Sample records for cation exchange capacity

  1. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification (United States)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard


    A better understanding of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of biochar and its acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is crucial when tailoring a single biochar for a particular soil and crop. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable, commonly ranging from 5 to 50 cmol+/Kg even as high as 69 to 204 cmol+/Kg and often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Ashes and very fine pores in biochar may complicate the analysis and thus compromise the results. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in a common method for CEC determination in biochar and investigate how the measured CEC may be affected by slow cation diffusion from micro-pores. We modified the existing ammonium acetate (NH4-OAc) method (buffered at pH 7), based on displaced ammonium (NH4+) in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts after removing excess NH4-OAc with alcohol in batch mode. We used pigeon pea biochar (produced at 350 ˚C; particle size 0.5mm to 2mm) to develop the method and we tested its reproducibility in biochars with different ANC. The biochar sample (1.00g) was pH-adjusted to 7 after 2 days of equilibration, using hydrochloric acid (HCl), and washed with water until the conductivity of the water was replacing cations (NH4+ and K+) in micro-pores, we equilibrated the biochar with NH4-OAc for 1 and 7 days, and after washing with alcohol, for 1, 3 and 7 days with KCl. The effects of the washing volume of alcohol (15, 30 and 45 ml) and of the biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio (1:15, 1:30 and 1:45) were also tested. The CEC values were corrected for dry matter content and mass losses during the process. Results indicate that the measured CEC values of the modified method were highly reproducible and that 1 day shaking with NH4OAc and KCl is enough to saturate the exchange sites with NH4+ and subsequently with K+. The biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio did not affect the measured CEC. Three washings with at least 15 ml alcohol are required to

  2. Using satellite data for soil cation exchange capacity studies (United States)

    Ghaemi, M.; Astaraei, A. R.; Sanaeinejad, S. H.; Zare, H.


    This study was planned to examine the use of LandSat ETM+ images to develop a model for monitoring spatial variability of soil cation exchange capacity in a semi-arid area of Neyshaboor. 300 field data were collected from specific GPS registered points, 277 of which were error free, to be analysed in the soil laboratory.The statistical analysis showed that therewas a small R-Squared value, 0.17, when we used the whole data set. Visual interpretation of the graphs showed a trend among some of the data in the data set. Forty points were filtered based on the trends, and the statistical analysis was repeated for those data. It was discovered that the 40 series were more or less in the same environmental conditions; most of them were located in disturbed soils or abandoned lands with sparse vegetation cover. The soil was classified into high and medium salinity, with variable carbon (1.0 to 1.6%), heavy textured and with high silt and clay. Finally it was concluded that two different models could be fitted in the data based on their spatial dependency. The current models are able to explain spatial variability in almost 45 to 65% of the cases.

  3. Method for in situ determination cation exchange capacities of subsurface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Welker, D.W.


    A method is disclosed for the in situ examination of each subsurface formation penetrated by a borehole to ascertain the cation exchange capacity of such formations within a geological region. Natural γ ray logging is used to develop signals functionally related to the total γ radiation and to the potassium-40, uranium and thorium energy-band radiations. A first borehole is traversed by a potential γ ray spectrometer to provide selected measurements of natural γ radiation. Core samples are taken from the logged formation and laboratory tests performed to determine the cation exchange capacity thereof. The cation exchange capacities thus are developed then correlated with selected parameters provided by the γ ray spectrometer to establish functional relationships. Cation exchange capacities of formations in subsequent boreholes within the region are then determined in situ by use of the natural γ ray spectrometer and these established relationships. (author)

  4. Measurement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on natural zeolite by percolation method (United States)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Rahmah, Nafisa


    The cation exchange capacity (CEC)measurement has been carried out in natural zeolite by percolation method. The natural zeolite samples used for cation exchange capacity measurement were activated beforehand with physical activation and chemical activation. The physically activated zeolite was done by calcination process at 600 °C for 4 hours. The natural zeolite was activated chemically by using sodium hydroxide by refluxing process at 60-80 °C for 3 hours. In summary, cation exchange capacity (CEC) determination was performed by percolation, distillation and titration processes. Based on the measurement that has been done, the exchange rate results from physical activated and chemical activated of natural zeolite were 181.90cmol (+)/kg and 901.49cmol (+)/kg respectively.

  5. A simple method for estimating cation exchange capacity from water vapor sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus


    Knowledge of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is crucial for soil fertility considerations, sorption and release of polar and non-polar compounds, engineering applications, and other biogeochemical processes. Standard procedures such as the ammonium acetate or the BaCl2 compulsive exchange met...

  6. The colloid fraction and cation-exchange capacity in the soils of Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The colloidal complex of soil consists of humus and clay, the most important acidoids which are able to create the bonds between oppositely charged ions (cations through the forces strong enough to provide protection from leaching, and also weak enough to enable absorption through the plant root. This ability becomes more pronounced if the degree of dispersity is higher, i.e. if particles have smaller diameters. Total of 435 soil samples were collected from the surface horizon in 2011, for the purpose of soil fertility control in Vojvodina and prevention of its possible degradation in broader terms. This paper presents a part of study through selected representative soil samples, related to the research results of mechanical composition, basic chemical properties, and cation-exchange capacity in the most frequent types of soils in North Bačka and Banat (chernozem, fluvisol, semiglay, humoglay, solonchak, solonetz, due to the fact that soil fertility and its ecological function in environment protection largely depend on the studied properties. The average content of clay was 25.26%, ranging from 5.76 to 49.44%, the average content of humus was 3.10%, ranging between 1.02 and 4.30%, while the average value of CEC was 27.30 cmol/kg, ranging between 12.03 and 46.06 cmol/kg. Soils with higher content of clay and humus have greater cation-exchange capacity. According to the established average values of CEC in cmol/kg, the order of soil types is as follows: solonetz (40.06, semiglay (31.98, humoglay (30.98, solonchak (26.62, chernozem (22.72, and fluvisol (22.40. Research results have shown that cation-exchange capacity depends on clay fraction and humus content. Higher correlation coefficient between CEC and clay, compared to CEC and humus, indicates that clay content compared to humus content has greater effect on cation-exchange capacity.

  7. Preliminary studies of the total cation exchange capacity of sediments from two North Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydes, D.J.; Hill, N.C.; Clarke, H.; Carpenter, M.S.N.


    Initially four different methods of measuring total cation exchange capacity were compared. There were two chemical methods (ammonium saturation with displacement into seawater, and barium saturation followed by replacement with magnesium) and two radiochemical methods (sodium-22 and caesium-134 saturation). The barium-magnesium and sodium-22 methods were then applied to sediment samples from Core D10164Pound1K from the Nares Fracture Valley, and Core D10554Pound11K from the eastern flank of the Great Meteor Rise. The material at site 10164 is a pelagic clay whereas at site 10554 it is carbonate ooze. The total cation exchange capacities (T.C.E.C.) of samples from the two sites are similar when measured by the sodium-22 method, the mean for Core 10164 was 21.7 meq/100g and 24.4 meq/100g for Core 10554. However for Core 10554 the barium-magnesium method gives a mean of 42.8 meq/100g. The difference in T.C.E.C. measured by the two methods appears to be due to the high calcite content of core 10554 sediment. Measured exchange capacities are lower than in coastal sediments. In deep sea sediments organic matter either makes a very small contribution to the T.C.E.C. (core 10164) or actually blocks exchange sites (Core 10554). Amorphous oxides of iron and manganese contribute between 20 and 50% of the T.C.E.C. (author)

  8. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)


    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  9. Obtention of the cation exchange capacity of a natural kaolinite with radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe I, A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Monroy G, F.


