, a gene with moderate similarity to previously characterized IGMTs, encodes the methyltransferase that is responsible for the conversion of 1OHI3M to 1MOI3M. Disruption of IGMT5 function increases resistance against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and suggests a potential role for the 1-IG modification pathway in Arabidopsis belowground defense. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a catechol-O-methyltransferase/inhibitor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M. L.; Bonifácio, M. J.; Soares-da-Silva, P.; Carrondo, M. A.; Archer, M.

    2004-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase has been co-crystallized with a novel inhibitor, which has potential therapeutic application in the Parkinson’s disease therapy. Inhibitors of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are used as co-adjuvants in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease. A recombinant form of the soluble cytosolic COMT from rat has been co-crystallized with a new potent inhibitor, BIA 8-176 [(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)phenylmethanone], by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6K as precipitant. Crystals diffract to 1.6 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.77, b = 79.63, c = 61.54 Å, β = 91.14°

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a catechol-O-methyltransferase/inhibitor complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M. L. [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. República, Apt. 127, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal); Bonifácio, M. J.; Soares-da-Silva, P. [Department of Research and Development, BIAL, 4785 S. Mamede do Coronado (Portugal); Carrondo, M. A.; Archer, M., E-mail: archer@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica (ITQB), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. República, Apt. 127, 2781-901 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2005-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase has been co-crystallized with a novel inhibitor, which has potential therapeutic application in the Parkinson’s disease therapy. Inhibitors of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are used as co-adjuvants in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease. A recombinant form of the soluble cytosolic COMT from rat has been co-crystallized with a new potent inhibitor, BIA 8-176 [(3,4-dihydroxy-2-nitrophenyl)phenylmethanone], by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6K as precipitant. Crystals diffract to 1.6 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.77, b = 79.63, c = 61.54 Å, β = 91.14°.

  2. Catecholamine-o-methyltransferase polymorphisms are associated with postoperative pain intensity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Peter J

    2011-02-01

    single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes for catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT), μ-opioid receptor and GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1) have been linked to acute and chronic pain states. COMT polymorphisms are associated with experimental pain sensitivity and a chronic pain state. No such association has been identified perioperatively. We carried out a prospective observational clinical trial to examine associations between these parameters and the development of postoperative pain in patients undergoing third molar (M3) extraction.

  3. Determination of free and conjugated catecholamines and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in plasma and urine: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor in uraemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demassieux, S.; Corneille, L.; Lachance, S.; Carriere, S.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive, accurate and reproducible method has been developed for the determination of free and conjugated catecholamines and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine in plasma and urine. The assay involves the enzymatic conversion of these compounds to their radio-labelled O-methylated derivatives using catechol-O-methyltransferase and S-adenosyl-L-[methyl- 3 H]methionine. Recoveries of 75 +- 5% for dopamine, 70 +- 5% for adrenaline and 65 +- 5% for noradrenaline were obtained. The sensitivities were 0.5 pg for adrenaline and noradrenaline and 5-7 pg for dopamine and dihydroxyphenylalanine. Measurements of conjugated catecholamines were performed after mild acid hydrolysis for 20 min at 95 0 C. During this procedure no degradation of the catecholamines was observed. This assay led to the discovery of a dialyzable factor in the plasma of chronic uraemic patients which inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in vitro. The mean 22% inhibition observed for unhydrolyzed plasma increased to 42% after hydrolysis. The identity of this inhibitor which exists as an inactive conjugated form, probably a sulphate ester, and its implication in physiopathological disorders remain to be established. (Auth.)

  4. Genetic contribution of catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism (Val158Met) in children with chronic tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Rivas-Martínez, Inés; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between Val158Met polymorphisms, headache, and pressure hypersensitivity in children with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control study with blinded assessor was conducted. Seventy children with CTTH associated with pericranial tenderness and 70 healthy children participated. After amplifying Val158Met polymorphism by polymerase chain reactions, we assessed genotype frequencies and allele distributions. We classified children according to their Val158Met polymorphism: Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were bilaterally assessed over the temporalis, upper trapezius, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscles. The distribution of Val158Met genotypes was not significantly different (p = 0.335), between children with CTTH and healthy children, and between boys and girls (p = 0.872). Children with CTTH with the Met/Met genotype showed a longer headache history compared with those with Met/Val (p = 0.001) or Val/Val (p = 0.002) genotype. Children with CTTH with Met/Met genotype showed lower PPT over upper trapezius and temporalis muscles than children with CTTH with Met/Val or Val/Val genotype (p < 0.01). The Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism does not appear to be involved in predisposition to suffer from CTTH in children; nevertheless, this genetic factor may be involved in the phenotypic expression, as pressure hypersensitivity was greater in those CTTH children with the Met/Met genotype.

  5. The Role of the Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Gene Val158Met in Aggressive Behavior, A Review of Genetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayyum, Arqam; Zai, Clement C.; Hirata, Yuko; Tiwari, Arun K.; Cheema, Sheraz; Nowrouzi, Behdin; Beitchman, Joseph H.; Kennedy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors have become a major public health problem, and early-onset aggression can lead to outcomes such as substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder among other issues. In recent years, there has been an increase in research in the molecular and genetic underpinnings of aggressive behavior, and one of the candidate genes codes for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). COMT is involved in catabolizing catecholamines such as dopamine. These neurotransmitters appear to be involved in regulating mood which can contribute to aggression. The most common gene variant studied in the COMT gene is the Valine (Val) to Methionine (Met) substitution at codon 158. We will be reviewing the current literature on this gene variant in aggressive behavior. PMID:26630958

  6. Structure and Mechanism of the Rebeccamycin Sugar 4'-O-Methyltransferase RebM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shanteri; McCoy, Jason G.; Zhang, Changsheng; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Thorson, Jon S. (UW)

    2008-12-12

    The 2.65-{angstrom} crystal structure of the rebeccamycin 4'-O-methyltransferase RebM in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine revealed RebM to adopt a typical S-adenosylmethionine-binding fold of small molecule O-methyltransferases (O-MTases) and display a weak dimerization domain unique to MTases. Using this structure as a basis, the RebM substrate binding model implicated a predominance of nonspecific hydrophobic interactions consistent with the reported ability of RebM to methylate a wide range of indolocarbazole surrogates. This model also illuminated the three putative RebM catalytic residues (His{sup 140/141} and Asp{sup 166}) subsequently found to be highly conserved among sequence-related natural product O-MTases from GC-rich bacteria. Interrogation of these residues via site-directed mutagenesis in RebM demonstrated His{sup 140} and Asp{sup 166} to be most important for catalysis. This study reveals RebM to be a member of the general acid/base-dependent O-MTases and, as the first crystal structure for a sugar O-MTase, may also present a template toward the future engineering of natural product MTases for combinatorial applications.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of O-methyltransferase from Anabaena PCC 7120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guoming; Tang, Zhenting; Meng, Geng; Dai, Kesheng; Zhao, Jindong; Zheng, Xiaofeng

    2009-01-01

    The O-methyltransferase (OMT) from the Anabaena PCC 7120 has been overexpressed in a soluble form in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 and diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution. O-Methyltransferase (OMT) is a ubiquitous enzyme that exists in bacteria, plants and humans and catalyzes a methyl-transfer reaction using S-adenosyl-l-methionine as a methyl donor and a wide range of phenolics as acceptors. To investigate the structure and function of OMTs, omt from Anabaena PCC 7120 was cloned into expression vector pET21a and expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant OMT protein was purified to homogeneity using a two-step strategy. Crystals of OMT that diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 131.620, b = 227.994, c = 150.777 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. There are eight molecules per asymmetric unit

  8. Functional characterization of two new members of the caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase-like gene family from Vanilla planifolia reveals a new class of plastid-localized O-methyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiez, Thomas; Hartman, Thomas G; Dudai, Nativ; Yan, Qing; Lawton, Michael; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2011-08-01

    Caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferases (OMTs) have been characterized from numerous plant species and have been demonstrated to be involved in lignin biosynthesis. Higher plant species are known to have additional caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes, which have not been well characterized. Here, we identified two new caffeoyl CoA OMT-like genes by screening a cDNA library from specialized hair cells of pods of the orchid Vanilla planifolia. Characterization of the corresponding two enzymes, designated Vp-OMT4 and Vp-OMT5, revealed that in vitro both enzymes preferred as a substrate the flavone tricetin, yet their sequences and phylogenetic relationships to other enzymes are distinct from each other. Quantitative analysis of gene expression indicated a dramatic tissue-specific expression pattern for Vp-OMT4, which was highly expressed in the hair cells of the developing pod, the likely location of vanillin biosynthesis. Although Vp-OMT4 had a lower activity with the proposed vanillin precursor, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, than with tricetin, the tissue specificity of expression suggests it may be a candidate for an enzyme involved in vanillin biosynthesis. In contrast, the Vp-OMT5 gene was mainly expressed in leaf tissue and only marginally expressed in pod hair cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Vp-OMT5 evolved from a cyanobacterial enzyme and it clustered within a clade in which the sequences from eukaryotic species had predicted chloroplast transit peptides. Transient expression of a GFP-fusion in tobacco demonstrated that Vp-OMT5 was localized in the plastids. This is the first flavonoid OMT demonstrated to be targeted to the plastids.

  9. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) ortholog from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We cloned the full-length of the gene putatively encoding caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) using degenerate primers and the RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) method. Kenaf is an herbaceous and rapidly growing dicotyledonous plant with great potential ...

  10. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  11. Crystal structures of rat catechol-O-methyltransferase complexed with coumarine-based inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Eiichi; Okazaki, Kosuke; Takeda, Kei

    2009-01-16

    In human, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT: E.C. 2.1.1.6) is responsible for metabolism of catechol neurotransmitter and xenobiotics. The main clinical interest in COMT results from the possibility of using COMT inhibitors as adjuncts in the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD) with l-DOPA. COMT is therefore a target for inhibitor development aiming at PD treatment and has been submitted to extensive structure-based drug design. Recently reported inhibitors have nitrocatechol structure that may inhibit oxidative phosphorylation and uncouple mitochondrial energy production. This work reports the first crystallographic study of Rat COMT complexed with non-nitrocatechol inhibitor. Analysis of the structural differences among the previously reported inhibitor complexes, coumarine-based inhibitor (4-phenyl-7, 8-dihydroxycoumarine: 4PCM) bound structure provides the explanation for inhibitor binding and can be used for future inhibitor design.

  12. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158 Met genotype, parenting practices and adolescent alcohol use: testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucht, Manfred; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Treutlein, Jens; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2012-04-01

      Recently, first evidence has been reported for a gene-parenting interaction (G × E) with regard to adolescent alcohol use. The present investigation set out to extend this research using the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158) Met polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor. Moreover, the current study examined whether a potential G×E would be consistent with one of two models of gene-environment interplay (genetic vulnerability vs. differential susceptibility).   Data were collected as part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study following the outcome of early risk factors from birth into adulthood. Two hundred and eighty-five participants (130 males, 155 females) were genotyped for the COMT Val(158) Met polymorphism and were administered an alcohol interview, providing measures of current frequency and amount of drinking at ages 15 and 19 years. Information on three dimensions of perceived parenting behavior was obtained from the 15-year-olds.   Adolescents homozygous for the Met allele showed higher drinking activity at age 19 years when their parents had engaged in less supervision or were less involved, while their drinking activity was reduced under conditions of favorable parenting. No such relationship was found in individuals carrying the Val allele.   The present findings correspond with the pattern of results predicted by the differential susceptibility hypothesis, suggesting that environmental variation would have a greater impact in individuals carrying a genetic susceptibility such that, in this group, exposure to negative environmental conditions would result in more adverse outcomes and the experience of favorable conditions would lead to more positive outcomes. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Associations differ by sex for catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes and bladder cancer risk in South Egypt✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Beverly J.; Amr, Sania; Saleh, Doa’a A.; Ezzat, Sameera; Gouda, Iman; Loay, Iman; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel N.; Zhan, Min; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Squibb, Katherine; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed A.; Zaghloul, Mohamed S.; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations between urinary bladder cancer risk and polymorphisms of the gene encoding the catechol estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), among Egyptian women and men. Materials and methods We used questionnaire and genotype data from a case-control study in Egypt. This analysis focused on South Egypt cases with confirmed urothelial (UC) or squamous cell (SCC) carcinoma of the bladder, and controls frequency-matched on sex, 5-year age-group, and residence governorate. Real-time PCR on blood specimen DNA was used to determine COMT genotypes encoding for Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met, the enzyme forms associated with high, intermediate, or low activity, respectively. Results The study sample, which included 255 women and 666 men, consisted of 394 cases with histologically confirmed UC (225) or SCC (n=169), and 527 controls. The odds of having either type of bladder cancer was lower among men with genotypes encoding Val/Met or Met/Met than among those with the genotype encoding Val/Val, even after adjustment for other factors, such as smoking and schistosomiasis history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 0.96]; however, the association was statistically significant for SCC (AOR 0.57; 95% CI: 0. 34, 0.96) but marginal for UC (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). No significant associations were detected between bladder cancer risk and COMT genotypes among postmenopausal women. Conclusions These findings suggest that, even after controlling for established risk factors, the involvement of COMT genotypes in bladder cancer risk differs among men compared to women in South Egypt. PMID:21397529

  14. Associations differ by sex for catechol-O-methyltransferase genotypes and bladder cancer risk in South Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Beverly J; Amr, Sania; Saleh, Doa'a A; Ezzat, Sameera; Gouda, Iman; Loay, Iman; Hifnawy, Tamer; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed; Mikhail, Nabiel N; Zhan, Min; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Squibb, Katherine; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed A; Zaghloul, Mohamed S; Khaled, Hussein; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    To examine associations between urinary bladder cancer risk and polymorphisms of the gene encoding the catechol estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), among Egyptian women and men. We used questionnaire and genotype data from a case-control study in Egypt. This analysis focused on South Egypt cases with confirmed urothelial (UC) or squamous cell (SCC) carcinoma of the bladder, and controls frequency-matched on sex, 5-year age-group, and residence governorate. Real-time PCR on blood specimen DNA was used to determine COMT genotypes encoding for Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met, the enzyme forms associated with high, intermediate, or low activity, respectively. The study sample, which included 255 women and 666 men, consisted of 394 cases with histologically confirmed UC (225) or SCC (n = 169), and 527 controls. The odds of having either type of bladder cancer were lower among men with genotypes encoding Val/Met or Met/Met than among those with the genotype encoding Val/Val, even after adjustment for other factors, such as smoking and schistosomiasis history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.43, 0.96]; however, the association was statistically significant for SCC (AOR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.96) but marginal for UC (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.02). No significant associations were detected between bladder cancer risk and COMT genotypes among postmenopausal women. These findings suggest that even after controlling for established risk factors, the involvement of COMT genotypes in bladder cancer risk differs among men compared with women in South Egypt. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinsohn, E; Ziv-Raz, I; Dudai, N; Tadmor, Y; Lastochkin, E; Larkov, O; Chaimovitsh, D; Ravid, U; Putievsky, E; Pichersky, E; Shoham, Y

    2000-12-07

    Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Lamiaceae) is a common herb, used for culinary and medicinal purposes. The essential oils of different sweet basil chemotypes contain various proportions of the allyl phenol derivatives estragole (methyl chavicol), eugenol, and methyl eugenol, as well as the monoterpene alcohol linalool. To monitor the developmental regulation of estragole biosynthesis in sweet basil, an enzymatic assay for S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM):chavicol O-methyltransferase activity was developed. Young leaves display high levels of chavicol O-methyltransferase activity, but the activity was negligible in older leaves, indicating that the O-methylation of chavicol primarily occurs early during leaf development. The O-methyltransferase activities detected in different sweet basil genotypes differed in their substrate specificities towards the methyl acceptor substrate. In the high-estragole-containing chemotype R3, the O-methyltransferase activity was highly specific for chavicol, while eugenol was virtually not O-methylated. In contrast, chemotype 147/97, that contains equal levels of estragole and methyl eugenol, displayed O-methyltransferase activities that accepted both chavicol and eugenol as substrates, generating estragole and methyl eugenol, respectively. Chemotype SW that contains high levels of eugenol, but lacks both estragole and methyl eugenol, had apparently no allylphenol dependent O-methyltransferase activities. These results indicate the presence of at least two types of allylphenol-specific O-methyltransferase activities in sweet basil chemotypes, one highly specific for chavicol; and a different one that can accept eugenol as a substrate. The relative availability and substrate specificities of these O-methyltransferase activities biochemically rationalizes the variation in the composition of the essential oils of these chemotypes.

  16. Affect-Modulated Startle: Interactive Influence of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Genotype and Childhood Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Klauke, Benedikt; Winter, Bernward; Gajewska, Agnes; Zwanzger, Peter; Reif, Andreas; Herrmann, Martin J.; Dlugos, Andrea; Warrings, Bodo; Jacob, Christian; Mühlberger, Andreas; Arolt, Volker; Pauli, Paul; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system – partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene variation – for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample...

  17. Pharmacogenetics of Modafinil after sleep loss: Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates waking functions but not recovery sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Bodenmann, S; Xu, S; Luhmann, U; Arand, M; Berger, W; Jung, H; Landolt, H P

    2009-01-01

    Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex th...

  18. Specialized (iso)eugenol-4-O-methyltransferases (s-IEMTs) and methods of making and using the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Cai, Yuanheng

    2017-01-31

    Specialized (iso)eugenol 4-O-methyltransferase (s-IEMT) enzymes having increased capacity for methylation of monolignols are disclosed. The s-IEMTs have unique activity favoring methylation of coniferyl alcohol versus sinapyl alcohol. Various s-IEMTs methylate ferulic acid. Means for producing the various s-IEMTs are provided. The s-IEMTs are useful for modification of lignin content and production of aromatic compounds.

  19. Variation in intron length in caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) in Vanilla species (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Pascale; Da Silva, Denis; Bory, Séverine; Noirot, Michel; Grisoni, Michel

    2009-04-01

    Variation in intron length in caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) in Vanilla was studied and demonstrated that COMT genes in Vanilla are organized with four exons and three introns. At least two to four different versions (either allelic or paralogous) of the COMT multigenic family in the genus Vanilla (in terms of intron sizes) were detected. The three introns were differentially variable, with intron-1 being the most length-polymorphic. Patterns of variations were in accordance with known phylogenetic relationships in the genus obtained with neutral markers. In particular, the genus displayed a strong Old World versus New World differentiation with American fragrant species being characterized by a specific 99bp intron-1 size-variant and a unique 226bp intron-3 variant. Conversely, leafless species of the genus displayed unexpected variations in intron lengths. Due to their role in primary (lignin) and secondary (phenolics, e.g., vanillin, alkaloids) metabolisms, COMT genes might not be neutral markers, and represent candidate functional markers for resistance, aromatic or medicinal properties of Vanilla species. Investigating the orthologous/paralogous status of the different genes revealed (in terms of intron size) will allow the evolution of the COMT genes to be studied. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of Petal-Specific Orcinol O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Rose Scent1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalliet, Gabriel; Lionnet, Claire; Le Bechec, Mickaël; Dutron, Laurence; Magnard, Jean-Louis; Baudino, Sylvie; Bergougnoux, Véronique; Jullien, Frédéric; Chambrier, Pierre; Vergne, Philippe; Dumas, Christian; Cock, J. Mark; Hugueney, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Orcinol O-methyltransferase (OOMT) 1 and 2 catalyze the last two steps of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the phenolic methyl ether 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (DMT), the major scent compound of many rose (Rosa x hybrida) varieties. Modern roses are descended from both European and Chinese species, the latter being producers of phenolic methyl ethers but not the former. Here we investigated why phenolic methyl ether production occurs in some but not all rose varieties. In DMT-producing varieties, OOMTs were shown to be localized specifically in the petal, predominanty in the adaxial epidermal cells. In these cells, OOMTs become increasingly associated with membranes during petal development, suggesting that the scent biosynthesis pathway catalyzed by these enzymes may be directly linked to the cells' secretory machinery. OOMT gene sequences were detected in two non-DMT-producing rose species of European origin, but no mRNA transcripts were detected, and these varieties lacked both OOMT protein and enzyme activity. These data indicate that up-regulation of OOMT gene expression may have been a critical step in the evolution of scent production in roses. PMID:16361520

  1. Genetic influences on insight problem solving: the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weili; Shang, Siyuan; Su, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    People may experience an "aha" moment, when suddenly realizing a solution of a puzzling problem. This experience is called insight problem solving. Several findings suggest that catecholamine-related genes may contribute to insight problem solving, among which the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is the most promising candidate. The current study examined 753 healthy individuals to determine the associations between 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms on the COMT gene and insight problem-solving performance, while considering gender differences. The results showed that individuals carrying A allele of rs4680 or T allele of rs4633 scored significantly higher on insight problem-solving tasks, and the COMT gene rs5993883 combined with gender interacted with correct solutions of insight problems, specifically showing that this gene only influenced insight problem-solving performance in males. This study presents the first investigation of the genetic impact on insight problem solving and provides evidence that highlights the role that the COMT gene plays in insight problem solving.

  2. Serotonin-Induced Hypersensitivity via Inhibition of Catechol O-Methyltransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The subcutaneous and systemic injection of serotonin reduces cutaneous and visceral pain thresholds and increases responses to noxious stimuli. Different subtypes of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors are suggested to be associated with different types of pain responses. Here we show that serotonin also inhibits catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that contributes to modultion the perception of pain, via non-competitive binding to the site bound by catechol substrates with a binding affinity comparable to the binding affinity of catechol itself (Ki = 44 μM). Using computational modeling, biochemical tests and cellular assays we show that serotonin actively competes with the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) within the catalytic site. Binding of serotonin to the catalytic site inhibits the access of SAM, thus preventing methylation of COMT substrates. The results of in vivo animal studies show that serotonin-induced pain hypersensitivity in mice is reduced by either SAM pretreatment or by the combined administration of selective antagonists for β2- and β3-adrenergic receptors, which have been previously shown to mediate COMT-dependent pain signaling. Our results suggest that inhibition of COMT via serotonin binding contributes to pain hypersensitivity, providing additional strategies for the treatment of clinical pain conditions. PMID:22500608

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn T Hall

    Full Text Available Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met polymorphism, was a predictor of placebo effects and tested our hypothesis in a subset of 104 patients from a previously reported randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The three treatment arms from this study were: no-treatment ("waitlist", placebo treatment alone ("limited" and, placebo treatment "augmented" with a supportive patient-health care provider interaction. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS after three weeks of treatment. In a regression model, the number of methionine alleles in COMT val158met was linearly related to placebo response as measured by changes in IBS-SSS (p = .035. The strongest placebo response occurred in met/met homozygotes treated in the augmented placebo arm. A smaller met/met associated effect was observed with limited placebo treatment and there was no effect in the waitlist control. These data support our hypothesis that the COMT val158met polymorphism is a potential biomarker of placebo response.

  4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism predicts placebo effect in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathryn T; Lembo, Anthony J; Kirsch, Irving; Ziogas, Dimitrios C; Douaiher, Jeffrey; Jensen, Karin B; Conboy, Lisa A; Kelley, John M; Kokkotou, Efi; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2012-01-01

    Identifying patients who are potential placebo responders has major implications for clinical practice and trial design. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an important enzyme in dopamine catabolism plays a key role in processes associated with the placebo effect such as reward, pain, memory and learning. We hypothesized that the COMT functional val158met polymorphism, was a predictor of placebo effects and tested our hypothesis in a subset of 104 patients from a previously reported randomized controlled trial in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The three treatment arms from this study were: no-treatment ("waitlist"), placebo treatment alone ("limited") and, placebo treatment "augmented" with a supportive patient-health care provider interaction. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in IBS-Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS) after three weeks of treatment. In a regression model, the number of methionine alleles in COMT val158met was linearly related to placebo response as measured by changes in IBS-SSS (p = .035). The strongest placebo response occurred in met/met homozygotes treated in the augmented placebo arm. A smaller met/met associated effect was observed with limited placebo treatment and there was no effect in the waitlist control. These data support our hypothesis that the COMT val158met polymorphism is a potential biomarker of placebo response.

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase: Association with Temporomandibular Disorders and Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, Irena; Supic, Gordana; Kozomara, Ruzica; Dodic, Slobodan; Ivkovic, Nedeljka; Milicevic, Bojana; Simic, Ivana; Magic, Zvonko

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms and temporomandibular disorders (TMD), TMD pain, psychosocial impairment related to TMD, and postoperative pain. A total of 90 patients with a diagnosis of painful TMD and 92 matched controls were investigated for the presence of TMD, TMD pain, and psychosocial variables by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. In a prospective cohort study of 40 subjects who underwent extraction of at least one fully impacted mandibular third molar, subjects had 6 months post-surgery follow-up of postoperative pain. DNA extracted from peripheral blood was genotyped for three COMT polymorphisms (rs4680, rs6269, and rs165774) by real-time TaqMan method. The association between COMT polymorphisms and clinical variables was determined by calculating odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Homozygous AA genotype and heterozygous variant A allele carriers (genotype AG/AA) for rs165774 polymorphism were associated with increased risk of TMD compared to wild type (wt) GG genotype (OR = 9.448, P = .006; OR = 2.088, P = .017, respectively). In addition, AA genotype was associated with increased risk of arthralgia (OR = 4.448, P = .011), myofascial pain (OR = 3.543, P = .035), and chronic TMD pain (OR = 6.173, P = .006), compared to wt genotype. AA genotype for rs6269 polymorphism was related to less postoperative chronic TMD pain (P = .025) and lower postoperative acute pain at the extraction site (P = .030). No associations with depression and somatization were observed. AA genotype of rs165774 could be a significant risk factor for the development of TMD and TMD pain, while AA genotype of rs6269 presents less postoperative chronic TMD pain and acute pain at a dental extraction site.

  6. Two transcriptional activators of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 and melatonin biosynthesis in cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Guoyin; Bai, Yujing; Xia, Feiyu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao; Foyer, Christine

    2017-10-13

    Similar to the situation in animals, melatonin biosynthesis is regulated by four sequential enzymatic steps in plants. Although the melatonin synthesis genes have been identified in various plants, the upstream transcription factors of them remain unknown. In this study on cassava (Manihot esculenta), we found that MeWRKY79 and heat-shock transcription factor 20 (MeHsf20) targeted the W-box and the heat-stress elements (HSEs) in the promoter of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase 2 (MeASMT2), respectively. The interaction between MeWRKY79, MeHsf20, and the MeASMT2 promoter was evidenced by the activation of promoter activity and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in cassava protoplasts, and by an in vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The transcripts of MeWRKY79, MeHsf20, and MeASMT2 were all regulated by a 22-amino acid flagellin peptide (flg22) and by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam). In common with the phenotype of MeASMT2, transient expression of MeWRKY79 and MeHsf20 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves conferred improved disease resistance. Through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in cassava, we found that MeWRKY79- and MeHsf20-silenced plants showed lower transcripts of MeASMT2 and less accumulation of melatonin, which resulted in disease sensitivity that could be reversed by exogenous melatonin. Taken together, these results indicate that MeASMT2 is a target of MeWRKY79 and MeHsf20 in plant disease resistance. This study identifies novel upstream transcription factors of melatonin synthesis genes in cassava, thus extending our knowledge of the complex modulation of melatonin synthesis in plant defense. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Haplotypes of catechol-O-methyltransferase modulate intelligence-related brain white matter integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Jun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Yonghui; Liu, Yong; Song, Ming; Fan, Ming; Li, Kuncheng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies have indicated a common genetic origin for intelligence and for variations in brain morphology. Our previous diffusion tensor imaging studies found an association between intelligence and white matter integrity of specific brain regions or tracts. However, specific genetic determinants of the white matter integrity of these brain regions and tracts are still unclear. In this study, we assess whether and how catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms affect brain white matter integrity. We genotyped twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the COMT gene and performed haplotype analyses on data from 79 healthy subjects. Our subjects had the same three major COMT haplotypes (termed the HPS, APS and LPS haplotypes) as previous studies have reported as regulating significantly different levels of enzymatic activity and dopamine. We used the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values from four regions and five tracts of interest to assess the effect of COMT polymorphisms, including the well-studied val158met SNP and the three main haplotypes that we had identified, on intelligence-related white matter integrity. We identified an association between the mean FA values of two regions in the bilateral prefrontal lobes and the COMT haplotypes, rather than between them and val158met. The haplotype-FA value associations modulated nonlinearly and fit an inverted U-model. Our findings suggest that COMT haplotypes can nonlinearly modulate the intelligence-related white matter integrity of the prefrontal lobes by more significantly influencing prefrontal dopamine variations than does val158met. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms in pain sensibility of Brazilian fibromialgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Flávia Regina; Matsuda, Josie Budag; Mazucato, Mendelson; de Castro França, Suzelei; Zingaretti, Sônia Marli; da Silva, Lucienir Maria; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce Maria; Júnior, Milton Faria; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2012-02-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) is a rheumatic syndrome affecting to 2-3% of individuals of productive age, mainly women. Neuroendocrine and genetic factors may play a significant role in development of the disease which is characterized by diffuse chronic pain and presence of tender points. Several studies have suggested an association between FS, especially pain sensitivity, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. The aim of the present study was to characterize the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene and assess its influence in pain sensitivity of patients with fibromyalgia screened by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 112 patients with fibromyalgia and 110 healthy individuals and was used as template in PCR for amplification of a 185-bp fragment of the COMT gene. The amplified fragment was sequenced for analyses of the SNPs rs4680 and rs4818. The frequency of mutant genotype AA of SNP rs6860 was 77.67% in patients with FS and 28.18% for the control group. For the SNP rs4818, the frequency of mutant genotype CC was 73.21 and 39.09% for patients with FS and controls, respectively. Moreover, the FIQ score was higher in patients with the homozygous mutant genotype for SNPs rs4680 (87.92 points) and rs4818 (86.14 points). These results suggest that SNPs rs4680 and rs4818 of the COMT gene may be associated with fibromyalgia and pain sensitivity in FS Brazilian patients.

  9. The Role of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT Gene in the Etiopathogenesis of Schizophrenia

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    Ceren Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors in the risk of developing schizophrenia is of great importance. With the help of the advances in the field of genetics in recent years by using linkage analysis several genes have been identified that may be a risk factor in schizophrenia. Several association studies have been performed in many different populations on the candidate susceptibility genes that were defined in previous studies. However, these studies give controversial results in different countries with different populations, and there are problems in obtaining replicable results. In this review we aimed to focus on the genetic basis of schizophrenia and the relationship between schizophrenia and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. COMT encodes an enzyme molecule which has an important function in dopamine pathways. It has great importance in catecholamine metabolism and pharmacology and genetic mechanism of catechol metabolism variations and their clinical consequences. COMT transfers the methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to the hydroxyl group of catechol nucleus (such as dopamine, norepinephrine or catechol estrogen. Genetic variations found in COMT gene are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotype including psychiatric disorders or estrogen related cancers. Several groups have performed studies on the relationship between schizophrenia and COMT. The most commonly studied polymorphism in COMT gene is rs4680 and it causes a valine methionine conversion at codon 158. The association studies on this polymorphism in different populations gave both positive and negative results. Schizoprenia is a complex disease caused by the interaction of environmental and genetic factors, while interpreting the genetic data, this fact and the possibility of the presence of different gene products should be taken into account. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 217-226

  10. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2002-07-03

    Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening.

  11. Computation of the binding affinities of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors: multisubstate relative free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, P Nuno; Bonifácio, Maria João; Loureiro, Ana Isabel; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2012-04-05

    Alchemical free energy simulations are amongst the most accurate techniques for the computation of the free energy changes associated with noncovalent protein-ligand interactions. A procedure is presented to estimate the relative binding free energies of several ligands to the same protein target where multiple, low-energy configurational substates might coexist, as opposed to one unique structure. The contributions of all individual substates were estimated, explicitly, with the free energy perturbation method, and combined in a rigorous fashion to compute the overall relative binding free energies and dissociation constants. It is shown that, unless the most stable bound forms are known a priori, inaccurate results may be obtained if the contributions of multiple substates are ignored. The method was applied to study the complex formed between human catechol-O-methyltransferase and BIA 9-1067, a newly developed tight-binding inhibitor that is currently under clinical evaluation for the therapy of Parkinson's disease. Our results reveal an exceptionally high-binding affinity (K(d) in subpicomolar range) and provide insightful clues on the interactions and mechanism of inhibition. The inhibitor is, itself, a slowly reacting substrate of the target enzyme and is released from the complex in the form of O-methylated product. By comparing the experimental catalytic rate (k(cat)) and the estimated dissociation rate (k(off)) constants of the enzyme-inhibitor complex, one can conclude that the observed inhibition potency (K(i)) is primarily dependent on the catalytic rate constant of the inhibitor's O-methylation, rather than the rate constant of dissociation of the complex. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cloning, functional characterization and catalytic mechanism of a bergaptol O-methyltransferase from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn

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    Yucheng eZhao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Coumarins are main active components of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Among them, methoxylated coumarin compound, such as bergapten, xanthotoxin and isopimpinellin, has high officinal value and plays an important role in medicinal field. However, major issues associated with the biosynthesis mechanism of coumarins remain unsolved and no corresponding enzyme has been cloned from P. praeruptorum. In this study, a local BLASTN program was conducted to find the candidate genes from P. praeruptorum transcriptome database using the nucleotide sequence of Ammi majus bergaptol O-methyltransferase (AmBMT, GenBank accession No: AY443006 as a template. As a result, a 1335 bp full-length of cDNA sequence which contains an open reading frame of 1080 bp encoding a BMT polypeptide of 359 amino acids was obtained. The recombinant protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed an observed activity to bergaptol. In vitro experiments show that the protein has narrow substrate specificity for bergaptol. Expression profile indicated that the cloned gene had a higher expression level in roots and can be induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA. Subcellular localization analysis showed that the BMT protein was located in cytoplasm in planta. Homology modeling and docking based site-directed mutagenesis have been employed to investigate the amino acid residues in BMT required for substrate binding and catalysis. Conservative amino acid substitutions at residue H264 affected BMT catalysis, whereas substitutions at residues F171, M175, D226 and L312 affected substrate binding. The systemic study summarized here will enlarge our knowledge on OMTs and provide useful information in investigating the coumarins biosynthesis mechanism in P. praeruptorum.

  13. Characterization of a multifunctional caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase activated in grape berries upon drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Provenzano, Sofia; Ferrandino, Alessandra; Vitali, Marco; Pagliarani, Chiara; Roman, Federica; Cardinale, Francesca; Castellarin, Simone D; Schubert, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Drought stress affects anthocyanin accumulation and modification in vegetative and reproductive plant tissues. Anthocyanins are the most abundant flavonoids in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) coloured berry genotypes and are essential markers of grape winemaking quality. They are mostly mono- and di-methylated, such modifications increase their stability and improve berry quality for winemaking. Anthocyanin methylation in grape berries is induced by drought stress. A few caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferases (CCoAOMTs) active on anthocyanins have been described in grape. However, no drought-activated O-methyltransferases have been described in grape berries yet. In this study, we characterized VvCCoAOMT, a grapevine gene known to induce methylation of CoA esters in cultured grape cells. Transcript accumulation of VvCCoAOMT was detected in berry skins, and increased during berry ripening on the plant, and in cultured berries treated with ABA, concomitantly with accumulation of methylated anthocyanins, suggesting that anthocyanins may be substrates of this enzyme. Contrary as previously observed in cell cultures, biotic stress (Botrytis cinerea inoculation) did not affect VvCCoAOMT gene expression in leaves or berries, while drought stress increased VvCCoAOMT transcript in berries. The recombinant VvCCoAOMT protein showed in vitro methylating activity on cyanidin 3-O-glucoside. We conclude that VvCCoAOMT is a multifunctional O-methyltransferase that may contribute to anthocyanin methylation activity in grape berries, in particular under drought stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystal structures of human 108V and 108M catechol O-methyltransferase

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    Rutherford, K.; Le Trong, I.; Stenkamp, R.E.; Parson, W.W. (UWASH)

    2008-08-01

    Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays important roles in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and catechol estrogens. The development of COMT inhibitors for use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease has been aided by crystallographic structures of the rat enzyme. However, the human and rat proteins have significantly different substrate specificities. Additionally, human COMT contains a common valine-methionine polymorphism at position 108. The methionine protein is less stable than the valine polymorph, resulting in decreased enzyme activity and protein levels in vivo. Here we describe the crystal structures of the 108V and 108M variants of the soluble form of human COMT bound with S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and a substrate analog, 3,5-dinitrocatechol. The polymorphic residue 108 is located in the {alpha}5-{beta}3 loop, buried in a hydrophobic pocket {approx}16 {angstrom} from the SAM-binding site. The 108V and 108M structures are very similar overall [RMSD of C{sup {alpha}} atoms between two structures (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD) = 0.2 {angstrom}], and the active-site residues are superposable, in accord with the observation that SAM stabilizes 108M COMT. However, the methionine side chain is packed more tightly within the polymorphic site and, consequently, interacts more closely with residues A22 ({alpha}2) and R78 ({alpha}4) than does valine. These interactions of the larger methionine result in a 0.7-{angstrom} displacement in the backbone structure near residue 108, which propagates along {alpha}1 and {alpha}5 toward the SAM-binding site. Although the overall secondary structures of the human and rat proteins are very similar (C{sup {alpha}} RMSD = 0.4 {angstrom}), several nonconserved residues are present in the SAM-(I89M, I91M, C95Y) and catechol- (C173V, R201M, E202K) binding sites. The human protein also contains three additional solvent-exposed cysteine residues (C95, C173, C188) that may contribute to intermolecular disulfide bond

  15. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

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    Adela S Oliva Chávez

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA, is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6 at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4, but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8, the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5, the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA, and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary

  16. An O-Methyltransferase Is Required for Infection of Tick Cells by Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Chávez, Adela S; Fairman, James W; Felsheim, Roderick F; Nelson, Curtis M; Herron, Michael J; Higgins, LeeAnn; Burkhardt, Nicole Y; Oliver, Jonathan D; Markowski, Todd W; Kurtti, Timothy J; Edwards, Thomas E; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis (HGA), is an obligately intracellular α-proteobacterium that is transmitted by Ixodes spp ticks. However, the pathogen is not transovarially transmitted between tick generations and therefore needs to survive in both a mammalian host and the arthropod vector to complete its life cycle. To adapt to different environments, pathogens rely on differential gene expression as well as the modification of proteins and other molecules. Random transposon mutagenesis of A. phagocytophilum resulted in an insertion within the coding region of an o-methyltransferase (omt) family 3 gene. In wild-type bacteria, expression of omt was up-regulated during binding to tick cells (ISE6) at 2 hr post-inoculation, but nearly absent by 4 hr p.i. Gene disruption reduced bacterial binding to ISE6 cells, and the mutant bacteria that were able to enter the cells were arrested in their replication and development. Analyses of the proteomes of wild-type versus mutant bacteria during binding to ISE6 cells identified Major Surface Protein 4 (Msp4), but also hypothetical protein APH_0406, as the most differentially methylated. Importantly, two glutamic acid residues (the targets of the OMT) were methyl-modified in wild-type Msp4, whereas a single asparagine (not a target of the OMT) was methylated in APH_0406. In vitro methylation assays demonstrated that recombinant OMT specifically methylated Msp4. Towards a greater understanding of the overall structure and catalytic activity of the OMT, we solved the apo (PDB_ID:4OA8), the S-adenosine homocystein-bound (PDB_ID:4OA5), the SAH-Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCA), and SAM- Mn2+ bound (PDB_ID:4PCL) X-ray crystal structures of the enzyme. Here, we characterized a mutation in A. phagocytophilum that affected the ability of the bacteria to productively infect cells from its natural vector. Nevertheless, due to the lack of complementation, we cannot rule out secondary mutations.

  17. Characterization of a Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon 3',5'-O-methyltransferase showing strong preference for anthocyanins and glycosylated flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, Joost; Martens, Stefan; Lund, Steven T

    2010-09-01

    At ripening initiation in red grapevine (Vitis vinifera) berries, the exocarp turns color from green to red and then to purple due to the accumulation and extent of methylation of anthocyanins. The accumulation of transcripts encoding an O-methyltransferase was recently shown to be closely correlated with the onset of ripening and the degree of blue/purple pigmentation in grapevine berries; however, the biochemical function of this gene has remained uncharacterized. In this study, an O-methyltransferase cDNA that showed a distinct expression pattern when compared to closely related sequences was expressed in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays were carried out with a broad array of anthocyanin and other flavonoid substrates. We demonstrate that this enzyme carries out 3',5'-O-methylation of anthocyanins and flavonol compounds in vitro, which are known to be present in grape berries, with a preference for glycosylated substrates. The highest relative specific activity for the enzyme was found with delphinidin 3-O-glucoside as substrate. The enzyme is not able to methylate flavan type skeletons with chiral centers, such as either catechins or dihydroquercetin. The enzyme showed negligible specific activity for caffeoyl-CoA, compared to flavonol and anthocyanin substrates. Phylogenetic analysis of the O-methyltransferase suggests that it may be a member of a distinct subclass of Type 2 bivalent metal-dependent S-adenosyl-methionine O-methyltransferases. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of catechol O-methyltransferase activity in relation to melanin metabolism using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N. P.; Pavel, S.; Kammeyer, A.; Westerhof, W.

    1990-01-01

    A new sensitive method for the determination of catechol O-methyltransferase activity has been developed. The method is based on the O-methylation of the indolic intermediates of melanin metabolism. The substrate, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, is converted by the enzyme to two O-methylated

  19. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val 108/158 Met polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a case control study in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajin, Bassam; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak; Ghabreau, Lina; Mohamed, Ali; Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Alachkar, Amal

    2013-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catechol estrogens by methylation and thus may play a protective role against mutations induced by estrogen metabolites. In this study we investigated the relationship between the Vall58Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and breast cancer risk in a population-based case control study in Syria. We examined 135 breast cancer patients and 107 healthy controls in North Syria to determine the association between the functional genetic Val158Met polymorphism in the COMT gene and female breast cancer risk. There was no significant overall association between the COMT genotype and individual susceptibility to breast cancer. Our data suggest that there may be no overall association between the COMT genotype and breast cancer.