    One of the more used techniques for the elimination of the heavy metals present in water systems is to use adsorbent mineral phases like zeolites and clays, among others. The clays are able to exchange easily the fixed ions in the external surface of its crystals or well the ions present in the interlaminar spaces of the structures, for other existent ones in the encircling aqueous solutions for that the Cation exchange capacity (CIC) is defined as the sum of all the cations exchange that a mineral can possess independent to the physicochemical conditions. The CIC is equal to the measure of the total of negative charges of the mineral by mass of the solid (meq/g). In this investigation work, the value of the CIC equal to 2.5 meq/100 g is obtained, of a natural kaolinite from the State of Hidalgo studying the retention of the sodium in the kaolinite with the aid of the radioactive isotope 24 Na and of the selective electrodes technique, making vary the pH value. So is experimentally demonstrated that the CIC is an intrinsic property of the mineral independent of the pH value of the solution and of the charges origin. (Author)

  10. High Ion-Exchange Capacity Semihomogeneous Cation Exchange Membranes Prepared via a Novel Polymerization and Sulfonation Approach in Porous Polypropylene. (United States)

    Jiang, Shanxue; Ladewig, Bradley P


    Semihomogeneous cation exchange membranes with superior ion exchange capacity (IEC) were synthesized via a novel polymerization and sulfonation approach in porous polypropylene support. The IEC of membranes could reach up to 3 mmol/g because of high mass ratio of functional polymer to membrane support. Especially, theoretical IEC threshold value agreed well with experimental threshold value, indicating that IEC could be specifically designed without carrying out extensive experiments. Also, sulfonate groups were distributed both on membrane surface and across the membranes, which corresponded well with high IEC of the synthesized membranes. In addition, the semifinished membrane showed hydrophobic property because of the formation of polystyrene. In contrast, the final membranes demonstrated super hydrophilic property, indicating the adequate sulfonation of polystyrene. Furthermore, when sulfonation reaction time increased, the conductivity of membranes also showed a tendency to increase, revealing the positive relationship between conductivity and IEC. Finally, the final membranes showed sufficient thermal stability for electrodialysis applications such as water desalination.

  11. Predicting cation exchange capacity from hygroscopic moisture in agricultural soils of Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, J.; Campillo, M.C. del; Barrón, V.


    Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) depends on the extent and negative charge density of surfaces of soil mineral and organic components. Soil water sorption also depends on the extent of such surfaces, giving thus way to significant relationships between CEC and hygroscopic moisture (HM) in many soils. In this work, we explored whether CEC could be accurately predicted from HM in agricultural soils of Mediterranean and humid temperate areas in Western Europe. For this purpose, we examined 243 soils across a wide variation range of their intrinsic properties. Soil CEC was determined using 1 M ammonium acetate at pH 7 and HM at an equilibrium air relative humidity (RH) of 43% (HM43). Most of the variation of soil CEC was explained by HM43 through a linear function (CEC = 1.4 + 0.78HM43; R2 = 0.962; standard deviation = 2.30 cmolc/kg). Coefficients of the regression equation were similar for subgroups of soils differing in moisture regime, clay mineralogy, carbonate content and organic carbon content. Therefore, soil hygroscopic moisture measurements at a fixed RH level provided a simple, robust, inexpensive method for predicting soil CEC. (Author)

  12. Facile and green fabrication of cation exchange membrane adsorber with unprecedented adsorption capacity for protein purification. (United States)

    Khan, M Kamran; Luo, Jianquan; Khan, Rashid; Fan, Jinxin; Wan, Yinhua


    Fabricating membrane adsorbers with high adsorption capacity and appreciable throughput for the separation and purification of protein products is challenging in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel membrane adsorber by functionalizing a nylon microfiltration membrane with alginate dialdehyde (ADA) followed by sulphonic addition, without any solvent usage, and its successful application in the purification of lysozyme. Taking advantage of abundant dual cation exchange (CEX) groups on sulphonic-ADA (S-ADA) ligands, this novel S-ADA-nylon membrane adsorber showed an unprecedented static binding capicity of 286mg/mL for lysozyme adsorption. Meanwhile, the prepared membrane adsorber could be easily regenerated (complete protein elution) under mild conditions and be reused at least for five times. Featured with a unique selectivity, the S-ADA-nylon membrane also captured lysozyme from chicken egg white solution with a high purity (100%) and a high recovery of 98%. The purified lysozyme showed similar specific activity as commercial product. The present work provides a facile, green and low-cost approach for the preparation of high-performance membrane adsorbers, which has a great potential in protein production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra


    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  14. Ambient soil cation exchange capacity inversely associates with infectious and parasitic disease risk in regional Australia. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Craig; Bi, Peng; Waycott, Michelle; Glover, John; Breed, Martin; Weinstein, Philip


    Human contact with soil may be important for building and maintaining normal healthy immune defence mechanisms, however this idea remains untested at the population-level. In this continent-wide, cross-sectional study we examine the possible public health benefit of ambient exposures to soil of high cation exchange capacity (CEC), a surrogate for potential immunomodulatory soil microbial diversity. We compare distributions of normalized mean 2011/12-2012/13 age-standardized public hospital admission rates (cumulative incidence) for infectious and parasitic diseases across regional Australia (representing an average of 29,516 patients/year in 228 local government areas), within tertiles of socioeconomic status and soil exposure. To test the significance of soil CEC, we use probabilistic individual-level environmental exposure data (with or without soil), and group-level variables, in robust non-parametric multilevel modelling to predict disease rates in unseen groups. Our results show that in socioeconomically-deprived areas with high CEC soils, rates of infectious and parasitic disease are significantly lower than areas with low CEC soils. Also, health inequality (relative risk) due to socioeconomic status is significantly lower in areas with high CEC soils compared to low CEC soils (Δ relative risk = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.82). Including soil exposure when modelling rates of infectious and parasitic disease significantly improves prediction performance, explaining an additional 7.5% (Δ r 2  = 0.075; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.10) of variation in disease risk, in local government areas that were not used for model building. Our findings suggest that exposure to high CEC soils (typically high soil biodiversity) associates with reduced risk of infectious and parasitic diseases, particularly in lower socioeconomic areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cation Exchange Water Softeners (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  16. Measurements on cation exchange capacity of bentonite in the long-term test of buffer material (LOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.


    Determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite in the LOT experiment was the topic of this study. The measurements were performed using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)] 2+ as the index cation. Testing of the determination method suggested that (i) drying and wetting of the bentonite, and (ii) exchange time affect the obtained result. The real CEC measurements were carried out with the bentonite samples taken from the A2 parcel of the LOT experiment. The CEC values of the LOT samples were compared with those of the reference samples taken from the same bentonite batch before the compaction of the blocks for the experiment. The conclusions drawn have been made on the basis of the results determined with the wet bentonite samples using the direct exchange of two weeks with 0.01 M [Cu(trien)] 2+ solution because this method gave the most complete cation exchange in the CEC measurements. The differences between the samples taken from different places of the A2 parcel were quite small and close to the accuracy of the method. However, it seems that the CEC values of the field experiment are somewhat higher than the CEC of the reference samples and the values of the hot area are higher than those obtained from the low temperature area. It is also obvious that the variation of CEC increases with increasing temperature. (orig.)

  17. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barragan Olga Angelica; Montero Robayo Diana Mercedes; Lagos Caballero Jesus Alberto


    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  18. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.


    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  19. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.


    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  20. 3D Digital Mapping of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity in Dorud, Lorestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taghizadeh Mehrjerdi


    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for reliable large-scale soil datato meet the requirements of models for planning of land-usesystems, characterization of soil pollution, and prediction ofland degradation. Cation exchangecapacity (CEC is among the most important soil propertiesthat are required in soil databases. This paper applied a novel method for whole-soil profile predictions of CEC (to 1 m across Dorudlocated in LorestanProvince. At present research, we combined equal-area spline depth functions with digital soil mapping techniques to predict the vertical and lateral variations of CEC across the study area where limited soil information exists (103 soil profiles. To model the relationship between CEC and environmental factors (i.e. Representative soil forming factors, derived from a digital elevation model and Landsat imagery, a regression tree was applied. Results indicated that some auxiliary data had more influence on the prediction model (i.e. B3 and modified catchment area. Our results also confirmed the regression tree model predicted target variable at the five specific depths with coefficient of determination of 0.84, 0.84, 0.84, 0.66, 0.27 and root mean square of 1.75, 1.84, 1.84, 2.11, and 2.16, respectively. Results showed a reasonable R2 in first four depths ranged from 0.66 to 0.84; while, it decreases to 0.27 in the last depth. Our results also confirmed that the regression tree as a predictive model, digital soil mappingtechniqueand equal area splinesare powerful tools to predict lateral and vertical variation of CEC.

  1. Soil organic matter doubles the cation exchange capacity of tropical soil under no-till farming in Brazil. (United States)

    Ramos, Fabricio T; Dores, Eliana Fg de Carvalho; Weber, Oscarlina L Dos Santos; Beber, Daniel C; Campelo, José H; Maia, João C de Souza


    Agricultural conservation practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (T OCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of T OCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. T COS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density. In the top 0.2 m soil layer, CEC increased by 25% with every 1.8 kg m -2 of stored organic carbon. Eliminating soil organic matter reduced CEC from an already low value of 8.40 cmol c kg -1 to 4.82 cmol c kg -1 . Humus is therefore clearly important for the formation of a negative liquid charge in a predominantly electropositive but clayey soil. We confirmed that T OCS is an indicator related to the physiochemical characteristics of weathered soils. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the increased carbon storage under non-tilling systems is essential for guaranteeing weathered soil fertility in tropical climates. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Shailesh M.; G, Agathian; Ashok Kumar


    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  3. Obtention of the cation exchange capacity of a natural kaolinite with radioactive tracers; Obtencion de la capacidad de intercambio cationico de una kaolinita natural con trazadores radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe I, A.; Badillo A, V.E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    One of the more used techniques for the elimination of the heavy metals present in water systems is to use adsorbent mineral phases like zeolites and clays, among others. The clays are able to exchange easily the fixed ions in the external surface of its crystals or well the ions present in the interlaminar spaces of the structures, for other existent ones in the encircling aqueous solutions for that the Cation exchange capacity (CIC) is defined as the sum of all the cations exchange that a mineral can possess independent to the physicochemical conditions. The CIC is equal to the measure of the total of negative charges of the mineral by mass of the solid (meq/g). In this investigation work, the value of the CIC equal to 2.5 meq/100 g is obtained, of a natural kaolinite from the State of Hidalgo studying the retention of the sodium in the kaolinite with the aid of the radioactive isotope {sup 24} Na and of the selective electrodes technique, making vary the pH value. So is experimentally demonstrated that the CIC is an intrinsic property of the mineral independent of the pH value of the solution and of the charges origin. (Author)

  4. Recommandations pour la détermination expérimentale de la capacité d'échange de cations des milieux argileux Recommendations for Experimentally Determining the Cation-Exchange Capacity of Shaly Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole$


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode relativement simple et précise destinée à la détermination de la capacité d'échanges de cations des milieux argileux qui permet de caractériser la réactivité des argiles. Cette mesure présente une certaine importance en raison des problèmes posés par les réservoirs argileux (interprétation des diagraphies, efficacité des méthodes de récupération améliorée par voie chimique. . . . Après avoir brièvement rappelé les propriétés fondamentales des argiles, la capacité d'échanges de cations (CEC est définie et la méthode recommandée de mesure de celle-ci (dosage par le chlorure de cobaltihexammine est décrite. Trois exemples viennent ensuite illustrer cette méthode dans le cas d'une argile pure, d'un sable argileux et d'un échantillon de grès argileux consolidé. This article describes a relatively simple and accurate method for determining the cation-exchange capacity of shaly media, which enables the characterization of the clay reactivity. This measurement is of some importance because of the problems posed by shaly reservoirs (interpreting well logs, effectiveness of improved-recovery methods by chemical means, etc. . After a brief review of the fondamental properties of shales, the cation-exchange capacity (CEC is defined, and the recommended measurement method by using cobaltihexammine chloride is described. Three examples are then given to illustrate this method for pure clay, for a shaly Band and for a consolidated shaly sandstone.

  5. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.


    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  6. Pure zeolite exchange to synthetic zeolite characterized by XRD to produce cation exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ramli; Dewi Jamaliah Kamsiar; Hasidah Mohd Arsat


    In this study, natural mordenite was modified to other zeolites phases having low Si/ Al in order to increase the cation exchange capacity of the material. Modification was carried out hydrothermally at 100 degree Celsius in time range between 0 to 24 hours. The samples obtained were characterized by XRD and infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that a mixture of zeolite X and P were formed zeolite X was the dominant zeolite at 6 hrs heating time while zeolite P were dominant after 6 hrs. Ion Exchange capacity of natural mordenite, samples at 6 hr and 24 hrs heating, performed using Ca 2+ cation gave cation exchange in the decreasing order of 83.57 % , 72.50 %, 69.45 % for sample 24 hrs, 6 hrs and natural mordenite respectively. It indicates that sample having zeolite P phase is the best cation exchange capacity with 21 mg Ca 2+ / g zeolite with an increased of 23 % capacity compared to natural zeolite. (author)

  7. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D


    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  8. Cation Exchange in the Presence of Oil in Porous Media. (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Guo, H; van Winden, J; Bruining, J


    Cation exchange is an interfacial process during which cations on a clay surface are replaced by other cations. This study investigates the effect of oil type and composition on cation exchange on rock surfaces, relevant for a variety of oil-recovery processes. We perform experiments in which brine with a different composition than that of the in situ brine is injected into cores with and without remaining oil saturation. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of the rocks was calculated using PHREEQC software (coupled to a multipurpose transport simulator) with the ionic composition of the effluent histories as input parameters. We observe that in the presence of crude oil, ion exchange is a kinetically controlled process and its rate depends on residence time of the oil in the pore, the temperature, and kinetic rate of adsorption of the polar groups on the rock surface. The cation-exchange process occurs in two stages during two phase flow in porous media. Initially, the charged sites of the internal surface of the clays establish a new equilibrium by exchanging cations with the aqueous phase. At later stages, the components of the aqueous and oleic phases compete for the charged sites on the external surface or edges of the clays. When there is sufficient time for crude oil to interact with the rock (i.e., when the core is aged with crude oil), a fraction of the charged sites are neutralized by the charged components stemming from crude oil. Moreover, the positively charged calcite and dolomite surfaces (at the prevailing pH environment of our experiments) are covered with the negatively charged components of the crude oil and therefore less mineral dissolution takes place when oil is present in porous media.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  10. Cation Exchange in the Presence of Oil in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.; Guo, H.; van Winden, J.L.; Bruining, J.


    Cation exchange is an interfacial process during which cations on a clay surface are replaced by other cations. This study investigates the effect of oil type and composition on cation exchange on rock surfaces, relevant for a variety of oil-recovery processes. We perform experiments in which brine

  11. Exchangeable cations in some soils of Mt. Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belanović Snežana


    Full Text Available Land use in forest and pasture ecosystems requires the respecting of ecological and economic interactions between the individual components of these ecosystems. The content of nutrition elements in the soil solution depends on soil types, climate conditions and vegetation species, i.e., it is conditioned by their cycling in the ecosystem. This paper studies the cation exchange capacity in pasture and forest soils of Mt. Stara Planina.

  12. Cation-Exchanged Zeolitic Chalcogenides for CO2 Adsorption. (United States)

    Yang, Huajun; Luo, Min; Chen, Xitong; Zhao, Xiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Dongsheng; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun; Wu, Tao


    We report here the intrinsic advantages of a special family of porous chalcogenides for CO 2 adsorption in terms of high selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 , large uptake capacity, and robust structure due to their first-ever unique integration of the chalcogen-soft surface, high porosity, all-inorganic crystalline framework, and the tunable charge-to-volume ratio of exchangeable cations. Although tuning the CO 2 adsorption properties via the type of exchangeable cations has been well-studied in oxides and MOFs, little is known about the effects of inorganic exchangeable cations in porous chalcogenides, in part because ion exchange in chalcogenides can be very sluggish and incomplete due to their soft character. We have demonstrated that, through a methodological change to progressively tune the host-guest interactions, both facile and nearly complete ion exchange can be accomplished. Herein, a series of cation-exchanged zeolitic chalcogenides (denoted as M@RWY) were studied for the first time for CO 2 adsorption. Samples were prepared through a sequential ion-exchange strategy, and Cs + -, Rb + -, and K + -exchanged samples demonstrated excellent CO 2 adsorption performance. Particularly, K@RWY has the superior CO 2 /N 2 selectivity with the N 2 adsorption even undetected at either 298 or 273 K. It also has the large uptake of 6.3 mmol/g (141 cm 3 /g) at 273 K and 1 atm with an isosteric heat of 35-41 kJ mol -1 , the best among known porous chalcogenides. Moreover, it permits a facile regeneration and exhibits an excellent recyclability, as shown by the multicycling adsorption experiments. Notably, K@RWY also demonstrates a strong tolerance toward water.