  20. Increase of catechol-O-methyltransferase activity in rat brain microglia after intrastriatal infusion of fluorocitrate, a glial toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reenilä, I; Tuomainen, P; Soinila, S; Männistö, P T

    1997-07-25

    Striatal catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B; an astroglial enzyme), alkaline phosphodiesterase I (PDE; a microglia/macrophage marker) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; catecholaminergic neuron marker) activities were analyzed biochemically 1-3 days after infusion of fluorocitrate, an astrocyte damaging agent. Astrocytes, microglia and neurons were stained immunohistochemically with specific antibodies (against glial fibrillary acidic protein, OX-42 and TH, respectively) and with COMT antiserum. Three days after fluorocitrate infusion the activity of MAO-B was reduced, whereas COMT and PDE activities were increased. The elevation of COMT immunoreactivity co-localized to microglial cells, but not to astrocytes. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that microglia contains COMT activity which may be increased in pathological conditions.

  1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase gene variants may associate with negative symptom response and plasma concentrations of prolactin in schizophrenia after amisulpride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Yen, Che-Hung; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is involved in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms and may be associated with a therapeutic response to antipsychotic drugs. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between COMT variants, plasma prolactin level, and the therapeutic effectiveness of amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. A 12-week naturalistic study of amisulpride treatment was carried out in 185 Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. The patients were screened for 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the COMT gene. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the improvement of psychopathological symptoms from the baseline to the end point in each subject. For better presentation of time-course changes in response status, a mixed model for repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis of symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment period was conducted. The change in plasma prolactin level after amisulpride treatment was also examined (n=51). No significant differences in the genotype frequencies of the COMT variants investigated were observed between responders and non-responders. Moreover, an MMRM analysis of psychopathological symptom improvement during the 12-week treatment course showed that it depended significantly on COMT variants (rs4680, rs4633, and rs6267), particularly regarding changes in negative symptoms. The increase in plasma prolactin levels observed was influenced by the COMT rs4680 variant and was positively correlated with a reduction in PANSS negative scores. Our results suggest that variation of the COMT gene is associated with treatment response regarding negative symptoms and prolactin changes after amisulpride treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential link between genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase and dopamine receptors and treatment efficacy of risperidone on schizophrenia

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    Han JY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiyang Han,1 Yan Li,2 Xumei Wang1 1Department of Psychiatry, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China; 2Department of Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, China Objective: The current study aimed to explore the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT and dopamine receptors with schizophrenia and genetic association with risperidone treatment response.Methods: A total of 690 schizophrenic patients (case group were selected and 430 healthy people were included as the controls. All patients received risperidone treatment continuously for 8 weeks. Next, peripheral venous blood samples were collected and were subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism to amplify and genotype the SNPs within COMT and dopamine receptors. Then, correlation analysis was conducted between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale improvement rates and SNPs within COMT and the dopamine receptor gene.Results: The allele of DRD1 rs11749676 (A emerged as a key element in reducing schizophrenia risk with statistical significance (P<0.001. Remarkably, alleles of COMT rs165774 (G, DRD2 rs6277 (T, and DRD3 rs6280 (C were associated with raised predisposition to schizophrenia (all P<0.001. Regarding DRD1 rs11746641, DRD1 rs11749676, DRD2 rs6277, and DRD3 rs6280, the case group exhibited a lesser frequency of heterozygotes in comparison with wild homozygotes genotype (all P<0.001. SNPs (COMT rs4680, DRD2 rs6275, DRD2 rs1801028, and DRD2 rs6277 were remarkably associated with improvement rates of PANSS total scores (P<0.05. SNPs (COMT rs165599 and DRD2 rs1801028 were significantly associated with risperidone efficacy on negative symptoms (P<0.05.Conclusion: COMT SNPs and dopamine receptor SNPs were correlated with prevalence of schizophrenia and risperidone treatment efficacy of

  3. Protective Role of Maternal P.VAL158MET Catechol-O-methyltransferase Polymorphism against Early-Onset Preeclampsia and its Complications

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    Krnjeta Tijana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up until now there have been contradictory data about the association between p.Val158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT polymorphism and risk of preeclampsia (PE. The goal of this study was to assess the potential correlation between p.Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of early-onset PE, risk of a severe form of early-onset PE, as well as risk of small-for-gestationalage (SGA complicating PE.

  4. Rational design of a live attenuated dengue vaccine: 2'-o-methyltransferase mutants are highly attenuated and immunogenic in mice and macaques.

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    Roland Züst

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects at least 100 million people every year. Progressive urbanization in Asia and South-Central America and the geographic expansion of Aedes mosquito habitats have accelerated the global spread of dengue, resulting in a continuously increasing number of cases. A cost-effective, safe vaccine conferring protection with ideally a single injection could stop dengue transmission. Current vaccine candidates require several booster injections or do not provide protection against all four serotypes. Here we demonstrate that dengue virus mutants lacking 2'-O-methyltransferase activity are highly sensitive to type I IFN inhibition. The mutant viruses are attenuated in mice and rhesus monkeys and elicit a strong adaptive immune response. Monkeys immunized with a single dose of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus showed 100% sero-conversion even when a dose as low as 1,000 plaque forming units was administrated. Animals were fully protected against a homologous challenge. Furthermore, mosquitoes feeding on blood containing the mutant virus were not infected, whereas those feeding on blood containing wild-type virus were infected and thus able to transmit it. These results show the potential of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus as a safe, rationally designed dengue vaccine that restrains itself due to the increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response.

  5. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Manual Aiming Control in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Guilherme M.; Miranda, Débora M.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Campos, Simone B.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Corrêa, Humberto; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prefrontal dopamine is catabolized by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme. Current evidence suggests that the val/met single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene can predict the efficiency of executive cognition in humans. Individuals carrying the val allele perform more poorly because less synaptic dopamine is available. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of the COMT polymorphism on motor performance in a task that requires different executive functions. We administered a manual aiming motor task that was performed under four different conditions of execution by 111 healthy participants. Participants were grouped according to genotype (met/met, met/val, val/val), and the motor performance among groups was compared. Overall, the results indicate that met/met carriers presented lower levels of peak velocity during the movement trajectory than the val carriers, but met/met carriers displayed higher accuracy than the val carriers. Conclusions/Significance This study found a significant association between the COMT polymorphism and manual aiming control. Few studies have investigated the genetics of motor control, and these findings indicate that individual differences in motor control require further investigation using genetic studies. PMID:24956262

  6. In planta production of the highly potent resveratrol analogue pterostilbene via stilbene synthase and O-methyltransferase co-expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimando A. M.; Liu C.; Pan, Z.; Polashock, J. J.; Dayan, F. E., Mizuno, C. S.; Snook, M. E.; Baerson, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Resveratrol and related stilbenes are thought to play important roles in defence responses in several plant species and have also generated considerable interest as nutraceuticals owing to their diverse health-promoting properties. Pterostilbene, a 3,5-dimethylether derivative of resveratrol, possesses properties similar to its parent compound and, additionally, exhibits significantly higher fungicidal activity in vitro and superior pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. Recombinant enzyme studies carried out using a previously characterized O-methyltransferase sequence from Sorghum bicolor (SbOMT3) demonstrated its ability to catalyse the A ring-specific 3,5-bis-O-methylation of resveratrol, yielding pterostilbene. A binary vector was constructed for the constitutive co-expression of SbOMT3 with a stilbene synthase sequence from peanut (AhSTS3) and used for the generation of stably transformed tobacco and Arabidopsis plants, resulting in the accumulation of pterostilbene in both species. A reduced floral pigmentation phenotype observed in multiple tobacco transformants was further investigated by reversed-phase HPLC analysis, revealing substantial decreases in both dihydroquercetin-derived flavonoids and phenylpropanoid-conjugated polyamines in pterostilbene-producing SbOMT3/AhSTS3 events. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this strategy for the generation of pterostilbene-producing crops and also underscore the need for the development of additional approaches for minimizing concomitant reductions in key phenylpropanoid-derived metabolites.

  7. Pharmacogenetics of modafinil after sleep loss: catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates waking functions but not recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, S; Xu, S; Luhmann, U F O; Arand, M; Berger, W; Jung, H H; Landolt, H P

    2009-03-01

    Sleep loss impairs waking functions and is homeostatically compensated in recovery sleep. The mechanisms underlying the consequences of prolonged wakefulness are unknown. The stimulant modafinil may promote primarily dopaminergic neurotransmission. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the breakdown of cerebral dopamine. A functional Val158Met polymorphism reduces COMT activity, and Val/Val homozygous individuals presumably have lower dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex than do Met/Met homozygotes. We quantified the contribution of this polymorphism to the effects of sleep deprivation and modafinil on subjective state, cognitive performance, and recovery sleep in healthy volunteers. Two-time 100 mg modafinil potently improved vigor and well-being, and maintained baseline performance with respect to executive functioning and vigilant attention throughout sleep deprivation in Val/Val genotype subjects but was hardly effective in subjects with the Met/Met genotype. Neither modafinil nor the Val158Met polymorphism affected distinct markers of sleep homeostasis in recovery sleep. In conclusion, dopaminergic mechanisms contribute to impaired waking functions after sleep loss.

  8. Are There Benefits in Adding Catechol-O Methyltransferase Inhibitors in the Pharmacotherapy of Parkinson's Disease Patients? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaiti, Irene; Nixon, John

    2018-03-26

    A qualified consensus suggests that a combination of levodopa with a peripherally acting dopa decarboxylase inhibitor continues to present the gold standard treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, as the disease progresses the therapeutic window of levodopa becomes narrowed. Pharmacological strategies for motor fluctuations are focused on providing less pulsatile and more continuous dopaminergic stimulation. Peripheral catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibition improves the bioavailability of levodopa and results in a prolonged response. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the two available COMT inhibitors; entacapone and tolcapone and the recently introduced opicapone. Electronic databases were systematically searched for original studies published within the last 37 years. In addition, lists of identified studies, reviews and their references were examined. Twelve studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 3701 patients with PD were included in this systematic review. Adjuvant treatment of PD patients experiencing motor fluctuations with entacapone resulted in improvement of motor function and was well tolerated. Therefore, entacapone presented an acceptable benefit to risk ratio. Tolcapone appeared to result in a greater therapeutic effect. However, this was not consistent across all motor variables and studies, and thus would not support its use, given the current onerous monitoring that is required. Opicapone was not associated with adverse reactions in a phase III trial but did not present a greater efficacy than entacapone, and thus further studies are required in order to illustrate its cost effectiveness.

  9. Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events.

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    Pertti Happonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of coffee intake as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD has been debated for decades. We examined whether the relationship between coffee intake and incidence of CHD events is dependent on the metabolism of circulating catecholamines, as determined by functional polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cohort of 773 men who were 42 to 60 years old and free of symptomatic CHD at baseline in 1984-89, 78 participants experienced an acute coronary event during an average follow-up of 13 years. In logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, family history of CHD, vitamin C deficiency, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol concentration, and diabetes, the odds ratio (90% confidence interval comparing heavy coffee drinkers with the low activity COMT genotype with those with the high activity or heterozygotic genotypes was 3.2 (1.2-8.4. Urinary adrenaline excretion increased with increasing coffee intake, being over two-fold in heavy drinkers compared with nondrinkers (p = 0.008 for trend. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Heavy coffee consumption increases the incidence of acute coronary events in men with low but not high COMT activity. Further studies are required to determine to which extent circulating catecholamines mediate the relationship between coffee intake and CHD.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met polymorphism interacts with early experience to predict executive functions in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N = 1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association between the catechol-o-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism with susceptibility and severity of carpal tunnel syndrome

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    Erkol İnal E

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationships between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene Val158Met (rs4680 polymorphism and development, functional and clinical status of CTS. Ninety-five women with electro diagnostically confirmed CTS and 95 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The functional and clinical status of the patients was measured by the Turkish version of the Boston Questionnaire and intensity of pain related to the past 2 weeks was evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS. The Val158Met polymorphism was determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, method. We divided patients according to the genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism as Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met. There were not any significant differences in terms of Val158Met polymorphisms between patients and healthy controls (p >0.05. We also did not find any relationships between the Val158Met polymorphism and CTS (p >0.05. In conclusion, although we did not find any relationships between CTS and the Val158Met polymorphism, we could not generalize this result to the general population. Future studies are warranted to conclude precise associations.

  12. No association between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuga, Chiho; Toyohisa, Daiki; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Matsuura, Naomi; Ikeda, Shinobu; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Hamada, Akinobu; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-08-01

    This study ascertained the association between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Japanese children and a polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a dopamine-control gene. The secondary aim of the study was the evaluation of a putative association between methylphenidate (MPH) effect/adverse effects and the COMT genotype. To ascertain the distribution of the Val158Met variant of COMT, 50 children meeting ADHD inclusion criteria were compared with 32 healthy children. Clinical improvement and the occurrence of adverse effects were measured before and 3 months after MPH administration in children with ADHD, and analyzed for genotype association. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), age, MPH dose were included as co-variables. The occurrence of the COMT Val/Val genotype was significantly higher in children with ADHD (χ(2)(1)=7.13, pADHD rating scale scores, after correcting for the interaction between disorder and COMT genotype. Furthermore, no significant difference in MPH effect/adverse effects was observed in association with the COMT genotype in the ADHD group. These results showed a lack of association between the COMT Val/Val genotype and ADHD in Japan. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Down-Regulation of Caffeic Acid O-Methyltransferase in Maize Revisited Using a Transgenic Approach1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquemal, Joel; Chamayou, Simon; Nadaud, Isabelle; Beckert, Michel; Barrière, Yves; Mila, Isabelle; Lapierre, Catherine; Rigau, Joan; Puigdomenech, Pere; Jauneau, Alain; Digonnet, Catherine; Boudet, Alain-Michel; Goffner, Deborah; Pichon, Magalie

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic maize (Zea mays) plants were generated with a construct harboring a maize caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) cDNA in the antisense (AS) orientation under the control of the maize Adh1 (alcohol dehydrogenase) promoter. Adh1-driven β-glucuronidase expression was localized in vascular tissues and lignifying sclerenchyma, indicating its suitability in transgenic experiments aimed at modifying lignin content and composition. One line of AS plants, COMT-AS, displayed a significant reduction in COMT activity (15%–30% residual activity) and barely detectable amounts of COMT protein as determined by western-blot analysis. In this line, transgenes were shown to be stably integrated in the genome and transmitted to the progeny. Biochemical analysis of COMT-AS showed: (a) a strong decrease in Klason lignin content at the flowering stage, (b) a decrease in syringyl units, (c) a lower p-coumaric acid content, and (d) the occurrence of unusual 5-OH guaiacyl units. These results are reminiscent of some characteristics already observed for the maize bm3 (brown-midrib3) mutant, as well as for COMT down-regulated dicots. However, as compared with bm3, COMT down-regulation in the COMT-AS line is less severe in that it is restricted to sclerenchyma cells. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an AS strategy has been applied to modify lignin biosynthesis in a grass species. PMID:12481050

  14. Assessment of cellular estrogenic activity based on estrogen receptor-mediated reduction of soluble-form catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT expression in an ELISA-based system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Wing-Lok Ho

    Full Text Available Xenoestrogens are either natural or synthetic compounds that mimic the effects of endogenous estrogen. These compounds, such as bisphenol-A (BPA, and phthalates, are commonly found in plastic wares. Exposure to these compounds poses major risk to human health because of the potential to cause endocrine disruption. There is huge demand for a wide range of chemicals to be assessed for such potential for the sake of public health. Classical in vivo assays for endocrine disruption are comprehensive but time-consuming and require sacrifice of experimental animals. Simple preliminary in vitro screening assays can reduce the time and expense involved. We previously demonstrated that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is transcriptionally regulated by estrogen via estrogen receptor (ER. Therefore, detecting corresponding changes of COMT expression in estrogen-responsive cells may be a useful method to estimate estrogenic effects of various compounds. We developed a novel cell-based ELISA to evaluate cellular response to estrogenicity by reduction of soluble-COMT expression in ER-positive MCF-7 cells exposed to estrogenic compounds. In contrast to various existing methods that only detect bioactivity, this method elucidates direct physiological effect in a living cell in response to a compound. We validated our assay using three well-characterized estrogenic plasticizers - BPA, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP. Cells were exposed to either these plasticizers or 17β-estradiol (E2 in estrogen-depleted medium with or without an ER-antagonist, ICI 182,780, and COMT expression assayed. Exposure to each of these plasticizers (10(-9-10(-7M dose-dependently reduced COMT expression (p<0.05, which was blocked by ICI 182,780. Reduction of COMT expression was readily detectable in cells exposed to picomolar level of E2, comparable to other in vitro assays of similar sensitivity. To satisfy the demand for in vitro assays targeting different

  15. Catechol-o-methyltransferase expression and 2-methoxyestradiol affect microtubule dynamics and modify steroid receptor signaling in leiomyoma cells.

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    Salama A Salama

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Development of optimal medicinal treatments of uterine leiomyomas represents a significant challenge. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME is an endogenous estrogen metabolite formed by sequential action of CYP450s and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Our previous study demonstrated that 2ME is a potent antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic, and collagen synthesis inhibitor in human leiomyomas cells (huLM. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to investigate whether COMT expression, by the virtue of 2ME formation, affects the growth of huLM, and to explore the cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby COMT expression or treatment with 2ME affect these cells. RESULTS: Our data demonstrated that E(2-induced proliferation was less pronounced in cells over-expressing COMT or treated with 2ME (500 nM. This effect on cell proliferation was associated with microtubules stabilization and diminution of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha and progesterone receptor (PR transcriptional activities, due to shifts in their subcellular localization and sequestration in the cytoplasm. In addition, COMT over expression or treatment with 2ME reduced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor -1alpha (HIF-1 alpha and the basal level as well as TNF-alpha-induced aromatase (CYP19 expression. CONCLUSIONS: COMT over expression or treatment with 2ME stabilize microtubules, ameliorates E(2-induced proliferation, inhibits ERalpha and PR signaling, and reduces HIF-1 alpha and CYP19 expression in human uterine leiomyoma cells. Thus, microtubules are a candidate target for treatment of uterine leiomyomas. In addition, the naturally occurring microtubule-targeting agent 2ME represents a potential new therapeutic for uterine leiomyomas.

  16. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-J.; Deavours, B.E.; Richard, S.B.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Blount, J.W.; Huhman, D.; Dixon, R.A.; Noel, J.

    2007-07-10

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  17. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Deavours, B; Richard, S; Ferrer, J; Blount, J; Huhman, D; Dixon, R; Noel, J

    2006-01-01

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  18. Affect-modulated startle: interactive influence of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met genotype and childhood trauma.

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    Benedikt Klauke

    Full Text Available The etiology of emotion-related disorders such as anxiety or affective disorders is considered to be complex with an interaction of biological and environmental factors. Particular evidence has accumulated for alterations in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic system--partly conferred by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene variation--for the adenosinergic system as well as for early life trauma to constitute risk factors for those conditions. Applying a multi-level approach, in a sample of 95 healthy adults, we investigated effects of the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism, caffeine as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (300 mg in a placebo-controlled intervention design and childhood maltreatment (CTQ as well as their interaction on the affect-modulated startle response as a neurobiologically founded defensive reflex potentially related to fear- and distress-related disorders. COMT val/val genotype significantly increased startle magnitude in response to unpleasant stimuli, while met/met homozygotes showed a blunted startle response to aversive pictures. Furthermore, significant gene-environment interaction of COMT Val158Met genotype with CTQ was discerned with more maltreatment being associated with higher startle potentiation in val/val subjects but not in met carriers. No main effect of or interaction effects with caffeine were observed. Results indicate a main as well as a GxE effect of the COMT Val158Met variant and childhood maltreatment on the affect-modulated startle reflex, supporting a complex pathogenetic model of the affect-modulated startle reflex as a basic neurobiological defensive reflex potentially related to anxiety and affective disorders.

  19. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype moderates the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melissa J; Chia, T-Yunn; Cairns, Murray J; Wu, Jingqin; Tooney, Paul A; Scott, Rodney J; Carr, Vaughan J

    2014-02-01

    The interaction of genetic and environmental factors may affect the course and development of psychotic disorders. We examined whether the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia were moderated by the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism, a common genetic variant known to affect cognition and prefrontal dopamine levels. Participants were 429 schizophrenia/schizoaffective cases from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) test, and the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and additive interaction effects of genotype and childhood trauma in the domains of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect, on cognition and symptom profiles of clinical cases. Consistent with previous findings, COMT Val homozygotes performed worse on cognitive measures in the absence of childhood adversity. In addition, a significant interaction between COMT genotype and physical abuse was associated with better executive function in Val homozygotes, relative to those of the same genotype with no history of abuse. Finally, the severity of positive symptoms was greater in Met carriers who had experienced physical abuse, and the severity of negative symptoms in Met carriers was greater in the presence of emotional neglect. These results suggest that the possible epigenetic modulation of the expression of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and consequent effects on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia, with worse outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences in Met carriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenolphthalein metabolite inhibits catechol-O-methyltransferase-mediated metabolism of catechol estrogens: a possible mechanism for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C E; Matthews, H B; Burka, L T

    2000-01-15

    Phenolphthalein (PT), used in over-the-counter laxatives, has recently been identified as a multisite carcinogen in rodents, but the molecular species responsible for the carcinogenicity is not known. A catechol metabolite of PT, hydroxyphenolphthalein (PT-CAT), was recently identified and may be the molecular species responsible for at least part of the toxicity/carcinogenicity of PT. We hypothesize that PT-CAT inhibits the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and therefore potentiates genotoxicity by either PT-CAT itself or the endogenous catechol estrogens (CEs) in susceptible tissues. The present studies were conducted to determine the effects of PT treatment and PT-CAT itself on the COMT-mediated metabolism of 4- and 2-hydroxyestradiol both in vitro and in vivo. Female mice were treated with PT (50 mg/kg/d) for 21 days and then euthanized. PT-CAT concentration in urine reached plateau levels by 7 days of exposure. An O-methylated metabolite of PT-CAT was detected in feces. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PT treatment resulted in an increase in free CEs, which are normally cleared by COMT and a concurrent decrease in the capacity of hepatic catechol clearance by COMT. In vitro, PT-CAT was a substrate of COMT, with kinetic properties within the range measured with endogenous substrates. PT-CAT was an extremely potent mixed-type inhibitor of the O-methylation of the catechol estrogens, with 90-300 nM IC50s. The above data, when taken together, suggest that chronic administration of PT may enhance metabolic redox cycling of both PT-CAT and the catechol estrogens and this, in turn, may contribute to PT-induced tumorigenesis.

  1. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) functional haplotype is associated with recurrence of affective symptoms: A prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shinsuke; Gaysina, Darya; Jones, Peter B; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus

    2018-03-15

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms play an essential role in dopamine availability in the brain. However, there has been no study investigating whether a functional four-SNP (rs6269-rs4633-rs4818-rs4680) haplotype is associated with affective symptoms over the life course. We tested this using 2093 members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (MRC NSHD), who had been followed up since birth in 1946, and had data for COMT genotypes, adolescent emotional problems (age 13-15) and at least one measure of adult affective symptoms at ages 36, 43, 53, or 60-64 years. First, differences in the levels of affective symptoms by the functional haplotype using SNPs rs6269, rs4818, and rs4680 were tested in a structural equation model framework. Second, interactions between affective symptoms by COMT haplotype were tested under an additive model. Finally, a quadratic regressor (haplotype 2 ) was used in a curvilinear model, to test for a possible inverted-U trend in affective symptoms according to COMT-related dopamine availability. Women had a significant interaction between COMT haplotypes and adolescent emotional problem on affective symptoms at age 53. Post hoc analysis showed a significant positive association between adolescent emotional problems and affective symptoms at age 53 years in the middle dopamine availability group (valA/valB or met/met; β = .11, p = .007). For men, no significant interactions were observed. Combination of the COMT functional haplotype model and inverted-U model may shed light on the effect of dopaminergic regulation on the trajectory of affective symptoms over the life course. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An artificial neural network for membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase biosynthesis with Pichia pastoris methanol-induced cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Augusto Q; Martins, Luís M; Dias, João M L; Bonifácio, Maria J; Queiroz, João A; Passarinha, Luís A

    2015-08-07

    Membrane proteins are important drug targets in many human diseases and gathering structural information regarding these proteins encourages the pharmaceutical industry to develop new molecules using structure-based drug design studies. Specifically, membrane-bound catechol-O-methyltransferase (MBCOMT) is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes the methylation of catechol substrates and has been linked to several diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. Thereby, improvements in the clinical outcome of the therapy to these diseases may come from structure-based drug design where reaching MBCOMT samples in milligram quantities are crucial for acquiring structural information regarding this target protein. Therefore, the main aim of this work was to optimize the temperature, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration and the methanol flow-rate for the biosynthesis of recombinant MBCOMT by Pichia pastoris bioreactor methanol-induced cultures using artificial neural networks (ANN). The optimization trials intended to evaluate MBCOMT expression by P. pastoris bioreactor cultures led to the development of a first standard strategy for MBCOMT bioreactor biosynthesis with a batch growth on glycerol until the dissolved oxygen spike, 3 h of glycerol feeding and 12 h of methanol induction. The ANN modeling of the aforementioned fermentation parameters predicted a maximum MBCOMT specific activity of 384.8 nmol/h/mg of protein at 30°C, 2.9 mL/L/H methanol constant flow-rate and with the addition of 6% (v/v) DMSO with almost 90% of healthy cells at the end of the induction phase. These results allowed an improvement of MBCOMT specific activity of 6.4-fold in comparison to that from the small-scale biosynthesis in baffled shake-flasks. The ANN model was able to describe the effects of temperature, DMSO concentration and methanol flow-rate on MBCOMT specific activity, as shown by the good fitness between predicted and observed values. This experimental procedure

  3. Down-regulation of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in switchgrass reveals a novel monolignol analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschaplinski Timothy J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase EC 2.1.1.68 (COMT gene in the lignin biosynthetic pathway of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum resulted in cell walls of transgenic plants releasing more constituent sugars after pretreatment by dilute acid and treatment with glycosyl hydrolases from an added enzyme preparation and from Clostridium thermocellum. Fermentation of both wild-type and transgenic switchgrass after milder hot water pretreatment with no water washing showed that only the transgenic switchgrass inhibited C. thermocellum. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GCMS-based metabolomics were undertaken on cell wall aqueous extracts to determine the nature of the microbial inhibitors. Results GCMS confirmed the increased concentration of a number of phenolic acids and aldehydes that are known inhibitors of microbial fermentation. Metabolomic analyses of the transgenic biomass additionally revealed the presence of a novel monolignol-like metabolite, identified as trans-3, 4-dimethoxy-5-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol (iso-sinapyl alcohol in both non-pretreated, as well as hot water pretreated samples. iso-Sinapyl alcohol and its glucoside were subsequently generated by organic synthesis and the identity of natural and synthetic materials were confirmed by mass spectrometric and NMR analyses. The additional novel presence of iso-sinapic acid, iso-sinapyl aldehyde, and iso-syringin suggest the increased activity of a para-methyltransferase, concomitant with the reduced COMT activity, a strict meta-methyltransferase. Quantum chemical calculations were used to predict the most likely homodimeric lignans generated from dehydration reactions, but these products were not evident in plant samples. Conclusions Down-regulation of COMT activity in switchgrass resulted in the accumulation of previously undetected metabolites resembling sinapyl alcohol and its related metabolites, but that are derived from para

  4. The Flexible Mind Is Associated with the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val[superscript 158]Met Polymorphism: Evidence for a Role of Dopamine in the Control of Task-Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; Waszak, Florian; Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Posthuma, Danielle; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene Val[superscript 128]Met polymorphism) has received increasing attention as a possible modulator of cognitive control functions. Recent evidence suggests that the Val[superscript 128]Met genotype may differentially affect cognitive stability and flexibility, in such a way…

  5. Cloning of a cDNA encoding the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, R.; Nagel, G.; Schmidt, B.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor have been isolated from a human placenta library in λgt11. The nucleotide sequence of the 2463-base-pair cDNA insert includes a 145-base-pair 5' untranslated region, an open reading frame of 831 base pairs corresponding to 277 amino acids, and a 1487-base-pair 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence is colinear with that determined by amino acid sequencing of the N-terminus peptide (41 residues) and nine tryptic peptides (93 additional residues). The receptor is synthesized as a precursor with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The hydrophobicity profile of the receptor indicates a single membrane-spanning domain, which separates an N-terminal region containing five potential N-glycosylation sites from a C-terminal region lacking N-glycosylation sites. Thus the N-terminal (M/sub r/ = 18,299) and C-terminal (M/sub r/ ≤ 7648) segments of the mature receptor are assumed to be exposed to the extracytosolic and cytosolic sides of the membrane, respectively. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell (mouse-human) hybrids shows that the gene for the receptor is located on human chromosome 12

  6. Overexpression of O-methyltransferase leads to improved vanillin production in baker's yeast only when complemented with model-guided network engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Patil, Kiran R

    2013-02-01

    Overproduction of a desired metabolite is often achieved via manipulation of the pathway directly leading to the product or through engineering of distant nodes within the metabolic network. Empirical examples illustrating the combined effect of these local and global strategies have been so far limited in eukaryotic systems. In this study, we compared the effects of overexpressing a key gene in de novo vanillin biosynthesis (coding for O-methyltransferase, hsOMT) in two yeast strains, with and without model-guided global network modifications. Overexpression of hsOMT resulted in increased vanillin production only in the strain with model-guided modifications, exemplifying advantage of using a global strategy prior to local pathway manipulation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Melatonin synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is strongly expressed in a subpopulation of pinealocytes in the male rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Coon, Steven L.; Amaral, Fernanda G.

    2016-01-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme...... in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell...... and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly...

  8. Partial Purification and Properties of S-Adenosylmethionine: (R), (S)-Norlaudanosoline-6-O-Methyltransferase from Argemone platyceras Cell Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueffer, M; Nagakura, N; Zenk, M H

    1983-11-01

    A new enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine: (R), (S)-norlaudanosoline-6-O-methyltransferase, was isolated from the soluble protein extract of A. PLATYCERAS cell cultures and purified approximately 80-fold. This enzyme catalyses the formation of 6-O-methylnorlaudanosoline, and, to a minor extent, 7-O-methylnorlaudanosoline from SAM and (S), as well as (R), norlaudanosoline. The apparent molcular weight of the enzyme is 47000 Dalton. The pH-optimum of the enzyme is 7.5, the temperature optimum, 35 degrees C. Apparent K (M) values for (S) and (R)-norlaudanosoline were 0.2 mM, and for SAM, 0.05 mM. The transferase shows high substrate specificity for tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. Simple orthophenols, like phenylpropane derivatives, coumarins or flavonoids, are not accepted as substrates. The enzyme is widely distributed in benzylisoquinoline-containing plant cell cultures and is present in differentiated plants like PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM.

  9. Meta-analysis reveals a lack of association between a common catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism val¹⁵⁸met and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Junwei; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Jianning

    2014-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene val(158)met polymorphism and FM risk. We performed a meta-analysis of 8 case-control studies that included 589 FM cases and 527 case-free controls. We assessed the strength of the association, using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, this meta-analysis showed that the COMT gene val(158)met polymorphism was not associated with FM risk in all genetic models, i.e., allele (met vs. val: OR=1.46, 95% CI=0.80-2.66, P heterpgeneitysubgroup analyses by ethnicity and HWE. No publication bias was found in the present study. This meta-analysis suggests that the COMT gene val(158)met polymorphism is not associated with FM risk. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm this association.

  10. Floral scent production in Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae). II. Localization and developmental modulation of the enzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine:(iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase and phenylpropanoid emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Dudareva, N; Bhakta, S; Raguso, R A; Pichersky, E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown (R.A. Raguso, E. Pichersky [1995] Plant Syst Evol 194: 55-67) that the strong, sweet fragrance of Clarkia breweri (Onagraceae), an annual plant native to California, consists of 8 to 12 volatile compounds, including 4 phenylpropanoids. Although some C. breweri plants emit all 4 phenylpropanoids (eugenol, isoeugenol, methyleugenol, and isomethyleugenol), other C. breweri plants do not emit the latter 2 compounds. Here we report that petal tissue was responsible for the bulk of the phenylpropanoid emission. The activity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine: (iso)eugenol O-methyltransferase (IEMT), a novel enzyme that catalyzes the methylation of the para-4'-hydroxyl of both eugenol and (iso)eugenol to methyleugenol and isomethyleugenol, respectively, was also highest in petal tissue. IEMT activity was absent from floral tissues of plants not emitting (iso)methyleugenol. A C. breweri cDNA clone encoding IEMT was isolated, and its sequence was shown to have 70% identity to S-adenosyl-L-methionine:caffeic acid O-methyltransferase. The protein encoded by this cDNA can use eugenol and isoeugenol as substrates, but not caffeic acid. Steady-state IEMT mRNA levels were positively correlated with levels of IEMT activity in the tissues, and no IEMT mRNA was observed in flowers that do not emit (iso)methyleugenol. Overall, the data show that the floral emission of (iso)methyleugenol is controlled at the site of emission, that a positive correlation exists between volatile emission and IEMT activity, and that control of the level of IEMT activity is exerted at a pretranslational step. PMID:9159948

  11. Chloroplast overexpression of rice caffeic acid O-methyltransferase increases melatonin production in chloroplasts via the 5-methoxytryptamine pathway in transgenic rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Geun-Hee; Lee, Hyoung Yool; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2017-08-01

    Recent analyses of the enzymatic features of various melatonin biosynthetic genes from bacteria, animals, and plants have led to the hypothesis that melatonin could be synthesized via the 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT) pathway. 5-MT is known to be synthesized in vitro from serotonin by the enzymatic action of O-methyltransferases, including N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT), leading to melatonin synthesis by the subsequent enzymatic reaction with serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). Here, we show that 5-MT was produced and served as a precursor for melatonin synthesis in plants. When rice seedlings were challenged with senescence treatment, 5-MT levels and melatonin production were increased in transgenic rice seedlings overexpressing the rice COMT in chloroplasts, while no such increases were observed in wild-type or transgenic seedlings overexpressing the rice COMT in the cytosol, suggesting a 5-MT transport limitation from the cytosol to chloroplasts. In contrast, cadmium treatment led to results different from those in senescence. The enhanced melatonin production was not observed in the chloroplast COMT lines relative over the cytosol COMT lines although 5-MT levels were equally induced in all genotypes upon cadmium treatment. The transgenic seedlings with enhanced melatonin in their chloroplasts exhibited improved seedling growth vs the wild type under continuous light conditions. This is the first report describing enhanced melatonin production in chloroplasts via the 5-MT pathway with the ectopic overexpression of COMT in chloroplasts in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Functional and Structural Analysis of Phenazine O-Methyltransferase LaPhzM from Lysobacter antibioticus OH13 and One-Pot Enzymatic Synthesis of the Antibiotic Myxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiasong; Guiza Beltran, Daisy; Schacht, Andrew; Wright, Stephen; Zhang, Limei; Du, Liangcheng

    2018-03-12

    Myxin is a well-known antibiotic that had been used for decades. It belongs to the phenazine natural products that exhibit various biological activities, which are often dictated by the decorating groups on the heteroaromatic three-ring system. The three rings of myxin carry a number of decorations, including an unusual aromatic N5, N10-dioxide. We previously showed that phenazine 1,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) is the direct precursor of myxin, and two redox enzymes (LaPhzS and LaPhzNO1) catalyze the decarboxylative hydroxylation and aromatic N-oxidations of PDC to produce iodinin (1.6-dihydroxy- N5, N10-dioxide phenazine). In this work, we identified the LaPhzM gene from Lysobacter antibioticus OH13 and demonstrated that LaPhzM encodes a SAM-dependent O-methyltransferase converting iodinin to myxin. The results further showed that LaPhzM is responsible for both monomethoxy and dimethoxy formation in all phenazine compounds isolated from strain OH13. LaPhzM exhibits relaxed substrate selectivity, catalyzing O-methylation of phenazines with non-, mono-, or di- N-oxide. In addition, we demonstrated a one-pot biosynthesis of myxin by in vitro reconstitution of the three phenazine-ring decorating enzymes. Finally, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of LaPhzM with a bound cofactor at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure provided molecular insights into the activity and selectivity of the first characterized phenazine O-methyltransferase. These results will facilitate future exploitation of the thousands of phenazines as new antibiotics through metabolic engineering and chemoenzymatic syntheses.

  13. Fluorescent Protein-Based Ca2+ Sensor Reveals Global, Divalent Cation-Dependent Conformational Changes in Cardiac Troponin C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam A Badr

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin C (cTnC is a key effector in cardiac muscle excitation-contraction coupling as the Ca2+ sensing subunit responsible for controlling contraction. In this study, we generated several FRET sensors for divalent cations based on cTnC flanked by a donor fluorescent protein (CFP and an acceptor fluorescent protein (YFP. The sensors report Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding, and relay global structural information about the structural relationship between cTnC's N- and C-domains. The sensors were first characterized using end point titrations to decipher the response to Ca2+ binding in the presence or absence of Mg2+. The sensor that exhibited the largest responses in end point titrations, CTV-TnC, (Cerulean, TnC, and Venus was characterized more extensively. Most of the divalent cation-dependent FRET signal originates from the high affinity C-terminal EF hands. CTV-TnC reconstitutes into skinned fiber preparations indicating proper assembly of troponin complex, with only ~0.2 pCa unit rightward shift of Ca2+-sensitive force development compared to WT-cTnC. Affinity of CTV-TnC for divalent cations is in agreement with known values for WT-cTnC. Analytical ultracentrifugation indicates that CTV-TnC undergoes compaction as divalent cations bind. C-terminal sites induce ion-specific (Ca2+ versus Mg2+ conformational changes in cTnC. Our data also provide support for the presence of additional, non-EF-hand sites on cTnC for Mg2+ binding. In conclusion, we successfully generated a novel FRET-Ca2+ sensor based on full length cTnC with a variety of cellular applications. Our sensor reveals global structural information about cTnC upon divalent cation binding.

  14. Positron emission tomography in drug evaluation: Influence of three different catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors on metabolism of [NCA] 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-dopa in Rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, I.; Psylla, M.; Reddy, G.N.; Antonini, A.; Vontobel, P.; Reist, H.W.; Zollinger, A.; Nickles, R.J.; Beer, H.-F.; Schubiger, P.A.; Leenders, K.L

    1995-10-01

    We compared the influence of three different catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (CGP 28014, OR-611 and Ro 40-7592) on the metabolism of no-carrier-added (NCA) 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-dopa (6-FDOPA) in one Rhesus monkey. All three COMT inhibitors improved 6-FDOPA availability in plasma, increased the specific uptake in the brain and thus improved 6-FDOPA uptake measurements using positron emission tomography (PET). Best results were obtained with Ro 40-7592.

  15. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Kjærstad, H. L.; Støttrup, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyl......OBJECTIVES: Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol......-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working...... memory in BD. METHODS: Sixty-four outpatients with BD in full or partial remission were stratified according to COMT Val158Met genotype (ValVal [n=13], ValMet [n=34], and MetMet [n=17]). The patients completed a spatial n-back working memory task during fMRI and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test...

  16. Investigating the genetic basis of theory of mind (ToM): the role of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiwei; Wu, Nan; Su, Yanjie

    2012-01-01

    The ability to deduce other persons' mental states and emotions which has been termed 'theory of mind (ToM)' is highly heritable. First molecular genetic studies focused on some dopamine-related genes, while the genetic basis underlying different components of ToM (affective ToM and cognitive ToM) remain unknown. The current study tested 7 candidate polymorphisms (rs4680, rs4633, rs2020917, rs2239393, rs737865, rs174699 and rs59938883) on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. We investigated how these polymorphisms relate to different components of ToM. 101 adults participated in our study; all were genetically unrelated, non-clinical and healthy Chinese subjects. Different ToM tasks were applied to detect their theory of mind ability. The results showed that the COMT gene rs2020917 and rs737865 SNPs were associated with cognitive ToM performance, while the COMT gene rs5993883 SNP was related to affective ToM, in which a significant gender-genotype interaction was found (p = 0.039). Our results highlighted the contribution of DA-related COMT gene on ToM performance. Moreover, we found out that the different SNP at the same gene relates to the discriminative aspect of ToM. Our research provides some preliminary evidence to the genetic basis of theory of mind which still awaits further studies.

  17. Structure related effects of flavonoid aglycones on cell cycle progression of HepG2 cells: Metabolic activation of fisetin and quercetin by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Zrínyi, Zita; Kőszegi, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Dietary flavonoids are abundant in the Plant Kingdom and they are extensively studied because of their manifold pharmacological activities. Recent studies highlighted that cell cycle arrest plays a key role in their antiproliferative effect in different tumor cells. However, structure-activity relationship of flavonoids is poorly characterized. In our study the influence of 18 flavonoid aglycones (as well as two metabolites) on cell cycle distribution was investigated. Since flavonoids are extensively metabolized by liver cells, HepG2 tumor cell line was applied, considering the potential metabolic activation/inactivation of flavonoids. Our major observations are the followings: (1) Among the tested compounds diosmetin, fisetin, apigenin, lutelin, and quercetin provoked spectacular extent of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. (2) Inhibition of catechol-O-methyltransferase enzyme by entacapone decreased the antiproliferative effects of fisetin and quercetin. (3) Geraldol and isorhamnetin (3'-O-methylated metabolites of fisetin and quercetin, respectively) demonstrated significantly higher antiproliferative effect on HepG2 cells compared to the parent compounds. Based on these results, O-methylated flavonoid metabolites or their chemically modified derivatives may be suitable candidates of tumor therapy in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on resting-state brain default mode network after acupuncture stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuejuan; Gong, Jie; Jin, Lingmin; Liu, Lin; Sun, Jinbo; Qin, Wei

    2017-06-13

    The effects of acupuncture can be characterized by clear individual differences. Several revealing studies suggest an underlying role of inherited genetic factor in interindividual variability in response to acupuncture treatment. It remains unclear, however, if the modulation of acupuncture on resting brain function is influenced by genetic factors. Catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism has been shown to regulate the resting brain network, especially in the default mode network (DMN), which is a target area that responds to acupuncture stimulation. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on the modulation of acupuncture in DMN connectivity in healthy Chinese young adults. Using mixed-design ANOVA analysis, we found a significant interactive effect between acupuncture and the COMT gene. For subjects carrying the Val/Met genotype, acupuncture induced decreased DMN connectivity with the left middle frontal gyrus during the post-acupuncture stage compared with the pre-acupuncture stage, which was not observed in Val/Val homozygous subjects. These results demonstrated that during sustained periods after acupuncture stimulation, the brain network is likely under genetic control, and COMT might be a candidate gene that regulates the resting DMN response to acupuncture stimulation.