  13. Cation exchange capacity of an oxisol amended with an effluent from domestic sewage treatment Capacidade de troca catiônica de um latossolo tratado com efluente de tratamento de esgoto doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel Ferreira da Fonseca


    Full Text Available The addition of Na-rich anthropogenic residues to tropical soils has stimulated the scientific community to study the role of sodium in both the soil solution and the exchange complex. In this study, several different methods were used to calculate the concentration of exchangeable and soluble cations and this data was then used to establish correlations between the level of these cations and both the accumulation of various elements and the dry weight of maize grown in a greenhouse under different conditions. In the closed environments of the pots, the most suitable method for calculating the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC was the cation exchange capacity calculated by cations removed with barium chloride solution (CEC S. Then again, the actual cation exchange capacity (CEC A should be measured by using Mg adsorption to prevent ionic force from influencing electric charges. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the concentrations of Na in the 1:2 soil:water extracts and the accumulation of Na in the maize plants, indicating saline or double acid extractors are not needed when monitoring the Na concentration only.A disposição de resíduos antropogênicos ricos em sódio nos solos tropicais tem despertado o interesse da comunidade científica em estudar a participação deste elemento no complexo de troca, bem como na solução no solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer correlações entre as concentrações de cátions trocáveis e de cátions solúveis, obtidos por diferentes métodos, com o acúmulo de elementos e com a massa seca no milho. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob diferentes condições. Para experimentos em ambiente fechado (vasos, o método mais indicado para o cálculo da capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva (CTCe é a capacidade de troca catiônica calculada a partir dos cátions removidos com solução de cloreto de bário. Ainda, a capacidade de troca catiônica atual deve

  14. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)


    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  15. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite. (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan


    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca(2+) as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK(a2) (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d(001)) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of Sinabung volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle on CEC (cation exchange capacity) base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and base saturation at Andisol soils Ciater, West Java (United States)

    Yuniarti, Anni; Arifin, Mahfud; Sofyan, Emma Trinurasi; Natalie, Betty; Sudirja, Rija; Dahliani, Dewi


    Andisol, soil orders which covers an upland area dominantly. The aim of this research is to know the effect between the ameliorant of Sinabung volcanic ashes with the ameliorant of rock phosphatenanoparticle towards CEC and base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and the base saturation on Ciater's Andisols, West Java. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors was used in this research. The first factor is the volcanic ash and the second factor is rock phosphate which consists of four levels each amount of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% with three replications. The result showed that there was no interaction between volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle formed in first month and fourth month towards the improvement of CEC and saturation base exchange rate unless magnesium cation exchange increased in fourth month. There was independent effect of volcanic ash formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange increased for 5% dose. There was independent effect of rock phosphate formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange and increased for 5% dose. The dose combination of volcanic ashes 7.5% with phosphate rock, 5% increased the base saturation in the first month incubation.

  17. Cobalt 60 cation exchange with mexican clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava Galve, R.G.


    Mexican clays can be used to remove radioactive elements from contaminated aqueous solutions. Cation exchange experiments were performed with 60 Co radioactive solution. In the present work the effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ was studied. The contact time in hydrated montmorillonite was from 5 to 120 minutes and in dehydrated montmorillonite 5 to 1400 minutes. The Co 2+ uptake value was, in hydrated montmorillonite, between 0.3 to 0.85 m eq/g and in dehydrated montmorillonite, between 0.6 to 1.40 m eq/g. The experiments were done in a pH 5.1 to 5.7 and normal conditions. XRD patterns were used to characterize the samples. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffraction and it was maintained before and after the cation exchange. DTA thermo grams showed the temperatures of the lost humidity and crystallization water. Finally, was observed that dehydrated montmorillonite adsorb more cobalt than hydrated montmorillonite. (Author)

  18. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  19. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  20. Cationic mobility in polystyrene sulfone exchangers - Application to the elution of a cation on an exchange column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menin, Jean-Pierre


    The aim of this work is to improve elutions and separations carried out on inorganic exchangers by selective electromigration of the ionic species to be displaced. To do this, it has been found indispensable to make a fundamental study of the mobility of cations in exchangers. As the field for this research we have chosen those organic exchangers whose structure and behaviour with respect to ion-exchange are much better known that in the case of their inorganic equivalents. We have related the idea of the equivalent conductivity to that of the cation mobility in the exchanger, and this has entailed determining the specific conductivity of the exchanger and the cation concentration in the resin. The results obtained have allowed us to draw up a hypothesis concerning the cation migration mechanism in the exchanger. The third part of our work has been the application of the preceding results to an operation on an ion-exchange column, viz. the elution by an acid solution of a single fixed ion, magnesium or strontium. This work has enabled us to show that the electromigration of a cation during its elution can markedly accelerate or retard this elution. (author) [fr

  1. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions


    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Inamuddin,; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alhogbi, Basma G.; Naushad, Mu.


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol?gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy ...

  2. The exchangeable cations in soils flooded with sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der W.H.


    The changes in the exchangeable cations of soils flooded with sea-water were extensively studied in the Netherlands after the inundations of 1940, 1945 and 1953. A synopsis of the results was given, both from a theoretical and a practical viewpoint.

    Current formulae for ion-exchange tested in the

  3. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-lin Lei


    Full Text Available With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB in the alloy particles on the feasibility of the membrane formation are discussed. The results indicate that a favorable sulfonation degree above 80% and a suitable ion exchange capacity of 1.5–2.4 mmol/g can be gained, with concentrated sulfuric acid as the sulfonation agent and 1,2-dichloroethane as the swelling agent. The running electrical resistance and desalination effect of the prepared cation exchange membrane were measured in a pilot-scale electrodialyser and not only obviously exceeded a commercial heterogeneous cation exchange membrane, but was also very close to a commercial homogenous membrane. In this way, the authors have combined the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based cation exchange resins with the traditional thermoforming manufacturing process of heterogeneous cation exchange membranes, to successfully develop a novel, low-price, but relatively high-performance polystyrene/PVDF cation exchange membrane with the semi-IPN structure.

  4. Effect of hydroxide polymenrs on cation exchange of montmorillonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) can significantly influence the cation exchange behaviour of clays. We have determined the effect of synthesized AlHO on Ca¿Na, Zn¿Na and Pb¿Na exchange for a series of exchanger compositions and two Al loadings at pH 6.0 and an ionic strength of 0.01 m. The preference

  5. Characterisation and applications of synthesised cation exchanger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemically modified guar gum sulphonic acid (GSA) resin was used for removal and pre-concentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions and steel industry effluent from Jodhpur, India. This type of ion exchange resin represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with higher stability, ...

  6. Observações sôbre métodos de determinação da capacidade de troca de cations do solo Observations on methods of determining the exchange capacity of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. da Costa Verdade


    Full Text Available Ao se procurar estudar a capacidade de troca de cations (T da matéria orgânica do solo, verificou-se que o método mais adequado para êsse estudo era o do acetato de amônio. Para êsse processo procurou-se adaptar a percolação, como é utilizada na Seção de Agrogeologia, verificando-se que o emprêgo da relação 1 (pêso de solo : 5 (volume de solução de acetato de amónio é adequada para deslocar as bases e os Hidrogênios substituíveis. Após lavagens do solo com quatro porções de 25 ml de álcool etílico a 95%, o deslocamento do amônio adsorvido é feito com uma solução N em NaCl e 0,005N em HCl, na relação de 1 (pêso de solo : 5 (volume do extrator. Verificou-se que o manuseio da amostra, quando se empregam os tubos percoladores é pequeno e o inconveniente da lentidão do processo pode ser evitado pelo emprêgo de tubo mais largos. As diferenças entre os resultados obtidos pelo processo do acetato de cálcio + KCl para determinar T-S (donde se obtém T e os determinados pelo processo do acetato de amônio, são devidas ao maior poder de extração do H+ + Al+++ do primeiro extrator, não existindo relação com a soma das bases, pH e matéria orgânica do solo. Os diferentes processos levam a obter valores crescentes da capacidade de troca de cations na seguinte ordem: processo do acetato e amônio, processo do acetato de cálcio (a partir das titulações, processo do acetato de cálcio (calculando-se pela equação hiperbólica e processo do acetato de cálcio + KCl.The use of percolation tubes for extraction of exchangeable bases from the soil is a routine in this laboratory. The present paper deals with the use of the same technique for determining the exchange capacity of soils, employing the ammonium acetate method. The proper ratio of soil to volume of extracting solution was determined. The differences between the methods employing calcium acetate and ammonium acetate are mainly the higher H+ and Al

  7. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads (United States)

    Dynys, Fred


    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  8. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, February 2014; 13(2): 192. Many polymers are used to produce nanofibers by electrospinning. Polystyrene (PS) is one of polymers used to produce cation exchange fibers. [9]. PS nanofibers were successfully produced using the electrospinning method and it has been demonstrated that electrospun PS.

  9. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.


    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  10. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Dibutyl maleate is a perfumery ester used as an intermediate in the production of paints, adhesives, and copolymers. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol was studied in presence of acidic cation exchange resin as a catalyst. The objective of this work was to test the suitability and efficacy of ...

  11. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 15, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange resin as ..... Thus, the mole ratio of maleic acid to n-butanol was also varied as 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 keeping other parameters at a constant value ...

  12. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bianchi, Hugo L. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Ed. Tornavias, Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzini, Alberto C. [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH{sub 4}) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 Degree-Sign C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200-600 Degree-Sign C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 Degree-Sign C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 Degree-Sign C reached a plateau or

  13. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Vittorio; Bianchi, Hugo L.; Manzini, Alberto C.