  19. The impact of the Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism on survival in the general population – the HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorpen Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene contains a functional polymorphism, Val158Met which has been related to common diseases like cancer, psychiatric illness and myocardial infarction. Whether the Val158Met polymorphism is associated with survival has not been evaluated in the general population. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the impact of codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism on survival in a population-based cohort. Methods The sample comprised 2979 non-diabetic individuals who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT in the period 1995–97. The subjects were followed up with respect to mortality throughout year 2004. Results 212 men and 183 women died during the follow up. No association between codon 158 COMT gene polymorphism and survival was found. The unadjusted relative risk of death by non-ischemic heart diseases with Met/Met or Met/Val genotypes was 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–9.00 compared to Val/Val genotype. When we adjusted for age, gender, smoking, coffee intake and body mass index the relative risk decreased to 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.04–8.00. Conclusion During 10 year of follow-up, the Val158Met polymorphism had no impact on survival in a general population. Difference in mortality rates from non-ischemic heart diseases may be incidental and should be evaluated in other studies.

  20. Acid detergent lignin, lodging resistance index, and expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase gene in brown midrib-12 sudangrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Guibo; Li, Jun; You, Yongliang; Zhao, Haiming; Liang, Huan; Mao, Peisheng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the relationship between acid detergent lignin (ADL) and lodging resistance index (LRI) is essential for breeding new varieties of brown midrib (bmr) sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.). In this study, bmr-12 near isogenic lines and their wild-types obtained by back cross breeding were used to compare relevant forage yield and quality traits, and to analyze expression of the caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene using quantitative real time-PCR. The research showed that the mean ADL content of bmr-12 mutants (20.94 g kg(-1)) was significantly (P bmr-12 mutants (0.29) was significantly (P bmr-12 materials (r = -0.44, P > 0.05). Sequence comparison of the COMT gene revealed two point mutations present in bmr-12 but not in the wild-type, the second mutation changed amino acid 129 of the protein from Gln (CAG) to a stop codon (UAG). The relative expression level of COMT gene was significantly reduced, which likely led to the decreased ADL content observed in the bmr-12 mutant.

  1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition alters pain and anxiety-related volitional behaviors through activation of β-adrenergic receptors in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, R H; Exposto, F G; O'Buckley, S C; Westlund, K N; Nackley, A G

    2015-04-02

    Reduced catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity resulting from genetic variation or pharmacological depletion results in enhanced pain perception in humans and nociceptive behaviors in animals. Using phasic mechanical and thermal reflex tests (e.g. von Frey, Hargreaves), recent studies show that acute COMT-dependent pain in rats is mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (βARs). In order to more closely mimic the characteristics of human chronic pain conditions associated with prolonged reductions in COMT, the present study sought to determine volitional pain-related and anxiety-like behavioral responses following sustained as well as acute COMT inhibition using an operant 10-45°C thermal place preference task and a light/dark preference test. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effects of sustained COMT inhibition on generalized body pain by measuring tactile sensory thresholds of the abdominal region. Results demonstrated that acute and sustained administration of the COMT inhibitor OR486 increased pain behavior in response to thermal heat. Further, sustained administration of OR486 increased anxiety behavior in response to bright light, as well as abdominal mechanosensation. Finally, all pain-related behaviors were blocked by the non-selective βAR antagonist propranolol. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that stimulation of βARs following acute or chronic COMT inhibition drives cognitive-affective behaviors associated with heightened pain that affects multiple body sites. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The enzymatic activities of brain catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and methionine sulphoxide reductase are correlated in a COMT Val/Met allele-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Jackob; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Cruz, Dianne A; Thompson, Peter M; Hairston, Jenaqua; Bortolato, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a primary role in the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and is implicated in the modulation of cognitive and emotional responses. The best characterized single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the COMT gene consists of a valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 108/158. The Met-containing variant confers a marked reduction in COMT catalytic activity. We recently showed that the activity of recombinant COMT is positively regulated by the enzyme Met sulphoxide reductase (MSR), which counters the oxidation of Met residues of proteins. The current study was designed to assess whether brain COMT activity may be correlated to MSR in an allele-dependent fashion. COMT and MSR activities were measured from post-mortem samples of prefrontal cortices, striata and cerebella of 32 subjects by using catechol and dabsyl-Met sulphoxide as substrates, respectively. Allelic discrimination of COMT Val(108/185) Met SNP was performed using the Taqman 5'nuclease assay. Our studies revealed that, in homozygous carriers of Met, but not Val alleles, the activity of COMT and MSR was significantly correlated throughout all tested brain regions. These results suggest that the reduced enzymatic activity of Met-containing COMT may be secondary to Met sulphoxidation and point to MSR as a key molecular determinant for the modulation of COMT activity. © 2015 British Neuropathological Society.

  3. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Expression of Catechol-O-methyltransferase in the Inferior Colliculus and Auditory Cortex in Age-related Hearing Loss Guinea Pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yun; Deng, Li-Qiang; Yang, Ye; Yin, Ze-Deng

    2017-04-25

    To observe the expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) in inferior colliculus and auditory cortex of guinea pigs with age-related hearing loss(AHL) induced by D-galactose, so as to explore the possible mechanism of electroacupuncture(EA) underlying preventing AHL. Thirty 3-month-old guinea pigs were randomly divided into control group, model group and EA group( n =10 in each group), and ten 18-month-old guinea pigs were allocated as elderly group. The AHL model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose. EA was applied to bilateral "Yifeng"(SJ 17) and "Tinggong"(SI 19) for 15 min in the EA group while modeling, once daily for 6 weeks. After treatment, the latency of auditory brainstem response(ABR) Ⅲ wave was measured by a brain-stem evoked potentiometer. The expressions of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex were detected by Western blot. Compared with the control group, the latencies of ABR Ⅲ wave were significantly prolonged and the expressions of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex were significantly decreased in the model group and the elderly group( P guinea pigs, which may contribute to its effect in up-regulating the expression of COMT in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex.

  4. Association between Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met (158G/A) Polymorphism and Suicide Susceptibility: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghiyeh, Tahereh; Hosseini Biouki, Fatemeh; Mazaheri, Mahta; Zare-Shehneh, Masoud; Neamatzadeh, Hossein; Poursharif, Zahra

    2017-06-24

    Common functional Val158Met polymorphism in the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may have an impact on an individual's susceptibility to suicide, but individually published results are inconclusive. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to provide a more precise estimation of the association between COMT 158G/A (COMT Val158Met) polymorphism and suicide susceptibility. A cross-sectional study. This systematic review and meta-analysis is a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases was conducted on case-control studies published up to Mar 2017. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We identified 14 eligible case-control studies, including 2353 suicide attempters and 2593 controls. The pooled results indicated that COMT 158G/A (COMT Val158Met) polymorphism was not significantly associated with increased overall suicide risk. The same results were revealed based on ethnicity, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) status and genotyping technique. However, there was significant association between COMT Val158Met polymorphism and suicide risk among females under the homozygote (AA vs. GG: OR=1.829, 95% CI=1.158-2.889, P=0.010) and recessive (AA vs. AG +GG: OR = 1.787, 95% CI=1.195, 2.671, P=0.005) models, but not among males. COMT 158G/A (COMT Val158Met) polymorphism was associated with suicide susceptibility only in females.

  5. Association of codon 108/158 catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism with the psychiatric manifestations of velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachman, H.M.; Papolos, D.F.; Veit, S. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    Velo-cardio-facial-syndrome (VCFS) is a common congenital disorder associated with typical facial appearance, cleft palate, cardiac defects, and learning disabilities. The majority of patients have an interstitial deletion on chromosome 22q11. In addition to physical abnormalities, a variety of psychiatric illnesses have been reported in patients with VCFS, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The psychiatric manifestations of VCFS could be due to haploinsufficiency of a gene(s) within 22q11. One candidate that has been mapped to this region is catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). We recently identified a polymorphism in the COMT gene that leads to a valine{r_arrow}methionine substitution at amino acid 158 of the membrane-bound form of the enzyme. Homozygosity for COMT158{sup met} leads to a 3- to 4-fold reduction in enzymatic activity, compared with homozygotes for COMT158{sup met}. We now report that in a population of patients with VCFS, there is an apparent association between the low-activity allele, COMT158{sup met}, and the development of bipolar spectrum disorder, and in particular, a rapid-cycling form. 33 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Production of Two Novel Methoxy-Isoflavones from Biotransformation of 8-Hydroxydaidzein by Recombinant Escherichia coli Expressing O-Methyltransferase SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Min; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Tsai, Ya-Ting; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation of 8-hydroxydaidzein by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing O-methyltransferase (OMT) SpOMT2884 from Streptomyces peucetius was investigated. Two metabolites were isolated and identified as 7,4′-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-isoflavone (1) and 8,4′-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-isoflavone (2), based on mass, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C-NMR spectrophotometric analysis. The maximum production yields of compound (1) and (2) in a 5-L fermenter were 9.3 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L, respectively. The two methoxy-isoflavones showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis in cultured B16 melanoma cells under non-toxic conditions. Among the effects, compound (1) decreased melanogenesis to 63.5% of the control at 25 μM. This is the first report on the 8-O-methylation activity of OMT toward isoflavones. In addition, the present study also first identified compound (1) with potent melanogenesis inhibitory activity. PMID:26610478

  7. Opicapone: a short lived and very long acting novel catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor following multiple dose administration in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José Francisco; Almeida, Luis; Falcão, Amílcar; Palma, P Nuno; Loureiro, Ana I; Pinto, Roberto; Bonifácio, Maria João; Wright, Lyndon C; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and inhibitory effect on erythrocyte soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) activity following repeated doses of opicapone. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study enrolled healthy male subjects who received either once daily placebo or opicapone 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg for 8 days. Results Opicapone was well tolerated. Its systemic exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner with an apparent terminal half-life of 1.0 to 1.4 h. Sulphation was the main metabolic pathway. Opicapone metabolites recovered in urine accounted for less than 3% of the amount of opicapone administered suggesting that bile is likely the main route of excretion. Maximum S-COMT inhibition (Emax) ranged from 69.9% to 98.0% following the last dose of opicapone. The opicapone-induced S-COMT inhibition showed a half-life in excess of 100 h, which was dose-independent and much longer than plasma drug exposure. Such a half-life translates into a putative underlying rate constant that is comparable with the estimated dissociation rate constant of the COMT–opicapone complex. Conclusion Despite its short elimination half-life, opicapone markedly and sustainably inhibited erythrocyte S-COMT activity making it suitable for a once daily regimen. PMID:23336248

  8. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Genotypes and Parenting Influence on Long-Term Executive Functioning After Moderate to Severe Early Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Brad G; Treble-Barna, Amery; Zang, Huaiyu; Zhang, Nanhua; Martin, Lisa J; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Wade, Shari L

    To examine catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 genotypes as moderators of the effects of parenting style on postinjury changes in parent behavior ratings of executive dysfunction following moderate to severe early childhood traumatic brain injury. Research was conducted in an outpatient setting. Participants included children admitted to hospital with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (n = 55) or orthopedic injuries (n = 70) between ages 3 and 7 years. Prospective cohort followed over 7 years postinjury. Parenting Practices Questionnaire and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning obtained at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 3.5 and 6.8 years postinjury. DNA was collected from saliva samples, purified using the Oragene (DNA Genotek, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) OG-500 self-collection tubes, and analyzed using TaqMan (Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, Massachusetts) assay protocols to identify the COMT rs4680 polymorphism. Linear mixed models revealed a significant genotype × parenting style × time interaction (F = 5.72, P = .02), which suggested that the adverse effects of authoritarian parenting on postinjury development of executive functioning were buffered by the presence of the COMT AA genotype (lower enzyme activity, higher dopamine levels). There were no significant associations of executive functioning with the interaction between genotype and authoritative or permissive parenting ratings. The lower activity COMT rs4680 genotype may buffer the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on long-term executive functioning following injury in early childhood. The findings provide preliminary evidence for associations of parenting style with executive dysfunction in children and for a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors as contributors to decreases in these problems after traumatic injuries in children. Further investigation is warranted to understand the interplay among genetic and

  9. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism influences anxiety, depression, and disability, but not pressure pain sensitivity, in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

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    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Gil-Crujera, Antonio; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia

    2012-11-01

    Our aim was to assess the relationship of the Val158Met polymorphism to pain, anxiety, depression, functional ability, and pressure pain sensitivity in women with fibromyalgia (FMS). One hundred (n = 100) women with FMS diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria participated. A numerical pain rate scale (0-10) was used to assess the intensity of pain; the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was calculated to determine anxiety and depression; and functional ability was determined with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Further, pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally assessed over C5-C6 zygapophyseal joints, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscles. Finally, after amplifying Val158Met polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype was divided into Val/Val, Val/Met, or Met/Met genotypes. Women with FMS with the Met/Met genotype exhibited higher disability (F = 11.836; P anxiety (F = 13.385; P anxiety but similar PPTs than those with Val/Met or Val/Val genotypes. This study is important because it strives to understand potential genetic factors that predispose some women with FMS to exhibit a more severe phenotypic expression of the disease. Future studies are needed to elucidate potential relevance of the differences. This study suggests that the Val158Met COMT polymorphism modulated some psychological variables but not pressure pain sensitivity in FMS because women with FMS carrying the Met/Met genotype exhibit higher disability, depression, and anxiety than but similar PPTs to those with Val/Met and Val/Val genotypes. This study provides further evidence of potential genetic factors that predispose women with FMS to exhibit the disease more severely. Copyright © 2012 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  11. Associations of Cigarette Smoking and Polymorphisms in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase with Neurocognition in Alcohol Dependent Individuals during Early Abstinence

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    Timothy eDurazzo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cigarette smoking and polymorphisms in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT are associated with neurocognition in normal controls and those with various neuropsychiatric conditions. The influence of these polymorphisms on neurocognition in alcohol dependence is unclear. The goal of this report was to investigate the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met with neurocognition in a treatment-seeking alcohol dependent cohort and determine if neurocognitive differences between non-smokers and smokers previously observed in this cohort persist when controlled for these functional SNPs. Genotyping was conducted on 70 primarily male treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery after 33 ± 9 days of monitored abstinence. Smoking ALC performed significantly worse than non-smoking ALC on the domains of auditory-verbal and visuospatial learning and memory, cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, processing speed and global neurocognition. In smoking ALC, greater number of years of smoking over lifetime was related to poorer performance on multiple domains. COMT Met homozygotes were superior to Val homozygotes on measures of executive skills and showed trends for higher general intelligence and visuospatial skills, while COMT Val/Met heterozygotes showed significantly better general intelligence than Val homozygotes. COMT Val homozygotes performed better than heterozygotes on auditory-verbal memory. BDNF genotype was not related to any neurocognitive domain. The findings are consistent with studies in normal controls and neuropsychiatric cohorts that observed COMT Met carriers showed better performance on measures of executive skills and general intelligence. Overall, the findings support to the expanding clinical movement to make smoking cessation programs available at the inception of

  12. The divergent impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genetic polymorphisms on executive function in adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity.

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    Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fetal Val108/158Met catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism and placental COMT activity are associated with the development of preeclampsia.

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    Pertegal, Miriam; Fenoy, Francisco J; Hernández, Moisés; Mendiola, Jaime; Delgado, Juan L; Bonacasa, Bárbara; Corno, Andrés; López, Bernardo; Bosch, Vicente; Hernández, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between fetal and maternal catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met and methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T functional polymorphisms and preeclampsia, examining its influence on placental COMT and in maternal 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) plasma levels. Prospective case-control study. University hospital. A total of 53 preeclamptic and 72 normal pregnant women. Maternal and cord blood samples and placental tissue samples were obtained. Maternal and fetal COMT and MTHFR polymorphisms were genotyped. Maternal plasma 2-ME and homocysteine levels, and expression and activity of placental COMT were measured. The odds ratio for the risk of preeclampsia for fetal COMT Met/Met was 3.22, and it increased to 8.65 when associated with fetal MTHFR TT. Placental COMT activity and expression were influenced by genotype, but COMT activity in preeclamptic placentas did not differ from control pregnancies. There was no association between any genotypes and maternal 2-ME. Homocysteine levels were higher in women with preeclampsia than in normal pregnancies, and were inversely correlated with 2-ME plasma levels, indicating that its altered metabolism may lower COMT activity in vivo. Fetal Met-Met COMT genotype reduces COMT placental expression and activity in vitro and increases preeclampsia, risk but it does not explain the difference in maternal 2-ME levels between preeclamptic and normal pregnancies. However, the preeclamptic patients had elevated homocysteine levels that correlated inversely with 2-ME, indicating that an altered methionine-homocysteine metabolism may contribute to reduce COMT activity in vivo and explain the decreased levels of 2-ME in preeclamptic women. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of acute dopamine precusor depletion on immediate reward selection bias and working memory depend on catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype.

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    Kelm, Mary Katherine; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2013-12-01

    Little agreement exists as to acute dopamine (DA) manipulation effects on intertemporal choice in humans. We previously found that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype predicts individual differences in immediate reward selection bias among adults. Moreover, we and others have shown that the relationship between COMT genotype and immediate reward bias is inverted in adolescents. No previous pharmacology studies testing DA manipulation effects on intertemporal choice have accounted for COMT genotype, and many have included participants in the adolescent age range (18-21 years) as adults. Moreover, many studies have included female participants without strict cycle phase control, although recent evidence demonstrates that cyclic estradiol elevations interact with COMT genotype to affect DA-dependent cognition. These factors may have interacted with DA manipulations in past studies, potentially occluding detection of effects. Therefore, we predicted that, among healthy male adults (ages 22-40 years), frontal DA tone, as indexed by COMT genotype, would interact with acute changes in DA signaling to affect intertemporal choice. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we decreased central DA via administration of an amino acid beverage deficient in the DA precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and tested effects on immediate reward bias in a delay-discounting (DD) task and working memory (WM) in an n-back task. We found no main effect of beverage on DD or WM performance but did find significant beverage*genotype effects. These results suggest that the effect of DA manipulations on DD depends on individual differences in frontal DA tone, which may have impeded some past efforts to characterize DA's role in immediate reward bias in humans.

  15. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder.

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    Miskowiak, K W; Kjaerstad, H L; Støttrup, M M; Svendsen, A M; Demant, K M; Hoeffding, L K; Werge, T M; Burdick, K E; Domschke, K; Carvalho, A F; Vieta, E; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V; Siebner, H R; Macoveanu, J

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive dysfunction affects a substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and genetic-imaging paradigms may aid in the elucidation of mechanisms implicated in this symptomatic domain. The Val allele of the functional Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working memory in BD. Sixty-four outpatients with BD in full or partial remission were stratified according to COMT Val158Met genotype (ValVal [n=13], ValMet [n=34], and MetMet [n=17]). The patients completed a spatial n-back working memory task during fMRI and the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Spatial Working Memory test outside the scanner. During high working memory load (2-back vs 1-back), Val homozygotes displayed decreased activity relative to ValMet individuals, with Met homozygotes displaying intermediate levels of activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (P=.016). Exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in working memory-related dlPFC activity in the ValVal group vs the ValMet group which was not associated with differences in working memory performance during fMRI. Outside the MRI scanner, Val carriers performed worse in the CANTAB Spatial Working Memory task than Met homozygotes (P≤.006), with deficits being most pronounced in Val homozygotes. The association between Val allelic load, dlPFC activity and WM impairment points to a putative role of aberrant PFC dopamine tonus in the cognitive impairments in BD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fast sleep spindle density is associated with rs4680 (Val108/158Met) genotype of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

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    Schilling, Claudia; Gappa, Lena; Schredl, Michael; Streit, Fabian; Treutlein, Jens; Frank, Josef; Deuschle, Michael; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H

    2018-03-01

    Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamocortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). We aimed at testing whether the common functional rs4680 (Val108/158Met) polymorphism of COMT modulates fast spindle activity in healthy participants. In 150 healthy participants (93 women, 57 men; mean age 30.9 ± 11.6 years) sleep spindle density was analyzed during the second of two nights of polysomnography. We investigated the effect of the COMT Val108/158Met genotype on fast spindle density in whole-night NREM sleep stages N2 and N3. As predicted, higher Val allele dose correlates with reduced fast spindle density. Additional exploratory analysis of the effect of COMT genotype revealed that slow spindle density in heterozygote participants was lower than that of both homozygote groups. Morphological characteristics of fast and slow spindles did not show significant differences between genotypes. COMT genotype had also no significant effect on measures of general sleep quality. This is the first report of a distinct gene effect on sleep spindle density in humans. As variation in the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with differential expression of fast spindles in healthy participants, genetically determined dopaminergic neurotransmission may modulate spindle oscillations during NREM sleep. DRKS00008902.

  17. A Novel Sensitive Method to Measure Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Activity Unravels the Presence of This Activity in Extracellular Vesicles Released by Rat Hepatocytes.

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    Casal, Enriqueta; Palomo, Laura; Cabrera, Diana; Falcon-Perez, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    There is a clear need for drug treatments to be selected according to the characteristics of an individual patient, in order to improve efficacy and reduce the number and severity of adverse drug reactions. One of the main enzymes to take into account in pharmacogenomics is catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), which catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S -adenosylmethionine to catechols and catecholamines, like the neurotransmitters dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Although, most of this enzyme is associated to intracellular vesicles, recently it has also been detected in extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes and in serum circulating vesicles. COMT has implications in many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Parkinson's disease, chronic fatigue, pain response, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. Remarkably, genetic variations of COMT affect its activity and are associated to various human disorders from psychiatric diseases to estrogen-induced cancers. Consequently, the establishment of new methods to evaluate COMT activity is an important aspect to investigate the biology of this drug-metabolizing enzyme. Herein, we have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine COMT activity. We first optimized the activity in rat liver incubated with two different substrates; norepinephrine and dopamine. The enzymatically formed products (normetanephrine and 3-methoxytyramine, respectively) were extracted by solid-phase extraction using weak cation exchange cartridges, chromatographically separated, and detected and quantified using a mass spectrometer. The range of quantitation for both products was from 0.005 to 25 μg/mL. This methodology offers acceptable recovery for both enzymatic products (≥75%) and good accuracy and precision (≤15%). The lower limit of quantifications were 0.01 and 0.005 μM for 3-methoxytyramine and normetanephrine, respectively. Importantly, this sensitive assay was able to detect the presence of

  18. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene (Val158Met) and Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) (Val66Met) Genes Polymorphism in Schizophrenia: A Case-Control Study.

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    Saravani, Ramin; Galavi, Hamid Reza; Lotfian Sargazi, Marzieh

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Several studies have shown that some polymorphisms of genes encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), the key enzyme in degrading dopamine, and norepinephrine and the human brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a nerve growth factor, are strong candidates for risk of schizophrenia (SCZ). In the present study, we aimed at examining the effects of COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphisms on SCZ risk in a sample of Iranian population. Method: This case- control study included 92 SCZ patients and 92 healthy controls (HCs). Genotyping of both variants (COMT Val158Met (G>A) and BDNF Val66Met (G>A)) were conducted using Amplification Refractory Mutation System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results: The findings revealed that the COMT Val158Met (G>A) polymorphism was not associated with the risk/protective of SCZ in all models (OR=0.630, 95%CI=0.299-1.326, P=0.224, GA vs. GG, OR=1.416, 95%CI=0.719-2.793, P=0.314, AA vs. GG, OR=1.00, 95%CI=0.56-1.79, P=1.00 GA+AA vs. GG, OR=1.667, 95%CI=0.885-3.125, P=0.11, AA vs. GG+GA, OR=1.247, 95%CI=0.825-1.885, P=0.343, A vs. G,). However, BDNF Val66Met (G>A) variant increased the risk of SCZ (OR = 2.008 95%CI = 1.008-4.00, P = 0.047, GA vs. GG, OR = 3.876 95%CI = 1.001-14.925, P = 0.049. AA vs. GG, OR = 2.272. 95%CI = 1.204-4.347, P = 0.011, GA+AA vs. GG, OR = 2.22 95%CI = 1.29-3.82. P = 0.005, A vs. G). Conclusion: The results did not support an association between COMT Val158Met (G>A) variant and risk/protective of SCZ. Moreover, it was found that BDNF Val66Met (G>A) polymorphism may increase the risk of SCZ development. Further studies and different ethnicities are recommended to confirm the findings.

  19. Polimorfismos dos genes do receptor de serotonina (5-HT2A e da catecol-O-metiltransferase (COMT: fatores desencadeantes da fibromialgia? Serotonin receptor (5-HT 2A and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms: Triggers of fibromyalgia?

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    Josie Budag Matsuda

    2010-04-01

    fatigue, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, memory loss, and dizziness. Although the physiological mechanisms that control fibromyalgia have not been precisely established, neuroendocrine, genetic or molecular factors may be involved in fibromyalgia. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize serotonin receptor (5-HT2A and catecholO-methyltransferase (COMT gene polymorphisms in Brazilian patients with fibromyalgia and to evaluate the participation of these polymorphisms in the etiology of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Genomic DNA extracted from 102 blood samples (51 patients, 51 controls was used for molecular characterization of the 5-HT2A and COMT gene polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS: Analysis of the 5-HT2A polymorphism revealed a frequency of 25.49% C/C, 49.02% T/C and 25.49% T/T in patients, and of 17.65% C/C, 62.74% T/C and 19.61% T/T in the control group, with no differences between the two groups.Analysis of the COMT polymorphism in patients showed a frequency of 17.65% and 45.10% for genotypes H/H and L/H, respectively. In the control group the frequency was 29.42% for H/H and 60.78% for L/H, also with no differences between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of the L/L genotype between patients (37.25% and controls (9.8%, which permitted differentiation between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The L/L genotype was more frequent among fibromyalgia patients. Though considering a polygenic situation and environmental factors, the molecular study of the rs4680 SNP of the COMT gene may be helpful to the identification of susceptible individuals.

  20. Sugarcane expressed sequences tags (ESTs encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis pathways

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    Ramos Rose Lucia Braz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignins are phenolic polymers found in the secondary wall of plant conductive systems where they play an important role by reducing the permeability of the cell wall to water. Lignins are also responsible for the rigidity of the cell wall and are involved in mechanisms of resistance to pathogens. The metabolic routes and enzymes involved in synthesis of lignins have been largely characterized and representative genes that encode enzymes involved in these processes have been cloned from several plant species. The synthesis of lignins is liked to the general metabolism of the phenylpropanoids in plants, having enzymes (e.g. phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT common to other processes as well as specific enzymes such as cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. Some maize and sorghum mutants, shown to have defective in CAD and/or COMT activity, are easier to digest because they have a reduced lignin content, something which has motivated different research groups to alter the lignin content and composition of model plants by genetic engineering try to improve, for example, the efficiency of paper pulping and digestibility. In the work reported in this paper, we have made an inventory of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (EST coding for enzymes involved in lignin metabolism which are present in the sugarcane EST genome project (SUCEST database. Our analysis focused on the key enzymes ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H, caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT, caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT, hydroxycinnamate CoA ligase (4CL, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD. The comparative analysis of these genes with those described in other species could be used as molecular markers for breeding as well as for the manipulation of lignin metabolism in sugarcane.

  1. Genetic moderation of the effects of cannabis: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on working memory performance but not on the occurrence of psychotic experiences.

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    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Harrison, Paul J; Morrison, Paul D; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use can induce cognitive impairments and psychotic experiences. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) appears to influence the immediate cognitive and psychotic effects of cannabis, or ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive ingredient. This study investigated the moderation of the impact of experimentally administered THC by COMT. Cognitive performance and psychotic experiences were studied in participants without a psychiatric diagnosis, using a between-subjects design (THC vs. placebo). The effect of COMT Val(158)Met genotype on the cognitive and psychotic effects of THC, administered intravenously in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to 78 participants who were vulnerable to paranoia, was examined. The results showed interactive effects of genotype and drug group (THC or placebo) on working memory, assayed using the Digit Span Backwards task. Specifically, THC impaired performance in COMT Val/Val, but not Met, carriers. In contrast, the effect of THC on psychotic experiences, measured using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) positive dimension, was unaffected by COMT genotype. This study is the largest to date examining the impact of COMT genotype on response to experimentally administered THC, and the first using a purely non-clinical cohort. The data suggest that COMT genotype moderates the cognitive, but not the psychotic, effects of acutely administered THC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Voxelwise eigenvector centrality mapping of the human functional connectome reveals an influence of the catechol-O-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism on the default mode and somatomotor network.

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    Markett, Sebastian; Montag, Christian; Heeren, Behrend; Saryiska, Rayna; Lachmann, Bernd; Weber, Bernd; Reuter, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Functional connections between brain regions constitute the substrate of the human functional connectome, whose topography has been discussed as an endophenotype for psychiatric disorders. Genetic influences on the entire connectome, however, have been rarely investigated so far. We tested for connectome-wide influences of the val158met (rs4860) polymorphism on the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene by applying formal network analysis and eigenvector centrality mapping on the voxel level to resting-state functional magnetic imaging data. This approach finds brain regions that are central in the network by aggregating local and global connectivity patterns, most importantly without the requirement to select regions or networks of interest. The COMT variant linked to high enzyme activity increased network centrality in distributed brain areas that are known to constitute the brain's default mode network. Further results also indicated a COMT influence on areas implicated in the somatomotor network. These findings are in line with the polymorphism's alleged role in cognitive processing and its role in psychotic disorders. The study is the first to demonstrate the influence of a functional and behaviorally relevant genetic variant on connectome-wide functional connectivity and is an important step toward establishing the functional connectome as an endophenotype for psychiatric and behavioral phenotypes.

  3. Activity of chalcones derived from 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde against Meloidogyne exigua and in silico interaction of one chalcone with a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase from Meloidogyne incognita.

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    Nunes, Alexandro Silva; Campos, Vicente Paulo; Mascarello, Alessandra; Stumpf, Taisa Regina; Chiaradia-Delatorre, Louise Domenghini; Machado, Alan Rodrigues Teixeira; Santos Júnior, Helvécio Martins; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Oliveira, Denilson Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Meloidogyne exigua is a parasitic nematode of plants that causes great losses to coffee farmers. In an effort to develop parasitic controls, 154 chalcones were synthesized and screened for activity against this nematode. The best results were obtained with (2E)-1-(4'-nitrophenyl)-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (6) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 171 μg/ml against M. exigua second-stage juveniles, in comparison to the commercially-available nematicide carbofuran which had an LC50 of 260 μg/ml under the same conditions. When coffee plants were used, 6 reduced the nematode population to ~50% of that observed in control plants. To investigate the mechanism of action of 6, an in silico study was carried out, which indicated that 6 may act against M. exigua through inhibition of a putative caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase homodimer, the amino acid sequence of which was determined by examining the genome of Meloidogyne incognita. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic Analysis of Strawberry Fruit Aroma and Identification of O-Methyltransferase FaOMT as the Locus Controlling Natural Variation in Mesifurane Content1[C][W][OA

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    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Rambla, José-Luis; Cabeza, Amalia; Medina, Juan J.; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Botella, Miguel A.; Granell, Antonio; Amaya, Iraida

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit flavor is an important goal in breeding programs. To investigate genetic factors controlling this complex trait, a strawberry mapping population derived from genotype ‘1392’, selected for its superior flavor, and ‘232’ was profiled for volatile compounds over 4 years by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. More than 300 volatile compounds were detected, of which 87 were identified by comparison of mass spectrum and retention time to those of pure standards. Parental line ‘1392’ displayed higher volatile levels than ‘232’, and these and many other compounds with similar levels in both parents segregated in the progeny. Cluster analysis grouped the volatiles into distinct chemically related families and revealed a complex metabolic network underlying volatile production in strawberry fruit. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection was carried out over 3 years based on a double pseudo-testcross strategy. Seventy QTLs covering 48 different volatiles were detected, with several of them being stable over time and mapped as major QTLs. Loci controlling γ-decalactone and mesifurane content were mapped as qualitative traits. Using a candidate gene approach we have assigned genes that are likely responsible for several of the QTLs. As a proof of concept we show that one homoeolog of the O-methyltransferase gene (FaOMT) is the locus responsible for the natural variation of mesifurane content. Sequence analysis identified 30 bp in the promoter of this FaOMT homoeolog containing putative binding sites for basic/helix-loop-helix, MYB, and BZIP transcription factors. This polymorphism fully cosegregates with both the presence of mesifurane and the high expression of FaOMT during ripening. PMID:22474217

  5. Downregulation of caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT by RNA interference leads to reduced lignin production in maize straw

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    Xiaoyu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a major cell wall component of vascular plants that provides mechanical strength and hydrophobicity to vascular vessels. However, the presence of lignin limits the effective use of crop straw in many agroindustrial processes. Here, we generated transgenic maize plants in which the expression of a lignin biosynthetic gene encoding CCoAOMT , a key enzyme involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway was downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi of CCoAOMT led to significantly downregulated expression of this gene in transgenic maize compared with WT plants. These transgenic plants exhibited a 22.4% decrease in Klason lignin content and a 23.3% increase in cellulose content compared with WT plants, which may reflect compensatory regulation of lignin and cellulose deposition. We also measured the lignin monomer composition of the RNAi plants by GC-MS and determined that transgenic plants had a 57.08% higher S/G ratio than WT plants. In addition, histological staining of lignin with Wiesner reagent produced slightly more coloration in the xylem and sclerenchyma than WT plants. These results provide a foundation for breeding maize with low-lignin content and reveal novel insights about lignin regulation via genetic manipulation of CCoAOMT expression.

  6. Cation-dependent folding of 3' cap-independent translation elements facilitates interaction of a 17-nucleotide conserved sequence with eIF4G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Jelena J; Treder, Krzysztof; Peterson, Mariko S; Miller, W Allen

    2013-03-01

    The 3'-untranslated regions of many plant viral RNAs contain cap-independent translation elements (CITEs) that drive translation initiation at the 5'-end of the mRNA. The barley yellow dwarf virus-like CITE (BTE) stimulates translation by binding the eIF4G subunit of translation initiation factor eIF4F with high affinity. To understand this interaction, we characterized the dynamic structural properties of the BTE, mapped the eIF4G-binding sites on the BTE and identified a region of eIF4G that is crucial for BTE binding. BTE folding involves cooperative uptake of magnesium ions and is driven primarily by charge neutralization. Footprinting experiments revealed that functional eIF4G fragments protect the highly conserved stem-loop I and a downstream bulge. The BTE forms a functional structure in the absence of protein, and the loop that base pairs the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) remains solvent-accessible at high eIF4G concentrations. The region in eIF4G between the eIF4E-binding site and the MIF4G region is required for BTE binding and translation. The data support the model in which the eIF4F complex binds directly to the BTE which base pairs simultaneously to the 5'-UTR, allowing eIF4F to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit to the 5'-end.

  7. Cation-dependent folding of 3′ cap-independent translation elements facilitates interaction of a 17-nucleotide conserved sequence with eIF4G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Jelena J.; Treder, Krzysztof; Peterson, Mariko S.; Miller, W. Allen

    2013-01-01

    The 3′-untranslated regions of many plant viral RNAs contain cap-independent translation elements (CITEs) that drive translation initiation at the 5′-end of the mRNA. The barley yellow dwarf virus-like CITE (BTE) stimulates translation by binding the eIF4G subunit of translation initiation factor eIF4F with high affinity. To understand this interaction, we characterized the dynamic structural properties of the BTE, mapped the eIF4G-binding sites on the BTE and identified a region of eIF4G that is crucial for BTE binding. BTE folding involves cooperative uptake of magnesium ions and is driven primarily by charge neutralization. Footprinting experiments revealed that functional eIF4G fragments protect the highly conserved stem–loop I and a downstream bulge. The BTE forms a functional structure in the absence of protein, and the loop that base pairs the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) remains solvent-accessible at high eIF4G concentrations. The region in eIF4G between the eIF4E-binding site and the MIF4G region is required for BTE binding and translation. The data support the model in which the eIF4F complex binds directly to the BTE which base pairs simultaneously to the 5′-UTR, allowing eIF4F to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit to the 5′-end. PMID:23361463

  8. A Fluorescent Assay for Plant Caffeic Acid O-methyltransferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed a facile, sensitive and continuous assay to measure the activities of plant COMTs using s-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase as a coupling enzyme and and adeonsine a thiol-specific fluor, Thioglo1, as the detecting reagent. This assay was validated using recombinant sorghum COMT (BMR-...

  9. Purification and Characterization of Streptomyces griseus Catechol O-Methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Kajari; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2000-01-01

    A soluble (100,000 × g supernatant) methyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of the methyl group of S-adenosyl-l-methionine to catechols was present in cell extracts of Streptomyces griseus. A simple, general, and rapid catechol-based assay method was devised for enzyme purification and characterization. The enzyme was purified 141-fold by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and successive chromatography over columns of DEAE-cellulose, DEAE-Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-200. The purified cytoplasmic enzyme required 10 mM magnesium for maximal activity and was catalytically optimal at pH 7.5 and 35°C. The methyltransferase had an apparent molecular mass of 36 kDa for both the native and denatured protein, with a pI of 4.4. Novel N-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were determined as DFVLDNEGNPLENNGGYXYI and RPDFXLEPPYTGPXKARIIRYFY, respectively. For this enzyme, the Km for 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin was 500 ± 21.5 μM, and that for S-adenosyl-l-methionine was 600 ± 32.5 μM. Catechol, caffeic acid, and 4-nitrocatechol were methyltransferase substrates. Homocysteine was a competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, with a Ki of 224 ± 20.6 μM. Sinefungin and S-adenosylhomocysteine inhibited methylation, and the enzyme was inactivated by Hg2+, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. PMID:11055938

  10. Ambiguous involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannesboe, Karen Ida

    2016-01-01

    This edited collection shows that good parenthood is neither fixed nor stable. The contributors show how parenthood is equally done by men, women and children, in and through practices involving different normative guidelines. The book explores how normative layers of parenthood are constituted...... by notions such as good childhood, family ideals, national public health and educational strategies. The authors illustrate how different versions of parenthood coexist and how complex sets of actions are demanded to fulfil today’s expectations of parenthood in Western societies. This interdisciplinary book...

  11. Transcriptomic information from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) ovary and eyestalk, and expression patterns for genes putatively involved in the reproductive process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-López, Claudia; Galindo-Torres, Pavel E; Arcos, Fabiola G; Galindo-Sánchez, Clara; Racotta, Ilie S; Escobedo-Fregoso, Cristina; Llera-Herrera, Raúl; Ibarra, Ana M

    2017-05-15

    The increased use of massive sequencing technologies has enabled the identification of several genes known to be involved in different mechanisms associated with reproduction that so far have only been studied in vertebrates and other model invertebrate species. In order to further investigate the genes involved in Litopenaeus vannamei reproduction, cDNA and SSH libraries derived from female eyestalk and gonad were produced, allowing the identification of expressed sequences tags (ESTs) that potentially have a role in the regulation of gonadal maturation. In the present study, different transcripts involved in reproduction were identified and a number of them were characterized as full-length. These transcripts were evaluated in males and females in order to establish their tissue expression profiles during developmental stages (juvenile, subadult and adult), and in the case of females, their possible association with gonad maturation was assessed through expression analysis of vitellogenin. The results indicated that the expression of vitellogenin receptor (vtgr) and minichromosome maintenance (mcm) family members in the female gonad suggest an important role during previtellogenesis. Additionally, the expression profiles of genes such as famet, igfbp and gpcr in brain tissues suggest an interaction between the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) and methyl farnesoate (MF) biosynthesis for control of reproduction. Furthermore, the specific expression pattern of farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase suggests that final synthesis of MF is carried out in different target tissues, where it is regulated by esterase enzymes under a tissue-specific hormonal control. Finally, the presence of a vertebrate type steroid receptor in hepatopancreas and intestine besides being highly expressed in female gonads, suggest a role of that receptor during sexual maturation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, A.; Huniche, L.

    2015-01-01

    , and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse...... the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family....

  13. Polymorphisms in genes involved in the estrogen pathway and mammographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumas Isabelle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the estrogen pathway appear to be associated with breast cancer risk and possibly with mammographic density (MD, but little is known of these associations among premenopausal women. This study examines the association of 11 polymorphisms in five estrogen-related genes (estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα, ERβ, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1 with premenopausal MD. Effect modification of four estrogen-related factors (parity, age at menarche, hormonal derivatives use and body mass index (BMI on this relation is also assessed. Methods Polymorphisms were genotyped in 741 premenopausal Caucasian women whose MD was measured in absolute density (AD, cm2 and percent density using a computer-assisted method. Multivariate linear models were used to examine the associations (Ptrend and interactions (Pi. Results None of the SNPs showed a statistically significant association with AD. However, each additional rare allele of rs1056836 CYP1B1 was associated with a reduction in AD among nulliparous women (Ptrend = 0.004, while no association was observed among parous women (Ptrend = 0.62; Pi = 0.02. An increase in the number of rare alleles of the HSD17B1 SNP (rs598126 and rs2010750 was associated with an increase in AD among women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.06 and Ptrend = 0.04, respectively, but with a decrease in AD among past hormonal derivatives users (Ptrend = 0.04; Pi = 0.02 and Ptrend = 0.08; Pi = 0.01, respectively. Moreover, a negative association of rs598126 HSD17B1 SNP with AD was observed among women with higher BMI (>median (Ptrend = 0.01; Pi = 0.02. A negative association between an increased number of rare alleles of COMT rs4680 SNP and AD was limited to women who never used hormonal derivatives (Ptrend = 0.02; Pi = 0.03 or with late age at menarche (>median

  14. Synthesis of two 14C-labeled catechol-o-methyltransferase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Carita; Honkanen, Erkki

    1991-01-01

    14 C-labelled 3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenylmethylidene)-2,4-pentanedione and 14 C-labelled E-N,N-diethyl-2-cyano-3-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-nitrophenyl)acrylamide have been synthesized from [carbonyl- 14 C]vanillin. (author)

  15. Methyl transfer in glucosinolate biosynthesis mediated by indole glucosinolate O-Methyltransferase 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfalz, Marina; Mukhaimar, Maisara; Perreau, François

    2016-01-01

    in position 1 (1-IG modification) or 4 (4-IG modification). Products of the 4-IG modification pathway mediate plant-enemy interactions and are particularly important for Arabidopsis innate immunity. While CYP81Fs encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and IGMTs encoding indole glucosinolate O...... with moderate similarity to previously characterized IGMTs, encodes the methyltransferase that is responsible for the conversion of 1OHI3M to 1MOI3M. Disruption of IGMT5 function increases resistance against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and suggests a potential role for the 1-IG modification...