    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs + , Sr 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH 4 ) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 °C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200–600 °C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 °C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 °C reached a plateau or steady-state within the first 24 h increasing only

  14. On the mobility of exchangeable cations on clay surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmi, T.; Kosakowski, G.; Glaus, M.A.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The diffusive mobility of radionuclides in buffer materials and potential host rocks is an important topic in the safety analysis for underground waste repositories. Many of the radionuclides are cations. Accordingly, the diffusion and retention of cations in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks is of central interest. The retention properties of the clay minerals originate from their negative surface charges. These are compensated by un-specifically sorbed cations that are located on planar surfaces or in interlayers (exchangeable cations) and by cations that are more specifically sorbed for instance to edge sites. In general, sorbed cations are considered as immobile with respect to diffusive transport. Whereas this may be correct for specifically sorbed cations, this is probably not the case for un-specifically sorbed exchangeable cations. They can easily exchange with cations in the pore solution, even if they are located- at low hydration states-in very narrow interlayers. For such exchange a certain mobility in the sorbed state is required. This is in line with the observations that many experimentally derived cation diffusion coefficients are larger than expected when compared with those of water tracers. This and the dependence of effective diffusion coefficients on the external salt concentration can be explained with so-called surface diffusion, that is, a movement of sorbed cations. Unfortunately, no direct proof of this phenomenon is available, and parameters like surface diffusion coefficients or surface mobilities are largely unknown. We compiled a large number of published cation diffusion coefficients for various clay minerals and clay rocks. We showed that by an appropriate scaling of the cation diffusion coefficients, it is possible to estimate the average surface mobility of the cation in each experiment. We define the surface mobility as the surface diffusion coefficient of a cation on a flat

  15. Performance of sulphonic cation exchangers in the recovery of ammonium from basic and slight acidic solutions. (United States)

    Gefeniene, A; Kauspediene, D; Snukiskis, J


    Two sulphonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene cation exchangers (gel type Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH and macroporous Purolite C160 MBH) have been investigated for NH(4)(+) ions uptake from the ammonium-rich simulated solutions, corresponding to the caustic condensate of the nitrogen fertilizers production. One component (NH(3) or NH(4)NO(3)) solutions and the mixtures with varying molar ratio of these compounds have been used at the total concentration 0.214 mol/L. Batch and column experiments have been conducted to establish the influence of the matrix structure on the performance of the cation exchangers investigated during the sorption and the desorption. Batch sorption isotherms and breakthrough curves have shown the similar behaviour of the cation exchangers in the removal of NH(4)(+) and NH(3). On decreasing the influent pH from 11.4 to 5.74 a decrease in breakthrough capacity (BC) from 2.57 to 1.93 mol/L was observed. The distribution coefficients (K(d)), calculated from the batch sorption isotherms, are higher for the basic feed solution than for slightly acidic one. Both the degree of the cation exchanger regeneration (N/N(0)) and the efficiency of the NH(4)(+) ions recovery (N(R)), obtained using 0.7 bed volume (BV) of eluent (20% nitric acid) are lower for Purolite C 160 MBH than those for Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH. Using 5 BV of eluent the efficiency of the ammonium recovery amounted to 100% for both cation exchangers investigated. With respect to the efficiency of NH(4)(+) ions sorption and regeneration cation exchangers investigated are applicable for the recovery of ammonium ions from caustic condensate in the nitrogen fertilizers production.

  16. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  17. Characterization of expandable clay minerals in Lake Baikal sediments by thermal dehydration and cation exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hrušková, Michaela; Novotná, Kateřina; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pruner, Petr; Oberhansli, H.


    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2005), s. 389-400 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3032401 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EVK2-2000-00057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : cation exchange capacity * Lake Baikal * Lake Sediments Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2005

  18. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions. (United States)

    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alhogbi, Basma G; Naushad, Mu


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol-gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were also carried out. The material possessed an IEC of 1.56 meq·dry·g -1 of the exchanger and was found to be nano-composite. The selectivity studies showed that the material is selective towards Pb(II) ions. The selectivity of this cation-exchanger was demonstrated in the binary separation of Pb(II) ions from mixture with other metal ions. The recovery was found to be both quantitative and reproducible.

  19. The role of cell walls and pectins in cation exchange and surface area of plant roots. (United States)

    Szatanik-Kloc, A; Szerement, J; Józefaciuk, G


    We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  1. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  2. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  3. Magnesium isotope fractionation in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Yanase, S.; Kakihana, H.


    Band displacement chromatography of magnesium has been carried out successfully for the purpose of magnesium isotope separation by using a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin and the strontium ion as the replacement ion. A small but definite accumulation of the heavier isotopes ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg) has been observed at the front parts of the magnesium chromatograms. The heavier isotopes have been fractionated preferentially into the solution phase. The single-stage separation factors have been calculated for the 25 Mg/ 24 Mg and 26 Mg/ 24 isotopic pairs at 25 0 C. The reduced partition function ratios of magnesium species involved in the present study have been estimated

  4. Applications of pressurized cation exchange chromatography for fission yield determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuheng; Lin Fa; Zhang Hongdi; Li Xueliang; Zhang Shulan


    In order to determine the fission yields of lanthanides precisely, lanthanides with carriers of 1-2 mg per element are separated from each other by means of pressurized cation exchange chromatography - αHIBA concentration gradient elution. The effect of initial loading technique, concentration gradient, flow rate, and temperature on separation were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions adapted according to the results given in this work, all the lanthanides can be completely separated within about 90 minutes with a recovery of more than 95% and purity higher than 99%. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Adsorption behavior of cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone-based fibrous adsorbents with bovine serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yuzhong; Borneman, Zandrie; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias


    The cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone (PES)-based fibrous adsorbents were developed to study their adsorption behavior with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A fibrous adsorbent with an open pore surface had much better adsorption behavior with a higher adsorbing rate. The adsorption capacity

  6. Effect of cation exchange of major cation chemistry in the large scale redox experiment at Aespoe. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Geochemical modeling was used to test the hypothesis that cation exchange with fracture-lining clays during fluid mixing in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory can significantly affect major element chemistry. Conservative mixing models do not adequately account for changes in Na, Ca and Mg concentrations during mixing. Mixing between relatively dilute shallow waters and more concentrated waters at depth along fracture zones was modeled using the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling package. A cation exchange model was added to the code to describe simultaneously aqueous speciation, mineral precipitation/dissolution, and equilibration between a fluid and a cation exchanger. Fluid chemistries predicted to result from mixing were compared with those monitored from boreholes intersecting the fracture zone. Modeling results suggest that less than 0.1 equivalent of a smectite exchanger per liter of groundwater is necessary to account for discrepancies between predictions from a conservative mixing model and measured Na and Ca concentrations. This quantity of exchanger equates to an effective fracture coating thickness of 20 microm or less given a fracture aperture width of 1,000 microm or less. Trends in cation ratios in the fluid cannot be used to predict trends in cation ratios on the exchanger because of the influence of ionic strength on heterovalent exchange equilibrium. It is expected that Na for Ca exchange will dominate when shallow waters such as HBHO2 are mixed with deeper waters. In contrast, Na for Mg exchange will dominate mixing between deeper waters

  7. CO 2 adsorption in mono-, di- and trivalent cation-exchanged metal-organic frameworks: A molecular simulation study

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yifei


    A molecular simulation study is reported for CO 2 adsorption in rho zeolite-like metal-organic framework (rho-ZMOF) exchanged with a series of cations (Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, and Al 3+). The isosteric heat and Henry\\'s constant at infinite dilution increase monotonically with increasing charge-to-diameter ratio of cation (Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ < Al 3+). At low pressures, cations act as preferential adsorption sites for CO 2 and the capacity follows the charge-to-diameter ratio. However, the free volume of framework becomes predominant with increasing pressure and Mg-rho-ZMOF appears to possess the highest saturation capacity. The equilibrium locations of cations are observed to shift slightly upon CO 2 adsorption. Furthermore, the adsorption selectivity of CO 2/H 2 mixture increases as Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ ≈ Al 3+. At ambient conditions, the selectivity is in the range of 800-3000 and significantly higher than in other nanoporous materials. In the presence of 0.1% H 2O, the selectivity decreases drastically because of the competitive adsorption between H 2O and CO 2, and shows a similar value in all of the cation-exchanged rho-ZMOFs. This simulation study provides microscopic insight into the important role of cations in governing gas adsorption and separation, and suggests that the performance of ionic rho-ZMOF can be tailored by cations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for bioproduct recovery from crude process liquors by high-gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L; Hobley, Timothy John


    of epichlorohydrin formed on the particle surface. The resultant cation-exchanger had a maximum lysozyme binding capacity of 272 mg g(-1) and a dissociation constant of 0.73 muM. Using lysozyme as a model protein in small-scale studies, appropriate conditions were then selected for the capture of lactoperoxidase......Different routes were screened for the preparation of superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for the capture of proteins using high-gradient magnetic fishing. Starting from a polyglutaraldehyde-coated base particle, the most successful of these involved attachment of sulphite to oligomers...