  16. The Role of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene in Personality and Related Psychopathological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Jurkiewicz, Magdalena; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a short overview of the most significant biologically oriented theories of human personality. Personality concepts of Eysenck, Gray and McNaughton, Cloninger and Panksepp will be introduced and the focal evidence for the heritability of personality will be summarized. In this context, a synopsis of a large number of COMT genetic association studies (with a focus on the COMT Val158Met polymorphism) in the framework of the introduced biologically oriented personality theories will be given. In line with the theory of a continuum model between healthy anxious behavior and related psychopathological behavior, the role of the COMT gene in anxiety disorders will be discussed. A final outlook considers new research strategies such as genetic imaging and epigenetics for a better understanding of human personality. PMID:22483293

  17. Catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphism and susceptibility to major depressive disorder modulates psychological stress response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Kema, Ido R.; van der Pompe, Gieta; Meerman, Gerard J. te; Ormel, Johan; den Boer, Johan A.

    Objectives The stress response is related to both physiological and psychological factors and is strongly marked by a neuroendocrine component. Genetic factors are believed to underlie individual differences in the degree of stress resilience and thereby contribute in determining susceptibility to

  18. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  19. Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A topoisomerase IIIα, an archaeal enzyme with promiscuity in divalent cation dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Morales

    Full Text Available Topoisomerases play a fundamental role in genome stability, DNA replication and repair. As a result, topoisomerases have served as therapeutic targets of interest in Eukarya and Bacteria, two of the three domains of life. Since members of Archaea, the third domain of life, have not been implicated in any diseased state to-date, there is a paucity of data on archaeal topoisomerases. Here we report Methanosarcina acetivorans TopoIIIα (MacTopoIIIα as the first biochemically characterized mesophilic archaeal topoisomerase. Maximal activity for MacTopoIIIα was elicited at 30-35°C and 100 mM NaCl. As little as 10 fmol of the enzyme initiated DNA relaxation, and NaCl concentrations above 250 mM inhibited this activity. The present study also provides the first evidence that a type IA Topoisomerase has activity in the presence of all divalent cations tested (Mg(2+, Ca(2+, Sr(2+, Ba(2+, Mn(2+, Fe(2+, Co(2+, Ni(2+, Cu(2+, Zn(2+ and Cd(2+. Activity profiles were, however, specific to each metal. Known type I (ssDNA and camptothecin and type II (etoposide, novobiocin and nalidixic acid inhibitors with different mechanisms of action were used to demonstrate that MacTopoIIIα is a type IA topoisomerase. Alignment of MacTopoIIIα with characterized topoisomerases identified Y317 as the putative catalytic residue, and a Y317F mutation ablated DNA relaxation activity, demonstrating that Y317 is essential for catalysis. As the role of Domain V (C-terminal domain is unclear, MacTopoIIIα was aligned with the canonical E. coli TopoI 67 kDa fragment in order to construct an N-terminal (1-586 and a C-terminal (587-752 fragment for analysis. Activity could neither be elicited from the fragments individually nor reconstituted from a mixture of the fragments, suggesting that native folding is impaired when the two fragments are expressed separately. Evidence that each of the split domains plays a role in Zn(2+ binding of the enzyme is also provided.

  20. Effect of carticaine on the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-adenosine triphosphatase. II. Cations dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Delia; Sánchez, Gabriel A; Toma, Augusto F; Bonazzola, Patricia; Alonso, Guillermo L

    2005-05-01

    Ca2+-ATPase is a major intrinsic protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) from skeletal muscles. It actively transports Ca2+ from the cytoplasm to the SR lumen, reducing cytoplasmic [Ca2+] to promote muscle relaxation. Carticaine is a local anesthetic widely used in operative dentistry. We previously showed that carticaine inhibits SR Ca2+-ATPase activity and the coupled Ca(2+) uptake by isolated SR vesicles, and increases the rate of Ca2+ efflux from preloaded vesicles. We also found that these effects were antagonized by divalent cations, and concluded that they were mainly due to the direct interaction of carticaine with the Ca2+-ATPase protein. Here we present additional results on the modulation of the above effects of carticaine by Ca2+ and Mg2+. The activating effect of Ca2+ on the ATPase activity is competitively inhibited by carticaine, indicating a decreased Ca2+ binding to the high affinity Ca2+ transport sites. The activating effect of Mg2+ on the phosphorylation of Ca2+-ATPase by orthophosphate is also inhibited by carticaine. The anesthetic does not affect the reaction mechanism of the cations acting as cofactors of ATP in the catalytic site. On the basis of the present and our previous results, we propose a model that describes the effect of carticaine on the Ca2+-ATPase cycle.

  1. Methanosarcina acetivorans C2A topoisomerase IIIα, an archaeal enzyme with promiscuity in divalent cation dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Raymond; Sriratana, Palita; Zhang, Jing; Cann, Isaac K O

    2011-01-01

    Topoisomerases play a fundamental role in genome stability, DNA replication and repair. As a result, topoisomerases have served as therapeutic targets of interest in Eukarya and Bacteria, two of the three domains of life. Since members of Archaea, the third domain of life, have not been implicated in any diseased state to-date, there is a paucity of data on archaeal topoisomerases. Here we report Methanosarcina acetivorans TopoIIIα (MacTopoIIIα) as the first biochemically characterized mesophilic archaeal topoisomerase. Maximal activity for MacTopoIIIα was elicited at 30-35°C and 100 mM NaCl. As little as 10 fmol of the enzyme initiated DNA relaxation, and NaCl concentrations above 250 mM inhibited this activity. The present study also provides the first evidence that a type IA Topoisomerase has activity in the presence of all divalent cations tested (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+)). Activity profiles were, however, specific to each metal. Known type I (ssDNA and camptothecin) and type II (etoposide, novobiocin and nalidixic acid) inhibitors with different mechanisms of action were used to demonstrate that MacTopoIIIα is a type IA topoisomerase. Alignment of MacTopoIIIα with characterized topoisomerases identified Y317 as the putative catalytic residue, and a Y317F mutation ablated DNA relaxation activity, demonstrating that Y317 is essential for catalysis. As the role of Domain V (C-terminal domain) is unclear, MacTopoIIIα was aligned with the canonical E. coli TopoI 67 kDa fragment in order to construct an N-terminal (1-586) and a C-terminal (587-752) fragment for analysis. Activity could neither be elicited from the fragments individually nor reconstituted from a mixture of the fragments, suggesting that native folding is impaired when the two fragments are expressed separately. Evidence that each of the split domains plays a role in Zn(2+) binding of the enzyme is also provided.

  2. Cation binding to 15-TBA quadruplex DNA is a multiple-pathway cation-dependent process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reshetnikov, R.V.; Šponer, Jiří; Rassokhina, O.I.; Kopylov, A.M.; Tsvetkov, P.O.; Makarov, A.A.; Golovin, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 22 (2011), s. 9789-9802 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040802; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/1476; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/11/1822; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : QM/MM * quadruplex DNA * molecular dynamics simulation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 8.026, year: 2011

  3. The role of cation-dependent chloride transporters in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajpal Sharad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered Cl- homeostasis and GABAergic function are associated with nociceptive input hypersensitivity. This study investigated the role of two major intracellular Cl- regulatory proteins, Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1 and K+-Cl- cotransporter 2 (KCC2, in neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury (SCI. Results Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a contusive SCI at T9 using the MASCIS impactor. The rats developed hyperalgesia between days 21 and 42 post-SCI. Thermal hyperalgesia (TH was determined by a decrease in hindpaw thermal withdrawal latency time (WLT between days 21 and 42 post-SCI. Rats with TH were then treated with either vehicle (saline containing 0.25% NaOH or NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide (BU, 30 mg/kg, i.p. in vehicle. TH was then re-measured at 1 h post-injection. Administration of BU significantly increased the mean WLT in rats (p Conclusion Taken together, expression of NKCC1 and KCC2 proteins was differentially altered following SCI. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of NKCC1 inhibition suggests that normal or elevated NKCC1 function and loss of KCC2 function play a role in the development and maintenance of SCI-induced neuropathic pain.

  4. Organizing Patient Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm Johansen, Mette

    Patient involvement has become a part of the political agenda in Danish healthcare. Patients are to be involved not only in questions and decisions relating to their own treatment and care – to involve patients in quality improvement has also become a political expectation of quality work in Danish...... hospitals. During the last 25 years, patient involvement and quality improvement have become connected in Danish healthcare policy. However, the ideal of involving patients in quality improvement is described in very general terms and with only few specific expectations of how it is to be carried out...... in practice, as I show in the thesis. In the patient involvement literature, the difficulties of getting patient involvement in quality improvement to have in an impact on the planning and development of healthcare services is, for example, ascribed to conceptual vagueness of patient involvement, differences...

  5. Water stress induces up-regulation of DOF1 and MIF1 transcription factors and down-regulation of proteins involved in secondary metabolism in amaranth roots (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Ocampo, J A; León-Galván, M F; Ortega-Cruz, L B; Barrera-Pacheco, A; De León-Rodríguez, A; Mendoza-Hernández, G; de la Rosa, A P Barba

    2011-05-01

    Roots are the primary sites of water stress perception in plants. The aim of this work was to study differential expression of proteins and transcripts in amaranth roots (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) when the plants were grown under drought stress. Changes in protein abundance within the roots were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis and LC/ESI-MS/MS, and the differential expression of transcripts was evaluated with suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Induction of drought stress decreased relative water content in leaves and increased solutes such as proline and total soluble sugars in roots. Differentially expressed proteins such as SOD(Cu-Zn) , heat shock proteins, signalling-related and glycine-rich proteins were identified. Up-regulated transcripts were those related to defence, stress, signalling (Ser, Tyr-kinases and phosphatases) and water transport (aquaporins and nodulins). More noteworthy was identification of the transcription factors DOF1, which has been related to several plant-specific biological processes, and MIF1, whose constitutive expression has been related to root growth reduction and dwarfism. The down-regulated genes/proteins identified were related to cell differentiation (WOX5A) and secondary metabolism (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase, isoflavone reductase-like protein and two different S-adenosylmethionine synthetases). Amaranth root response to drought stress appears to involve a coordinated response of osmolyte accumulation, up-regulation of proteins that control damage from reactive oxygen species, up-regulation of a family of heat shock proteins that stabilise other proteins and up-regulation of transcription factors related to plant growth control. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Commericial Involvement in Intramurals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Gerry

    Sport in general has long had ties with commercial interests, the most popular and widespread involving publicity. Intramural sports programs, however, have not cultivated many commercial involvements in publicity. The approach in intramural sports advertising is simple. A commercial interest pays for space or time in a given communication media…

  7. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  8. Doctors' involvement in torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesper, Sonntag

    2008-01-01

    Doctors from both non-democratic and democratic countries are involved in torture. The majority of doctors involved in torture are doctors at risk. Doctors at risk might compromise their ethical duty towards patients for the following possible reasons: individual factors (such as career, economic or ideological reasons), threats, orders from a higher ranking officer, political initiatives, working in atrocity-producing situations or dual loyalty. In dual loyalty conflicts, factors that might compromise doctors' ethical obligations towards detainees/patients are: ideological totalitarianism, moral disengagement, victim blame, patriotism, individual factors or threats. Another important reason why doctors are involved in torture is that not all doctors are trained in addressing human rights issues of detainees. Torture survivors report that they have experienced doctors' involvement in torture and doctors themselves report that they have been involved in torture. Testimonies from both torture survivors and doctors demonstrate that the most common way doctors are involved is in the diagnosis/medical examination of torture survivors/prisoners. And it is common before, during and after torture. Both torture survivors and doctors state that doctors are involved during torture by treatment and direct participation. Doctors also falsify journals, certificates and reports. When doctors are involved in torture it has devastating consequences for both torture survivors and doctors. The consequences for the survivors can be mistrust of doctors, avoidance of seeking doctors' help and nightmares involving doctors. Mistrust and avoidance of doctors could be especially fatal to the survivor, as it could mean a survivor who is ill may not seek medical attention. When the unambiguous role of the doctor as the protector and helper of people is questioned, it affects the medical profession all over the world.

  9. IDEA and Family Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Öztürk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA gives many rights to parents with special needs in terms of involvement and participation. Given the importance of family involvement in the special education process, and federal legislation that increasingly mandated and supported such involvement over time, considerable research has focused on the multiple ways that relationships between schools and families in the special education decision making process have played out. Educational professionals should create a positive climate for CLD families so that they feel more comfortable and therefore are able to participate more authentically and meaningfully.

  10. Salinity stress induces the production of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones and regulates novel classes of responsive genes involved in signal transduction in Aquilaria sinensis calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Gao, Bowen; Liu, Xiao; Dong, Xianjuan; Zhang, Zhongxiu; Fan, Huiyan; Zhang, Le; Wang, Juan; Shi, Shepo; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-05-26

    Agarwood, is a resinous portion derived from Aquilaria sinensis, has been widely used in traditional medicine and incense. 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones are principal components responsible for the quality of agarwood. However, the molecular basis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis and regulation remains almost unknown. Our research indicated that salt stress induced production of several of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. Transcriptome analysis of A. sinensis calli treated with NaCl is required to further facilitate the multiple signal pathways in response to salt stress and to understand the mechanism of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones biosynthesis. Forty one 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones were identified from NaCl-treated A. sinensis calli. 93 041 unigenes with an average length of 1562 nt were generated from the control and salt-treated calli by Illmunina sequencing after assembly, and the unigenes were annotated by comparing with the public databases including NR, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, and GO database. In total, 18 069 differentially expressed transcripts were identified by the transcriptome comparisons on the control calli and calli induced by 24 h or 120 h salinity stress. Numerous genes involved in signal transduction pathways including the genes responsible for hormone signal transduction, receptor-like kinases, MAPK cascades, Ca(2+) signal transduction, and transcription factors showed clear differences between the control calli and NaCl-treated calli. Furthermore, our data suggested that the genes annotated as chalcone synthases and O-methyltransferases may contribute to the biosynthesis of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones. Salinity stress could induce the production of 41 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in A. sinensis calli. We conducted the first deep-sequencing transcriptome profiling of A. sinensis under salt stress and observed a large number of differentially expressed genes in response to salinity stress. Moreover, salt stress induced

  11. [Pulmonary involvements of sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmichi, M; Hiraga, Y; Hirasawa, M

    1990-01-01

    We reported about intrathoracic changes and prognosis of 686 patients with sarcoidosis diagnosed in our hospital between 1963 and 1988. We evaluated CT findings in 135 patients with sarcoidosis and found pulmonary involvements in 81. We analyzed CT findings according to the classification by Tuengerthal which classified radiographic findings combining ILO classification of pneumoconiosis and characteristic findings of bronchovascular sheath with sarcoidosis. The CT findings were as follows: small opacities (44 out of 81 cases, 54.3%), large opacities (37 cases, 46.7%). Additional findings were as follows: peribronchial marking (42 cases, 51.9%), contraction (17 cases, 21.0%), pleural involvement (9 cases, 11.1%), bulla (5 cases, 6.2%). The characteristic CT findings of serious sarcoidosis were extasis of bronchus, thickening of the bronchial wall, unclearness of vascular shadow, atelectasis and thickening of pleura. Concerning the prognosis of pulmonary involvement, according to age, patients younger than 30 years old at initial diagnosis were better than those of 30 years and over in terms of disappearance of pulmonary involvements. According to stage, patients of stage I and stage II were better than those of stage III. Among the patients we were able to observe chest X-ray findings during five years according to the character of shadow, ill-defined shadow of small opacities and rounded shadows of large opacities had a higher disappearance rate of pulmonary involvements than irregular shadows of large opacities, atelectasis and contraction.

  12. Cardiovascular involvement in myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on cardiovascular involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Studies from the past 18 months are identified and reviewed. Finally, the clinical impact of these findings is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological...... on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging suggests that CMR should be considered as a potentially viable diagnostic tool to evaluate the possibility of silent myocardial inflammation in IIM with normal routine noninvasive evaluation. SUMMARY: Updated literature on cardiovascular involvement in IIM has...... identified an increased risk for subclinical and clinical cardiovascular disease in these rare inflammatory muscle diseases....

  13. Public and patient involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Public and patient involvement in the NHS is one of the new Department of Health mantras, and one source of useful information you can pass on to service users is the Consumers in NHS Research website at www.conres.co.uk/dat.htm.

  14. Job Involvement of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, Robert

    This study investigated the relationship between job involvement and three sets of variables: nine personal (age, sex, marital status, education, overall experience, nonteaching experience, present school experience, income, and locus of control), three structural (size of school, location of school, and hierarchical position), and eight job…

  15. Who Involves Whom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Clifford

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews the development of a parents' group at the Bradford Grange School (Manchester, United Kingdom) for ESN (educationally subnormal) children. Problems with the initial parents' group are pointed out, successful approaches are considered, and the importance of parent involvement is stressed. (SBH)

  16. Involving Divorced Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarriff, Harold M.; Levine, Valerie

    1993-01-01

    In divorced families, the noncustodial parent is usually as important to the child as the residential parent. Schools should avoid actions that cause parental conflict, place one parent in a sole decision-making role, or deny a parent's access to information or involvement. School responsibilities governing routine correspondence, cyclical and…

  17. PATTERNS AND FACTORS INVOLVED

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1*' of July 1996 and 30'h of June 2000 a total of 3583 patients were registered at the accident and emergency unit of Nnamdi. Azikiwe ... The case files of these were reviewed with a view to ascertaining the causes and factors involved in the deaths of these patients. The .... H.I.V/AIDS related complications 23 6.8.

  18. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  19. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  20. Involvement through photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, J

    2016-12-01

    As a photographer living in Tokyo, I have been visiting Suetsugi village regularly to take photographs and show the printed photographs to the residents. What is the role of photography? What does it mean to be involved in the life of Suetsugi through photography? This article discusses some of the answers to these questions 5 years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  1. The Involved Ostrich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Dobscha, Susan; Geiger, Susi

    2008-01-01

    and technical items. This research also revealed that men partook in highly masculinized forms of “nesting,” and in general shunned pregnancy book reading; although some did engage in “research” activities such as searching the internet for product safety information. We conclude from this study...... that the transition into parenthood can be difficult for men due to their lack of a physical connection to the pregnancy, a perception that the baby industry is not designed for them, the continuance of male stereotypes in the media, and also the time available to men to become involved in consumption activities...

  2. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  3. [Father involvement in childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalón, H; Toro, R; Riesco, I; Pinto, M; Silva, C

    2014-10-01

    Recent initiatives have promoted the participation of fathers in the early care of their children. To assess the results of a program to encourage parental involvement in childbirth. Parents of healthy term newborns were randomly allocated to participate either in the birth experience or control. The protocol included: to dry the skin, umbilical cord cutting off, weight, height, and finally give him/her to the mother for the skin-to-skin contact. Heart rate (HR), respiratory (RR) and temperature were evaluated one hour later. In the first outpatient clinic assessment, mothers completed a questionnaire. 127 fathers participated either in the birth experience or control. 62 followed the protocol and 65 the control. Both newborn groups were comparable. Also were fathers in age, education and rurality; mothers in primiparity. Significant differences: night care (37/62, 10/65 59.6% vs 15.4%, pfathers at birth, even belonging to a discouraging socio cultural environment.

  4. Involvement Without Participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a case study of a knowledge-intensive company that launched a 2-year project to improve their psychosocial working environment. All parties agreed on the project, and the methods used aimed to promote the involvement of the employees. Surprisingly, the psychosocial working...... and participation. In order to develop a more sustainable and viable psychosocial working environment, a broader and more democratic notion of organisational learning and managing is proposed....... environment did not improve; on the contrary, it deteriorated. The article highlights cultural and structural obstacles to the process, including an inadequate understanding of organisational learning and a narrow focus on market and competition. The endeavours did not consistently increase delegation...

  5. Effectiveness of citizen involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. [Prince William Sound Regional Citizen' s Advisory Council, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reviewed the rise of citizen involvement in industry that affects their community. Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provided funding by industry for a citizens group to provide oversite of the Alyeska Pipeline Service Agency terminal and associated tankers. That role is currently filled by the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, a volunteer organization that represents communities that were affected by the EVOS. The history of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council was discussed along with its structure, funding and overview of projects and research into safer transportation of oil, better oil spill response capabilities and improved environmental protection practices. Some of the successes involving citizen input include the requirement that all tankers going into Prince William Sound be double hull by 2015; a world-class system of tugs escorting tankers in Prince William Sound; installation of an ice-detection radar on a small island near the site of the EVOS; a guidebook for communities affected by man-made disasters; identification of nearshore locations that should be the first to be protected in the case of another spill; and, the installation of a system to capture crude oil vapors when tankers take on cargo. Other projects underway include the study of invasive species that can be transported in the ballast water of tankers, efficacy of dispersants, soil contamination at the tanker loading site, emissions of hazardous air pollutants from ballast water treatment processes, and continual review of emergency response plans. In the 17 years since the formation of the Prince William Sound Regional Citizen's Advisory Council, it has been shown that communication and transparency are the keys to solving complacency, which is believed to have been a contributing factor to the EVOS. 3 refs.

  6. CYP2D6 and catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphisms in Parkinson patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, S.A.; Alifirova, V.M.; Pozhidaev, I.V.; Fedorenko, O.Y.; Osmanova, D.Z.; Tiguntsev, V.V.; Bokhan, N.A.; Zhukova, I.A.; Wilffert, B.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of the dopaminergic input to the basal ganglia, is commonly treated with levodopa (L-DOPA). Use of this drug, however, is severely limited by the development of side effect. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) are

  7. Properties of the Membrane Binding Component of Catechol-O-methyltransferase Revealed by Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlowski, A.; St-Pierre, J. F.; Magarkar, A.

    2011-01-01

    that was not included in our model. In numerous independent simulations we observed the formation of a salt bridge between ARC 27 and GLU40. The salt bridge closed the flexible loop that formed in the linker and kept it in the vicinity of the membrane-water interface. All simulations supported this conclusion...... brought about an interesting view that the flexible loop observed in our work can be a common structural element in these types of proteins. In the same spirit we close the article by discussing the role of salt bridges in the formation of three-dimensional structures of membrane proteins that exhibit...

  8. The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, tolcapone, increases the bioavailability of unmethylated (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Sarah C; Lambert, Joshua D

    2015-08-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to inhibit cancer in vivo . EGCG, however, is rapidly methylated by catechol- O -methyl transferase (COMT), which reduces its cancer preventive efficacy. Tolcapone (TOL), is a clinically-used COMT inhibitor. Here, we examined the effect of TOL on the bioavailability of EGCG in male CF-1 mice. Plasma and tissue levels of EGCG and its methyl metabolites were determined following intragastric administration of EGCG (100 mg/kg), TOL (30 mg/kg), or the combination. In mice treated with EGCG, unmethylated plasma EGCG accounted for 63.4 % of the total. Co-administration of TOL increased this fraction to 87.9 %. In the urine, unmethylated EGCG accounted for 29.2 % of the total, whereas treatment with EGCG plus TOL increased this to 81.8 %. Similar effects were observed in the major organs examined. TOL effectively inhibited the methylation of EGCG in vivo . Future studies should examine the cancer preventive effects of the combination.

  9. The catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, tolcapone, increases the bioavailability of unmethylated (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forester, Sarah C.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to inhibit cancer in vivo. EGCG, however, is rapidly methylated by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), which reduces its cancer preventive efficacy. Tolcapone (TOL), is a clinically-used COMT inhibitor. Here, we examined the effect of TOL on the bioavailability of EGCG in male CF-1 mice. Plasma and tissue levels of EGCG and its methyl metabolites were determined following intragastric administration of EGCG (100 mg/kg), TOL (30 mg/kg), or the combination. In mice treated with EGCG, unmethylated plasma EGCG accounted for 63.4 % of the total. Co-administration of TOL increased this fraction to 87.9 %. In the urine, unmethylated EGCG accounted for 29.2 % of the total, whereas treatment with EGCG plus TOL increased this to 81.8 %. Similar effects were observed in the major organs examined. TOL effectively inhibited the methylation of EGCG in vivo. Future studies should examine the cancer preventive effects of the combination. PMID:26213577

  10. Pederin-type pathways of uncultivated bacterial symbionts: analysis of o-methyltransferases and generation of a biosynthetic hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katrin; Engeser, Marianne; Blunt, John W; Munro, Murray H G; Piel, Jörn

    2009-03-04

    The complex polyketide pederin is a potent antitumor agent isolated from Paederus spp. rove beetles. We have previously isolated a set of genes from a bacterial endosymbiont that are good candidates for pederin biosynthesis. To biochemically study this pathway, we expressed three methyltransferases from the putative pederin pathway and used the partially unmethylated analogue mycalamide A from the marine sponge Mycale hentscheli as test substrate. Analysis by high-resolution MS/MS and NMR revealed that PedO regiospecifically methylates the marine compound to generate the nonnatural hybrid compound 18-O-methylmycalamide A with increased cytotoxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first biochemical evidence that invertebrates can obtain defensive complex polyketides from bacterial symbionts.

  11. Influence of Involvement in Sports on Students' Involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... involvement in outdoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. However, there was a significant negative relationship between students' involvement in indoor sports activities and their involvement in academic activities. Keywords: Extra-curricular activities; Sports management; Ndejje University ...

  12. Craniocerebral involvement in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D. Correale

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-hundred-eighty-nine patients with lymphoma were studied. Fifty-three cases (5.3% had lymphomatous craniocerebral infiltration. The principal factors of risk for this complication were: advanced stage of the lymphoma (III or IV, diffuse histiocytic, diffuse poorly differentiated lymphocytic, or mixed cellularity lymphoma histological type, bone marrow involvement, and previous systemic chemotherapy. Thirty-two per cent of the cases of meningeal lymphomatous infiltration were asymptomatic and represented autopsy findings. CT-scan was an useful test to detect brain focal parenchymatous infiltration, as opposed to meningeal infiltration. Mean survival time in patients with lymphomatous meningeal infiltration was 4.3 months, following the combined use of systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy and intrathecal methotrexate. Two cases had primary cerebral lymphoma, although without associated immunodeficiency Twenty patients (2% had intracranial hemorrhage, in clear relationship with platelet alterations. Fifteen patients (1.5% had CNS infection, caused by common bacteriae or opportunistic agents. In 7 cases, the diagnosis was made at autopsy. Thirty-six autopsies were performed. In 8 cases (22%, pathologic findings such as, demyelination, microcalcificat ons, coagulative necrosis, or gliosis, suggested complications from treatment.

  13. Time, Temperature, and Cationic Dependence of Alkali Activation of Slag: Insights from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Spectral Deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhane, Akash; Madavarapu, Sateesh Babu; Marzke, Robert; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2017-08-01

    The use of waste/by-product materials, such as slag or fly ash, activated using alkaline agents to create binding materials for construction applications (in lieu of portland cement) is on the rise. The influence of activation parameters (SiO 2 to Na 2 O ratio or M s of the activator, Na 2 O to slag ratio or n, cation type K + or Na + ) on the process and extent of alkali activation of slag under ambient and elevated temperature curing, evaluated through spectroscopic techniques, is reported in this paper. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with a Fourier self-deconvolution method is used. The major spectral band of interest lies in the wavenumber range of ∼950 cm -1 , corresponding to the antisymmetric stretching vibration of Si-O-T (T = Si or Al) bonds. The variation in the spectra with time from 6 h to 28 days is attributed to the incorporation of Al in the gel structure and the enhancement in degree of polymerization of the gel. 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is used to quantify the Al incorporation with time, which is found to be higher when Na silicate is used as the activator. The Si-O-T bond wavenumbers are also generally lower for the Na silicate activated systems.

  14. Youth Maltreatment and Gang Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin M.; Braaten-Antrim, Rhonda

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether physical and sexual maltreatment raises the risk of gang involvement among secondary school students. Findings show that maltreatment increases the probability of gang involvement, independent of demographic factors. When youth are physically and sexually abused their odds of gang involvement are four times higher than those who…

  15. Military fathers' perspectives on involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willerton, Elaine; Schwarz, Rona L; Wadsworth, Shelley M Macdermid; Oglesby, Mary Schultheis

    2011-08-01

    Military fathers endure repeated separations from their children. In this qualitative study we describe military fathers' range of involvement with their children, paying special attention to the implications of deployment separation and reintegration. We discuss father involvement using three overlapping major domains of functioning: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. Additionally, we consider how types of father involvement differ vis-à-vis child age. Data were gathered via focus groups conducted with 71 fathers at 14 U.S. military installations. Descriptions of involvement were rich and varied. Involvement with children was a major concern for fathers, despite or perhaps because of the challenges of military careers. We discuss factors that help explain variations in involvement and offer insights about the conceptualization of father involvement for occupations requiring prolonged absences from home.

  16. Monoarticular Hip Involvement in Pseudogout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Kocyigit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudogout is the acutest form of arthritis in the elderly. Although clinical manifestations vary widely, polyarticular involvement is typical mimicking osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Monoarticular involvement is relatively rare and is generally provoked by another medical condition. There are reported cases of hip involvement by pseudogout in monoarticular form. However, all of the cases were presented as septic arthritis. In this report, we present a case of monoarticular hip involvement mimicking soft tissue abscess. We confirmed the pseudogout diagnosis after ultrasonographic evaluation of the involved hip joint and pathological and biochemical analysis of synovial fluid analysis. Diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary medical and surgical treatment in cases of the bizarre involvement of hip in pseudogout.

  17. Direct employee involvement quality (DEIQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole; van Woerkom, M.; Looise, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of human resource management (HRM) that is important for innovative employee behaviour: direct employee involvement quality (DEIQ). However, research has also shown that employee involvement is often in serious need of improvement. This paper presents evidence from

  18. Patient involvement in hospital architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines user-involvement in the process used to design new hospitals. Denmark is in the midst of a phase of hospital building. This recent experience is studied by means of expert interviews with senior practitioners involved in three projects. Examined thematically, the data covers t...

  19. Involvement of inositol in reproduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemster, P.; Groenen, P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    Inositol is involved in several aspects of reproduction. It affects overall embryogenesis, may prevent neural tube defects, and stimulates the production of lung surfactant. This article will review the involvement of inositol in reproduction. After describing the biologic function of inositol and

  20. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  1. Work Experience and Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interrelations of work experience and psychological involvement in work among male college graduates over a 10-year period. Both the occupational socialization and the occupational selection hypotheses are supported by the data analysis. (Author/JOW)

  2. User Involvement And Entrepreneurial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving users in the innovation process is a subject of much research, experimentation, and debate. Less attention has been given to the limits to user involvement that ensue from specific organizational characteristics. This article explores barriers to the utilization of users’ input in two small companies developing interactive digital applications. We contrast our findings to earlier research involving large companies to identify features of entrepreneurial sensemaking and action that influence the utilization of users’ input. We find that the small companies follow a distinct action rationality, leading to rapid implementation of some user inputs, and defensiveness toward others. Both sets of data also reveal common features that are often overlooked in the literature. We reconceptualize user involvement as a form of interaction between users and innovating companies that is facilitated and constrained by micro-sociological processes, on the one hand, and the nature of the competitive environment, on the other.

  3. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    Briefing is not just about specifying needs as requirements but also about evaluating how well design proposals fulfil needs and aspirations. Furthermore, briefing is not only about building design. Briefing starts at the preproject stage to create a basis for the project decision and can include...... by top management. The article describes the briefing processes and the methods for user involvement, identifies problem areas and points out possible improvements. The author was actively involved in the project as deputy project director, with responsibility for the briefing process, and is now...... includes a literature study on briefing and user involvement in building projects, and presents a case study of a major building project of a new headquarters and media centre for the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in Copenhagen. The building project was actively used as part of a corporate change process...

  4. Drug involvement in fatal overdoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Death certificate data from the Multiple Cause of Death (MCOD files were analyzed to better understand the drug categories most responsible for the increase in fatal overdoses occurring between 1999 and 2014. Statistical adjustment methods were used to account for the understatement in reported drug involvement occurring because death certificates frequently do not specify which drugs were involved in the deaths. The frequency of combination drug use introduced additional uncertainty and so a distinction was made between any versus exclusive drug involvement. Many results were sensitive to the starting and ending years chosen for examination. Opioid analgesics played a major role in the increased drug deaths for analysis windows starting in 1999 but other drugs, particularly heroin, became more significant for recent time periods. Combination drug use was important for all time periods and needs to be accounted for when designing policies to slow or reverse the increase in overdose deaths.

  5. Strategy Innovation with Employee Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate how employees can be involved in strategy innovation processes and how new strategy practices (new tools and procedures) are used to change strategy praxis in order to sustain value creation. In the strategizing actions, we found that even...... if the managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur, in particular when employees are asked to supplement overall strategic goals and when they directly shape several sub-strategies. Strategy practices found include strategy planning, an open space workshop and organised...... strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case, however, also exhibits enterprise-situated praxises related to unplanned events, like the mitigation of taboos....

  6. Involving Employees in Strategy innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ole Uhrskov; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Strategy as a practice and continuous innovation approaches are combined to conceptualise dilemmas of short versus long term and to analyse a case of employee participation as a particular example of strategy innovation. The case is a medium size textile company developing its strategy involving...... some of its employees. Even if managers still dominate, some processes of direct involvement of employees occur. The employees are in particular active in supplementing overall strategic goals and directly shaping one sub strategy, that of ‘process’. Strategy practices include planning, Porterian...... and Balanced Score Card consultancy, an ‘open space’ workshop and organized strategy projects. Especially the latter two are important in facilitating the employee involvement. The case however also exhibit enterprise situated praxis’s like mitigation of taboos....

  7. User involvement in care work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Kamp, Annette

    implications of this for care professionals, their practices, professional identities and positions in the work organization. Based on tree explorative qualitative studies in Danish homecare, psychiatry and cardiology, we illustrate first how user involvement may assume very different forms; in some instances......In recent years user involvement has become a paradigm for transforming the health and social care sector. This development–also labelled empowerment, co-creation, partnership, patient-centeredness - is seen as a means to reform organizations in ways that enhance quality, economic cost...... effectiveness and shared responsibility for care pathways. While NPM position users as consumers making their free choice, the user involvement paradigm underlines the users’ active participation in the mastering of their problems and disease. Research is scarce on this theme, and has until now primarily...

  8. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  9. Guidance on accidents involving radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This annex contains advice to Health Authorities on their response to accidents involving radioactivity. The guidance is in six parts:-(1) planning the response required to nuclear accidents overseas, (2) planning the response required to UK nuclear accidents a) emergency plans for nuclear installations b) nuclear powered satellites, (3) the handling of casualties contaminated with radioactive substances, (4) background information for dealing with queries from the public in the event of an accident, (5) the national arrangements for incident involving radioactivity (NAIR), (6) administrative arrangements. (author)

  10. Design for Mass User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vianello, Giovanna; Tan, Adrian

    as it creates a closer relationship to customers as well as creating the best possibilities for reducing impact of products on our natural environment. This new way of organizing the development process in collaboration with users holds many opportunities, but also challenges for companies and researchers. We...... formalism for the future in 2030 that is suited for a high tech, global manufacturing company. The design formalism involves the user throughout the design process and involves the company in the entire lifecycle of its products. It is believed that this approach will give companies a competitive advantage...

  11. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  12. Putaminal involvement in Rasmussen encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajesh, Bhagavatheeswaran; Ashalatha, Radhakrishnan [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Imaging Sciences and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2006-08-15

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare devastating disease of childhood causing progressive neurological deficits and intractable seizures, typically affecting one hemisphere. Characteristic MRI features include progressive unihemispheric focal cortical atrophy and grey- or white-matter high-signal changes and basal ganglion involvement, particularly of the caudate nucleus. To analyse the pattern of involvement of different brain structures in a series of patients with RE and to attempt clinical correlation. We reviewed the medical records and neuroimaging data of 12 patients diagnosed with RE satisfying the European Consensus Statement diagnostic criteria. The disease manifested as seizures in all patients and was refractory; epilepsia partialis continua was a notable feature (nine patients). Hemiparesis of varying grades was noted in all but one patient; none had extrapyramidal signs. Neuroimaging showed cortical involvement in the insular/periinsular regions in 11 patients. Caudate atrophy was noted in ten patients. Putaminal atrophy was seen in nine patients, six of whom had additional hyperintense signal changes. Our study highlights frequent putaminal atrophy and signal changes in RE, which suggests a more extensive basal ganglion involvement than emphasized previously. Recognition of putaminal changes may be a useful additional tool in the radiological diagnosis of RE. (orig.)

  13. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  14. Managing Parent Involvement during Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Lynette S.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, and the Virginia Tech shooting tragedy, it is no surprise that concern for students' safety is the primary reason attributed to parents' increased involvement. Parents and university administrators share in their commitment to student safety. However, college and university staff who assume responsibility…

  15. Parental Involvement in Norwegian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Jan Merok

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings on key challenges of school-parent relations in Norway. The review is based on recent large-scale studies on several issues, including formalized school-parent cooperation, parental involvement in the pedagogical discourse, and teacher perspectives on the parents' role in the school community. Findings suggest a…

  16. Hodgkin's Lymphoma with Cutaneous Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ameri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a rare disease (0.5% to 3.4% which tends to be in the setting of an advanced disease and has a poor prognosis. Treatment of patients with cutaneous involvement of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is according to dissemination of disease (systemic or localized therapy. The majority of data in this context are based on individual case reports or literature reviews. We have reported a case of Hodgkin’s lymphoma that relapsed with isolated cutaneous involvement two years after completion of his first treatment. Our case had no response to systemic chemotherapy but obtained a complete remission to radiation therapy and had longterm disease-free survival. Radiotherapy might be considered a good salvage treatment in patients with cutaneous Hodgkin’s lymphoma with long-term disease-free survival.

  17. Lupus panniculitis involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, Josep M.; Gomez, Antonio; Torrubia, Sofia; Salinas, Teresa; Clotet, Montse; Lerma, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Lupus panniculitis is an unusual immunological disease that characteristically affects the subcutaneous fat and occurs in 2% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a case of lupus panniculitis involving the breast, which represents a very uncommon location. Mammographically, it presented as a suspicious irregular mass involving the subcutaneous fat pad with skin thickening. High echogenicity constituted the most relevant sonographic finding. To the best of our knowledge, the magnetic resonance (MR) features have not been previously described. High signal intensity was found on both T1- and T2-weighted precontrast MR images. A dynamic contrast-enhanced study revealed a suspicious focal mass with irregular margins and rim enhancement, with a type 3 time-signal intensity curve. Differential diagnosis with carcinoma and fat necrosis and the value of core biopsy are discussed. (orig.)

  18. Discoid lupus erythematosus involving gingiva

    OpenAIRE

    Kranti, K.; Seshan, Hema; Juliet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Desquamative gingival lesions are non-plaque induced inflammatory gingival lesions. It is a clinical description and not a diagnosis. These desquamative lesions represent oral manifestations of various dermatoses. Discoid lupus erythematosus is one of the rare dermatoses which show desquamative lesions as oral manifestations. This article presents a rare case report of discoid lupus erythematosus with oral lesions involving gingiva of a 66-year-old female patient.

  19. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks’ gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks’ gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks’ gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a soli...

  20. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Grobman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options.

  1. Stakeholder involvement - a japanese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, S.

    2004-01-01

    Traditional societal and cultural background of Japanese in general indicates the intrinsic difficulty in involving the public as stakeholders in the process of any type of decision making in policy matters. It is characterized by the long-taught virtue of harmonization and obedience to others. In addition, characteristic system of Japanese traditional industrial society, such as lifetime employment, seniority-based wage system, and enterprise-based labour union, encourages the loyalty to the employer/company, but not to the public. The public or ordinary citizens would seldom come out as stakeholders and express their true feelings or real opinions, even though younger generation is notably getting out from such a trend. On the other hand, it is a common practice in Japanese society for any business or administrative transactions to try to obtain 'consensus' among relevant parties concerned (stakeholders) by negotiations behind the curtain prior to the formal discussion. In this sense, 'stakeholders involvement' is accepted and practised as a matter of course, but mostly for actions between parties of equivalently influential status levels or between 'directly relevant' parties such as those between the different government agencies, between regulators and industries. The concept of 'Involving the public in decision making as stakeholders' is not yet fully understood nor accepted in Japan both by regulators and by the public so far as the issue of radiation protection is concerned. These situations are explained with some examples. (author)

  2. Ethics in research involving prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Research involving prisoners repeatedly went astray during the last century, culminating in the cruel medical experiments inside the Nazi concentration camps that gave rise to the Nuremberg Code. However, prisoners continued to become victims of scientific exploitation by the rapidly evolving biomedical research industry. The common roots of these abuses were the flawed philosophy that the needs of the society outweigh the needs of the individual and the researchers' view that prisoners are cheap, easy to motivate and stable research subjects. Prisoners are vulnerable to exploitation and abuse by research because their freedom for consent can easily be undermined, and because of learning disabilities, illiteracy and language barriers prevailing within prisoner populations. Therefore, penal laws of some countries supported by a number of internationally agreed documents prohibit research involving prisoners completely. However, prisoners must also be regarded as vulnerable to the specific health problems in prisons, e.g. transmissible diseases, mental disorders and suicide - problems that need to be addressed by research involving prisoners. Additionally, the participation of prisoner patients in research they directly can benefit from should be provided. Hence, it must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  3. DHA involvement in neurotransmission process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancassel Sylvie

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The very high enrichment of the nervous system in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic (AA, 20: 4n-6 and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA, 22: 6n-3, is dependant of the dietary availability of their respective precursors, linoleic (18: 2n-6 and_-linolenic acids (18: 3n-3. Inadequate amounts of DHA in brain membranes have been linked to a wide variety of abnormalities ranging from visual acuity and learning irregularities, to psychopathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Several years ago, we hypothesized that a modification of DHA contents of neuronal membranes by dietary modulation could change the neurotransmission function and then underlie inappropriate behavioural response. We showed that, in parallel to a severe loss of brain DHA concomitant to a compensatory substitution by 22:5n-6, the dietary lack of α-linolenic acid during development induced important changes in the release of neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine in cerebral areas specifically involved in learning, memory and reward processes. Data suggested alteration of presynaptic storage process and dysregulations of reciprocal functional interactions between monoaminergic and cholinergic pathways. Moreover, we showed that recovery of these neurochemical changes was possible when the deficient diet was switched to a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 PUFA before weaning. The next step is to understand the mechanism involved. Particularly, we focus on the study of the metabolic cooperation between the endothelial cell, the astrocyte and the neuron which regulate synaptic transmission.These works could contribute to the understanding of the link between some neuropsychiatric disorders and the metabolism of n-3 PUFA, through their action on neurotransmission.

  4. Behcet's disease involving the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleto, Maria Jesus; Marcos, Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a vasculitis of unknown origin that was traditionally defined by oral and genital ulcers and uveitis. We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of Behcet's syndrome who presented a palpable lesion in the right breast with inflammatory signs. X-ray findings posed a differential diagnosis between tumoral and inflammatory pathology. The pathological findings confirmed a small-vessel vasculitis. We found two reports of breast involvement by this disease in the literature. Our patient was studied by mammogram and sonogram which together with clinical history are important to prevent delay in diagnosis and unnecessary therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  5. Modeling interdisciplinary activities involving Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Steffen Møllegaard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a didactical model is presented. The goal of the model is to work as a didactical tool, or conceptual frame, for developing, carrying through and evaluating interdisciplinary activities involving the subject of mathematics and philosophy in the high schools. Through the terms...... domains (Michelsen, 2001, 2005a, 2005b). Furthermore the theoretical description rest on a series of qualitative interviews with teachers from the Danish high school (grades 9-11) conducted recently. The special case of concrete interdisciplinary activities between mathematics and philosophy is also...

  6. Patient involvement in Danish health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    for analysis of patient involvement in health care. This framework is used to analyze key governance features of patient involvement in Denmark based on previous research papers and reports describing patient involvement in Danish health care. FINDINGS: Patient involvement is important in Denmark...... implications for the development of patient involvement in health care. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This paper fulfills a need to study different types of patient involvement and to develop a theoretical framework for characterizing and analyzing such involvement strategies....

  7. Subfascial involvement in glomuvenous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Raja; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Chaudry, Gulraiz [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Mulliken, John B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Division of Plastic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Fishman, Steven J. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Kozakewich, Harry P.W. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Glomuvenous malformation (GVM) is an inherited autosomal dominant trait. The lesions, which appear as bluish nodules or plaque-like cutaneous elevations, are usually tender and more firm than sporadic venous malformations. Conventionally, the lesions are thought to be limited to the cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue planes. The objective was to characterize the depth of involvement of GVM lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in GVM were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The signal characteristics, tissue distribution, pattern of contrast enhancement of the lesions in GVM were documented. Thirty patients (19 female) aged 1-35 years (mean 18 years) were diagnosed with GVM based on clinical features (n = 20) and/or histopathological findings (n = 10). The lesions were present in the lower extremity (n = 15), upper extremity (n = 6), cervico-facial region (n = 6), pelvis (n = 2), and chest wall (n = 1). All patients had skin and subcutaneous lesions. Fifty percent of the patients (n = 15) demonstrated subfascial intramuscular (n = 15), intra-osseous (n = 1), and intra-articular involvement (n = 1). Contrary to the conventional belief that GVMs are generally limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, deep subfascial extension of the lesions is common. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of the Two Methylation Steps Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycinose in Tylosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Song, Myoung Chong; Kim, Myoun Su; Beom, Ji Yoon; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2016-08-26

    The S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent O-methyltransferases TylE and TylF catalyze the last two methylation reactions in the tylosin biosynthetic pathway of Streptomyces fradiae. It has long been known that the TylE-catalyzed C2‴-O-methylation of the 6-deoxy-d-allose bound to demethylmacrocin or demethyllactenocin precedes the TylF-catalyzed C3‴-O-methylation of the d-javose (C2‴-O-methylated 6-deoxy-d-allose) attached to macrocin or lactenocin. This study reveals the unexpected substrate promiscuity of TylE and TylF responsible for the biosynthesis of d-mycinose (C3‴-O-methylated d-javose) in tylosin through the identification of a new minor intermediate 2‴-O-demethyldesmycosin (2; 3‴-methyl-demethyllactenocin), which lacks a 2‴-O-methyl group on the mycinose moiety of desmycosin, along with 2‴-O-demethyltylosin (1; 3‴-methyl-demethylmacrocin) that was previously detected from the S. fradiae mutant containing a mutation in the tylE gene. These results unveil the unique substrate flexibility of TylE and TylF and demonstrate their potential for the engineered biosynthesis of novel glycosylated macrolide derivatives.

  9. Pulmonary involvement of secondary syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Imai, Yuichiro; Yoshihara, Shingo; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Sato, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Taku; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement in secondary syphilis is considered a rare occurrence; however, the number of cases has increased in the 2000s. This is likely due to the increased use of computed tomography scans and molecular diagnostic testing. We report a case of an HIV-positive man with pleural chest pain and bilateral subpleural nodules on chest computed tomography. His rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination tests were positive, and the specimen of one of the pulmonary nodules obtained by transthoracic biopsy was positive for the polA gene of Treponema pallidum. Since clinical manifestations of syphilis are highly variable, clinicians should bear in mind that pleural chest pain with bilateral subpleural nodules can be caused by pulmonary syphilis.

  10. Embodied Involvement in Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekdahl, David; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    eSports practice designates a unique set of activities tethered to competitive, virtual environments or worlds. This correlation between eSports practitioner and virtual world, we argue, is inadequately accounted for solely in terms of something physical or intellectual. Instead, we favor...... a perspective on eSports practice to be analyzed as a perceptual and embodied phenomenon. In this article, we present the phenomenological approach and focus on the embodied sensations of eSports practitioners as they cope with and perceive within their virtual worlds. By approaching eSports phenomenologically......, we uncover ways in which its unique forms of virtual involvement overlap with as well as differentiate themselves from traditional structures of embodiment....

  11. CHANGE AT CERN - BE INVOLVED

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The encouragement of individual members of staff to contribute to the work of the task forces by making suggestions via the form on the Users'page of the web has been successful. Therefore, as announced by the Director General in his talk to the Staff in April, the management would like staff to continue to be involved in the change process by making further suggestions. Suggestions received will be distributed to the Director(s)/Division Leader(s) concerned, for reply and action where appropriate. The Director General has set up a small Panel that will ensure the proper processing of the ideas and will present a regular overview to the Director General. Members of the Panel are: Jan van der Boon, Vincent Hatton, Karl-Heinz Kissler, Thomas Pettersson, Florian Sonnemann, and Horst Wenninger.

  12. Systemic Sarcoidosis with Thyroid Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Hideyuki; Hashimoto, Koshi; Wang, Xin; Ohkiba, Noriaki; Murooka, Nozomi; Akizuki, Norikazu; Inazawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-08-15

    A 66-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with iritis, visited our hospital due to general malaise. A blood analysis revealed hypercalcemia. Computed tomography revealed mediastinal and hilar lymph node hyperplasia. Moreover, 67 Gallium scintigraphy demonstrated strong accumulation in the lesions, suggesting sarcoidosis. A core needle biopsy (CNB) of the hypoechoic areas of the thyroid was performed because the patient refused to undergo a bronchoscopic examination. The scattering of slightly acidophilic epithelioid cell granulomas was observed in the pathological examination of the biopsy specimen. Based on this finding, the patient was diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Although sarcoidosis rarely involves the thyroid gland, in the present case, thyroid CNB was an alternative diagnostic method that allowed a pathological diagnosis to be obtained.

  13. Cutaneous Plasmacytosis with Perineural Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Brezinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Cutaneous and systemic plasmacytosis are rare conditions of unknown etiology with characteristic red-brown skin lesions and a mature polyclonal plasma cell infiltrate within the dermis. Perineural plasma cell infiltrates may be a histologic clue to the diagnosis of cutaneous plasmacytosis. Observations. Our patient had a five-year history of persistent reddish-brown plaques on the neck and trunk without systemic symptoms. Histologic examination showed dermal perivascular and perineural plasma cells with excess lambda light chain expression. Due to decreased quality of life caused by his skin lesions, he was placed on a chemotherapeutic regimen with bortezomib. Conclusions and Relevance. The patient was diagnosed with cutaneous plasmacytosis based on classic histopathology results with a recently characterized pattern of perineural involvement. Bortezomib therapy was initiated to manage his skin eruption, which has not been previously described as a treatment for this chronic condition.

  14. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers. The amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) from the fingers innervated by the median nerve and the dorsolateral side of the foot innervated by the sural...... of the foot evoked by a tactile probe showed similar changes to those observed in SNAPs evoked by electrical stimulation. At these doses, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from the tibial nerve had increased latencies of peripheral, spinal and central responses suggesting loss of central processes...

  15. Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup-Hansen, A; Helweg-Larsen, Susanne Elisabeth; Schmalbruch, H

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that cisplatin causes a sensory neuropathy, the primary site of involvement is not established. The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy. To study whether the whole neuron...... nerve were 50-60% reduced, whereas no definite changes occurred at lower doses. The SNAP conduction velocities were reduced by 10-15% at cumulative doses of 400-700 mg/m2 consistent with loss of large myelinated fibres. SNAPs from primarily Pacinian corpuscles in digit 3 and the dorsolateral side...... of large dorsal root ganglion cells. Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment. The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal...

  16. Measuring Purchase‐decision involvement ,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, increasing competition is forcing businesses to pay more attention on customer satisfaction providing strong customer services. Increased competition has also increased marketing activities. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine important factors influencing purchase decision involvement in food industry in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 270 experts in food industry and, using principle component (PCA analysis, extracts important group of factors. The questionnaire consists of 27 questions, which is reduced to 23 questions because of sensitivity of the PCA to Skewness of data. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.81, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results indicate that there were four factors including individual differences, product validation, triggers and dependent behavior influencing purchasing decisions.

  17. Kidney involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lazzarini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a widespread disease and its renal involvement, relatively common, is clinically significant because worsens course and mortality of the primary disease. There is still no agreement on the prevalence of renal disorders in RA: data analysis originates from different sources, as death certificates, autopsies, clinical and laboratory findings and kidney biopsies, each with its limitations. Histoimmunological studies on bioptical specimens of patients with RA and kidney damage, led to clarify prevalent pathologies. In order of frequency: glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis (60-65% and 20-30% respectively, followed by acute or chronic interstitial nephritis. Kidney injury during RA includes secondary renal amyloidosis, nephrotoxic effects of antirheumatic drugs and nephropathies as extra-articular manifestations (rheumatoid nephropathy. Amyloidosis affects survival, increases morbidity and is the main cause of end stage renal disease in patients with RA and nephropathy. Strong association between RA activity and amyloidosis needs the use of immunosuppressive and combined therapies, to prevent this complication and reduce risk of dialysis. Long-lasting and combined RA pharmacotherapy involves various renal side effects. In this review we describe NSAIDs and DMARDs (Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs nephrotoxicity, particularly by gold compounds, D-penicillamine, cyclosporine A and methotrexate. Rare cases of IgA glomerulonephritis during immunomodulating therapy with leflunomide and TNF blocking receptor (etanercept are reported; real clinical significance of this drug-related nephropathy will be established by development of RA treatment. In RA nephropathies, mesangial glomerulonephritis is the most frequent histological lesion (35-60 % out of biopsies from patients with urinary abnormalities and/or kidney impairment, followed by minimal change glomerulopathy (3-14% and p-ANCA positive necrotizing crescentic

  18. Vascular involvement in tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Ann E; Marsenic, Olivera; Meyers, Kevin E C; Kaplan, Bernard S; Hellinger, Jeffrey C

    2010-08-01

    Vascular involvement in tuberous sclerosis (TS) is rare. Central and peripheral aneurysms and large and medium size arterial stenotic-occlusive disease have been reported in patients with TS. We present here three pediatric patients with TS and severe vascular abnormalities, followed by a review of the literature. The three cases include a 14-month-old girl with polycystic kidneys and cerebral tubers who had a large asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm, a 2-year-old boy with multiple features of TS who had hypertension and was found to have mid-aortic syndrome with bilateral renal artery stenosis, and an 18-year-old girl with abdominal pain and TS features who had greater than 70% celiac artery stenosis. In all cases, noninvasive vascular imaging modalities were utilized for either initial diagnosis, surveillance, or both. These cases highlight the collaborative roles of the pediatric nephrologist and cardiovascular imager in the diagnosis and management of the vascular complications in TS patients. Appropriate care can only be made through a high index of suspicion.

  19. Nail involvement in psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Piotr; Walecka, Irena; Dopytalska, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established - the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index), mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index), and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score) are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D 3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.

  20. Risks involved in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1986-01-01

    Expert opinions and court documents show that a sound knowledge of the medical examiner of the risks involved in the diagnostic methods applied will provide protection both for the patient and the medical examiner. Information of the patient being required by law, this book is intended to offer medical examiners a comprehensive source of information covering all imaging methods for diagnostics and therapy and the related risks, the data for the survey being drawn from the relevant literature. Particular attention has been paid to invasive methods such as angioplasty and diagnostic biopsy including ultrasonic monitoring, which have been developed recently. A great variety of established methods and examination techniques which soon will be replaced by new techniques such as sonography, computerized tomography and, probably, nuclear tomography but still are widely used, also form part of the survey. The various chapters are entitled: Information offered by risk statements; intravenous application of contrast media; arteriography; transcatheteral vascular occlusion; angioplasty; intracavitary, interstitial application of contrast media and lymphography; bronchoradiography; biopsy of organs in the cervical and thorax regions; biopsy of abdominal organs; hysterosalpingography; gastro-intestinal contrast radiography; court decisions referring to malpractice and the duty to inform patients on diagnostic radiographic methods; energy transfer to the human organism. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Fluid involvement in normal faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibson, Richard H.

    2000-04-01

    Evidence of fluid interaction with normal faults comes from their varied role as flow barriers or conduits in hydrocarbon basins and as hosting structures for hydrothermal mineralisation, and from fault-rock assemblages in exhumed footwalls of steep active normal faults and metamorphic core complexes. These last suggest involvement of predominantly aqueous fluids over a broad depth range, with implications for fault shear resistance and the mechanics of normal fault reactivation. A general downwards progression in fault rock assemblages (high-level breccia-gouge (often clay-rich) → cataclasites → phyllonites → mylonite → mylonitic gneiss with the onset of greenschist phyllonites occurring near the base of the seismogenic crust) is inferred for normal fault zones developed in quartzo-feldspathic continental crust. Fluid inclusion studies in hydrothermal veining from some footwall assemblages suggest a transition from hydrostatic to suprahydrostatic fluid pressures over the depth range 3-5 km, with some evidence for near-lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure cycling towards the base of the seismogenic zone in the phyllonitic assemblages. Development of fault-fracture meshes through mixed-mode brittle failure in rock-masses with strong competence layering is promoted by low effective stress in the absence of thoroughgoing cohesionless faults that are favourably oriented for reactivation. Meshes may develop around normal faults in the near-surface under hydrostatic fluid pressures to depths determined by rock tensile strength, and at greater depths in overpressured portions of normal fault zones and at stress heterogeneities, especially dilational jogs. Overpressures localised within developing normal fault zones also determine the extent to which they may reutilise existing discontinuities (for example, low-angle thrust faults). Brittle failure mode plots demonstrate that reactivation of existing low-angle faults under vertical σ1 trajectories is only likely if

  2. Disagreement in Parental Reports of Father Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Pajarita; Spielfogel, Jill; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael; Henry, David; Tolan, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Despite agreement on the value of father involvement in children's lives, research has been limited due to the exclusion of fathers in studies, questionable validity of mothers' reports on father involvement, and simple measures of fathering behavior. Our study extends previous research by comparing reports of father involvement using robust, multidimensional father involvement measures. Data from 113 fathers and 126 mothers reporting on 221 children were used to assess father involvement. Results indicate that fathers reported significantly higher levels of involvement than mothers reported. Findings from hierarchical linear models suggest that race/ethnicity and mothers' reports of positive relationship quality were associated with smaller discrepancies in reports of father involvement, whereas nonmarried partnerships, older children, father residence, and biological status predicted larger discrepancies. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining father involvement reports directly from fathers and why father involvement should be assessed as a multidimensional construct to examine fathering behavior.

  3. Identification and characterization of PaMTH1, a putative O-methyltransferase accumulating during senescence of Podospora anserina cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Averbeck, N B; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    A differential protein display screen resulted in the identification of a 27-kDa protein which strongly accumulates during the senescence of Podospora anserina cultures grown under standard conditions. After partial determination of the amino-acid sequence by mass-spectrometry analysis of trypsin...... by a discontinuous gene, PaMth1, capable of coding for 240 amino acids. The first three amino-terminal residues appear to be removed post-translationally. The deduced amino-acid sequence shows significant homology to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases. We hypothesize that the 27-kDa protein, Pa...

  4. Exploring the indirect effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype on psychotic experiences through cognitive function and anxiety disorders in a large birth cohort of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; Escott-Price, Valentina; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2014-07-01

    Children reporting psychotic experiences (PEs) are at increased risk of developing psychosis in adulthood. Cognitive deficits and anxiety disorders often precede psychotic disorders and are associated with higher risk of PEs. While the high activity alleles of variants within COMT have been associated with cognitive deficits, and the low activity alleles with higher risk of anxiety disorders, no associations of COMT with PEs have been found. One possible explanation is that the association between COMT and PEs is indirect, through cognitive function and anxiety disorders. We examined whether the association between PEs and COMT (four single nucleotide polymorphisms and three haplotypes) is indirect, through cognition or anxiety disorders. 6,784 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were genotyped and completed neurocognitive assessments at ages 8 and 11, as well as semi-structured interviews for anxiety disorders and PEs at ages 10 and 12, respectively. Alleles rs2097603 and rs4680, and two COMT haplotypes, all indexing high activity, were indirectly associated with higher risk of PEs through impaired processing speed, IQ and attention. There was no evidence of a total effect of COMT on PEs, nor for an indirect effect through anxiety disorders. This is the first study to examine indirect effects of COMT on PEs. Evidence of an indirect association suggests a complex developmental pathway underlies the emergence of PEs in children, with possible implications for prevention/intervention strategies. Our findings provide additional support for processing speed and attention as endophenotypes in psychotic disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of monoamine oxidase A and B and of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition on L-DOPA-indnced circling behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, MJ; dAgostini, F; DeBoer, P; DaPrada, M; Damsma, G

    1997-01-01

    The effect of enzyme-inhibiting adjuvants on L-DOPA + benserazide-induced contralateral turning in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats was studied. Both the number of turns and the duration of turning were examined. Inhibition of MAO-A with 10 mg/kg Ro 41-1049 increased both

  6. YibK is the 2'-O-methyltransferase TrmL that modifies the wobble nucleotide in Escherichia coli tRNA(Leu) isoacceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Villarroya, Magda; Douthwaite, Stephen Roger

    2010-01-01

    to uncover candidate E. coli genes for the missing enzyme(s). Transfer RNAs from null mutants for candidate genes were analyzed by mass spectrometry and revealed that inactivation of yibK leads to loss of 2'-O-methylation at position 34 in both tRNA(Leu)(CmAA) and tRNA(Leu)(cmnm5UmAA). Loss of Yib...... of the wobble nucleotide; YibK recognition of this target requires a pyridine at position 34 and N⁶-(isopentenyl)-2-methylthioadenosine at position 37. YibK is one of the last remaining E. coli tRNA modification enzymes to be identified and is now renamed TrmL.......Transfer RNAs are the most densely modified nucleic acid molecules in living cells. In Escherichia coli, more than 30 nucleoside modifications have been characterized, ranging from methylations and pseudouridylations to more complex additions that require multiple enzymatic steps. Most...

  7. Cloning and expressing a highly functional and substrate specific farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase from the Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, transmits a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus greening disease. Because juvenile hormone (JH) plays an important role in adult and nymphal development, we studied the final steps in juvenile hormone biosynthesis...

  8. Radioenzymatic assay of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline: evidence for a catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibiting factor associated with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.J.M.L.; Willemsen, J.J.; Thien, Th.; Benraad, Th.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the evaluation of a modified radioenzymatic determination of plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline, it has been found that there exists a highly significant (p 0 C, but only in plasma from patients with essential hypertension. Plasma from normotensive persons exhibits a complete lack of correlation between these factors. The consequences of the hypertension-associated COMT-inhibiting factor for the assays' specifications are discussed and data are presented for comparison with a recently-described uremia-associated COMT-inhibitor (Demassieux et al, Clin Chim Acta 115, 377-391; 1981). (Auth.)

  9. Quality assurance - how to involve the employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation.......An overview of strategies for involvement of employees in quality assurance developement and implementation....

  10. Comparing Methods for Involving Users in Ideation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Scupola, Ada; Sørensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    workshop method (involving users and employees) is especially good at qualifying and further developing ideas. The findings suggest that methods for involving users in ideation should be carefully selected and combined to achieve optimum benefits and avoid potential disadvantages....

  11. [Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmier, D; Marchand-Adam, S; Diot, P; Diot, E

    2008-12-01

    Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not as well known as the cutaneous, rheumatological and renal manifestations. It occurs frequently but the diagnosis may be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the anatomical and clinical presentations. A precise diagnosis is crucial as new immunosuppressive drugs have considerably improved the prognosis. The pathology involves genetic, endocrine, environmental, pharmacological and immunological factors with a cytotoxic reaction of auto antibodies against complement, a circulating immune complex reaction and a hyperactivity of B lymphocytes. Respiratory involvement in SLE can be classified in 5 groups based on the anatomy: pleural involvement, infiltrating pneumonia (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and acute lupus pneumonitis), airways involvement (upper airways, bronchi), vascular involvement (pulmonary hypertension, acute reversible hypoxaemia, alveolar haemorrhage, and antiphospholipid syndrome), muscular and diaphragmatic involvement (shrinking lung syndrome). Treatment is based, depending upon the type of involvement and its severity, on steroids which may be combined with immunosuppressants and plasmapheresis.

  12. Cross-Cultural Issues in Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach-Tuyet Pham; And Others

    Four papers address cultural issues related to the involvement of limited-English-proficient parents in public schools in the United States. "Cultural Issues in Indochinese Parent Involvement" (Bach-Tuyet (Pham) Tran) outlines the linguistic, social, and practical barriers to Indochinese immigrant parent involvement and makes suggestions for…

  13. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  14. Involving Fathers in Psychological Services for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a commentary of the special series on involving fathers in psychological services for children. The following themes are addressed: the effects of fathers on child development; benefits of father involvement in child psychology services; obstacles to father involvement; engaging fathers; specific interventions for fathers; and…

  15. Relation between employees' religiosity and job involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knotts, Tami L

    2003-12-01

    While it has been argued that religion influences the meaning of work, few studies have empirically examined how employees' religiosity and job attitudes relate to one another. Specifically, this study investigated the relations among three religious orientations (intrinsic, extrinsic-personal, and extrinsic-social) and job involvement for 100 employees of a rehabilitation hospital in the southern United States. The respondents completed the 1989 Intrinsic/Extrinsic-Revised Scale and the 6-item version of the 1965 Job Involvement Scale. Correlation indicated a negative association between Intrinsic Religiosity and Job Involvement (r=-.26, pJob Involvement (r=.23, pJob Involvement for Protestants (B=.32, pJob Involvement for non-Protestants (B=-.35, pJob involvement for either group. These results suggest that employees' religiosity may influence work values in different ways for Protestant and non-Protestant workers.

  16. Cation Dependence of the Dimerization Enthalpy for A2[tetracyanoethylene]2(A=NMe4, Mepy, NEt4) Possessing a Long, Multicenter Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Adora G; Fedin, Matvey V; Miller, Joel S

    2017-09-12

    [TCNE] .- (TCNE=tetracyanoethylene) has been isolated as D 2h π-[TCNE] 2 2- possessing a long, 2.9 Å multicenter 2-electron-4-center (2e - /4c) C-C bond, and as C 2 π-[TCNE] 2 2- possessing a longer, 3.04 Å multicenter 2e - /6c (4 C+2 N atoms) bond. Temperature-dependent UV/Vis spectroscopic measurements in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) has led to the determination of the dimerization, 2[TCNE] .- ⇌π-[TCNE] 2 2- , equilibrium constants, K eq (T), [[TCNE] 2 2- ]/[[TCNE] .- ] 2 , enthalpy, ΔH, and entropy, ΔS, of dimerization for [Mepy] 2 [TCNE] 2 (Mepy=N-methylpyridinium, H 3 CNC 5 H 5 + ) possessing D 2h π-[TCNE] 2 2- and [NMe 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 possessing C 2 π-[TCNE] 2 2- conformations in the solid state; however, both form D 2h π-[TCNE] 2 2- in MeTHF solution. Based on ΔH=-3.6±0.1 kcal mol -1 (-15.2 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS=-11±1 eu (-47 J mol -1  K -1 ) and ΔH=-2.4±0.2 kcal mol -1 (-10.2 kJ mol -1 ), and ΔS=-8±1 eu (-32 J mol -1  K -1 ) in MeTHF for [NMe 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 and [Mepy] 2 [TCNE] 2 , respectively, the calculated K eq (298 K) are 1.6 and 1.3 m -1 , respectively. The observed K eq (145 K) are 3 and 2 orders of magnitude greater for [NMe 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 and [Mepy] 2 [TCNE] 2 , respectively. The K eq (130 K) is 4470, 257, ≈0.8, and ≪0.1 m -1 for [NMe 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 , [Mepy] 2 [TCNE] 2 , [NEt 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 , and [N(nBu) 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 , respectively, decreasing with increasing cation size. At standard conditions and below ambient temperature the equilibrium favors the dimer for the NMe 4 + and Mepy + cations. From the decreasing enthalpy, NMe 4 + >Mepy + , along with the decrease in dimer formation K eq (T) as NMe 4 + >Mepy + >NEt 4 + >N(nBu) 4 + , the dimer bond energy decreases with increasing cation size in MeTHF. This is attributed to a decrease in the [A] + ⋅⋅⋅[TCNE] - attractive interactions with increasing cation size. Solid state UV/Vis spectroscopic determinations of [NMe 4 ] 2 [TCNE] 2 are reported and compared to D 2h π-[TCNE] 2 2- conformers. The feasibility and limitations of temperature-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements for the determination of K eq (T) are also discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Cation-Dependent Stabilization of Electrogenerated Naphthalene Diimide Dianions in Porous Polymer Thin Films and Their Application to Electrical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBlase, Catherine R; Hernández-Burgos, Kenneth; Rotter, Julian M; Fortman, David J; Abreu, Dieric dos S; Timm, Ronaldo A; Diógenes, Izaura C N; Kubota, Lauro T; Abruña, Héctor D; Dichtel, William R

    2015-11-02

    Porous polymer networks (PPNs) are attractive materials for capacitive energy storage because they offer high surface areas for increased double-layer capacitance, open structures for rapid ion transport, and redox-active moieties that enable faradaic (pseudocapacitive) energy storage. Here we demonstrate a new attractive feature of PPNs--the ability of their reduced forms (radical anions and dianions) to interact with small radii cations through synergistic interactions arising from densely packed redox-active groups, only when prepared as thin films. When naphthalene diimides (NDIs) are incorporated into PPN films, the carbonyl groups of adjacent, electrochemically generated, NDI radical anions and dianions bind strongly to K(+), Li(+), and Mg(2+), shifting the formal potentials of NDI's second reduction by 120 and 460 mV for K(+) and Li(+)-based electrolytes, respectively. In the case of Mg(2+), NDI's two redox waves coalesce into a single two-electron process with shifts of 240 and 710 mV, for the first and second reductions, respectively, increasing the energy density by over 20 % without changing the polymer backbone. In contrast, the formal reduction potentials of NDI derivatives in solution are identical for each electrolyte, and this effect has not been reported for NDI previously. This study illustrates the profound influence of the solid-state structure of a polymer on its electrochemical response, which does not simply reflect the solution-phase redox behavior of its monomers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Top Management Involvement in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felekoglu, Burcu; Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James

    2010-01-01

    a broader conceptual space than this participation. This paper reviews the literature on top management involvement in new product development (NPD) and discusses relevance of different theoretical perspectives from other disciplines such as management, organisational behaviour and communication to analyse......Involvement of top managers in new product development (NPD) is a critical factor affecting NPD performance and frequently considered to be the participation of top management to certain activities in NPD or their NPD related behaviours. However, “Top management involvement in NPD” occupies...... antecedents, realisation and consequences of top management involvement in NPD. It is argued that top management has different involvement at different NPD levels: organisation level and project level. Resulting from this literature review, a tentative framework for top management involvement in NPD...

  19. Fathers' Leave, Fathers' Involvement and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Lausten, Mette; Baxter, Jennifer

    their involvement translates into positive child cognitive and behavioural outcomes. This analysis shows that fathers’ leave, father’s involvement and child development are related. Fathers who take leave, especially those taking two weeks or more, are more likely to carry out childcare related activities when...... was available, results suggest that the kind of involvement matters. These results suggest that what matters is the quality and not the quantity of father-child interactions....

  20. MRI of osteonecrosis involving the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaki, Shiro; Mitsumori, Amahito; Yamamoto, Michinori

    1992-01-01

    MRI was performed in 13 patients with osteonecrosis involving the knee. We analyzed the MR images, distribution of the lesions, involvement of other sites, and chronological changes. The lesions tended to be multiple, and the marginal double line sign was thought mainly due to chemical shift misregistration. The lesions often involved medial and lateral femoral condyle. In the light of chronological change, the lesions became smaller or migrated toward the epiphyseal end. It was suggested that MRI was useful for the evaluation of osteonecrosis involving the knee. (author)

  1. Initial thoracic involvement in lymphoma. CT assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos, A.; Corredoira, J.; Ferreiros, J.; Cabeza, B.; Jorquera, M.; Pedrosa, I.; Martinez, R.; Fernandez, C.

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the initial thoracic involvement by CT in a consecutive series of patients with lymphoma. A retrospective analysis was made of thoracic CT studies made at the time of diagnosis of 259 patients with lymphoma. Mediastinal pulmonary, pleural, pericardial and chest wall involvement was assessed by CT. Of 259 patients (129 men y 130 women), 56 had Hodgkin's disease (HD) and 203 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Forty-two percent (42.5%, 110/259) of the patients had chest involvement on CT: 33 of 56 patients with HD (58.9%) and 77 of 203 patients with NHL (37.9%). All the patients with thoracic HD) and 71.4% of patients with thoracic NHL, had mediastinal lymph node involvement. of the patients with thoracic involvement 12.1% (4/33) of the patient with HD and 23.3% (18/77) of the patients with NHL had pulmonary involvement. Thoracic involvement on CT was more frequent in HD. Mediastinal lymph node involvement was the most common finding fundamentally in HD. Pulmonary disease always occurred in the presence of mediastinal lymph node involvement in HD but could occur as an isolated finding in NHL. (Author) 24 refs

  2. Service user involvement in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremayne, Penny; Russell, Pip; Allman, Helen

    Service user involvement is now recognised as an integral component of nurse education. This article describes the involvement of one service user, who experienced a traumatic limb amputation, in an educational session for second-year nursing students at De Montfort University. The aim of the initiative was to use the patient's experience to improve care delivery.

  3. Community Involvement in Marine Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Stephanie

    1988-01-01

    Lists several key concepts in developing successful interpretive programs for marine protected areas with community involvement. Identifies educational tools that help foster community involvement in conservation and management. Cites three model programs. Sets standards and goals for international success including leadership, education,…

  4. Methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodological issues involved in conducting qualitative research to explore and describe nurses' experience of being directly involved with termination of pregnancies and developing guidelines for support for these nurses. The article points out the sensitivity and responsibility ...

  5. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2007, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2007 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  6. Buses involved in fatal accidents codebook 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This report provides documentation for UMTRIs file of Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA), 2008, : including distributions of the code values for each variable in the file. The 2008 BIFA file is a census of all : buses involved in a fatal acc...

  7. Addressing Measurement Issues Related to Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Deborah M.; Meter, Diana J.; Card, Noel A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address measurement issues related to select aspects of bullying involvement with the goal of moving psychometrically sound measurement practices toward applied bullying research. We first provide a nontechnical introduction to psychometric considerations in measuring bullying involvement, highlighting the importance of…

  8. Job Involvement: A Construct Validity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Robert A.; White, J. Kenneth

    The interrelationships among job involvement, values, personal background, participation in decision making, and job attitudes were investigated by questionnaire for a sample of 2,775 employees of six manufacturing organizations, representing a 66 percent response rate. The results of this study indicated that job involvement, a basic orientation…

  9. Influences of Product Involvement, Environmental Message and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study probes into the influence of interaction among Product Involvement, Environmental Message and Green Advertising Appeals on attitude towards advertising. The study employs an empirical research by 2x2x2 between subject factorial design. The result demonstrates that high-involvement subjects, with or without ...

  10. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  11. Chinese Involvement in Nigeria's Infrastructural Development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinese Involvement in Nigeria's Infrastructural Development for Poverty Reduction: The Case of Idundu Bridge, Cross River State. ... This study aimed to determine the socio-economic impact of Chinese involvement in village road construction at the community level in Nigeria. We specifically examined the impact of the ...

  12. Variations in User Involvement with Educational Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Jocelyn; Canter, David

    1988-01-01

    Reports the development of a classification system for microcomputer-based software according to the depth and type of involvement of the user with the software. Three studies are discussed that used the facet approach, multivariate statistical procedures, and questionnaires to investigate types of involvement produced by computer programs. (18…

  13. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  14. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Karin; Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy ...

  15. Pioneering partnerships: Resident involvement from multiple perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baur, V.E.; Abma, T.A.; Boelsma, F.; Woelders, S.

    2013-01-01

    Resident involvement in residential care homes is a challenge due to shortcomings of consumerist and formal approaches such as resident councils. The PARTNER approach aims to involve residents through collective action to improve their community life and wellbeing. The purpose of this article is to

  16. Involving Migrant Families in Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Yolanda G.; Velazquez, Jose A.

    This digest describes parent involvement in their children's education from the perspective of migrant parents and educators and offers strategies to enhance the experience of schooling for migrant students and their families. Teachers often perceive parent involvement as preparing children for school, attending school events, and fulfilling…

  17. Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmier, D; Marchand-Adam, S; Diot, P; Diot, E

    2010-10-01

    Respiratory involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is not as well-known as the cutaneous, rheumatological and renal manifestations. It occurs frequently but the diagnosis may be difficult because of the heterogeneity of the anatomical and clinical presentations. A precise diagnosis is crucial as new immunosuppressive drugs have considerably improved the prognosis. The pathology involves genetic, endocrine, environmental, pharmacological and immunological factors with a cytotoxic reaction of auto-antibodies against complement, a circulating immune complex reaction and a hyperactivity of B lymphocytes. Respiratory involvement in SLE can be classified in five groups based on the anatomy: pleural involvement, infiltrating pneumonia (lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia and acute lupus pneumonitis), airways involvement (upper airways, bronchi), vascular involvement (pulmonary hypertension, acute reversible hypoxaemia, alveolar haemorrhage, and antiphospholipid syndrome), muscular and diaphragmatic involvement (shrinking lung syndrome).Treatment is based, depending upon the type of involvement and its severity, on steroids which may be combined with immunosuppressants and plasmapherisis. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Mother Involvement as an Influence on Father Involvement with Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pleck, Joseph H.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    This study hypothesized that father involvement is influenced by mothers' level of involvement as well as by marital conflict, mothers' work hours, and fathers' status as biological or step father. The analysis also tested hypotheses about mother involvement as a potential mediator of the effects of marital conflict and maternal work hours on father involvement, and hypotheses about factors influencing mother involvement. Children aged 10-14 from the NLSY79 who resided with their biological o...

  19. Neurological Involvement in Behcet’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman-Demir

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dreaded organ involvement in Behcet’s disease is neurological involvement. The majority of the cases present with parenchymal CNS involvement characterized as a brainstem meningoencephalitis; a rarer presentation is dural sinus thrombosis. Both situations very rarely occur in the same patient. Since parenchymal neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is associated with severe sequelae or mortality, it is a poor prognostic organ involvement. In contrast, dural sinus thrombosis in Behcet’s disease has a much better prognosis as compared to the parenchymal involvement, as well as dural sinus thromboses due to other etiologies. There are no randomized controlled treatment trials carried out in neuro-Behcet disease. Mostly accepted approach is to give high dose intravenous steroids at the atack, with a very slow tapering of steroid dose, and adding a long term immunosuppresant. One of the most critical points in neuro-Behcet treatment is not to stop steroids prematurely, and abruptly. It is notable that with the present treatment options, prognosis of neurological involvement in Behcet’s disease is not as grave as it was in the previous years.

  20. Gastro-intestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kedia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract can be involved in up to 90% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the leading cause of morbidity and third most common cause of mortality in these patients. The GI involvement can occur in the absence of cutaneous manifestations in 10% of patients. Vasculopathy, cellular and humoral immunity, and diffuse fibrosis are the principal pathogenetic mechanisms in SSc and begin with autoantibody-mediated neuronal damage followed by muscular damage and fibrosis. This leads to progressive dysmotility of the entire GI tract from mouth to anus and is responsible for the clinical manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia due to esophageal involvement, gastroparesis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation due to colonic and fecal incontinence due to anorectal involvement. The clinical features resulting from the involvement of these organs often overlap and multiple areas may be involved simultaneously. The treatment remains mostly symptomatic because effective disease-modifying therapies are lacking. These patients are at a risk of malnutrition and nutritional screening, and thus rehabilitation is very important. Refractory cases require nutritional support in the form of enteral nutrition and/or home parenteral nutrition. Future research is needed in the pathogenesis, development of biomarkers for early identification of GI involvement at the asymptomatic stage, and targeted disease-modifying therapies, which can alter/halt the disease progression.

  1. Phenotypes of organ involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupp, Jonas Christian; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Bargagli, Elena; Mihailović-Vučinić, Violeta; Rottoli, Paola; Grubanovic, Aleksandar; Müller, Annegret; Jochens, Arne; Tittmann, Lukas; Schnerch, Jasmin; Olivieri, Carmela; Fischer, Annegret; Jovanovic, Dragana; Filipovic, Snežana; Videnovic-Ivanovic, Jelica; Bresser, Paul; Jonkers, René; O'Reilly, Kate; Ho, Ling-Pei; Gaede, Karoline I; Zabel, Peter; Dubaniewicz, Anna; Marshall, Ben; Kieszko, Robert; Milanowski, Janusz; Günther, Andreas; Weihrich, Anette; Petrek, Martin; Kolek, Vitezslav; Keane, Michael P; O'Beirne, Sarah; Donnelly, Seamas; Haraldsdottir, Sigridur Olina; Jorundsdottir, Kristin B; Costabel, Ulrich; Bonella, Francesco; Wallaert, Benoît; Grah, Christian; Peroš-Golubičić, Tatjana; Luisetti, Mauritio; Kadija, Zamir; Pabst, Stefan; Grohé, Christian; Strausz, János; Vašáková, Martina; Sterclova, Martina; Millar, Ann; Homolka, Jiří; Slováková, Alena; Kendrick, Yvonne; Crawshaw, Anjali; Wuyts, Wim; Spencer, Lisa; Pfeifer, Michael; Valeyre, Dominique; Poletti, Venerino; Wirtz, Hubertus; Prasse, Antje; Schreiber, Stefan; Krawczak, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a highly variable, systemic granulomatous disease of hitherto unknown aetiology. The GenPhenReSa (Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Sarcoidosis) project represents a European multicentre study to investigate the influence of genotype on disease phenotypes in sarcoidosis.The baseline phenotype module of GenPhenReSa comprised 2163 Caucasian patients with sarcoidosis who were phenotyped at 31 study centres according to a standardised protocol.From this module, we found that patients with acute onset were mainly female, young and of Scadding type I or II. Female patients showed a significantly higher frequency of eye and skin involvement, and complained more of fatigue. Based on multidimensional correspondence analysis and subsequent cluster analysis, patients could be clearly stratified into five distinct, yet undescribed, subgroups according to predominant organ involvement: 1) abdominal organ involvement, 2) ocular-cardiac-cutaneous-central nervous system disease involvement, 3) musculoskeletal-cutaneous involvement, 4) pulmonary and intrathoracic lymph node involvement, and 5) extrapulmonary involvement.These five new clinical phenotypes will be useful to recruit homogenous cohorts in future biomedical studies. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  2. Mandatory parental involvement prior to adolescent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, E L; Larson, D B; Lyons, J S; Brubaker, M W; Colecchi, C A; Berry, J T; Morrow, D

    1991-03-01

    The issue of parental involvement in an adolescent's decision to abort a pregnancy is complex and controversial. Consequently, the impact of legislation to mandate parental involvement is reviewed. Although the costs of such legislation are high, there are at least three important clinical benefits. First, a legal mandate will require many adolescents who would not otherwise involve their parents in this decision process to seek their counsel and emotional support. Second, parent's responsibility for the actions of their adolescent children is acknowledged within the legal system. Third, family unity may be promoted by allowing parents and adolescents an opportunity to deal more openly with the causes and implications of the pregnancy.

  3. The ethics of medical involvement in torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, R S

    1993-01-01

    The difficulties of establishing a definition of torture are discussed, and a definition is suggested. It is then argued that, irrespective of general ethical questions, doctors in particular should never be involved because of their social role. PMID:8230143

  4. Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strengthening primary healthcare through community involvement in Cross River State, Nigeria: a descriptive study. Hilary Adie, Thomas Igbang, Akaninyene Otu, Ekanem Braide, Okpok Okon, Edet Ikpi, Charles Joseph, Alexander Desousa, Johannes Sommerfeld ...

  5. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  6. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size....... The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  7. Factors involved in fatal vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report examines factors that contribute to fatal crashes involving a motor vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or bus). Accident level data was obtained from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations (NHTSAs) Fatality Analysis Reporting S...

  8. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Subsidiary Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The current paper takes on this neglected question by empirically investigating corporate and divisional headquarters direct involvement in innovation development projects at the subsidiary level. Analyses that draw upon 85 innovation development projects in 23 multinational enterprises reveal that dual...... innovation importance, i.e., an innovation that is important for the division and the corporate level, drives dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. Contrary to expectations, no significant effect of dual embeddedness on dual headquarters involvement is found. The network size...... of the developing subsidiary positively moderates the two aforementioned effects on dual headquarters involvement in innovation development. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures. Thus, the results question simplistic views...

  9. Peer Effects and Academics’ Industry Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschhoff, Birgit; Grimpe, Christoph

    This study explores the interaction between professional imprinting and age in the context of industry-science collaboration. Specifically, we examine the impact of localized and personal peer effects on academics’ involvement with industry and how these effects are moderated by the career age...... of the scientist. We suggest that both localized and personal peer effects drive industry involvement but that the effects from such imprinting are more pronounced for younger researchers, suggesting that professional imprinting takes place in the early stages of a scientist’s academic career. Based on a sample...... of 330 German academics in the field of biotechnology and publication data from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), we find that scientists with industry-oriented co-authors are more likely to be involved with industry (personal peer effect). Moreover, we find that the scientist’s involvement...

  10. Safety issues involving marine containers on chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This study performed by The University of Tennessee investigated safety related problems involving chassis used for transporting marine containers on US highways. In recent years, much concern has arisen regarding the safety implications of allegedly...