  9. Destruction of gel sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type under the influence of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roginskaya, B.S.; Zavadovskaya, A.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Paskhina, N.A.; Dobrova, E.I.


    The purpose of this work was to study the mechanism of interaction of Soviet sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type with hydrogen peroxide. It is shown that under the influence of hydrogen peroxide sulfonated cation-exchangers begin, after a certain induction period, to lose capacity and to release destruction products into water; the length of the induction period increases with the degree of cross-linking. In a given time of contact between the resin and the solution the degree of destruction falls with increase of cross-linking. The principal product of destruction of sulfonated cation-exchangers is an aromatic sulfonic acid containing oxidized groups in the side chains.

  10. The influence of temperature and P/P0 upon cationic exchange constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Vieillard, P.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaboreau, S.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffaut, E.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The knowledge of thermodynamic properties of clay minerals forming clay materials is important in the context of a disposal within clayey formations (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) or for clayey barriers. Different experiments have been previously performed concerning the long term behavior of clay materials, indicating that strong transformations are influenced by the alkaline solutions issued from the cementitious materials. But the first stages of the transformations affect the hydration and exchange capacity of the mineral, which are closely related to their retention properties. This work aims at assessing the influence of temperature and relative humidity upon the thermodynamic functions related to cationic exchange and hydration reactions. It is carried out within the framework of the Thermochimie project, aiming at defining a consistent thermodynamic database for modeling purposes. This work is an extension of the thermodynamic of hydration study carried out by Vieillard et al. (2010). Using the same, regular, solid solution model developed by the authors, we first consider the influence of temperature on the hydration reaction by expressing the hydration constant LogK hyd (T) according to the enthalpy and entropy of hydration and to the gas constant. Predicted isotherms are then compared with experimental data acquired on the MX80 smectite at 40, 60, 75, 90 and 100 deg. C. We now consider a cationic exchange reaction between cations A+ and B+, with z cations per mole of smectite and y2 and y1 mole of water per mole of smectite for A and B end members, respectively. The exchange constant LogK A/B , for a given temperature and relative humidity, is expressed as a function of the difference between anhydrous end members, and of the difference between anhydrous end-members activities. A comparison with room temperature exchange constants derived from experiments suggests that discrepancies are related to

  11. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes (United States)

    Chum, Helena L.; Sopher, David W.


    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  12. PEMFC contamination model: Foreign cation exchange with ionomer protons (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean


    A generic, transient fuel cell ohmic loss mathematical model was developed for the case of contaminants that ion exchange with ionomer protons. The model was derived using step changes in contaminant concentration, constant operating conditions and foreign cation transport via liquid water droplets. In addition, the effect of ionomer cations redistribution within the ionomer on thermodynamic, kinetic and mass transport losses and migration were neglected. Thus, a simpler, ideal, ohmic loss case is defined and is applicable to uncharged contaminant species and gas phase contaminants. The closed form solutions were validated using contamination data from a membrane exposed to NH3. The model needs to be validated against contamination and recovery data sets including an NH4+ contaminated membrane exposed to a water stream. A method is proposed to determine model parameters and relies on the prior knowledge of the initial ionomer resistivity. The model expands the number of previously derived cases. Most models in this inventory, derived with the assumption that the reactant is absent, lead to different dimensionless current vs. time behaviors similar to a fingerprint. These model characteristics facilitate contaminant mechanism identification. Separation between membrane and catalyst (electroinactive contaminant) contamination is conceivably possible using additional indicative cell resistance measurements. Contamination is predicted to be significantly more severe under low relative humidity conditions.

  13. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.


    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  14. Converting Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 via Tl-Hg cation exchange in combination with Tl cation intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hua; Wu, Judy Z


    In a cation exchange process developed recently for epitaxy of HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6 (Hg-1212) thin films, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (Tl-1212) or Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 9 (Tl-2212) precursor films were employed as the precursor matrices and Hg-1212 was obtained by replacing Tl cations on the precursor lattice with Hg cations. The reversibility of the cation exchange dictates directly the underlying mechanism. Following our recent success in demonstrating a complete reversibility within '1212' structure, we show the conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 can be achieved via two steps: conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-1212 followed by Tl intercalation to form double Tl-O plans in each unit cell. The demonstrated reversibility of the cation exchange process has confirmed the process is a thermal perturbation of weakly bonded cations on the lattice and the direction of the process is determined by the population ratio between the replacing cations and that to be replaced

  15. Cation Exchange Efficiency Of Modified Bentonite Using In-Situ GAMMA Radiation Polymerization Of Acrylic Acid Or Acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Modified bentonites as cation exchangers were prepared by treating raw bentonite with 3N NaOH at 95 0 C followed by in-situ polymerization using gamma irradiation as well as hydrogen peroxide initiation of acrylic acid or acrylamide in the matrix.Water swelling and acid capacity were determined and cation exchange capacity for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ was evaluated. It has been found that catiexchange capacity of treated bentonite was increased as result of formed polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide in the matrix. In case of acrylic acid, the maximum cation exchange capacities of 3.5, 3.1 and 2.5 mg equivalent/g were determined for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ , respectively, and for acrylamide, the corresponding capacities were 2.9, 2.8 and 2.6 mg equivalent/g, respectively. Water swelling was found to be associated with holding large amounts of water, for instance, 49 g of water was sorbed per one gram of the sodium salt form of polyacrylic acid in bentonite matrix, in other words the degree of swelling in water achieved 4500%.

  16. Persorption of 35S-labelled cation exchangers in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedek, W.; Grahl, R.; Mothes, B.; Reuter, H.; Sabrowski, E.; Moehring, M.


    Persorption rates were determined of 35 S-labelled cation exchangers (sulphonated polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymerisate) in two particle sizes, between 80μm and 125μm and smaller than 45μm in diameter, following oral administration to pigs of one single dose of 5 g / 25 kg body weight. Maximum persorption rates were 5 x 10 -3 after 51 hours and 7 x 10 -4 after 35 days for the larger particle size. For the fine grain sample the persorption rate showed already after 51 hours a lower value of 2 x 10 -3 , after 35 days it reached with 5 x 10 -4 approximately the same value as it was observed with the large grain sample. About 80 per cent of all substance recorded had been absorbed by muscles. Only less than 1 x 10 -4 of water-soluble 35 S activity and less than 2 x 10 -5 of solid particles were recordable from urine and could be, as well, identified directly by means of autoradiography. The number of particles absorbed by fine grain samples was roughly a hundred times higher than that in large grain samples. However, absorbed amounts were approximately the same after 35 days, related to the SO 3 H group active in ion exchange. The conclusion was drawn that no dependence of persorption rates on particle size was any longer detectable, when 35 days had passed. (author)

  17. Iridium containing honeycomb Delafossites by topotactic cation exchange. (United States)

    Roudebush, John H; Ross, K A; Cava, R J


    We report the structure and magnetic properties of two new iridium-based honeycomb Delafossite compounds, Cu3NaIr2O6 and Cu3LiIr2O6, formed by a topotactic cation exchange reaction. The starting materials Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3, which are based on layers of IrO6 octahedra in a honeycomb lattice separated by layers of alkali ions, are transformed to the title compounds by a topotactic exchange reaction through heating with CuCl below 450 °C; higher temperature reactions cause decomposition. The new compounds display dramatically different magnetic behavior from their parent compounds - Cu3NaIr2O6 has a ferromagnetic like magnetic transition at 10 K, while Cu3LiIr2O6 retains the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of its parent compound but displays significantly stronger dominance of antiferromagnetic coupling between spins. These results reveal that a surprising difference in the magnetic interactions between the magnetic Ir ions has been induced by a change in the non-magnetic interlayer species. A combination of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction is used for the structure refinement of Cu3NaIr2O6 and both compounds are compared to their parent materials.

  18. Reactive transport modeling of multicomponent cation exchange at the laboratory and field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, Carl I.


    Multicomponent ion exchange models have been successful in describing the chromatographic separation of cations in both laboratory and field settings. Their chief advantage lies in their ability to capture the competitive effects of other cations that may be present. By incorporating exchanger activity coefficients calculated on the basis of the Gibbs-Duhem equation applied to the exchanger phase, it is possible to correct for the non-ideality of exchange. The use of multiple exchange sites can also substantially improve the ability of the cation exchange models to describe adsorption and retardation. All of these benefits are associated with relatively little additional computational burden. Even where the cost of the multicomponent cation exchange calculations are considered too high, the models are useful in calculating distribution coefficients for the environmental conditions of interest

  19. Enhanced DOC removal using anion and cation ion exchange resins. (United States)

    Arias-Paic, Miguel; Cawley, Kaelin M; Byg, Steve; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L


    Hardness and DOC removal in a single ion exchange unit operation allows for less infrastructure, is advantageous for process operation and depending on the water source, could enhance anion exchange resin removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Simultaneous application of cationic (Plus) and anionic (MIEX) ion exchange resin in a single contact vessel was tested at pilot and bench scales, under multiple regeneration cycles. Hardness removal correlated with theoretical predictions; where measured hardness was between 88 and 98% of the predicted value. Comparing bench scale DOC removal of solely treating water with MIEX compared to Plus and MIEX treated water showed an enhanced DOC removal, where removal was increased from 0.5 to 1.25 mg/L for the simultaneous resin application compared to solely applying MIEX resin. A full scale MIEX treatment plant (14.5 MGD) reduced raw water DOC from 13.7 mg/L to 4.90 mg/L in the treated effluent at a bed volume (BV) treatment rate of 800, where a parallel operation of a simultaneous MIEX and Plus resin pilot (10 gpm) measured effluent DOC concentrations of no greater than 3.4 mg/L, even at bed volumes of treatment 37.5% greater than the full scale plant. MIEX effluent compared to simultaneous Plus and MIEX effluent resulted in differences in fluorescence intensity that correlated to decreases in DOC concentration. The simultaneous treatment of Plus and MIEX resin produced water with predominantly microbial character, indicating the enhanced DOC removal was principally due to increased removal of terrestrially derived organic matter. The addition of Plus resin to a process train with MIEX resin allows for one treatment process to remove both DOC and hardness, where a single brine waste stream can be sent to sewer at a full-scale plant, completely removing lime chemical addition and sludge waste disposal for precipitative softening processes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Ca-Na cation exchange in zeolite A: a microscopic approach using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffritti, G.B.; Demontis, P.; Sale, R.; Gulin-Gonzalez, J.


    Molecular dynamics computer simulation technique was applied to the study of Ca-Na cation exchange in hydrated zeolite A, one of the most widely exploited cation exchange processes in practical applications. The exchange can occur only by breaking and reconstructing the coordination shell of the cations, so that some steps of the mechanism show a high activation energy, even if the overall energy difference between the starting and the final states of the process is relatively small. Therefore, special procedures such as umbrella sampling must be used to force the system to overcome the energy barriers. The cation exchange appeared to follow a highly coordinated mechanism, and a complete exploration of the free-energy hypersurface is required to obtain quantitative results. In this paper some interesting qualitative features of the cation exchange process arc anticipated.

  1. Metal cation exchange reactions of ore minerals in Fe-Mn crusts of the Marcus Wake Rise (Pacific Ocean) in aqueous-salt solutions (United States)

    Novikov, G. V.; Bogdanova, O. Yu.; Melnikov, M. E.; Drozdova, A. N.; Lobus, N. V.; Shulga, N. A.


    It is shown that the reaction ability of metal cations of ore minerals in Fe-Mn crusts of the Marcus Wake Rise increases in the following manner: (Co2+ minerals is constant and includes these metal cations. Ca2+ and Na+ are major contributors to the exchange capacity of the ore minerals. The capacity of the ore minerals by cations of alkali and base metals is 0.43-0.60 and 2.08-2.70 mg-equiv/g, respectively. The exchange capacity of the ore minerals by cations of base metals increases linearly with the increase in the MnO2 content of the crust and does not depend on the geographical locations of the Marcus Wake guyots.

  2. Preparation of Cation-Exchange Particle Designed for High-Speed Collection of Proteins by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization (United States)

    Sekiya, Yuta; Shimoda, Yuichi; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Furumoto, Goro; Shirataki, Hironobu; Shinohara, Naoyuki; Kubota, Noboru

    A cation-exchange polymer brush was immobilized onto a polyethylene-based particle with an average diameter of 35 μm by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and subsequent sulfonation with sodium sulfite. A lysozyme solution was forced to flow through a bed (height 2 cm, cross-sectional area 0.61 cm2) charged with the resultant cation-exchange particles at a space velocity ranging from 500 to 2300 h-1. From a viewpoint of equilibrium binding capacity and elution percentage of lysozyme, the dose of electron beam and the degree of GMA grafting were optimized to be 200 kGy and 100%, respectively. The bed exhibited a constant dynamic binding capacity of lysozyme 14 mg⁄mL irrespective of space velocity due to negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance.

  3. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells? (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C


    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Titanate as Cation Exchanger and Their Use in the Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Belacy, N.; Mohamed, D.A.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.


    Anew class of inorganic ion exchanger called crystalline silicon titanates has excellent chemical and radiation stability. The materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium and several other radionuclides from highly acidic solutions. The ion exchange capacity was determined for Na +, Cs +, Co 2+ and Sr 2+ ions and found to be 1.17 , 1.9, 1.38 and 1.52 meq./g, respectively. Besides, the drying temperature of silicon titanates have a profound effect on the ion exchange capacities and distribution coefficient values of the above mentioned cations. Moreover, the studied results of distribution coefficient indicating the ability of separation of these radionuclides from radwaste solutions

  5. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.


    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  6. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Zhaoguo; Chi Renqing; Niu Xuejun


    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  7. [Interactions between proteins and cation exchange adsorbents analyzed by NMR and hydrogen/deuterium exchange technique]. (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Hao, Dongxia; Qi, Shuting; Ma, Guanghui


    In silico acquirement of the accurate residue details of protein on chromatographic media is a bottleneck in protein chromatography separation and purification. Here we developed a novel approach by coupling with H/D exchange and nuclear magnetic resonance to observe hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) unfolding behavior adsorbed on cation exchange media (SP Sepharose FF). Analysis of 1D 1H-NMR shows that protein unfolding accelerated H/D exchange rate, leading to more loss of signal of amide hydrogen owing to exposure of residues and the more unfolding of protein. Analysis of two-dimensional hydrogen-hydrogen total correlation spectroscopy shows that lysozyme lost more signals and experienced great unfolding during its adsorption on media surface. However, for several distinct fragments, the protection degrees varied, the adsorbed lysozyme lost more signal intensity and was less protected at disorder structures (coil, bend, and turn), but was comparatively more protected against exchange at secondary structure domains (α-helix, β-sheet). Finally, the binding site was determined by electrostatic calculations using computer simulation methods in conjunction with hydrogen deuterium labeled protein and NMR. This study would help deeply understand the microscopic mechanism of protein chromatography and guide the purposely design of chromatographic process and media. Moreover, it also provide an effective tool to study the protein and biomaterials interaction in other applications.

  8. Atomistic understanding of cation exchange in PbS nanocrystals using simulations with pseudoligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Buijs, Wim; Vlugt, Thijs J.H.; van Huis, M.A.


    Cation exchange is a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanostructures such as core–shell nanocrystals, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Interactions of cations with ligands and solvent molecules are systematically ignored in simulations. Here, we introduce the concept of

  9. Synthesis, dehydration studies, and cation-exchange behavior of a new phase of niobium(V) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Ahmad, A.; Shakeel, N.A.; Gupta, A.P.