  11. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis and tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, I.; Saiz, A.; Bustos, A.; Hernando, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present two cases of pulmonary lumphangioleiomyomatosis and one case of tuberous sclerosis with pulmonary involvement describing the most characteristic features according to plain chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). (Author) 14 refs

  12. Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Involvement and Preception towards Malaria Prevention and Control Strategies in Rural Areas of Kersa District in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Wondimu Tesgera, Makonnen Aseffa, Bishaw Deboch, Wondwossen Kassahun ...

  13. Guidance for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document addresses the types of asbestos issues that may arise during catastrophic events and how EPA has addressed such issues. It replaces the Guidelines for Catastrophic Emergency Situations Involving Asbestos which was issued in 1992.

  14. Testicular Involvement of Tuberculous Epididymitis : Sonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Lee, Yong Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Joong Hwa [Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To report the sonographic findings of testicular involvement of tuberculous epididymitis. The sonographic findings of testicular involvement in twelve patients with histologically proven tuberculous epididymitis were retrospectively reviewed. The sonographic findings of testicular lesions are 1) an ill defined hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%), 2) a well-demarcated hypoechoic lesion (3 cases, 25.0%),3) multiple and small hypoechoic nodules in the enlarged testis (2 cases, 16.7%), 4) indistinct margin between the testis and epididymis (2 cases, 16.7%) and 5) a diffusely enlarged testis with hypoechogenicity (2 cases, 16.7%).Nine patients had ipsilateral epididymitis, and 3 patients had bilateral epididymitis. Pus discharge through the draining sinus tract was noted in 4 cases (33.3%), and hydrocele in 8 cases (66.7%). No parenchymal calcification was seen in the involved testis. Sonographic findings of testicular involvement in tuberculous epididymitis were various

  15. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Trifonova; N. V. Rusakova

    2012-01-01

    The literature review deals with renal involvement in children with celiac disease. The article contains common conceptions on possible variants of renal disorders and mechanisms of development of dysmetabolic and IgA-nephropathy in children with celiac disease.

  16. Orbital involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinnider, L F; Romanchuk, K G

    1984-04-01

    In a 68-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia diagnosed on the basis of peripheral lymphocytosis, marked bilateral exophthalmos developed owing to massive orbital involvement by the disease. At the time there was no lymphadenopathy or evidence of organ infiltration. The response to radiotherapy was excellent. Orbital involvement is rare as an early clinical feature of chronic lymphocytic leukemia but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of bilateral exophthalmos in adults.

  17. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  18. Dual Headquarters Involvement in Multibusiness Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Kappen, Philip; Dellestrand, Henrik

    development projects of subsidiaries. Analyses of 85 innovation development projects reveal that dual innovation importance (innovation that is important for the division and the rest of the firm), and dual dual embeddedness (innovating subsidiary is embedded both within the division and in the rest...... of the firm) lead to greater dual headquarters involvement, especially when the innovation development network is large. The results contribute to the literature on complex parenting and theory of selective headquarters involvement....

  19. Occupational risk involving students of health

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Amanda Mendonça; Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; Rocha, Eder Oliveira; Sousa, Cristina Maria Miranda de; Alves, Eucário Leite Monteiro; Mesquita, Gerardo Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents ...

  20. Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of Fathers' Parental Involvement: Satisfaction and Desire for Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Melissa J.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Madden-Derdich, Debra A.; Leonard, Stacie A.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in family systems and ecological theories, this study examined teenage mothers' perceptions of fathers' parental involvement and the role of teenage mothers' gatekeeping beliefs. Fathers' involvement was perceived to be greater when teenage parents were romantically involved (n = 55). When they no longer shared a romantic relationship (n…

  1. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  2. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-09-01

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  3. Construction contractors involvement in disaster management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Stringfellow

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disasters, both natural and man-made, cause major damage and loss of life. Because of this, governments around the world are looking at building resilience to ensure communities can recover quickly and have minimal impact from a disaster. Part of building resilience is to plan for disaster management and recovery. Literature reveals that construction contractors can play a critical role within this process as they have control of resource supply chains and key knowledge and skills they are well suited to assist in disaster planning. However, as literature also reveals there is currently little involvement of construction contractors in the disaster planning process. This gap between what should be done and what is currently done is investigated. Representatives from industry bodies are interviewed to determine their understanding of the industry’s involvement in disaster planning and what capacity the industry might have to be involved. The interviewee’s responses agree with current literature that there is currently little or no involvement with disaster planning however there is interest in being involved with disaster management planning if there was a forum for this to occur. Based on the responses the researcher has proposed a model to engage construction contractors within state government disaster management planning.

  4. Involvement of the skeleton in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirschel, J.; Ozdoba, C.

    1987-01-01

    Of 114 patients with Hodgkin's disease reviewed, 13 (11%) had bone involvement. The typical osseous lesion in Hodgkin's desease is a secondary manifestation in the axial skeleton. The lesions are mainly lytic; there is no relation between the site of the affection and the character of the lesion. Of 261 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 19 (7,3%) had bone involvement. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma very rarely affects the bone primarily; these lesions are lytic. Involvement of the appendicular skeleton is reported to be typical; this cannot be confirmed by our study. Most secondary osseous lesions in non-Hodgkin lymphoma are found in the cranium, the spine and the sternum; this pattern of distribution as well as the mainly lytic appearance can be considered typical. (orig.) [de

  5. Involving Customer Relations in Contextual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a case study in the form of a contextual design project, the aim of which was to design a system for a particular organization. The starting point in the case was a need in the organization for a specific system. The case involved an analysis of the organizations customer...... relations. Involving customer relations in the design project had a powerful effect: it was revealed that the system the organization believed they needed was irrelevant, while they needed another system nobody had thought of beforehand. The paper presents the case by describing the setting and starting...... point of the design project, how the project was conducted, and which results it ended up with. This is followed by a discussion of the effects of, and lessons learned by, involving customer relations in contextual design....

  6. Prescribing Errors Involving Medication Dosage Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesar, Timothy S

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Prescribing errors involving medication dose formulations have been reported to occur frequently in hospitals. No systematic evaluations of the characteristics of errors related to medication dosage formulation have been performed. OBJECTIVE To quantify the characteristics, frequency, and potential adverse patient effects of prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms . DESIGN Evaluation of all detected medication prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms in a 631-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Type, frequency, and potential for adverse effects of prescribing errors involving or related to medication dosage forms. RESULTS A total of 1,115 clinically significant prescribing errors involving medication dosage forms were detected during the 60-month study period. The annual number of detected errors increased throughout the study period. Detailed analysis of the 402 errors detected during the last 16 months of the study demonstrated the most common errors to be: failure to specify controlled release formulation (total of 280 cases; 69.7%) both when prescribing using the brand name (148 cases; 36.8%) and when prescribing using the generic name (132 cases; 32.8%); and prescribing controlled delivery formulations to be administered per tube (48 cases; 11.9%). The potential for adverse patient outcome was rated as potentially “fatal or severe” in 3 cases (0.7%), and “serious” in 49 cases (12.2%). Errors most commonly involved cardiovascular agents (208 cases; 51.7%). CONCLUSIONS Hospitalized patients are at risk for adverse outcomes due to prescribing errors related to inappropriate use of medication dosage forms. This information should be considered in the development of strategies to prevent adverse patient outcomes resulting from such errors. PMID:12213138

  7. Development Of Parental Involvement Towards Children Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sucuoğlu, Hale; Özkal, Neşe; Yıldız Demirtaş, Vesile; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure the parental involvement of preschool children and to show the areas they are mostly involved in. In this reliability and validity study, the scale was administered to the mothers (n= 462) and fathers ( n=429) of the children aged at 4 - 6 in preschool public and private institutions. The five-point Likert scale was composed of two different versions posed for mothers and fathers separately. For the validity of the scale, the opinions...

  8. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  9. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of 'justification' of practices has been one of the three basic principles of radiation protection for many decades. The principle is simple in essence - that any practice involving radiation exposure should do more good than harm. There is no doubt that the many uses of radiation in the medical field and in industry generally satisfy this principle, yielding benefits that could not be achieved using other techniques; examples include CT scanning and industrial radiography. However, even in the early period after the introduction of the justification principle, there were practices for which the decision on justification was not clear and for which different decisions were made by the authorities in different countries. Many of these involved consumer products such as luminous clocks and watches, telephone dials, smoke detectors, lightning preventers and gas mantles. In most cases, these practices were relatively small scale and did not involve large exposures of either individual workers or members of the public. Decisions on justification were therefore often made by the regulator without extensive national debate. Over recent years, several practices have been proposed and undertaken that involve exposure to radiation for purposes that were generally not envisaged when the current system of radiation protection was created. Some of these practices were reviewed during a recent symposium held in Dublin, Ireland and involve, for example, the x-raying of people for theft detection purposes, for detection of weapons or contraband, for the prediction of physical development of young athletes or dancers, for age determination, for insurance purposes and in cases of suspected child abuse. It is particularly in the context of such novel practices that the need has emerged for clearer international guidance on the application of the justification principle. This paper reviews recent activities of the IAEA with respect to these issues, including the

  10. Involving patients with E-health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    With e-health technologies, patients are invited as co-producers of data and information. The invitation sparks new expectations, yet often results in disappointments. With persistent ambitions to involve patients by means of e-health, it seems crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature......, sources and workings of the expectations that come with being invited. I analyse the use of an e-health system for ICD-patients, focusing on how patients sought to serve as information providers. Continuing STS-research on invisible work in technology use, I show how using the system involved complex work...

  11. Meningeal involvement in Behcet's disease: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guma, A.; Aguilera, C.; Pons, L.; Acebes, J.; Arruga, J.

    1998-01-01

    Behcet's disease is a multisystem disease that involves the central nervous system up to half of cases. Presentation with neurologic symptoms occurs in 5 % of cases and cerebral venous thrombosis is one of its major manifestations. A feature not previously reported is progressive meningeal thickening with involvement of both optic nerves. We report a patient with cerebral venous thrombosis, meningeal thickening and contrast enhancement on MRI. This patient had two other unusual features: positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and later development of central diabetes insipidus. (orig.)

  12. Customer Involvement in the Game Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Prystupa-Rządca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative industry is a fast developing sector of economy in many countries. Growing competition in this area has led many companies to implement strategy of users' involvement in product development in order to deliver products that are more aligned with customers’ needs. On the other hand, the attempt to align the customers’ expectations with artistic creativity may create tensions. Therefore, the aim of the research is to examine the methods of users’ involvement in product development and real impact of the users on project design. The obtained findings are based on two-year qualitative research project conducted in game development companies.

  13. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  14. Assessment of respiratory involvement in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data showed no association between the presence of scoliosis or the presence of organomegaly and the pattern of pulmonary function abnormalities. Conclusions: Evaluation and follow up of patients with MPS using pulmonary function tests are essential to detect early involvement of respiratory system and hence start ...

  15. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  16. Exploring genes and pathways involved in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, E.

    2017-01-01

    The research in this thesis was aimed at identifying genes and molecular pathways involved in migraine. To this end, two gene expression analyses were performed in brain tissue obtained from transgenic mouse models for familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), a monogenic subtype of migraine with aura.

  17. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  18. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  19. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use ... The domain part of the email address of all email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various ...

  20. Creating Learning at Conferences Through Participant Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib; Elsborg, Steen

    in Denmark to introduce a variety of simple learning techniques related to the design principles at thirty real conferences of some 100-200 participants each. We present twelve of these techniques and the data evaluating them and conclude that by spending a fraction of the time at a conference on involving...

  1. Farmer and input marketer's involvement in researchextension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the level of involvement of farmers and input marketers in the Research-Extension-Farmer-Input Linkage System (REFILS) continuum of activities in the Southeastern agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. Data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire administered to 80 randomly selected ...

  2. Temporomandibular Joint Involvement in Psoriatic Arthritis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PA, 50 mg of diclofenac sodium 3 times daily was prescribed to patient, and used for one month at the same time with occlusal splint therapy. Occlusal splint was ... is multifactorial and results in an autoimmune mechanism with inflammatory and destructive features. The joint involvements are typically asymmetrical and ...

  3. CT findings of thoracic involvement of lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Choe, Kyu Ok; Cho, Hee Kyung

    1993-01-01

    Chest CT scans of 70 patients with malignant lymphoma were reviewed to evaluate the thoracic manifestation of malignant lymphoma. Sixteen patients had Hodgkin's disease and 54 patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The thoracic involvement of malignant lymphoma was observed i 47 patients (67.1%) and 11 of these patients had Hodgkin's disease, and 36 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The most common finding was mediastinal lymphadenopathy and the most frequently involved sites were anterior mediastinal and paratracheal lymph nodes. Pulmonary parenchymal involvement was seen in 11 patients (15.7%), and CT scan showed thickening of bronchovascular bundle, parenchymal consolidation and nodules. Pleural effusion was seen in 18 patients (25.7%), however, without any evidence of parietal pleural thickening in all cases. Involvement of chest wall and breast was seen in two patient (2.9%). The data obtained through the current study showed no differences from those of previous reports, except the fact that there was no CT evidence of pleural thickening in patients who had pleural effusion

  4. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  5. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  6. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  7. Assessment of community empowerment and women involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to assess the level of community and women involvement and empowerment in the implementation of the second National Fadama Development Project (Fadama II or NFDP II) in Ogun State. A sample of 240 Fadama II beneficiaries (members) was selected using a combination of purposive and ...

  8. Perceived competence and physical activity involvement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A modification of the original model yielded two factors, which were labeled Physical Appearance and Self-worth. Only Self-worth accounted for significant differences on patterns of involvement in sport. Non-participants and recreational sport participants had higher perceptions of Self-worth compared to competitive sport ...

  9. Wegener s granulomatosis with granulomatous liver involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl-Ulrich, Konstanze; Klass, Monika

    2010-01-01

    We report on a patient with biopsy proven systemic Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) with a granulomatous necrotising manifestation of WG in the liver, lung, parotid gland and skin with subsequent death of liver failure. Liver involvement in WG is an exceedingly rare, though potentially fatal, organ manifestation of WG.

  10. Imaging of tuberculous disease involving breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K.K.; Kim, J.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kook, S.H. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Foundation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate radiologic findings of the tuberculosis involving breast. We evaluated the radiologic features of 17 patients (18 lesions) with tuberculous disease involving the breast. The radiologic examinations, including mammography (16 patients), ultrasonography (12 patients), and Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI (6 patients), were analyzed. Mammographic findings included mass (12 of 17 lesions), calcification (3 of 17 lesions), asymmetric density with spiculated margin (5 of 17 lesions), and axillary lymph node enlargement (8 of 17 lesions). On ultrasonography, a smooth bordered mass (7 of 13 lesions) with thin boundary (7 of 13 lesions) and heterogeneous, intermediate internal echoes (9 of 13 lesions) were most commonly demonstrated. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced dynamic MRI, 3 lesions showed significant enhancement at the first minute after injection (3 of 7 lesions). The maximun enhancing amount was greater than 500 normalized units, and the enhancing pattern was smooth or irregular ring appearance. Breast involvement with tuberculosis is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a woman living in an endemic area or when extramammary foci of tuberculosis are present. A multimodality imaging approach with clinical evaluation will help to establish the diagnosis of tuberculosis involving breast. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs.

  11. Relative Effects of Psychological Flexibility, Parental Involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A critical analysis and understanding of secondary students' experiences and of safety in public schools are currently lacking in the literature and warrant further research. This study investigated the relative effects of psychological flexibility, parental involvement and school climate on secondary school student's school ...

  12. Analytical solution of population balance equation involving ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an effective analytical simulation to solve population balance equation (PBE), involving particulate aggregation and breakage, by making use of appropriate solution(s) of associated complementary equation via auxiliary equation method (AEM). Travelling wave solutions of the complementary equation ...

  13. Provider expectations and father involvement: learning from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... their role as fathers and the effects of such fatherhood constructs on their involvement in their child's life. Since this research specifically targeted “absent fathers” in order to capture how they construct their role as fathers, it is opportune to outline how this concept is understood in this paper. Father absence ...

  14. Midbrain and Hindbrain Involvement in Lissencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the midbrain and hindbrain (MHB in the various groups of lissencephalies was examined in an MRI study of 111 patients (aged 1 day to 32 years; mean 5 years 4 months studied at University of California San Francisco, and centers in France, Belgium, and Turkey.

  15. Parental Involvement in Early Childhood Development (ECD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent of parental involvement in ECD programmes and the impact thereof on the quality of care in Harare primary schools as perceived by the school heads, ECD teachers and parents. The research is part of a larger study by the researcher on assessing the quality of ECD programmes in ...

  16. Host factors involved in chikungunya virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, Florine Elisabeth Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the interplay of CHIKV with cellular (host) factors involved in its replication is addressed. An in-depth understanding of the interactions between the viral proteins and those of their host is required for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying viral replication. A

  17. Involvement of methyltransferases enzymes during the energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methyl group transfer from dimethylsulfide (DMS), trimethylamine and methanol to 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid (coenzyme M) were investigated from cell extracts of Methanosarcina semesiae sp. nov. to evaluate whether the enzyme systems involved were constitutive or inductive. The extracts from cells grown on ...

  18. disposition towards teacher involvement in school reform

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tween the change agenda and the actual change in the classroom, buying into the change agenda. The necessity of involving teachers not only as implemen- ters but .... pals, if one keeps in mind that the majority of principals were teachers who ... In a recent research project, conducted by the Human Sciences Research.

  19. Father Involvement among Malay Muslims in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhari, Rumaya; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Talib, Mansor Abu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a study of 989 fathers of school-going children aged 10 through 16 from intact families in rural and urban areas in Selangor, Malaysia. The study aims to explore the factors that affect father involvement among Malay Muslims. Results indicate that fathers' education, marital quality, and number of children are…

  20. Head Start Fathers' Involvement with Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorvine, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, fathers have been underexamined relative to mothers in research on parenting. Fathers in poverty, as well as stepfathers and nonresidential fathers, have been a particularly understudied group. This study explores Head Start fathers' involvement with their children. Fathers are defined to include stepfathers as well as…

  1. Occult liver involvement by polyarteritis nodosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumà, M; Lorenzo-Zúñiga, V; Olivé, A; Perendreu, J; Bechini, J; Doménech, E; Planas, R

    2002-05-01

    The diagnosis of panarteritis nodosa is usually difficult because of the variability of clinical manifestations. Herein is presented a case of occult liver involvement by polyarteritis nodosa. Several biopsies were performed but the diagnosis was made with the contribution of a hepatic arteriography.

  2. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  3. Involvement of Students in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ya, Marwa; Aziz, Sheikha A.; Mohyuddin, Muhammad Raheel; Al Balushi, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of E-learning activities for students in the classroom play an important role in the teaching and learning process. In this paper, the authors describe how we collected information from 3-different Colleges/Universities in Oman forming an online study with regard to the use of internet, e-library, online book access, and…

  4. Creative Productivity: Who Gets Involved? Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A project of the Talented and Gifted Program in Torrington, Connecticut, is described. The project involved classroom teachers, the gifted teacher, art teacher, and physical education teacher leading fourth-grade students in developing a life-size skeleton, a tape-recorded narration explaining the skeletal system, and a song. (JDD)

  5. Evaluation of Community Pharmacists' Involvement in Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Community pharmacists are marginally involved in the primary health care programmes in Benin City and are willing to improve on their performance. Continuing education on primary health care and incorporation of primary health care role of community pharmacists in the curriculum of pharmacy schools ...

  6. Community Involvement in School Management in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Luísa; Craveiro, Daniela; Rufino, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the ways in which the community is involved in Portuguese school management. It is based on an analysis of the external evaluation reports of 298 Portuguese schools for the academic years 2006-07, 2007-08 and 2008-09. The corpus analysed allowed the identification of two main aspects of the participation processes: (1) local…

  7. Curriculum Development: Teacher Involvement in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    In order for curriculum development to be effective and schools to be successful, teachers must be involved in the development process. An effective curriculum should reflect the philosophy, goals, objectives, learning experiences, instructional resources, and assessments that comprise a specific educational program ("Guide to curriculum…

  8. Local identities involving Jacobi elliptic functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explicit answers for a number of definite integrals and simpler forms for several indefinite integrals involving .... Similar manipulations using a = −r2K(m)/p yield cyclic identities for expressions like ∑ p j=1 d2 j [dj+r ..... combinations of derivatives of these four functions such that not only the periodicity, but also the singular ...

  9. Teacher's Manual for Parent and Community Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Larry E.; And Others

    Providing training for teachers and educators in home-school-community involvement is important for an obvious reason: schools don't operate in a vacuum. To be successful in the primary mission of educating the community's children, educators need to know a great deal about the community and the families from which the children come. The focus of…

  10. Family involvement and helping behaviour in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der; Kluwer, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Helping behavior at work has become increasingly important, with organizations making more and more use of cooperative work practices. The difficulty is that employees are facing growing demands beyond the workplace. This study investigates the mechanisms by which family involvement (family

  11. Involving patients with E-health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    With e-health technologies, patients are invited as co-producers of data and information. The invitation sparks new expectations, yet often results in disappointments. With persistent ambitions to involve patients by means of e-health, it seems crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature...

  12. Family Life Education: Focus on Student Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kinsey B.

    This booklet presents many ideas for involving students in family life education programs. Designed primarily for use by family life educators, it includes such topics as the use of cognitive and affective objectives in family life education, organizing family studies content by generalizations, and focusing on the student as an active learner. It…

  13. Isolated posterior fossa involvement of progressive multifocal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-14

    Nov 14, 2017 ... and the HIV pandemic has resulted in an increased prevalence of PML, affecting 3% – 7% of HIV- infected ... majority of HIV-infected patients with PML have CD4 lymphocyte counts < 200 cells/mm3. JC ... infrequent contrast enhancement.3 There is no involvement of the optic nerves or spinal cord. Isolated ...

  14. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant

  15. Farmers' involvement in agricultural problems identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the technologies disseminated were not based on farmers' identified problems and felt needs. Some of the constraints that might have militated against farmers' involvement were poor motivation and encouragement of farmers by researchers and extension officers, lack of adequate knowledge of research and ...

  16. Temporomandibular joint involvement in psoriatic arthritis | Okkesim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psoriasis is a chronic, papulosquamous, and an inflammatory skin disease. It has been found that between 5% and 24% of patients develop psoriatic arthritis (PA) at the same time after or even prior to skin findings. The involvement of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare condition. In this report, a-46-year-old male ...

  17. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  18. Comparison of Learner Involvement in Biology Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance in the biology practical paper has been poor at Kenya national examinations in the past five years (1998-2002). This may imply a lack of emphasis on the teaching of biology through the process-based approach. This study investigated the level of learner involvement in biology practical investigations in ...

  19. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN CHILDREN WITH CELIAC DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Trifonova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with renal involvement in children with celiac disease. The article contains common conceptions on possible variants of renal disorders and mechanisms of development of dysmetabolic and IgA-nephropathy in children with celiac disease.

  20. Business Involvement in Education: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols Education Consulting Group, Edmonton (Alberta).

    The literature on business involvement in education in Canada, the United States, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Japan, the United Kingdom, and other European countries was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following topics: workplace trends/changes; skill requirements/deficits; youth employment/unemployment; integration versus…

  1. Czech Companies Involved in the ARTEMIS Programme

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlec, Jiří

    -, special issue (2013), s. 4-5 ISSN 1210-9592 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LE13020 Keywords : ARTEMIS JU * embedded systems * european technology platforms * FP7 * ICT * microelectronics * ENIAC JU Subject RIV: AF - Documentation, Librarianship, Information Studies http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZS/kadlec-czech companies involved in the artemis programme.pdf

  2. Stakeholder Involvement in Swedish Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran

    2006-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. In particular, we concentrate on how the two municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar have acted as engaged stakeholders, and have gained recognition as such, in the siting process. In general: How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? An effect of the history of nuclear activity in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar is that stakeholder involvement over a final repository can be divided into social and technical issues. Both municipalities have out of tradition, as part of their social acceptance of a new repository, been prepared to surrender extended involvement in key safety issues. They have been prepared to do this because they also see themselves being able to delegate these safety issues to the government authorities SSI and SKI. These two authorities have been acceptable to the two municipalities as their legitimate 'technological guardians'. As physical geology re-enters the siting process for a deep repository, Oskarshamn appear more prepared to break with tradition than Oesthammar. Oskarshamn are currently demanding transparency from SKB in relation to the exact technical and geological criteria they will use to choose between them and Oesthammar as a repository site. In contrast to Oesthammar, Oskarshamn are preparing with the expected help of SKI and SSI to dispute their geology and its relation to nuclear safety with SKB if they consider it necessary. If Oskarshamn act to draw safety issues in relation to alternative methods and sitings into the EIA process where might this lead? As environmental groups now enter the process (three groups were granted funding in the first round - 2005) the character of site

  3. Spin versus helicity in processes involving transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Mekhfi, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    We construct the spin formalism in order to deal in a direct and natural way with processes involving transversity which are now of increasing popularity. The helicity formalism which is more appropriate for collision processes of definite helicity has been so far used also to manage processes with transversity, but at the price of computing numerous helicity amplitudes generally involving unnecessary kinematical variables.In a second step we work out the correspondence between both formalisms and retrieve in another way all results of the helicity formalism but in simpler forms.We then compute certain processes for comparison.A special process:the quark dipole magnetic moment is shown to be exclusively treated within the spin formalism as it is directly related to the transverse spin of the quark inside the baryon.

  4. Biomarkers for kidney involvement in pediatric lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goilav, Beatrice; Putterman, Chaim; Rubinstein, Tamar B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN), the renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, is currently diagnosed by histopathology obtained by percutaneous renal biopsy and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. LN is more prevalent and severe in children, requiring aggressive and prolonged immunosuppression. The consequences of the diagnosis and its treatment have devastating long-term effects on the growth, well-being and quality of life of affected children. The paucity of reliable clinical indicators of the presence and severity of renal involvement have contributed to a halt in the reduction of progression to end-stage renal disease in recent years. Here, we discuss the recent development of biomarkers in the management of LN and their role as therapeutic targets. PMID:26079958

  5. Bladder Involvement in Stage I Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Laufer, Marc R

    2017-08-01

    Endometriosis-the ectopic implantation of endometrial-like tissue-affects 10% of adolescent females and adults. Bladder involvement, causing dysuria and hematuria, occurs in a very small number of endometriosis patients. The patient presented at age 12 years with dysuria and pelvic pain. Laparoscopy revealed stage I endometriosis. Postoperatively, she reported persistent dysuria and passage of tissue in her urine. Cystoscopy showed diffuse erythema; urine cytology revealed glandular and spindle cells suggestive of endometriosis. She was transitioned from oral contraceptives to an intranasal gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, with symptom resolution. Intravesicular endometriosis coinciding with stage I disease supports a mechanism of endometriosis dissemination other than direct bladder infiltration. Patients with endometriosis who complain of urinary symptoms warrant assessment, because intravesicular bladder involvement cannot be excluded using pelviscopy. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Involving patients with E-health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen Dam

    2015-01-01

    With e-health technologies, patients are invited as co-producers of data and information. The invitation sparks new expectations, yet often results in disappointments. With persistent ambitions to involve patients by means of e-health, it seems crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature......, sources and workings of the expectations that come with being invited. I analyse the use of an e-health system for ICD-patients, focusing on how patients sought to serve as information providers. Continuing STS-research on invisible work in technology use, I show how using the system involved complex work...... that understanding the dialogic dynamics and ‘overflows’ of information filtration work can help unpack the challenges of facilitating (patient) participation with e-health and other filtration devices....

  7. Occupational risk involving students of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Oliveira Rocha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social representations of occupational risks involving students in the area of health. Method: Exploratory research with 160 students from nursing, medicine and dentistry, through interviews. The data were processed in ALCESTE 4.8 and lexical analysis done by descending hierarchical classification. Results: In four semantic classes, namely: occupational risks involving students in the area of health, the work environment and occupational risks, exposure to accidents with sharps and adoption of standard precautions as biosecurity measures. Conclusion: Students healthcare represent occupational risks, such as a concern for the prevention of cross infection in the workplace, should both professionals and students of health, adopt standard precautions and biosecurity measures in the environment work.

  8. Public involvement in environmental surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Patton, G.W.; Woodruff, R.K.; Poston, T.M.

    1994-08-01

    Environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site began during the mid-1940s following the construction and start-up of the nation's first plutonium production reactor. Over the past approximately 45 years, surveillance operations on and off the Site have continued, with virtually all sampling being conducted by Hanford Site workers. Recently, the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office directed that public involvement in Hanford environmental surveillance operations be initiated. Accordingly, three special radiological air monitoring stations were constructed offsite, near hanford's perimeter. Each station is managed and operated by two local school teaches. These three stations are the beginning of a community-operated environmental surveillance program that will ultimately involve the public in most surveillance operations around the Site. The program was designed to stimulate interest in Hanford environmental surveillance operations, and to help the public better understand surveillance results. The program has also been used to enhance educational opportunities at local schools

  9. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  10. Involving stakeholders in evaluating environmental restoration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.; Serie, P.J.

    1993-02-01

    Involving citizens, interest groups, and regulators in environmental restoration and waste management programs is a challenge for government agencies and the organizations that support them. To be effective, such involvement activities must identify all individuals and groups who have a stake in the cleanup. Their participation must be early, substantive, and meaningful. Stockholders must be able to see how their input was considered and used, and feel that a good- faith effort was made to reconcile conflicting objectives. The Integrated Demonstration for Cleanup of Volatile Organic Compounds at Arid Sites (VOC-Arid ID) is a Department of Energy Office of Technology Development project located at Hanford. Along with technical evaluation of innovative cleanup technologies, the program is conducting an institutional assessment of regulatory and public acceptance of new technologies. Through a series of interviews and workshops, and use of a computerized information management tool, stakeholders are having a voice in the evaluation. Public and regulatory reaction has been positive

  11. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicanor Austriaco, O.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.

  14. Does high involvement management improve worker wellbeing?

    OpenAIRE

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Ilmakunnas, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Employees exposed to high involvement management (HIM) practices have higher subjective wellbeing, fewer accidents but more short absence spells than "like" employees not exposed to HIM. These results are robust to extensive work, wage and sickness absence history controls. We highlight the possibility of higher short-term absence in the presence of HIM because it is more demanding than standard production and because multi-skilled HIM workers cover for one another's short absences thus reduc...

  15. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón, Frank; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de; Yim, Lucia; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw) cluster, which ...

  16. Kidney involvement in a Wegener granulomatosis case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoli, Gioacchino Li; Ferrantelli, Angelo; Bono, Luisa; Tortorici, Calogera; Passantino, Rita; Rotolo, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Wegener Granulomatosis is a systemic Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibody-associated Vasculitis, affecting small-to-medium vessels. Clinical presentation with simultaneous involvement of kidney and upper and lower respiratory tract is unusual. We report an instructive case of WG, analyzing clinical course, laboratory, and radiological features, kidney, lung, and larynx histological pictures. Besides renal biopsy, nephrology team performed larynx and lung biopsies because of unusual clinical presentation, computed tomography chest examination, and relevant malignancy risk regarding following immunosuppressant therapy.

  17. Challenges with social media for user involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhlbröst, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Integrating social media into the innovation process can offer great opportunities for organizations striving for user involvement. Due to the spread of social media in all types of user groups it is, today, possible to engage users all around the world in innovation activities simultaneously. But even if social media usage in innovation activities offers great opportunities, it can be challenging to know how to use it to engage users in these processes. In this paper, the purpose is to discu...

  18. Radiologically- detectable sacroiliac involvement in behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.; Shabani, M.; Jamshidi, A.; Shahram, F.; Davatchi, F.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The association of Behcet's disease and ankylosing spondylitis is still a matter of debate. Objective: As the presence of sacroiliac joint involvement is an essential criterion in diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis . We decided to determined the prevalence of sacroiliac joint involvement in Behcet's disease and compare it with that of a control group. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected two groups of 199 Behcet's disease patients and 168 non- Behcet's disease cases (the controls). All cases were over 20 years of ages. Standard anteroposterior radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained and interpreted by two rheumatologists and a radiologists blinded to the diagnosis. To determined the severity of the condition, the following 5-point scale was employed: Normal (O), pseudo-widening (1), sclerosis (2), erosion (3), and bony fusion (4). The eliminate any doubt, only grades 3 and 4 were considered as sacroiliitis. Both group were separately evaluated for age (≤ 30, and ≥ 30), and gender. Results were compared using Chi square test. Results: The groups were matched for age and sex: There were 98 (49.2%) females in Behcet's disease vs. 91 (54.2%) in the control group (p=O.35). The mean ±SD age was 35±8.3 years in Behcet's disease and 35 ±10 in control group (p=1). The sacroiliac joint was involved in 9 (4.6%) patients in Behcet's disease and 7 (4.2%) patients in control group (p=O.93). Comparisons between the results of the unisexual cohorts revealed to significance either (p=O.68 for males, and p=O.64 for females). The age subdivisions (under- and over-30) again showed no significant difference (p=O.96 and p=O.69 for under- and over -30 patients, respectively). Conclusion: The presence of radiographic signs of sacroiliac joint involvement is not mandatory for the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis

  19. Learning models of activities involving interacting objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manfredotti, Cristina; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Hamilton, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    We propose the LEMAIO multi-layer framework, which makes use of hierarchical abstraction to learn models for activities involving multiple interacting objects from time sequences of data concerning the individual objects. Experiments in the sea navigation domain yielded learned models that were...... then successfully applied to activity recognition, activity simulation and multi-target tracking. Our method compares favourably with respect to previously reported results using Hidden Markov Models and Relational Particle Filtering....

  20. Cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeates, A.; Enzmann, D.

    1983-01-01

    Six patients with angiographically cryptic vascular malformations involving the brainstem were examined with computed tomography (CT). The clinical and CT findings of cryptic vascular malformations of the brainstem are described and distinguished from those of brainstem glioma and multiple sclerosis. Calcification within a brainstem lesion that displays relatively little mass effect and shows little contrast enhancement, particularly when associated with a long history of waxing and waning brainstem symptoms, should suggest a vascular malformation.

  1. Measuring customer involvement in new service developments

    OpenAIRE

    Larbig-Wust, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Service marketing managers are being required to develop new services that succeed in the market and are valuable for customers. Services Marketing literature therefore stresses the need to innovate with customers and to integrate their view into the new service developed. However, consensus about the positive effects of customer involvement in new service development (NSD) has not been reached. Drawing on the theory of organisational knowledge creation and the concept of marketing orientatio...

  2. Biomarkers for kidney involvement in pediatric lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Goilav, Beatrice; Putterman, Chaim; Rubinstein, Tamar B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN), the renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus, is currently diagnosed by histopathology obtained by percutaneous renal biopsy and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. LN is more prevalent and severe in children, requiring aggressive and prolonged immunosuppression. The consequences of the diagnosis and its treatment have devastating long-term effects on the growth, well-being and quality of life of affected children. T...

  3. Some identities involving primes | Liu | Quaestiones Mathematicae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this paper is to use the analytic methods and the properties of Gauss sums to study some classical problem related to a prime p. We shall give some new identities involving a prime p, one of which is that if prime p = 6k + 1, then there exist three positive integers x, y and z such that p2 = x2 +y2 +z2.

  4. Adolescents' Psychological Well-Being and Perceived Parental Involvement: Implications for Parental Involvement in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Kayla; Zyromski, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period of development. Previous research suggests parent involvement in school directly impacts student success. However, different types of parental involvement and the efforts of middle school personnel to educate parents about these effective practices have received scant attention in the literature. The level and type…

  5. [Myxoma involving posterolateral leaflet: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nya, Fouad; Abdou, Abdessamad; Bamous, Mehdi; Moutakiallah, Younes; Atmani, Noureddine; Seghrouchni, Aniss; Aithoussa, Mahdi; Boulahya, Abdellatif

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas are the most common type of primary cardiac tumors. They mainly affect the interatrial septum and exceptionally the heart valves. Surgical excision remains the only therapeutic alternative. We here report the case of a 69-year old patient with no significant pathological history suffering from NYHA class II-III dyspnea associated with lipothymia. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a tight calcified aortic narrowing with aortic valve gradient of 58 mmHg. A sessile mass of 15mm diameter inserted into the posterolateral leaflet, without stenosis or mitral regurgitation evoking an atypical localization of myxomaor or fibroelastoma was detected at the level of the mitral valve. The examination was supplemented by ETO which confirmed the diagnosis of a mass involving the posterolateral leaflet. The patient underwent surgery via median sternotomy, under conventional extracorporeal circulation. Left atriotomy allowed to objectify a sessile mass of 15mm of diameter involving the auricular wall of the friable and easily cleavable posterolateral leaflet. Cauterization of the implant base via electric scalpel was then performed without any additional gesture on the posterolateral leaflet. Anatomopathologic analysis of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of myxoma. The patient also underwent aortic valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 8. Cardiac myxoma involving the mitral leaflet is very rare. Surgical procedure attempting to resect the widest possible surgical margins remains the only therapeutic option to avoid the risk of recurrence.

  6. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  7. Kinases Involved in Both Autophagy and Mitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both mitosis and autophagy are highly regulated dynamic cellular processes and involve various phosphorylation events catalysed by kinases, which play vital roles in almost all physiological and pathological conditions. Mitosis is a key event during the cell cycle, in which the cell divides into two daughter cells. Autophagy is a process in which the cell digests its own cellular contents. Although autophagy regulation has mainly been studied in asynchronous cells, increasing evidence indicates that autophagy is in fact tightly regulated in mitosis. Here in this review, we will discuss kinases that were originally identified to be involved in only one of either mitosis or autophagy, but were later found to participate in both processes, such as CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases, Aurora kinases, PLK-1 (polo-like kinase 1, BUB1 (budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1, MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases, mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase, PI3K (phosphoinositide-3 kinase and protein kinase B (AKT. By focusing on kinases involved in both autophagy and mitosis, we will get a more comprehensive understanding about the reciprocal regulation between the two key cellular events, which will also shed light on their related therapeutic investigations.

  8. Public involvement in danish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refslund Poulsen, N.; Breinholt Larsen, F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on ''Public involvment in the Danish energy policy. The nuclear power issue'' was carried out as part of the project on ''Public involvment in decision-making related to science and technology'' performed by the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry of the OECD in Paris. The historical development of Danish energy policy is briefly described. An account is given of the nuclear controversy, and the development of public opinion is outlined. The public debate has been very widespread and intense, by far the most comprehensive debate since that concerning the European Communities. Assuming that the development of public opinion reflects the relative success or failure of the contending parties, the opponents of nuclear energy seem to have done best. Opinion polls showed some marked deviations among the electorate according to different variables. The most striking were those observed in relation to sex, age, education, and political preferences. One chapter treats the attitude of public authorities to extended public involvment, and special accounts are given of the Energy Information Committee, and the Energy Council. Finally the prime movers of the nuclear debate are dealt with, in particular the Organization for Information on Nuclear Energy OOA, which opposes nuclear power. (B.P.)

  9. Promoting principals' managerial involvement in instructional improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillat, Alex; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1994-01-01

    Studies of school leadership suggest that visiting classrooms, emphasizing achievement and training, and supporting teachers are important indicators of the effectiveness of school principals. The utility of a behavior-analytic program to support the enhancement of these behaviors in 2 school principals and the impact of their involvement upon teachers' and students' performances in three classes were examined in two experiments, one at an elementary school and another at a secondary school. Treatment conditions consisted of helping the principal or teacher to schedule his or her time and to use goal setting, feedback, and praise. A withdrawal design (Experiment 1) and a multiple baseline across classrooms (Experiment 2) showed that the principal's and teacher's rates of praise, feedback, and goal setting increased during the intervention, and were associated with improvements in the academic performance of the students. In the future, school psychologists might analyze the impact of involving themselves in supporting the principal's involvement in improving students' and teachers' performances or in playing a similar leadership role themselves. PMID:16795819

  10. Lung involvement in systemic connective tissue diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Systemic connective tissue diseases (SCTD are chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorders of unknown cause that can involve different organs and systems. Their course and prognosis are different. All of them can, more or less, involve the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to find out the frequency of respiratory symptoms, lung function disorders, radiography and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT abnormalities, and their correlation with the duration of the disease and the applied treatment. Methods. In 47 non-randomized consecutive patients standard chest radiography, HRCT, and lung function tests were done. Results. Hypoxemia was present in nine of the patients with respiratory symptoms (20%. In all of them chest radiography was normal. In five of these patients lung fibrosis was established using HRCT. Half of all the patients with SCTD had symptoms of lung involvement. Lung function tests disorders of various degrees were found in 40% of the patients. The outcome and the degree of lung function disorders were neither in correlation with the duration of SCTD nor with therapy used (p > 0.05 Spearmans Ro. Conclusion. Pulmonary fibrosis occurs in about 10% of the patients with SCTD, and possibly not due to the applied treatment regimens. Hypoxemia could be a sing of existing pulmonary fibrosis in the absence of disorders on standard chest radiography.

  11. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  12. GANG INVOLVEMENT AMONG STREET-INVOLVED YOUTH IN A CANADIAN SETTING: A GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon DL; DeBeck, Kora; Simo, Annick; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that gang involvement is associated with adverse health outcomes among high-risk youth. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence and correlates of gang affiliation among this population, particularly in Canada. We examined the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and early childhood traumatic experiences, social factors, and other behaviors in a study of drug-using, street-involved youth. Study Design Cross-Sectional Study Methods Data were derived from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Between June 2009 and May 2011, participants were asked questions ascertaining lifetime gang involvement and gang affiliation in one’s social network. We examined the gender-specific correlates of gang involvement using stratified log-binomial regression analyses. Results Among 435 eligible participants, 94 (21.6%) reported gang involvement and 206 (47.4%) reported having friends in a gang. In gender-stratified models, males involved in gangs were more likely to be of Aboriginal ancestry (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 – 2.44), have grown up in government care (PR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.32 – 3.12), dealt drugs (PR = 2.52, 95%CI: 1.66 – 3.85), and been incarcerated (PR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.29 – 2.80). Women involved in gangs were more likely to have reported a history of childhood sexual abuse (PR = 3.08, 95%CI: 1.15 – 8.27). Conclusions These results suggest that a variety of adverse experiences in early life are associated with an increased risk of gang affiliation among street-involved youth. Primary prevention strategies aiming to avert gang initiation among high-risk youth should seek to address childhood abuse and other traumatic experiences commonly experienced by this population. PMID:25542743

  13. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping

  14. Pituitary Involvement in Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Parisot, Audrey; Puéchal, Xavier; Langrand, Corinne; Raverot, Gerald; Gil, Helder; Perard, Laurent; Le Guenno, Guillaume; Berthier, Sabine; Tschirret, Olivier; Eschard, Jean Paul; Vinzio, Stephane; Guillevin, Loïc; Sève, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pituitary dysfunction is a rare manifestation of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener). The main aim of this multicenter retrospective study was to describe the characteristics and outcomes of pituitary manifestations in patients with GPA included in the French Vasculitis Study Group database. Among the 819 GPA patients included in the database, 9 (1.1%) had pituitary involvement. The median age at diagnosis of GPA and pituitary involvement was 46 and 50.8 years, respectively. Pituitary involvement was present at onset of GPA in 1 case and occurred later in 8 patients after a median follow up of 58.5 months. When pituitary dysfunction occurred, 8 patients had active disease at other sites including ENT (n = 6), eye (n = 4), or central nervous system (n = 3) involvement. The most common hormonal dysfunctions were diabetes insipidus (n = 7) and hypogonadism (n = 7). Magnetic resonance imaging was abnormal in 7 patients. The most common lesions were an enlargement of the pituitary gland, thickening of the pituitary stalk, and loss of posterior hypersignal on T1-weighed images. All patients were treated with corticosteroid therapy and 8 patients received immunosuppressive agents for the pituitary involvement, including cyclophosphamide (n = 3), rituximab (n = 2), and methotrexate (n = 3). After a median follow-up of 9.2 years, GPA was in complete remission in 7 patients, but 8 patients were still under hormone replacement therapy. Among the 5 patients who had a subsequent MRI, 2 had complete resolution of pituitary lesions.By combining our study and the literature review, the frequency of hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, among the patients with pituitary dysfunction, can be estimated at 78% and 71% respectively. Despite a high rate of systemic disease remission on maintenance therapy, 86% of the patients had persistent pituitary dysfunction. The patients who recovered from pituitary dysfunction had all been

  15. Bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Roger Wroclawski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus patients through clinical and laboratorial evaluation, ultrasonography, radiological and endoscopic examination. Methods: Thirty-nine patients, either outpatients or inpatients at the Department of Rheumatology of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina from Universidade de São Paulo were evaluated as to clinical and laboratorial data. All patients were submitted to ultrasonographic evaluation of the upper urinary tract, radiological and endoscopic examinations of the middle and lower urinary tracts. Rresults: Mean age of patients varied between 13 and 62 years (median = 29 years. Thirty-six were females and three were males. The disease varied from 6 months to 22 years (median three years and one month. Clinical and laboratory activity of the disease was present in 30 patients. Twenty-two patients had the diagnosis of lupus established for three years or more. Twenty-five patients were asymptomatic and all had received corticosteroids for treatment at least once. Twenty-three received antimalarial drugs; ten received cytostatics, and seven patients received non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Upper urinary tract ultrasonography was normal in all cases but one with staghorn calculus associated with neurogenic bladder secondary to neurological involvement by the disease. Vesicoureteral reflux was observed in two cases. Other two patients had significant post-voiding residual urine, both with neurogenic bladder secondary to nervous system involvement by lupus. The average bladder maximum capacity in an awaken patient was 342 mL, and was decreased in 18.9% of cases. This subgroup of patients presented a greater frequency of urinary symptoms and greater use of cytostatic drugs (Z > Z5%. A pathognomonic cystoscopic pattern of bladder involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus could not be established. Cystoscopic aspects similar to those seen in the initial or minor

  16. Has joint involvement lessened in Kawasaki disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Eva Pilar; Rey, Francis; Peña, Sara Carolina; Rubio, Aranzazu; Calvo, Cristina; Collado, Paz

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis affecting medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. Classic diagnosis is based in prolonged fever and different clinical features, including acute arthritis. Our objective is to determine the prevalence of arthritis at the moment of the diagnosis, the response to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and the relation with cardiac findings. Retrospective study through review of medical records of 42 patients with KD from 1988 to 2013. Demographic, clinical, laboratory variables and treatment were reviewed. Male sex was predominant (57%). Fever (100%), exanthema (92,9%), conjunctivitis (78,6%), oropharingeal changes (76,2%), cervical lymphadenopathy (71,4%), edema (52,4%) and peripheral desquamation (46,3%) were reported. Eight patients presented ecocardiography alterations (ectasia and aneurism). Acute articular involvement was reported in 7 (16%) patients, including oligoarticular (57%), monoarticular (29%) and polyarticular (14%) patterns. All patients had elevation of acute phase reactants with neutrophilia (57%) and hypoalbuminemia (71,5%), but showed a good therapeutic response to intravenous immunoglobulin, without sequelaes. Sixteen patients had incomplete KD nine males, with 100% of fever exanthema (75%), conjunctivitis (56%) and 50% of cervical lymphadenopathy. Whereas oropharingeal changes and edemas was described in 44% and 25% of them. Four patients with incomplete KD had coronary artery abnormalities. Acute arthritis was an uncommon finding (16%) and resulted in no sequelae. Maybe the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin prevents the development of articular abnormalities and then leading to a decrease in its follow-up requierement by reumathologist. The cardiovascular sequelae, mainly incomplete KD, remains determining its prognosis. The presence of articular involvement seems not to have influence over cardiac involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S

  17. Spent fuel transportation accident: a state's involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuweg, M.

    1978-01-01

    On February 9, 1978 at 8:20 p.m., the duty officer for the Illinois Radiological Assistance Team was notified that a shipment containing uranium and plutonium was involved in an accident near Gibson City, Illinois on Route 54. It was reported that a pig containing an unknown amount of uranium and plutonium was involved. The Illinois District 6A State Police were called to the scene and secured the area. The duty officer in the meantime learned after numerous telephone calls, approximately 1 hour after the first notice was received, that the pig actually was a 48,000 pound cask containing 6 spent fuel rods and the tractor-trailer had split apart and was blocking one lane of the highway. The shipment had departed from Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Morris, Illinois, enroute to Babcox and Wilcox in Lynchburg, Virginia. Initial reports indicated the vehicle had split apart. Actually, the semi-trailer bed had buckled beneath the cask due to apparent excess stress. The cask remained entirely intact and was not damaged, but the state highway was closed to traffic. The State Radiological Assistance Team was dispatched and arrived on the scene at 12:45 a.m. Immediate radiation monitoring revealed a reading of 4 milliroentgen per hour at 10 feet from the cask. No contamination existed nor was anyone exposed to radiation unnecessarily. The cask was transferred to a Tri-State semi-trailer vehicle the following morning at approximately 6:30 a.m. At 9:30 a.m., February 10, the new vehicle was again enroute to its destination. This incident demonstrated typical occurrences involving transportation radiation accident: misinformation and/or lack of information on the initial response notification, inaccuracies of radiation monitorings at the scene of the accident, inconsistencies concerning the occurrences of the accident and unfamiliar terminology utilized by personnel first on the scene, i.e., pig, cask, vehicle split apart, etc

  18. Functional brain networks involved in reality monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzak, Paul D; Lavigne, Katie M; Woodward, Todd S

    2015-08-01

    Source monitoring refers to the recollection of variables that specify the context and conditions in which a memory episode was encoded. This process involves using the qualitative and quantitative features of a memory trace to distinguish its source. One specific class of source monitoring is reality monitoring, which involves distinguishing internally generated from externally generated information, that is, memories of imagined events from real events. The purpose of the present study was to identify functional brain networks that underlie reality monitoring, using an alternative type of source monitoring as a control condition. On the basis of previous studies on self-referential thinking, it was expected that a medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) based network would be more active during reality monitoring than the control condition, due to the requirement to focus on a comparison of internal (self) and external (other) source information. Two functional brain networks emerged from this analysis, one reflecting increasing task-related activity, and one reflecting decreasing task-related activity. The second network was mPFC based, and was characterized by task-related deactivations in areas resembling the default-mode network; namely, the mPFC, middle temporal gyri, lateral parietal regions, and the precuneus, and these deactivations were diminished during reality monitoring relative to source monitoring, resulting in higher activity during reality monitoring. This result supports previous research suggesting that self-referential thinking involves the mPFC, but extends this to a network-level interpretation of reality monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimisation: how to develop stake holder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.

    2003-01-01

    The Precautionary Principle is an internationally recognised approach for dealing with risk situations characterised by uncertainties and potential irreversible damages. Since the late fifties, ICRP has adopted this prudent attitude because of the lack of scientific evidence concerning the existence of a threshold at low doses for stochastic effects. The 'linear, no-threshold' model and the 'optimisation of protection' principle have been developed as a pragmatic response for the management of the risk. The progress in epidemiology and radiobiology over the last decades have affirmed the initial assumption and the optimisation remains the appropriate response for the application of the precautionary principle in the context of radiological protection. The basic objective of optimisation is, for any source within the system of radiological protection, to maintain the level of exposure as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social and economical factors. Methods tools and procedures have been developed over the last two decades to put into practice the optimisation principle with a central role given to the cost-benefit analysis as a means to determine the optimised level of protection. However, with the advancement in the implementation of the principle more emphasis was progressively given to good practice, as well as on the importance of controlling individual levels of exposure through the optimisation process. In the context of the revision of its present recommendations, the Commission is reenforcing the emphasis on protection of the individual with the adoption of an equity-based system that recognizes individual rights and a basic level of health protection. Another advancement is the role that is now recognised to 'stakeholders involvement' in the optimisation process as a mean to improve the quality of the decision aiding process for identifying and selecting protection actions considered as being accepted by all those involved. The paper

  20. Renal involvement in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcantoni, Carmelita; Emmanuele, Carmela; Scolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis and/or pregnancy-related problems associated with persistently elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies. The kidney is a major target organ in both primary and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome. This review describes several aspects of the renal involvement in the primary form of the syndrome, in particular the histological pattern of the so-called antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN). APSN is a vascular nephropathy characterized by small vessel vaso-occlusive lesions associated with fibrous intimal hyperplasia of interlobular arteries, recanalizing thrombi in arteries and arterioles, and focal atrophy, a constellation of morphological lesions suggestive of primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

  1. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Platelet /sup 3/H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia.

  2. Involvement of serotonin system in bullimia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marazziti, D.; Macchi, E.; Rotondo, A.; Placidi, G.F.; Cassano, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Platelet 3 H-imipramine binding was investigated in 8 patients affected by bulimia according to DSM III criteria, and in 7 health volunteers. The Bmax /+ -/SD (fmol/mg protein) was 356 /+ -/ 53 in patients, and 1144 /+ -/ 134 in controls. The Kd /+ -/ SD (nM) was 1.35 /+ -/ 0.44 in patients, and 1.90 /+ -/ 0.72 in controls. There was a significant difference in Bmax values in the two groups, whereas no significant difference was observed in Kd values. This study suggests the possible involvement of the indoleamine system in bullimia

  3. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    -assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very......One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper...

  4. [Trichotillomania involving the eyelashes: about a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzani, Khadija Drissi; Lamari, Zineb; Chraibi, Fouad; Abdellaoui, Meryem; Andaloussi, Idriss Benatiya

    2017-01-01

    Trichotillomania is a neglected psychiatric disorder characterized by the urge to pull out the hair, the eyebrows or any other hair, but rarely the eyelashes. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders it is defined as habits and pulses disturbance. We here report the case of a girl with trichotillomania involving her left eyelashes due to low self-esteem. The disease may be episodic but it is usually chronic and difficult to treat. Given the possible clinical and psychiatric complications, early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold standard treatment.

  5. Complementarities Between Employee Involvement and Financial Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Derek C.; Kalmi, Panu; Kato, Takao

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigate whether productivity is greater if firms use employee involvement (EI) in decision making and financial participation (FP) as complementary practices. Based on representative panel data from Finnish manufacturing firms, the study uses diverse specifications to examine...... (controlling for several covariates that related work has found to be important for firm performance) and also when analyses use measures of the intensity of FP. In accounting for differences in empirical findings across varying settings, the findings suggest that outcomes depend on the institutional context...

  6. Charge exchange processes involving iron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A review and evaluation is given of the experimental data which are available for charge exchange processes involving iron ions and neutral H, H 2 and He. Appropriate scaling laws are presented, and their accuracy estimated for these systems. A bibliography is given of available data sources, as well as of useful data compilations and review articles. A procedure is recommended for providing single approximate formulae to the fusion community to describe total cross sections for electron capture by partially-stripped Fe/sup q+/ ions in collisions with H, H 2 and He, based on the scaling relationships suggested by Janev and Hvelplund

  7. A semilinear control problem involving homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Conca

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a control problem involving a semilinear elliptic equation with a uniformly Lipschitz non-linearity and rapidly oscillating coefficients in a bounded domain of $mathbb{R}^N$. The control is distributed on a compact subset interior to the domain. Given an $N-1$ dimensional hypersurface at the interior of the domain not intersecting the control zone, the trace of the solution on the curve has to be controlled. We prove that there exists a limit control as the homogenization parameter converges to zero, which results as the limit of fixed points for controllability problems. We link this limit control with the corresponding homogenized problem.

  8. Liver involvement in adults with measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Aurélien; Fleuret, Victoire; Hanslik, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We retrospectively collected the characteristics of 80 consecutive adult patients with biologically confirmed measles during a recent epidemic in France. We report on the frequency and severity of liver involvement in adult patients with measles. In our experience, measles in adults was not severe and hepatitis was not correlated with severe cases or bacterial infection. Therefore, hepatitis should be regarded as a usual symptom rather than a complication of measles infection in adults. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Kidney Involvement: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Flores

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thromboses and pregnancy morbidity associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant, IgG or IgM anticardiolipin or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. The kidney is one of the major target organs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. However, beyond the known involvement of the kidney in primary and associated APS, we may be observing a new form of APS within the context of renal failure. This review describes the classical kidney manifestations of APS and provides new considerations to be taken into account.

  10. Giant Parotid Pleomorphic Adenoma Involving Parapharyngeal Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukri Rahman

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pleomorfik adenoma parotis merupakan tumor jinak kelenjar liur yang paling sering ditemukan, namun pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang sangat besar sehingga melibatkan ruang parafaring (RPF sangat jarang. Diagnosis ini sulit ditegakkan karena gejala klinisnya tidak khas. Penatalaksanaanya harus hati-hati mengingat banyak struktur vital yang beresiko mengalami trauma. Tujuan: Bagaimana menegakkan diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF. Kasus: Seorang pasien perempuan 27 tahun ditegakkan diagnosis pleomorfik adenoma parotis kanan dengan melibatkan RPF. Terdapat pembengkakan pada leher yang bersifat asimtomatis dan gejala pendorongan faring dan laring yang menyebabkan disfonia, disfagia, dan defisit saraf kranial IX,X,XII. Penatalaksanaan: Pasien telah dilakukan operasi parotidektomi pendekatan transervikal–transparotid dengan preservasi arteri karotis eksterna dan saraf fasialis. Kesimpulan: Biopsi Aspirasi Jarum Halus (BAJAH dan radiologi merupakan pemeriksaan yang penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis. Penatalaksanaan pleomorfik adenoma parotis yang melibatkan RPF adalah bedah ekstirpasi komplit dengan beberapa pendekatan. .Kata kunci: tumor jinak kelenjar liur, pleomorfik adenoma, ruang parafaringAbstractBackground: Parotid pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign salivary gland tumor, while giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving the parapharyngeal space (PPS is rare. It was difficult to diagnose because the clinical presentation of this tumor can be subtle. The management must be performed carefully due to anatomy relation to complex vital structure lead to traumatic injury highrisk. Purposes: How to make diagnosis and management parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. Case: A female 27 years old with diagnosis was giant parotid pleomorphic adenoma involving PPS. There was asymptomatic swelling of the neck and presence of pushing the pharynx and larynx medially causes

  11. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  12. National Parks and social involvement - an argument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Loader

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination, whether institutionalised or not, is described as the expression of prejudice, which, it is argued, is derived from projectionism, or the supposition that one's own perception coincides with reality and is therefore the only valid one. It is the result of naive ignorance of the world view(s by which human attitudes are shaped. By means of the ecologically congenial concepts of interrelatedness and holism, it is here argued as an alternative that social involvement is (or, should be an intrinsic part of conservation. A possible model for the purpose and some practical considerations are suggested.

  13. Isolation of microrganisms involved in endodontic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In endodontic infections a lot of different microrganisms can be time inside dentinal tubules to support such infections. Most of these are Gram negative anaerobes bacteria able to induce an immune response that is the apparent cause of periapical lesion, but also Gram positive facultative aerobic species and fungi of the genus Candida.They play an important role in pain but also in bone periapical resorption. Therefore, the exact knowledge and the subsequent elimination of the microrganisms involved by the system of root canals, although difficult to achieve completely, is essential for the resolution of apical periodontitis.

  14. Involvement of Autophagy in Coronavirus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Britton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Coronaviruses are single stranded, positive sense RNA viruses, which induce the rearrangement of cellular membranes upon infection of a host cell. This provides the virus with a platform for the assembly of viral replication complexes, improving efficiency of RNA synthesis. The membranes observed in coronavirus infected cells include double membrane vesicles. By nature of their double membrane, these vesicles resemble cellular autophagosomes, generated during the cellular autophagy pathway. In addition, coronavirus infection has been demonstrated to induce autophagy. Here we review current knowledge of coronavirus induced membrane rearrangements and the involvement of autophagy or autophagy protein microtubule associated protein 1B light chain 3 (LC3 in coronavirus replication.

  15. Involvement of opsins in mammalian sperm thermotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cerezales, Serafín; Boryshpolets, Sergii; Afanzar, Oshri; Brandis, Alexander; Nevo, Reinat; Kiss, Vladimir; Eisenbach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A unique characteristic of mammalian sperm thermotaxis is extreme temperature sensitivity, manifested by the capacity of spermatozoa to respond to temperature changes of functional approaches that opsins are present in human and mouse spermatozoa at specific sites, which depend on the species and the opsin type, and that they are involved in sperm thermotaxis via two signalling pathways—the phospholipase C and the cyclic-nucleotide pathways. Our results suggest that, depending on the context and the tissue, mammalian opsins act not only as photosensors but also as thermosensors. PMID:26537127

  16. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration stakeholder involvement model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaupanger, R.M.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Milam, L.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Stakeholder participation in the DOE Environmental Management decision-making process is critical to remediation efforts. Appropriate mechanisms for communication with the public, private sector, regulators, elected officials, and others are being aggressively pursued by BWID to permit informed participation. This document summarizes public outreach efforts during FY-93 and presents a strategy for expanded stakeholder involvement during FY-94

  17. Systemic involvement in localized scleroderma/morphea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkiewicz-Petkow, Anna; Kalinska-Bienias, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Localized scleroderma (LoSc), also known as morphea, is a rare fibrosing disorder of the skin and underlying tissues. Sclerosis is mainly limited to the skin, but subcutaneous tissue, fascia, and underlying muscles and bone may also be involved. In some cases, systemic manifestation with visceral abnormalities may occur. Several publications have focused on significant aspects of LoSc: genetics, immunity, epidemiology, scoring systems, and unification of classifications. Clinical studies featuring large cohorts with the disease published by various international study groups have been of great value in furthering the diagnostic and therapeutic management of LoSc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Community involvement in dam breach exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattanach, J.D.; Macdonald, E.G.; Mulligan, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986 British Columbia Hydro made a commitment to perform annual dam failure simulations based on the Emergency Preparedness Plans. Over the last 7 years nine such exercises have been completed. Each year the level of complexity of the exercises has increased, and along with it, the number of organizations outside of B.C. Hydro that participate in the exercise events has also increased. There has been a shift in attitudes, both internally and externally, towards these exercises. It is described how British Columbia Hydro was able to involve the communities downstream of its dams and encourage their participation in emergency planning and coordination. B.C. Hydro's process for involving a community in its emergency exercises starts with an invitation to the emergency coordinator in each affected community to attend an exercise planning meeting. Communities have occasionally declined to participate, the most common reasons being insufficiently developed emergency plans, budget prohibiting the cost of the exercise, or for political reasons. 2 refs., 1 tab

  19. Fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo showed a different behavior at low energies, if compared to measurements with {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo. This points to a possible influence of nuclear structure on the fusion process. One way to characterize the structure of vibrational nuclei is via their restoring force parameters C{sub 2} which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the corresponding B(E2) value. A survey of the even-even nuclei between A = 28-150 shows strong variations in C{sub 2} values spanning two orders of magnitude. The lowest values for C{sub 2} are observed for {sup 78}Kr, {sup 104}Ru and {sup 124}Xe followed by {sup 74,76}Ge, {sup 74,76}Se, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 110}Pd. In order to learn more about the influence of {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement, we measured cross sections for evaporation residue production for the systems {sup 78}Kr + {sup 104}Ru and {sup 78}Kr + {sup 76}Ge with the gas-filled magnet technique. For both systems, fusion excitation functions involving the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 86}Kr were measured previously. The data are presently being analyzed.

  20. Cardiovascular Involvement in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamifar, Hamdollah; Ilkhanipoor, Homa; Ajami, Gholamhossein; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Amirhakimi, Gholamhossein; Shakiba, Ali-Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective Osteogenesis imperfecta is a hereditary disease resulting from mutation in type I procollagen genes. One of the extra skeletal manifestations of this disease is cardiac involvement. The prevalence of cardiac involvement is still unknown in the children with osteogenesis imperfecta. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiovascular abnormalities in these patients. Methods 24 children with osteogenesis imperfecta and 24 normal children who were matched with the patients regarding sex and age were studied. In both groups, standard echocardiography was performed, and heart valves were investigated. Dimensions of left ventricle, aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between the two groups. Findings The results revealed no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, ejection fraction, shortening fraction, mean of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta, but after correction based on the body surface area, dimensions of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction, ascending and descending aorta in the patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P25 mmHg and one patient had pulmonary insufficiency with indirect evidence of pulmonary hypertension. According to Z scores of aorta annulus, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta, 5, 3, and 1 out of 24 patients had Z scores >2 respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of valvular heart diseases and aortic root dilation was higher in children with osteogenesis imperfecta. In conclusion, cardiovascular investigation is recommended in these children. PMID:24800009

  1. Childhood AIDS: pulmonary involvement. Clinico radiological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinta, C.; Muro, D.; Perez, A.; Otero, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the different radiological findings in the lung of children presenting human ummunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We assess the different radiological patterns and their prevalence. The study deals with 58 children presenting HIV infection. All underwent plain chest radiography at some time during the course of their disease to determine the cause of different respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, fever, cough, etc.).Bronchial lavage was performed in all the children who required intubation due to severe respiratory distress. The results of chest X-ray were normal in 29 children despite the existence of pulmonary symptomatology. The other 29 patients presented pulmonary, including 21 cases of pneumonia (36,2%) in 16 patients, in seven of whom the pathogen was determined by blood culture. Four cases of Pneumocystis carinii (6.89%) were diagnosed by means of bronchial lavage. There were nine children with interstitial pneumonitis, five of the lym-phoid variant (8.62%) and four of unknown origin (6.89%). In contrast to the findings in adults, we have had no cases of pulmonary tuberculosis among our patients The rates of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected children are associated with lung involvement. However, the prevalence has decreased progressively since the introduction of antiviral agents. Recurrent bacterial pneumonia and opportunistic Pneumocystis carinii infection are the most common types of acute pulmonary involvement. Interstitial pneumonitis usually develops a chronic course. (Author) 15 refs

  2. Comprehension of Action Negation Involves Inhibitory Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eForoni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that action language is comprehended by activating the motor system. We report a study, investigating a critical question in this research field: Do negative sentences activate the motor system? Participants were exposed to sentences in the affirmation and negation forms while the zygomatic muscle activity on the left side of the face was continuously measured (Electromyography technique: EMG. Sentences were descriptions of emotional expressions that mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., ‘I am smiling’ or did not (e.g., ‘I am frowning’. Reading sentences involving the negation of the activity of a specific muscle (zygomatic major - I am not smiling is shown to lead to the inhibition of this muscle. Reading sentences involving the affirmative form instead (I am smiling leads to the activation of zygomatic mucle. In contrast, sentences describing an activity that is irrelevant to the zygomatic muscle (e.g., ‘I am frowning’ or ‘I am not frowning’ produce no muscle activity. These results extend the range of simulation models to negation and by implication to an abstract domain. We discuss how this research contributes to the grounding of abstract and concrete concepts.

  3. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  4. Lessons learned in NEPA public involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.D.; Glore, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    'In recent years Uncle Sam has been asking citizens for their help in improving the environment. The government is learning that with public input it can better prioritize environmental problems and more effectively direct limited funding.' The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), like many other government regulations, is a 'living law.' Although there are agency and Council guidelines, it is practical application, based on past practices and case law that refines the Act's broad concepts. The specifics of how to meet requirements are constantly being honed and melded to fit the unique situational needs of an agency, a project, or a public. This fluidity presents a challenge for stakeholder involvement activities. Communication practioners and project managers may have room for creativity and customized approaches, but they also find less than clear direction on what it takes to successfully avoid challenges of non-compliance. Because of the continuing uncertainty on how to involve the public meaningfully, it is vital to share important lessons learned from NEPA projects. The following practical suggestions are derived primarily from experiences with the Department of Energy's first ever complex-wide and site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS)-the Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel Management and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs EIS (SNF ampersand INEL EIS)

  5. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  6. Breadth and depth involvement: Understanding Internet gambling involvement and its relationship to gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Debi A; Nelson, Sarah E; Gray, Heather M

    2014-06-01

    The "involvement effect" refers to the finding that controlling for gambling involvement often reduces or eliminates frequently observed game-specific associations with problem gambling. In other words, broader patterns of gambling behavior, particularly the number of types of games played over a defined period, contribute more to problem gambling than playing specific games (e.g., lottery, casino, Internet gambling). This study extends this burgeoning area of inquiry in three primary ways. First, it tests independently and simultaneously the predictive power of two gambling patterns: breadth involvement (i.e., the number of games an individual plays) and depth involvement (i.e., the number of days an individual plays). Second, it includes the first involvement analyses of actual betting activity records that are associated with clinical screening information. Third, it evaluates and compares the linearity of breadth and depth effects. We conducted analyses of the actual gambling activity of 1,440 subscribers to the bwin.party gambling service who completed an online gambling disorder screen. In all, 11 of the 16 games we examined had a significant univariate association with a positive screen for gambling disorder. However, after controlling for breadth involvement, only Live Action Internet sports betting retained a significant relationship with potential gambling-related problems. Depth involvement, though significantly related to potential problems, did not impact game-based gambling disorder associations as much as breadth involvement. Finally, breadth effects appeared steeply linear, with a slight quadratic component manifesting beyond four games played, but depth effects appeared to have a strong linear component and a slight cubic component.

  7. Comparison of Higher Fashion Involvement Group and Lower Fashion Involvement Group in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yu-Chiao

    2013-01-01

    Fashion collaboration becomes a common marketing strategy for many fashion brands in order to attract consumers’ attentions and stand out from competitors. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the formation of consumers’ attitudes toward fashion collaboration. First, it intends to distinguish different types of consumers, which are higher fashion involvement and lower fashion involvement. Second, by utiliseing four different variables, which are prior attitudes, product fit, brand, ...

  8. Fathers’ Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents’ Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B.J.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2015-01-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers’ involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers’ direct engagement in child health care and fathers’ perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers’ involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers’ prenatal involvement, mothers’ beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers’ involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood. PMID:26405366

  9. Fathers' Involvement in Child Health Care: Associations with Prenatal Involvement, Parents' Beliefs, and Maternal Gatekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, B J; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Dush, Claire M Kamp

    2013-10-01

    Using data from 182 dual-earner couples experiencing the transition to parenthood, this study examined associations between prenatal involvement, gender role beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping and new fathers' involvement in child health care. Results indicated that prenatal father involvement was associated with both fathers' direct engagement in child health care and fathers' perceived influence in child health-related decision-making. Fathers also demonstrated greater direct engagement in child health care when mothers held more nontraditional beliefs about gender roles. Moreover, when mothers were more encouraging of fathers' involvement in childrearing, fathers felt more influential in child health-related decision-making, whereas when mothers engaged in greater gate closing behavior, fathers with more traditional gender role beliefs felt less influential in child health-related decision-making. This study suggests that fathers' prenatal involvement, mothers' beliefs, and maternal gatekeeping may play a role in the development of new fathers' involvement in child health care at the transition to parenthood.

  10. Parent Involvement and Student Performance: The Influence of School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers focusing on parent involvement continue to concentrate their efforts on the relationship between involvement and student performance in isolation of the school context in which involvement occurs. This research outlines an ecology of involvement and how this social context affects parent involvement and student performance. Relying on…

  11. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikawa, Marcos Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    A five-year-old girl developed hoarseness with gradual worsening at the age of eight months. Three months later, she underwent bronchoscopy in which papillomas in the vocal cords, larynx and trachea were observed. Because of serious bronchospasm crises and respiratory failure, she needed several hospitalizations, definitive tracheostomy and multiple endoscopic procedures for papilloma excision. The most recent chest radiography (Figure A) and computed tomography (CT) scans (Figures B and C) showed a nodule inside the trachea and multiple pulmonary nodules, cysts and consolidations. The anatomopathological findings from curettage of the lesions revealed benign squamous-cell papillomas. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is directly related to the human papillomavirus (HPV). Its spread to the lower airways is uncommon, with involvement of trachea and/or proximal bronchi in 5% of the patients, and extension to the lungs in only 1% of the cases. (author)

  12. Employer involvement in defined contribution investment education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, G; VanDerhei, J L

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors consider the personnel problems that may arise for defined contribution plan sponsors if major market corrections cause older employees to delay retirement beyond previous expectations. We move from that basic premise to argue that, given the continued evolution from defined benefit (DB) to defined contribution (DC) retirement plans, employers need to be more "proactive" in educating their employees about their retirement planning. A human resources perspective is used to support this argument, apart from and in addition to legal considerations such as ERISA Section 404(c). Specifics of employer involvement and its place as a component of an organization's culture are discussed. Finally, recommendations are given for employers to consider.

  13. Peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukunaga, Masaharu [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); the Jikei University Daisan Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Asanuma, Kazuo [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Irie, Takeo [Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    A case of peculiar chondroblastoma involving multiple tarsal bones in a 49-year-old woman is described. The patient presented with pain and swelling of the right foot. Radiographs revealed a lytic expansile lesion of medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiform bones, navicular, cuboid, and tarsal bones of the right foot, indicating a malignant tumor. Biopsies demonstrated a diffuse proliferation of round cells with eccentric and indented nuclei with longitudinal grooves and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Atypia was prominent, but mitotic figures were rare. The stroma was chondroid with focal chicken-wire calcification. On electron microscopy, the tumor exhibited chondroblastic features. The patient is alive with the tumor 7 years after radiotherapy. The tumor is considered a chondroblastoma with low malignant potential. (orig.)

  14. Endolymphatic sac involvement in bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Brandt, Christian; Østergaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The commonest sequelae of bacterial meningitis are related to the inner ear. Little is known about the inner ear immune defense. Evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac provides some protection against infection. A potential involvement of the endolymphatic sac in bacterial meningitis...... is largely unaccounted for, and thus the object of the present study. A well-established adult rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis was employed. Thirty adult rats were inoculated intrathecally with Streptococcus pneumoniae and received no additional treatment. Six rats were sham...... days. Bacteria invaded the inner ear through the cochlear aquaduct. On days 5-6, the bacteria invaded the endolymphatic sac through the endolymphatic duct subsequent to invasion of the vestibular endolymphatic compartment. No evidence of direct bacterial invasion of the sac through the meninges...

  15. Involvement of Endogenous Retroviruses in Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sun Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, vertebrates have been continuously exposed to infection by retroviruses. Ancient retroviral infection of germline cells resulted in the formation and accumulation of inherited retrovirus sequences in host genomes. These inherited retroviruses are referred to as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, and recent estimates have revealed that a significant portion of animal genomes is made up of ERVs. Although various host factors have suppressed ERV activation, both positive and negative functions have been reported for some ERVs in normal and abnormal physiological conditions, such as in disease states. Similar to other complex diseases, ERV activation has been observed in prion diseases, and this review will discuss the potential involvement of ERVs in prion diseases.

  16. Stakeholder involvement in CSR strategy-making?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila

    2014-01-01

    listening to others in the strategy-making process rather than directly involving others in decision-making. Also, because non-stakeholders, such as paid-for consultants, are found to be note-worthy influencers in the CSR strategy-making process, it is concluded that the process is not only a stakeholder......A given characteristic of successful corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs is that they reflect stakeholder expectations and preferences for corporate behavior. This study examines the process by which this alignment is sought by CSR managers in the CSR strategy-making process. Through...... reliance on stakeholder management theories, and with a particular focus on how and why managers communicate with stakeholders, the extent to which the company-stakeholder alignment process in CSR strategy-making reflects modern, enlightened approaches to stakeholder relations is assessed. This assessment...

  17. Implementing change: involving employees to improve outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2014-11-01

    Increasingly, pharmacy workplaces are larger organizations that rely on policy and clinical guidelines to direct professional practice. Often, cost-cutting, profit-making, service-improving, and process-streamlining ideas are needed but difficult to identify or implement. By involving employees more closely in the change process using participative management (PM), managers reap tremendous reward. PM focuses on employee collaboration to develop and implement consistent, effective policies and procedures. This process recognizes employees' creative, emotional and intellectual needs and often improves the organization's public face as well. In addition, consumers perceive this approach to be socially responsible management. Managers can implement PM in a number of ways, applying it to problems or processes. PM has some pitfalls, but overall, if the workplace culture adapts to accommodate its principles, PM usually provides numerous benefits for organizations, their employees, and their customers.

  18. Concrescent triplets involving primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenesis is a complex process wherein more than 200 genes are known to play a significant role in tooth development. An imbalance can lead to an abnormality in the number, size, shape or structure of the developing tooth/teeth. The presence of an extra dental lamina forms a supernumerary tooth. The supernumerary teeth are of two types: A rudimentary tooth where the supernumerary tooth does not resemble any tooth in the normal series or a supplemental tooth in which this anomalous tooth resembles one in the normal series. It is also very rare to encounter triple teeth in primary dentition. The union of these teeth may be through fusion, gemination, concrescence or a combination of fusion and gemination. Presented is a rare case of concrescence involving maxillary deciduous incisors and a supplemental tooth in a 7-year-old boy. The differential diagnosis, etiology, and complications of primary anterior triple teeth are discussed.

  19. Lung Involvement in Multiple Myeloma - Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niţu, Mimi; CriȘan, Emilia; Olteanu, M; Călăraşu, Cristina; Olteanu, Mădălina; Popescu, M R

    2014-01-01

    Mutiple mieloma (MM) cells are rarely found in extramedullary sites. The sites of extramedullary dissemination reported in the literature are spleen, liver, lymph nodes, kidneys, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovary, tests, lung, pleura, pericardium, intestinal tract and skin. We report a case in which the myeloma was diagnosed after we discovered the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Matherial and method: a case in which diagnosis was established from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid demonstrating the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in Craiova Pneumology Departament. Analysis of BAL fluid for the presence of plasma cells and for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin DNA provides a noninvasive means of establishing the diagnosis. Pulmonary parenchyma is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma. Interstitial lung disease as pulmonary manifestation of multiple myeloma is even rarer; only isolated cases with histological proofs have been reported in the literature.

  20. Yeast ABC proteins involved in multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Agata; Obłąk, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Pleiotropic drug resistance is a complex phenomenon that involves many proteins that together create a network. One of the common mechanisms of multidrug resistance in eukaryotic cells is the active efflux of a broad range of xenobiotics through ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often used as a model to study such activity because of the functional and structural similarities of its ABC transporters to mammalian ones. Numerous ABC transporters are found in humans and some are associated with the resistance of tumors to chemotherapeutics. Efflux pump modulators that change the activity of ABC proteins are the most promising candidate drugs to overcome such resistance. These modulators can be chemically synthesized or isolated from natural sources (e.g., plant alkaloids) and might also be used in the treatment of fungal infections. There are several generations of synthetic modulators that differ in specificity, toxicity and effectiveness, and are often used for other clinical effects.

  1. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  2. Scaling Consumers' Purchase Involvement: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kraigher-Krainer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional scale, called ECID Scale, is presented in this paper. The scale is based on a comprehensive model and captures the two antecedent factors of purchase-related involvement, namely whether motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic and whether risk is perceived as low or high. The procedure of scale development and item selection is described. The scale turns out to perform well in terms of validity, reliability, and objectivity despite the use of a small set of items – four each – allowing for simultaneous measurements of up to ten purchases per respondent. The procedure of administering the scale is described so that it can now easily be applied by both, scholars and practitioners. Finally, managerial implications of data received from its application which provide insights into possible strategic marketing conclusions are discussed.

  3. Innovative Pedagogical Processes Involving Educational Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke

    This design-based research project investigates the elements, methods, processes and practices that can contribute to the creation of reflected, innovative and motivating learning designs for teachers and students in a hybrid synchronous video-mediated teaching context, with a focus on how...... about how design and learning processes can support continuous pedagogical innovation and competence development. The objective of the learning designs was to create motivating learning experiences for the students in the hybrid synchronous video-mediated learning environment, to which end...... it experimented with gamified learning designs. This involved the students designing digital games while implementing learning goals from their curriculum. The project thus created knowledge about which learning designs and competence development models were possible in this environment, which learning designs...

  4. Interactive emergency communication involving persons in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor; Nøhr, Øyvind

    2009-01-01

    We studied the dialogue between telephone operators at medical emergency communication centres in Norway and parents of children later diagnosed with sudden infant death syndrome. The aim was to understand how the parents experienced the communication with the telephone operators. The qualitative method involved semi-structured interviews. We interviewed six respondents from urban areas and five from rural areas. An important finding was that all the parents were satisfied with the resuscitation instructions they received. It was also perceived as important that the emergency operators expressed empathy and care. We believe that it is not merely the quality of the resuscitation attempts that the operators' efforts should be measured against. It is also important that the operators provide good explanations and express emotional support. Our findings indicate that this will be enormously appreciated, even if callers do not feel that they are capable of performing optimum resuscitation.

  5. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W

    2012-06-01

    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  6. Apolipoprotein gene involved in lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edward; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2007-07-03

    Methods and materials for studying the effects of a newly identified human gene, APOAV, and the corresponding mouse gene apoAV. The sequences of the genes are given, and transgenic animals which either contain the gene or have the endogenous gene knocked out are described. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene are described and characterized. It is demonstrated that certain SNPs are associated with diseases involving lipids and triglycerides and other metabolic diseases. These SNPs may be used alone or with SNPs from other genes to study individual risk factors. Methods for intervention in lipid diseases, including the screening of drugs to treat lipid-related or diabetic diseases are also disclosed.

  7. Biomarkers for CNS involvement in pediatric lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Tamar B; Putterman, Chaim; Goilav, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    CNS disease, or central neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (cNPSLE), occurs frequently in pediatric lupus, leading to significant morbidity and poor long-term outcomes. Diagnosing cNPSLE is especially difficult in pediatrics; many current diagnostic tools are invasive and/or costly, and there are no current accepted screening mechanisms. The most complicated aspect of diagnosis is differentiating primary disease from other etiologies; research to discover new biomarkers is attempting to address this dilemma. With many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of cNPSLE, biomarker profiles across several modalities (molecular, psychometric and neuroimaging) will need to be used. For the care of children with lupus, the challenge will be to develop biomarkers that are accessible by noninvasive measures and reliable in a pediatric population. PMID:26079959

  8. Placenta percreta with urinary bladder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ojaimi, Eftekhar H.; Subramaniam, Balameenakshi V.

    2004-01-01

    A 37-years old Pakistani lady, who had previously undergone one cesarean delivery and one uterine curettage, was admitted to the labor ward at 29 weeks of gestation with history of sudden severe painless vaginal bleeding from a sonographically diagnosed placenta pervia. An immediate cesarean was performed and a live male infant was delivered. The placenta was morbidly adherent to the lower uterine segment and attempts at removal caused torrential bleeding, necesstiating cesarean hysterectomy. In addition, attempts to dissect the bldder from lower uterine segment was unsuccessful and, hence, the diagnosis of placenta percreta with involvement of urinary bladder was made. A modified posterior approach to the hyterectomy was carried out, with subsequent good recovery. (author)

  9. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  10. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAWZY, A.; IBRAHIM, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  11. Suicide and Murder-Suicide Involving Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Watson, Dougal; Preitner, Claude

    2016-04-01

    This is a systematic review of suicide and homicide-suicide events involving aircraft. In aeromedical literature and in the media, these very different events are both described as pilot suicide, but in psychiatry they are considered separate events with distinct risk factors. Medical databases, internet search engines, and aviation safety databases were searched in a systematic way to obtain relevant cases. Relevant articles were searched for additional references. There were 65 cases of pilot suicide and 6 cases of passengers who jumped from aircraft found. There were also 18 cases of homicide-suicide found involving 732 deaths. Pilots perpetrated 13 homicide-suicide events. Compared to non-aviation samples, a large percentage of pilot suicides in this study were homicide-suicides (17%). Homicide-suicide events occur extremely rarely. However, their impact in terms of the proportion of deaths is significant when compared to deaths from accidents. There is evidence of clustering where pilot suicides occur after by media reports of suicide or homicide-suicide. Five of six homicide-suicide events by pilots of commercial airliners occurred after they were left alone in the cockpit. This, along with a sixth incident in which active intervention by a Japan Air crew saved 147 lives, suggests that having two flight members in the cockpit is potentially protective. No single factor was associated with the risk for suicide or homicide-suicide. Factors associated with both events included legal and financial crises, occupational conflict, mental illness, and relationship stressors. Drugs and/or alcohol played a role in almost half of suicides, but not in homicide-suicides.

  12. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

    2003-01-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research.

  13. Involvement of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouga Helen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronidases belong to a class of enzymes that degrade, predominantly, hyaluronan. These enzymes are known to be involved in physiological and pathological processes, such as tumor growth, infiltration and angiogenesis, but their exact role in tumor promotion or suppression is not clear yet. Advanced colorectal cancer is associated with elevated amounts of hyaluronan of varying size. The aim of the present study was therefore to illuminate the importance of hyaluronidases in colon carcinoma progression. Methods The patients' samples (macroscopically normal and cancerous were subjected to sequential extraction with PBS, 4 M GdnHCl and 4 M GdnHCl - 1% Triton X-100. The presence of the various hyaluronidases in the extracts was examined by zymography and western blotting. Their expression was also examined by RT-PCR. Results Among hyaluronidases examined, Hyal-1, -2, -3 and PH-20 were detected. Their activity was higher in cancerous samples. Hyal-1 and Hyal-2 were overexpressed in cancerous samples, especially in advanced stages of cancer. Both isoforms were mainly extracted with PBS. Hyal-3 was observed only in the third extract of advanced stages of cancer. PH-20 was abundant in all three extracts of all stages of cancer. The expression of only Hyal-1 and PH-20 was verified by RT-PCR. Conclusion A high association of hyaluronidases in colorectal cancer was observed. Each hyaluronidase presented different tissue distribution, which indicated the implication of certain isoforms in certain cancer stages. The results provided new evidence on the mechanisms involved in the progression of colorectal cancer.

  14. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  15. Potential for Australian involvement in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D. J.; Collins, G. A.; Hole, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Fusion, the process that powers the sun and stars, offers a solution to the world's long-term energy needs: providing large scale energy production with zero greenhouse gas emissions, short-lived radio-active waste compared to conventional nuclear fission cycles, and a virtually limitless supply of fuel. Almost three decades of fusion research has produced spectacular progress. Present-day experiments have a power gain ratio of approximately 1 (ratio of power out to power in), with a power output in the 10's of megawatts. The world's next major fusion experiment, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will be a pre-prototype power plant. Since announcement of the ITER site in June 2005, the ITER project, has gained momentum and political support. Despite Australia's foundation role in the field of fusion science, through the pioneering work of Sir Mark Oliphant, and significant contributions to the international fusion program over the succeeding years, Australia is not involved in the ITER project. In this talk, the activities of a recently formed consortium of scientists and engineers, the Australian ITER Forum will be outlined. The Forum is drawn from five Universities, ANSTO (the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation) and AINSE (the Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering), and seeks to promote fusion energy in the Australian community and negotiate a role for Australia in the ITER project. As part of this activity, the Australian government recently funded a workshop that discussed the ways and means of engaging Australia in ITER. The workshop brought the research, industrial, government and general public communities, together with the ITER partners, and forged an opportunity for ITER engagement; with scientific, industrial, and energy security rewards for Australia. We will report on the emerging scope for Australian involvement

  16. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, Norman; LOVE, June; Murray, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in the 1950's to pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the UK. Today its primary mission is to decommission UK's former nuclear research sites and restore its environment in a way that is safe and secure, environmentally friendly, value for money and publicly Acceptable. UKAEA Dounreay celebrated its 50 birthday in 2005, having pioneered the development of fast reactor technology since 1955. Today the site is now leading the way in decommissioning. The Dounreay nuclear site licence covers an area of approximately 140 acres and includes 3 reactors: the Dounreay Material Test Reactor (DMTR), the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR), and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). In addition there are 180 facilities on site which have supported the fast reactor programme, including a fuel reprocessing capability, laboratories and administration buildings. The reactors are now all in advanced stages of decommissioning. In October 2000 the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan (DSRP) was published to provide a framework for the site's restoration. The plan's objective was to reduce the site's hazards progressively by decontaminating and dismantling the plant, equipment and facilities, remediating contaminated ground and treating and packaging waste so it is suitable for long term storage or disposal. Whilst hailed as the most detailed plan integrating some 1500 activities and spanning 60 years it was criticised for having no stakeholder involvement. In response to this criticism, UKAEA developed a process for public participation over the following 2 years and launched its stakeholder engagement programme in October 2002. In order to provide a larger platform for the engagement process an advertisement was placed in the Scottish media inviting people to register as stakeholders in the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan. The stakeholder list now total over 1000. In October 2002 UKAEA launched their commitment to public

  17. Alzheimer Europe's position on involving people with dementia in research through PPI (patient and public involvement)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gove, Dianne; Diaz-Ponce, Ana; Georges, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This paper reflects Alzheimer Europe's position on PPI (patient and public involvement) in the context of dementia research and highlights some of the challenges and potential risks and benefits associated with such meaningful involvement. The paper was drafted by Alzheimer Europe in collaboration...... with members of INTERDEM and the European Working Group of People with Dementia. It has been formally adopted by the Board of Alzheimer Europe and endorsed by the Board of INTERDEM and by the JPND working group 'Dementia Outcome Measures - Charting New Territory'. Alzheimer Europe is keen to promote...

  18. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers.

  19. Severities of transportation accidents involving large packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.; Foley, J.T. Jr.; Hartman, W.F.; Larson, D.W.

    1978-05-01

    The study was undertaken to define in a quantitative nonjudgmental technical manner the abnormal environments to which a large package (total weight over 2 tons) would be subjected as the result of a transportation accident. Because of this package weight, air shipment was not considered as a normal transportation mode and was not included in the study. The abnormal transportation environments for shipment by motor carrier and train were determined and quantified. In all cases the package was assumed to be transported on an open flat-bed truck or an open flat-bed railcar. In an earlier study, SLA-74-0001, the small-package environments were investigated. A third transportation study, related to the abnormal environment involving waterways transportation, is now under way at Sandia Laboratories and should complete the description of abnormal transportation environments. Five abnormal environments were defined and investigated, i.e., fire, impact, crush, immersion, and puncture. The primary interest of the study was directed toward the type of large package used to transport radioactive materials; however, the findings are not limited to this type of package but can be applied to a much larger class of material shipping containers

  20. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel

    2013-08-27

    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. However, both reactive species may contribute to improve the outcomes of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Besides, high levels of reactive oxygen species may be indicators of genotoxic damage in non-irradiated normal tissues. The purpose of this article is to review recent research on free radicals and carcinogenesis in order to understand the pathways that contribute to tumor malignancy. This review outlines the involvement of free radicals in relevant cellular events, including their effects on genetic instability through (growth factors and tumor suppressor genes, their enhancement of mitogenic signals, and their participation in cell remodeling, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy processes; the possible relationship between free radicals and inflammation is also explored. This knowledge is crucial for evaluating the relevance of free radicals as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  1. [Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans with nasal involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuvrel, L; Barbarot, S; Gagey-Caron, V; Tessier, M-H; Cassagnau, E; Stalder, J-F

    2008-11-01

    Pyodermatitis-pyostomatitis vegetans (PPV) is a rare chronic disorder often associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We report an isolated case involving the oral, labial and nasal mucosa. A 28-year-old man, in good general condition, presented with a 2-year history of painless stomatitis. The physical examination revealed pustular and exophytic lesions of the jugal, gingival and palatine mucosa on an erythematous background, as well as some pustular and crusted lesions of the lower lip and nostrils. Histopathological analysis revealed epithelial hyperplasia and a suprabasal cleft with some signs of acantholysis and numerous neutrophils and eosinophils. Direct and indirect immunofluorescence assay was negative. There was no associated bowel disease. We concluded on a diagnosis of PPV of younger subjects. The lesions disappeared with oral corticosteroids but with steroid dependency. PPV is a rare dermatosis associated in more than 75% of cases with inflammatory bowel disease, usually ulcerative colitis. Lesions of the oral mucosa are a constant finding and are characterised by aseptic pustules on an erythematous background. Skin lesions are pustular and more or less exophytic. To our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of intranasal lesions of PPV.

  2. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. Bacterial Extracellular Polysaccharides Involved in Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ivanova

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  4. Gastrointestinal system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Xu, D; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Zhang, S; Li, M; Zeng, X

    2017-10-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder which can affect the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Although GI symptoms can manifest in 50% of patients with SLE, these have barely been reviewed due to difficulty in identifying different causes. This study aims to clarify clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of the four major SLE-related GI system complications: protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO), hepatic involvement and pancreatitis. It is a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and the major search terms were SLE, PLE, IPO, hepatitis and pancreatitis. A total of 125 articles were chosen for our study. SLE-related PLE was characterized by edema and hypoalbuminemia, with Technetium 99m labeled human albumin scintigraphy ( 99m Tc HAS) and alpha-1-antitrypsin fecal clearance test commonly used as diagnostic test. The most common site of protein leakage was the small intestine and the least common site was the stomach. More than half of SLE-related IPO patients had ureterohydronephrosis, and sometimes they manifested as interstitial cystitis and hepatobiliary dilatation. Lupus hepatitis and SLE accompanied by autoimmune hepatitis (SLE-AIH overlap) shared similar clinical manifestations but had different autoantibodies and histopathological features, and positive anti-ribosome P antibody highly indicated the diagnosis of lupus hepatitis. Lupus pancreatitis was usually accompanied by high SLE activity with a relatively high mortality rate. Early diagnosis and timely intervention were crucial, and administration of corticosteroids and immunosuppressants was effective for most of the patients.

  5. [Socioprofessional variables involved in mobbing in nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Martínez-Abascal Martínez, M Angeles; García-Banda García, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    To determine the type, frequency and cause of the most frequent hostile behaviors in a sample of nurses in the Balearic Islands and the socio-professional variables involved. We performed a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample was composed of 464 members of the association of nurses of the Balearic Islands (392 women and 49 men). Age ranged from 25 to 65 years (mean: 35.11; SD: 9.62); 368 worked in public institutions and 71 in private centers. The instrument used was the Psychological Mobbing Questionnaire. A total of 17.2% of the nurses believed they had experienced mobbing at work (men: 22.4%; women: 14.5%). Significant differences were found according to age, but not according to institution. The most frequent hostile behavior was related to distortion of information, criticism of the purported victim, and lack of professional consideration. The perpetrators of mobbing were mainly, and very significantly, the bosses. According to these results, one in five nurses in the Balearic Islands has experienced mobbing in the workplace. However, because of the low response rate, caution should be exercised when generalizing these results. Nevertheless, health institutions should bear these findings in mind to ensure standards of behavior that do not jeopardize workers' health and dignity.

  6. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkan, Ozlem; Kizilkilic, Ebru; Kizilkilic, Osman; Yildirim, Tulin; Karaca, Sibel; Yeral, Mahmut; Kasar, Mutlu; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  7. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled

  8. Nitric oxide bioavailability dysfunction involves in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Yi; Ye, Zi-Xin; Wang, Xiu-Fen; Chang, Jian; Yang, Mei-Wen; Zhong, Hua-Hua; Hong, Fen-Fang; Yang, Shu-Long

    2018-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of atherosclerosis (AS) include lipid accumulation, fibrosis formation and atherosclerotic plaque produced in artery intima, which leads to vascular sclerosis, lumen stenosis and irritates the ischemic changes of corresponding organs. Endothelial dysfunction was closely associated with AS. Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis. NO is also a potent endogenous vasodilator and enters for the key processes that suppresses the formation vascular lesion even AS. NO bioavailability indicates the production and utilization of endothelial NO in organisms, its decrease is related to oxidative stress, lipid infiltration, the expressions of some inflammatory factors and the alteration of vascular tone, which plays an important role in endothelial dysfunction. The enhancement of arginase activity and the increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and hyperhomocysteinemia levels all contribute to AS by intervening NO bioavailability in human beings. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, chronic kidney disease and smoking, etc., also participate in AS by influencing NO bioavailability and NO level. Here, we reviewed the relationship between NO bioavailability and AS according the newest literatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Processes involved in solving mathematical problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrill, Masitah; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Zulkardi, Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra

    2018-04-01

    This study examines one of the instructional practices features utilized within the Year 8 mathematics lessons in Brunei Darussalam. The codes from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study were applied and strictly followed, and from the 183 mathematics problems recorded, there were 95 problems with a solution presented during the public segments of the video-recorded lesson sequences of the four sampled teachers. The analyses involved firstly, identifying the processes related to mathematical problem statements, and secondly, examining the different processes used in solving the mathematical problems for each problem publicly completed during the lessons. The findings revealed that for three of the teachers, their problem statements coded as `using procedures' ranged from 64% to 83%, while the remaining teacher had 40% of his problem statements coded as `making connections.' The processes used when solving the problems were mainly `using procedures', and none of the problems were coded as `giving results only'. Furthermore, all four teachers made use of making the relevant connections in solving the problems given to their respective students.

  10. Uncertainties Involved in the Iopospheric Conductivity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sil Kwak

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Various uncertainties involved in ionospheric conductivity estimation utilizing the electron density profile obtained from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar are examined. First, we compare the conductivity which is based on raw electron density and the one based on corrected electron density that takes into account the effects of the difference between the electron and ion temperatures and the Debye length. The corrected electron density yields higher Pedersen and Hall conductivities than the raw electron density does. Second, the dependence of collision frequency model on the conductivity estimation is examined. Below 110 km conductivity does not depend significantly on collision frequency models. Above 110 km, however, the collision models affect the conductivity estimation. Third, the influence of the electron and ion temperatures on the conductivity estimation is examined. Electron and ion temperatures carrying an error of about 10% do not seem to affect significantly the conductivity estimation. Fourth, also examined is the effect of the choice of the altitude range of integration in calculating the height-integrated conductivity, conductance. It has been demonstrated that the lower and upper boundaries of the integration are quite sensitive to the estimation of the Hall and Pedersen conductances, respectively.

  11. Bacterial extracellular polysaccharides involved in biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Barbara; Chen, Miao; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2009-07-13

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

  12. SWEDISH CRIME FICTION AS SOCIALLY INVOLVED LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Samsel-Chojnacka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Swedish crime novel has been transforming for many years to become more socially involved. The ambition of many writers is not only to entertain the readers but also to participating in the social debate, criticizing the political and economical system, focusing on important issues such as violence against women, exploitation of working class by the privileged ruling class, the problems of a modern family and the situation of immigrants. Since the moment when in the mid 60’s two journalists Maj Sjöwall and Per Wahlöö decided to use popular literature to spread social matters many other Swedish writers have decided to follow their way. Some of them are journalists – like Liza Marklund, Börge Hellström and Anders Roslund or Stieg Larsson. Their novels as well as the ones written by Henning Mannkel on Kurt Wallander have become crucial evidence of changes of Swedish society in the past twenty years. Modern Swedish crime fiction illustrates the population in the model fashion that is the reason why it can become one of the interests of the sociology of literature.

  13. Identification and treatment of APS renal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tektonidou, M G

    2014-10-01

    Renal involvement in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related APS, includes renal artery stenosis or thrombosis, renal infarction, renal vein thrombosis and a small-vessel vaso-occlusive nephropathy defined as "antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated nephropathy." aPL-associated nephropathy is characterized by acute lesions, thrombotic microangiopathy, and chronic lesions such as fibrous intimal hyperplasia, organizing thrombi with or without recanalization, fibrous occlusions of arteries or arterioles and focal cortical atrophy. Systemic hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria (ranging from mild to nephrotic level) and renal insufficiency represent the major clinical manifestations associated with aPL-associated nephropathy. Similar renal histologic and clinical characteristics have been described among all different groups of patients with positive aPL (primary APS, SLE-related APS, catastrophic APS and SLE/non-APS with positive aPL). In patients with aPL-associated nephropathy lesions in the absence of other causes associated with similar histological characteristics, aPL testing needs to be considered. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Neonatal gastrointestinal involvement and congenital cytomegalovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Porta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common cause of congenital viral infection, affecting 0.2 to 2.3% of all live births in developed countries. Very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight newborns are at higher risk of symptomatic CMV infection, most commonly secondary and acquired through breast milk. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in acquired CMV infections, but it could be an important manifestation of postnatal infection in preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Early onset of CMV gastrointestinal signs/symptoms is very rare. In a review of the literature it is described in 5 newborns in the first 24 hours of life, and 6 considering the onset in the first week of life. This review describes also a case report of congenital CMV in an immunocompetent newborn with onset of gastrointestinal signs immediately after birth: a possible association between viral infection and enteric manifestations was considered in the differential diagnosis. A review of the literature of the different case reports found has done, with description and comparison of the different patients and clinical presentations.

  15. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  16. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  17. DICOM involving XML path-tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Yao, Zhihong; Liu, Lei

    2011-03-01

    Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form which has become more and more popular. The combination of these two is very necessary and promising. Using XML tags instead of numeric labels in DICOM files will effectively increase the readability and enhance the clear hierarchical structure of DICOM files. However, due to the fact that the XML tags rely heavily on the orders of the tags, the strong data dependency has a lot of influence on the flexibility of inserting and exchanging data. In order to improve the extensibility and sharing of DICOM files, this paper introduces XML Path-Tag to DICOM. When a DICOM file is converted to XML format, adding simple Path-Tag into the DICOM file in place of complex tags will keep the flexibility of a DICOM file while inserting data elements and give full play to the advantages of the structure and readability of an XML file. Our method can solve the weak readability problem of DICOM files and the tedious work of inserting data into an XML file. In addition, we set up a conversion engine that can transform among traditional DICOM files, XML-DCM and XML-DCM files involving XML Path-Tag efficiently.

  18. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  19. STUDY OF CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT IN DIPHTHERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Raju Gundam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diphtheria still endemic in many developing countries and is responsible for high case fatality. Myocardial involvement is a serious complication of diphtheria and diphtheria myocarditis frequently complicated by arrhythmias causes sudden death if not managed properly. So, early and adequate administration of Anti-Diphtheritic Serum (ADS and frequent monitoring particularly 24 hrs. ECG monitoring is helpful to detect any serious cardiac arrhythmias. METHODS A prospective study on patients who were culture positive diagnosed on the basis of WHO definition were treated and analysed in respect to homographic details, immunisation strategy, and clinical features with particular attention to myocarditis. RESULTS In the study, common age group affected by diphtheria was 5 to 10 years. Incidence of myocarditis more in same age group. Out of 64 patients with myocarditis, 23 patients died. CONCLUSION Incidence of diphtheria has increased in the recent years. Commonly effected age group is 5 to 10 years and most of them are presented with asymptomatic myocarditis. Symptomatic diphtheritic myocarditis has high mortality rate even with aggressive management. Patient who presented with either LBBB alone are with combination of other conduction of abnormalities has high mortality rate.

  20. Involvement of oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomura, Akihiko; Castellani, Rudy J; Zhu, Xiongwei; Moreira, Paula I; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2006-07-01

    Genetic and lifestyle-related risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with an increase in oxidative stress, suggesting that oxidative stress is involved at an early stage of the pathologic cascade. Moreover, oxidative stress is mechanistically and chronologically associated with other key features of AD, namely, metabolic, mitochondrial, metal, and cell-cycle abnormalities. Contrary to the commonly held notion that pathologic hallmarks of AD signify etiology, several lines of evidence now indicate that aggregation of amyloid-beta and tau is a compensatory response to underlying oxidative stress. Therefore, removal of proteinaceous accumulations may treat the epiphenomenon rather than the disease and may actually enhance oxidative damage. Although some antioxidants have been shown to reduce the incidence of AD, the magnitude of the effect may be modified by individual factors such as genetic predisposition (e.g. apolipoprotein E genotype) and habitual behaviors. Because caloric restriction, exercise, and intellectual activity have been experimentally shown to promote neuronal survival through enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses, a combination of dietary regimen of low total calorie and rich antioxidant nutrients and maintaining physical and intellectual activities may ultimately prove to be one of the most efficacious strategies for AD prevention.

  1. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  2. Cranial involvement in sickle cell disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem, E-mail: yalinozlem@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Ebru, E-mail: ebru90@yahoo.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman, E-mail: ebos90@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, Tulin, E-mail: ytulin@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Karaca, Sibel, E-mail: sibelkaraca@hotmail.com [Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Yeral, Mahmut, E-mail: mahmutyeral@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Kasar, Mutlu, E-mail: mutlukasar@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey); Ozdogu, Hakan, E-mail: hakanozdogu@hotmail.com [Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cranial findings in patients with neurologically symptomatic sickle cell disease (SCD). Materials and methods: We studied 50 consecutive patients with SCD and neurologic symptoms. All patients underwent brain MR examinations: all 50 underwent classic MR imaging; 42, diffusion-weighted MR imaging; 10, MR angiography; four, MR venography; and three patients, digital subtraction angiography. Results: Of the 50 SCD patients, 19 (38%) had normal MR findings, and 31 (62%) showed abnormalities on brain MR images. Of the 50 patients, 16 (32%) had ischemic lesions; two (4%), subarachnoid hemorrhage; one (2%), moya-moya pattern; one (2%), posterior reversible encephalopathy; one (2%), dural venous sinus thrombosis; 12 (24%), low marrow signal intensity and thickness of the diploic space; 12 (24%), cerebral atrophy; and two (4%), osteomyelitis. Twenty-seven patients (54%) presented with headache, which was the most common clinical finding. Conclusions: The cranial involvement is one of the most devastating complications of SCD. Early and accurate diagnosis is important in the management of cranial complications of SCD.

  3. Filicide-suicide involving children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorg, Rohini; Tournay, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Filicide-suicide, or murder of a child by a parent followed by suicide, has an unknown incidence in both the general and disabled population. As there is no national database, the authors examined known associated factors and newspaper reports to characterize filicide-suicide victims and perpetrators involving children with disabilities. A newspaper search was conducted using LexisNexis and NewsBank: Access World News databases through the University of California, Irvine Library's Web site. Age, gender of child and parent, method used, and diagnoses of parent and child were recorded. Twenty-two news articles were found describing a total of 26 disabled children as victims of filicide-suicide between 1982 and 2010. Eighty-one percent of children killed were male, and 54% were autistic. Thirty percent of perpetrators had a reported mental illness. Male children or children with autism may be at risk for filicide-suicide, but accurate record keeping is needed to determine the incidence and risk factors and aid in its prevention in the disabled population.

  4. A successful effort to involve stakeholders in a facility siting decision using LIPS with stakeholder involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkhofer, L.; Conway, R.; Anderson, B.

    1995-01-01

    Local public opposition to federal bureaucratic decisions has resulted in public agencies rethinking the role of stakeholders in decision making. Efforts to include stakeholders directly in the decision-making process are on the increase. Unfortunately, many attempts to involve members of the public in decisions involving complex technical issues have failed. A key problem has been defining a meaningful role for the public in the process of arriving at a technical decision. This paper describes a successful effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in New Mexico to involve stakeholders in an important technical decision associated with its Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The decision was where to locate a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), a facility intended to consolidate and store wastes generated from the cleanup of hazardous waste sites. A formal priority setting process known as the Laboratory Integration Prioritization System (LIPS) was adapted to provide an approach for involving the public. Although rarely applied to stakeholder participation, the LIPS process proved surprisingly effective. It produced a consensus over a selected site and enhanced public trust and understanding of Project activities

  5. Removing the College Involvement "Research Asterisk": Identifying and Rethinking Predictors of American Indian College Student Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify campus environmental predictors of American Indian college student involvement. The American Indian research asterisk, or not including American Indian data, has prevailed over student development research for decades. As a result, student affairs professionals have been limited in their ability to develop…

  6. Consumer involvement profiles: An application of consumer involvement in mobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Rahbarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates consumer involvement profile among people who intend to purchase mobile devises. The study considers the effects of various factors influencing on purchase intention including consumers’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income as well as some external factors including advertisement. The study uses a questionnaire in Likert scale, originally developed by O’Cass (2000 [O’Cass, A. (2000. An assessment of consumers' product, purchase decision, advertising and consumption involvement in fashion clothing. Journal of Economic Psychology, 21, 545-576.]. The questionnaire has been distributed among 385 people, randomly who purchased mobile devices from a mall in city of Tehran, Iran. Using Pearson correlation test, the study has concluded that oral advertisement as well as consumer purchase involvement have positive and strong relationship with consumer’s purchase intention. In terms of age, people aged 20-30 maintained the highest purchase intention. In addition, in terms of gender, men had more purchase involvement than women did.

  7. Filifactor alocis - involvement in periodontal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göbel Ulf B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in periodontal pockets develop complex sessile communities that attach to the tooth surface. These highly dynamic microfloral environments challenge both clinicians and researchers alike. The exploration of structural organisation and bacterial interactions within these biofilms is critically important for a thorough understanding of periodontal disease. In recent years, Filifactor alocis, a fastidious, Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic rod was repeatedly identified in periodontal lesions using DNA-based methods. It has been suggested to be a marker for periodontal deterioration. The present study investigated the epidemiology of F. alocis in periodontal pockets and analysed the spatial arrangement and architectural role of the organism in in vivo grown subgingival biofilms. Results A species-specific oligonucleotide probe, FIAL, was designed and evaluated. A total of 490 subgingival plaque samples were submitted to PCR and subsequent dot blot hybridization to compare the prevalence of F. alocis in patients suffering from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic periodontitis (CP, and control subjects resistant to periodontitis. Moreover, a specially designed carrier system was used to collect in vivo grown subgingival biofilms from GAP patients. Subsequent topographic analysis was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization. While the majority of patients suffering from GAP or CP harboured F. alocis, it was rarely detected in the control group. In the examined carrier-borne biofilms the organism predominantly colonized apical parts of the pocket in close proximity to the soft tissues and was involved in numerous structures that constitute characteristic architectural features of subgingival periodontal biofilms. Conclusions F. alocis is likely to make a relevant contribution to the pathogenetic structure of biofilms accounting for periodontal inflammation and can be considered an excellent marker

  8. Respiratory system involvement in Costello syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Ospina, Natalia; Kuo, Christin; Ananth, Amitha Lakshmi; Myers, Angela; Brennan, Marie-Luise; Stevenson, David A; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Hudgins, Louanne

    2016-07-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) is a multisystem disorder caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the HRAS proto-oncogene. Respiratory system complications have been reported in individuals with CS, but a comprehensive description of the full spectrum and incidence of respiratory symptoms in these patients is not available. Here, we report the clinical course of four CS patients with respiratory complications as a major cause of morbidity. Review of the literature identified 56 CS patients with descriptions of their neonatal course and 17 patients in childhood/adulthood. We found that in the neonatal period, respiratory complications are seen in approximately 78% of patients with transient respiratory distress reported in 45% of neonates. Other more specific respiratory diagnoses were reported in 62% of patients, the majority of which comprised disorders of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Symptoms of upper airway obstruction were reported in CS neonates but were more commonly diagnosed in childhood/adulthood (71%). Analysis of HRAS mutations and their respiratory phenotype revealed that the common p.Gly12Ser mutation is more often associated with transient respiratory distress and other respiratory diagnoses. Respiratory failure and dependence on mechanical ventilation occurs almost exclusively with rare mutations. In cases of prenatally diagnosed CS, the high incidence of respiratory complications in the neonatal period should prompt anticipatory guidance and development of a postnatal management plan. This may be important in cases involving rarer mutations. Furthermore, the high frequency of airway obstruction in CS patients suggests that otorhinolaryngological evaluation and sleep studies should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Immune Responses Involved in Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Teimourpour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB. Approximately one-third of the world's population is infected with M. tuberculosis. Despite the availability of drug and vaccine, it remains one of the leading causes of death in humans especially in developing countries. Epidemiological studies have indicated that only 10-30% of people exposed to tubercle bacillus are infected with M. tuberculosis, and at least 90% of the infected people finally do not acquire TB. The studies have indicated that the host efficient immune system has essential roles in the control of TB infection such that the highest rate of mortality and morbidity is seen in immunocompromised patients such as people infected with HIV. M. tuberculosis is an obligatory intracellular bacterium. It enters the body mainly through the respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages combat this pathogen most commonly. In addition to alveolar macrophages, various T-cell subpopulations need to be activated to overcome this bacterium's resistance to the host defense systems. CD4+ T cells, through production of several cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, and CD8+ T cells, through cytotoxic activities and induction of apoptosis in infected cells, play critical roles in inducing appropriate immune responses against M. tuberculosis. Although cell-mediated immunity is the cornerstone of host responses against TB and the recent studies have provided evidence for the importance of humoral and innate immune system in the control of TB, a profound understanding of the immune responses would provide a basis for development of new generations of vaccines and drugs. The present study addresses immune responses involved in M. tuberculosis infection.

  10. Lateral Habenula Involvement in Impulsive Cocaine Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Agustin; Hwang, Eun-Kyung; Lupica, Carl R

    2017-04-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is a brain structure receiving inputs from limbic forebrain areas and innervating major midbrain monoaminergic nuclei. Evidence indicates LHb involvement in sleep control, reward-based decision making, avoidance of punishment, and responses to stress. Additional work has established that the LHb mediates negative feedback in response to aversive events. As a hallmark of drug addiction is the inability to limit drug use despite negative consequences, we hypothesize that LHb dysfunction may have a role in the lack of control over drug seeking. Here we examine the effects of LHb inactivation in control over drug seeking in several cocaine self-administration (SA) paradigms in rats. We find that inhibition of the LHb with GABAergic agonists did not alter cocaine SA under progressive ratio or seeking/taking chained reinforcement schedules, or during punishment-induced suppression of cocaine-reinforced responding. In contrast, LHb inhibition increased cocaine seeking when the drug was not available in rats trained to discriminate its presence using an environmental cue. This effect of LHb inhibition was selective for cocaine, as it did not impair responding for sucrose reinforcement. The effect of LHb injection of GABA agonists was mimicked by intra-LHb muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) antagonist injection, and activation of mACh receptors excited a majority of LHb neurons in in vitro electrophysiology experiments. These results indicate that the LHb participates in the suppression of impulsive responding for cocaine through the activation of a cholinergic circuit, and they suggest that LHb dysfunction may contribute to impaired impulse control associated with drug addiction.

  11. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government`s decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state`s opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE`s progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada`s opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE`s activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE`s radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE`s low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department`s past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials.

  12. Public involvement in radioactive waste management decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Current repository siting efforts focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is conducting exploratory studies to determine if the site is suitable. The state of Nevada has resisted these efforts: it has denied permits, brought suit against DOE, and publicly denounced the federal government's decision to study Yucca Mountain. The state's opposition reflects public opinion in Nevada, and has considerably slowed DOE's progress in studying the site. The Yucca Mountain controversy demonstrates the importance of understanding public attitudes and their potential influence as DOE develops a program to manage radioactive waste. The strength and nature of Nevada's opposition -- its ability to thwart if not outright derail DOE's activities -- indicate a need to develop alternative methods for making decisions that affect the public. This report analyzes public participation as a key component of this openness, one that provides a means of garnering acceptance of, or reducing public opposition to, DOE's radioactive waste management activities, including facility siting and transportation. The first section, Public Perceptions: Attitudes, Trust, and Theory, reviews the risk-perception literature to identify how the public perceives the risks associated with radioactivity. DOE and the Public discusses DOE's low level of credibility among the general public as the product, in part, of the department's past actions. This section looks at the three components of the radioactive waste management program -- disposal, storage, and transportation -- and the different ways DOE has approached the problem of public confidence in each case. Midwestern Radioactive Waste Management Histories focuses on selected Midwestern facility-siting and transportation activities involving radioactive materials

  13. Kidney involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Yılmaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a multisystem autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of benign neoplasia in skin, brain and kidneys. There are three particular renal disorders in TSC including renal cysts, renal angiomyolipoma and renal cell carcinoma. In the current study we aimed to investigate renal findings of TSC patients followed in our clinic. Methods: Patients’ family history, convulsion history, age, gender, physical examination findings, renal function tests, ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging, results of computerized tomography, echocardiography and eye findings were found from hospital records and evaluated. Tuberous sclerosis diagnosis was made by clinical and imaging findings in 19 patients. Results: Nineteen cases were included in study. Eleven was males and the remaining 8 were females. The mean age was 75.5±65, 1 month (3 month- 18 year and follow up time was 14.6±7 month. Renal angiomyolipoma was the most commonly seen pathology alone (4 patients-21% and with renal cysts (5 patients-26.3%. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was with TSC in two patients. Four patients were presented with only simple renal cysts. Two patients had increased renal echogenicity and one patient had mild pelvicaliectasis. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction, urinary tract infection, nephrolithiasis and hemorrhages are commonly seen complications in TSC. Five patients had history of urinary tract infection. None of the patients had bleeding or rupture complication. Hypertension and end stage renal disease were not seen. Conclusion: The most commonly seen renal lesions in TSC are angiomyolipomas and kidney cysts. At the time of TSC diagnosis, all the children must be screened for renal involvement and we should remember renal findings can change with time and new findings can be added to old ones. Therefore nephrologist follow up has been done in all patients.

  14. The Role of Father Involvement in Children's Later Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Explores links between father involvement at age 7 and emotional and behavioral problems at age 16, and between father involvement at age 16 and psychological distress at age 33. Father involvement at age 7 protected against psychological maladjustment in adolescents from non-intact families, and father involvement at age 16 protected against…

  15. Evaluation of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach by Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcinar, Zehra; Ekizoglu, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of parent involvement in children's education, research clearly shows that it is difficult to effectively involve parents. This study aims to capture parents' views of a Blog Based Parent Involvement Approach (BPIA) designed to secure parent involvement in education by strengthening school-parent communication. Data…

  16. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-01-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident. PMID:27339481

  17. Unilateral corneal leukoplakia without limbal involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano K

    2015-05-01

    .0. Conclusion: Our case of unilateral corneal leukoplakia without limbal involvement was most likely caused by chronic irritation of the cornea by the eyelashes. Although it was totally removed with good recovery of vision, we continue to follow the patient because of the potential of malignant transformation. Keywords: corneal leukoplakia, hyperkeratosis, eyelashes, chronic friction

  18. Organized Activity Involvement among Urban Youth: Understanding Family- and Neighborhood- Level Characteristics as Predictors of Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole A; Bohnert, Amy M; Governale, Amy

    2018-02-22

    Research examining factors that predict youth's involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents' involvement in organized activities concurrently (i.e., intensity) and longitudinally (i.e., type and breadth). Parental supervision predicted adolescents' participation in organized activities across multiple waves. Neighborhood violence was positively associated with concurrent participation in organized activities after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), whereas higher neighborhood collective efficacy predicted greater breadth in organized activity participation across time. These findings have important implications regarding how to attract and sustain organized activity participation for low-income, urban youth.

  19. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction. PMID:29503623

  20. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement: The Mediating Role of Job Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćulibrk, Jelena; Delić, Milan; Mitrović, Slavica; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an empirical study aimed at identifying and quantifying the relationship between work characteristics, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job involvement and organizational policies and procedures in the transition economy of Serbia, South Eastern Europe. The study, which included 566 persons, employed by 8 companies, revealed that existing models of work motivation need to be adapted to fit the empirical data, resulting in a revised research model elaborated in the paper. In the proposed model, job involvement partially mediates the effect of job satisfaction on organizational commitment. Job satisfaction in Serbia is affected by work characteristics but, contrary to many studies conducted in developed economies, organizational policies and procedures do not seem significantly affect employee satisfaction.

  1. The approaches to the definition of involvement and to types of companies-customers involvement in decision-making process

    OpenAIRE

    M.Yu. Troian; S.M. Frolov

    2011-01-01

    The approaches to the definition of involvement and toits basic types classification are developed. The classification of types of companies-customers involvement is supplemented. The concept of connotative involvement is defined and scientifically proven. The basic properties of the involvement: the intensity, directionandstability are developed.

  2. Consumer involvement profiles: An application of consumer involvement in mobile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Rahbarian; Fattaneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates consumer involvement profile among people who intend to purchase mobile devises. The study considers the effects of various factors influencing on purchase intention including consumers’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income as well as some external factors including advertisement. The study uses a questionnaire in Likert scale, originally developed by O’Cass (2000) [O’Cass, A. (2000). An assessment of consumers' product, purchase decision, advertising a...

  3. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  4. Involving South Asian patients in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Gambles, M; Leese, B; Atkin, K; Brown, J; Mason, S; Tovey, P

    2004-10-01

    To investigate how South Asian patients conceptualise the notion of clinical trials and to identify key processes that impact on trial participation and the extent to which communication difficulties, perceptions of risk and attitudes to authority influence these decisions. Also to identify whether 'South Asian' patients are homogeneous in these issues, and which factors differ between different South Asian subgroups and finally how professionals regard the involvement of South Asian patients and their views on strategies to increase participation. A review of the literature on minority ethnic participation in clinical trials was followed by three qualitative interview studies. Interviews were taped and transcribed (and translated if required) and subjected to framework analysis. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 health professionals; 60 South Asian lay people who had not taken part in a trial and 15 South Asian trial participants. Motivations for trial participation were identified as follows: to help society, to improve own health or that of family and friends, out of obligation to the doctor and to increase scientific knowledge. Deterrents were concerns about drug side-effects, busy lifestyles, language, previous bad experiences, mistrust and feelings of not belonging to British society. There was no evidence of antipathy amongst South Asians to the concept of clinical trials and, overall, the younger respondents were more knowledgeable than the older ones. Problems are more likely to be associated with service delivery. Lack of being approached was a common response. Lay-reported factors that might affect South Asian participation in clinical trials include age, language, social class, feeling of not belonging/mistrust, culture and religion. Awareness of clinical trials varied between each group. There are more similarities than differences in attitudes towards clinical trial participation between the South Asian and the general population

  5. Bioethical Principles of Biomedical Research Involving Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakir Mehić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A major requirement both of national and international ethical codes for human experimentation, and of national legislation in many cases, is that new substances or devices should not be used for the first time on human beings unless previous tests on animals have provided a reasonable presumption of their safety. That is so called: Good Clinical Praxis (GCP. There are two international ethical codes intended principally for the guidance of countries or institutions that have not yet formulated their own ethical requirements for human experimentation: The Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and The Proposed International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization[1].Animal experimentation is fundamental to the biomedical sciences, not only for the advancement of specific vital processes, but also for the improvement of methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease both in man and in animals. The use of animals is also indispensable for testing the potency and safety of biological substances used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as for determining the toxicity of the rapidly growing number of molecules that never existed before in nature and which may represent a hazard to health. This extensive exploitation by man of animals implies philosophical and moral problems that are not peculiar to their use for scientific purposes, and there are no objective ethical criteria by which to judge claims and counterclaims in such matters[2]. However, there is a consensus that „deliberate cruelty is repugnant”.While many countries have general laws or regulations imposing penalties for ill-treatment of animals, relatively few make specific provision for their use for scientific purposes. Because of differing legal systems and cultural backgrounds there are varying approaches to the use of

  6. Fathers' involvement in preadolescents' diabetes adherence and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E; Rohan, Jennifer M; Carle, Adam C; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan; Drotar, Dennis

    2011-09-01

    To examine the relationship of paternal involvement in diabetes care with adherence and glycemic control. One hundred and thirty-six mothers and fathers of preadolescents (aged 9-12 years) with type 1 diabetes reported on paternal involvement. Adherence was measured by interview and blood glucose meter downloads. Mothers' and fathers' ratings of paternal involvement in diabetes care were compared. We evaluated three structural equation models linking paternal involvement with adherence and glycemic control. Mothers and fathers reported similar amounts of paternal involvement, yet mothers rated paternal involvement as more helpful. The data supported a model indicating links between more paternal involvement and higher HbA1c and between lower adherence and higher HbA1c. Mediation and moderation models were not supported. Although paternal involvement was not directly associated with treatment adherence, it was associated with poorer glycemic control. Some fathers may increase their involvement in response to suboptimal glycemic outcomes.

  7. The relationship between job involvement and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riipinen, M

    1997-01-01

    Researchers have reported contradictory relations between job involvement and well-being. In this study, a differentiation was made between job involvement based on need congruence and the resulting need fulfillment in one's job and job involvement not based on this concept. Participants were 383 women and 50 men. Job involvement based on need congruence was related to a high level of well-being or was negatively related to it. The mean levels of the two kinds of involvement were equal. Results suggest that job involvement is related to well-being only if the constructs are based on equal processes-that is, on need congruence in one's job.

  8. The Relationship between Job Involvement, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, A. Ben

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between job involvement and satisfaction in white collar employees of an industrial organization in Israel was studied. Job involvement was related significantly to job satisfaction; however, the relationship was mediated by organizational factors. (Author/BEF)

  9. Gift and sacrifice: parental involvement in Latino adolescents' education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect).

  10. The divided Electorate: Media Use and Political Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Kees; Semetko, Holli A.; Semetko, H.

    2003-01-01

    Research examining media effects on political attitudes has put forth broadly conflicting explanations: media use diminishes knowledge and involvement and contributes to political cynicism and declining turnout; media use contributes to learning, political involvement, trust, efficacy, and

  11. 37 CFR 41.103 - Jurisdiction over involved files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jurisdiction over involved files. 41.103 Section 41.103 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK... Cases § 41.103 Jurisdiction over involved files. The Board acquires jurisdiction over any involved file...

  12. Arab Parents' Involvement in School Reform in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid; Abu-Asbah, Khaled; Nasra, Muhammed Abu

    2014-01-01

    Current research indicates that parental involvement positively influences children's academic success. This study investigates parental involvement in the Arab education system in Israel, highlighting involvement in the New Horizon reform. We interviewed school principals and parent committee chairpersons from 15 Arab schools. The study confirmed…

  13. Changing Correlates of Job Involvement in Three Career Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Samuel; Hall, Douglas T.

    1981-01-01

    Correlates of job involvement over three career stages were explored to account for the lack of consistency of past empirical work in the job involvement area. Data indicated that career stage moderated the relationship of job involvement and various situational, individual difference, and outcome measures. (Author)

  14. Job Involvement as a Predictor of Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlis, Nick C.

    1978-01-01

    A job involvement measure was altered to reflect academic involvement and was employed as a predictor of academic performance. Contrary to the findings of prior industrial research, involvement was found to be correlated neither with age nor with course satisfaction; however, it did prove an efficacious predictor of course grade. (Author/JKS)

  15. Intermediary Organizations as Capacity Builders in Family Educational Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M. Elena; Kreider, Holly; Coffman, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Although a substantial literature examines the outcomes of family involvement in education, and the family and school characteristics that support or deter such involvement, we know little about the role of national nonprofit intermediary organizations in family educational involvement. This article argues that intermediary organizations play a…

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of Their Fathers' Involvement: Significance to School Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Bream, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    Based on data from 2,722 British adolescents, this study explores whether perceived father involvement can be associated with school attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that both father involvement and mother involvement contributed significantly and independently to positive school attitudes. Furthermore, the association between father…

  17. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with involvement of the pons: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourtsi, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Moulopoulos, L.A.; Vlahos, L.; Xenellis, J.

    1998-01-01

    Central nervous system involvement is uncommon in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The suprasellar region is more frequently affected. There have been few reports of involvement of the brain parenchyma shown on CT or MRI. We present a case of involvement of the pons, showing marked contrast enhancement on MRI. (orig.)

  18. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  19. Parents' Perceptions of Their Involvement in Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdener, Mehmet Akif; Knoeppel, Robert C.

    2018-01-01

    Parent involvement has an influence on children's educational engagement during the elementary years. The objective of this study was to examine the perceptions of rural Turkish parents about their involvement in schooling with elementary school students based on Epstein's (1995) six types of parental involvement (parenting, communicating,…

  20. Extended Communication Efforts Involved with College Long-Distance Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Merical, Kaile Lorenzen

    2013-01-01

    The present phenomenological, qualitative research study involved in-depth interviews of all 16 female, sophomore students involved in respective distance relationships at a private, selective, comprehensive, Midwest university. Among other results found in the study, the present article focuses on communication dynamics involved with the…