    Twenty-three samples of niobium(V) phosphate have been synthesized under different conditions using niobium sulfate and phosphoric acid solutions. The amorphous sample having the ion-exchange capacity of 1.06 mEq g -1 and niobium to phosphorus mole ratio of 0.670 was studied in detail for its cation-exchange behavior. Molar distribution coefficients for 25 cations have been studied on this gel at pH 1,2,3, and 5.5. Four quantitative separations of Mg 2+ -Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ -Ba 2+ , Zn 2+ -Cd 2+ , and Bi 3+ -Zn 2+ have successfully been achieved on it. The properties of this sample have been compared with those of niobium arsenate, niobium antimonate, and niobium molybdate. A tentative structural formula is proposed for this sample of niobium phosphate on the basis of chemical composition, cation-exchange capacity, pH-titration, IR spectra, T.G.A., water absorption, and heat treatment data. (author)

  10. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Hanzhong; Li, Li; Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue; Li, Xiyou; Wang, Chuanyi


    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe 3+ > Al 3+ > Cu 2+ >> Ca 2+ > K + > Na + , which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na + -smectite and K + -smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe 3+ , Al 3+ , and Cu 2+ are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O 2 − · , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation

  11. Exchangeable cations-mediated photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on smectite surface under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Hanzhong, E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Li, Li [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Chen, Hongxia; Zhao, Yue [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); School of Geology and Mining Engineering, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Li, Xiyou [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Wang, Chuanyi, E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics & Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Roles of exchangeable cations in PAHs photodegradation on clay surafces under visible light. - Highlights: • Photolysis rate are strongly dependent on the type of cations on clay surface. • The strength of “cation–π” interactions governs the photodegradation rate of PAHs. • Several exchangeable cations could cause a shift in the absorption spectrum of PAHs. • Exchangeable cations influence the type and amount of reactive intermediates. - Abstract: Clay minerals saturated with different exchangeable cations are expected to play various roles in photodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) via direct and/or indirect pathways on clay surfaces. In the present study, anthracene and phenanthrene were selected as molecule probes to investigate the roles of exchangeable cations on their photodegradation under visible light irradiation. For five types of cation-modified smectite clays, the photodegradation rate of anthracene and phenanthrene follows the order: Fe{sup 3+} > Al{sup 3+} > Cu{sup 2+} >> Ca{sup 2+} > K{sup +} > Na{sup +}, which is consistent with the binding energy of cation–π interactions between PAHs and exchangeable cations. The result suggests that PAHs photolysis rate depends on cation–π interactions on clay surfaces. Meanwhile, the deposition of anthracene at the Na{sup +}-smectite and K{sup +}-smectite surface favors solar light absorption, resulting in enhanced direct photodecomposition of PAHs. On the other hand, smectite clays saturated with Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cu{sup 2+} are highly photoreactive and can act as potential catalysts giving rise to oxidative radicals such as O{sub 2}{sup −}· , which initiate the transformation of PAHs. The present work provides valuable insights into understanding the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and sheds light on the development of technologies for contaminated land remediation.

  12. Ion transport resistance in Microbial Electrolysis Cells with anion and cation exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Previous studies have shown that Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) perform better when an anion exchange membrane (AEM) than when a cation exchange membrane (CEM) separates the electrode chambers. Here, we have further studied this phenomenon by comparing two analysis methods for

  13. Cation exchange applications of synthetic tobermorite for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immobilization and solidification of hazardous cations like Cs137 and Sr90 are required while handling the radioactive waste of nuclear power plants. Efforts are on to find a fail proof method of safe disposal of nuclear wastes. In this context, various materials like borosilicate glass, zeolites, cements and synthetic rocks have ...

  14. Ultrathin Sicopion Composite Cation-Exchange Membranes: Characteristics and Electrodialytic Performance following a Conditioning Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ayala-Bribiesca


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the properties of Sicopion membranes: an ultrathin (≈20 μm composite cation-exchange membrane (CEM made from sulphonated poly(ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK containing different levels of sulphonic-functionalized silica particles (SFSPs. Sicopion membranes were conditioned according to the French Normalization Association procedure, consisting in a series of acid and alkaline washes, and their electrodialytic characteristics were compared to an existent commercial food-grade membrane (CMX-SB. Electrical conductivity of Sicopion membranes was higher than that of CMX-SB membranes (9.92 versus 6.98 mS/cm, as well as their water content (34.0 versus 27.6%. As the SFSP level was reduced, the ion-exchange capacity (IEC of Sicopion membranes increased. Concerning their electrodialytic performances, Sicopion membranes presented a lower demineralization rate than CMX-SB membranes (35.9 versus 45.5%, due to an OH− leakage through the pores created by dislodging the SFSP particles during the conditioning procedure.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carboxylic cation exchange bio-resin for heavy metal remediation. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vihangraj V; Golder, Animes Kumar; Ghosh, Pranab Kumar


    A new carboxylic bio-resin was synthesized from raw arecanut husk through mercerization and ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) carboxylation. The synthesized bio-resin was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, proximate & ultimate analyses, mass percent gain/loss, potentiometric titrations, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mercerization extracted lignin from the vesicles on the husk and EDTAD was ridged in to, through an acylation reaction in dimethylformamide media. The reaction induced carboxylic groups as high as 0.735mM/g and a cation exchange capacity of 2.01meq/g functionalized mercerized husk (FMH). Potentiometric titration data were fitted to a newly developed single-site proton adsorption model (PAM) that gave pKa of 3.29 and carboxylic groups concentration of 0.741mM/g. FMH showed 99% efficiency in Pb(II) removal from synthetic wastewater (initial concentration 0.157mM), for which the Pb(II) binding constant was 1.73×10 3 L/mol as estimated from modified PAM. The exhaustion capacity was estimated to be 18.7mg/g of FMH. Desorption efficiency of Pb(II) from exhausted FMH was found to be about 97% with 0.1N HCl. The FMH simultaneously removed lead and cadmium below detection limit from a real lead acid battery wastewater along with the removal of Fe, Mg, Ni, and Co. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Reserpine Adsorption onto Strong Acidic Cationic Exchange Fiber (United States)

    Guo, Zhanjing; Liu, Xiongmin; Huang, Hongmiao


    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process of reserpine adsorbed onto the strong acidic cationic exchange fiber (SACEF) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption capacity strongly depended on pH values, and the optimum reserpine adsorption onto the SACEF occurred at pH = 5 of reserpine solution. With the increase of temperature and initial concentration, the adsorption capacity increased. The equilibrium was attained within 20 mins. The adsorption process could be better described by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The calculated activation energy Ea was 4.35 kJ/mol. And the thermodynamic parameters were: 4.97thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the adsorption was an endothermic, spontaneous and feasible process of physisorption within the temperature range between 283 K and 323 K and the initial concentration range between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. All the results showed that the SACEF had a good adsorption performance for the adsorption of reserpine from alcoholic solution. PMID:26422265

  17. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren


    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...

  18. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization for the preparation of norbornene-based weak cation-exchange monolithic capillary columns. (United States)

    Gatschelhofer, Christina; Mautner, Agnes; Reiter, Franz; Pieber, Thomas R; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Sinner, Frank M


    Functionalized monolithic columns were prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) within silanized fused silica capillaries with an internal diameter of 200 microm by in situ grafting. This procedure is conducted in two steps, the first of which is the formation of the basic monolithic structure by polymerization of norborn-2-ene (NBE) and 1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4,5,8-exo,endo-dimethanonaphthalene (DMN-H6) in a porogenic system (toluene and 2-propanol) using RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh) as ROMP initiator. In the second step the still active initiator sites located on the surface of the structure-forming microglobules were used as receptor groups for the attachment ("grafting") of functional groups onto the monolithic backbone by flushing the monolith with 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-5,6-carboxylic anhydride (ONDCA). Functionalization conditions were first defined that did not damage the backbone of low polymer content (20%) monoliths allowing high-throughput chromatographic separations. Variation of the functionalization conditions was then shown to provide a means of controlling the degree of functionalization and resulting ion-exchange capacity. The maximum level of in situ ONDCA grafting was obtained by a 3h polymerization in toluene at 40 degrees C. The weak cation-exchange monoliths obtained provided good separation of a standard peptide mixture comprising four synthetic peptides designed specifically for the evaluation of cation-exchange columns. An equivalent separation was also achieved using the lowest capacity column studied, indicative of a high degree of robustness of the functionalization procedure. As well as demonstrably bearing ionic functional groups enabling analyte separation in the cation-exchange mode, the columns exhibited additional hydrophobic characteristics which influenced the separation process. The functionalized monoliths thus represent useful tools for mixed-mode separations.

  19. Esterification of phenyl acetic acid withp-cresol using metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclay catalysts. (United States)

    Bhaskar, M; Surekha, M; Suma, N


    The liquid phase esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p -cresol over different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays yields p -cresyl phenyl acetate. Different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays (M n +  = Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ ) were prepared and the catalytic activity was studied. The esterification reaction was conducted by varying molar ratio of the reactants, reaction time and catalyst amount on the yield of the ester. Among the different metal cation exchanged catalysts used, Al 3+ -montmorillonite nanoclay was found to be more active. The characterization of the material used was studied under different techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The product obtained, p -cresyl phenyl acetate, was identified by thin-layer chromotography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. The regeneration activity of used catalyst was also investigated up to fourth generation.

  20. Sorption of elements on phosphonic acid cation exchanger from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbash, A.A.; Sevast'yanov, Yu.G.; Bykhovskii, D.N.


    The coefficients of distribution of 25 elements between KRF-20t-60 macroporous phosphonic acid cation exchanger and 0.1-2.0 M nitric acid have been determined by a static method. The above cation exchanger has a high affinity for some multivalent metal ions like Fe (III) , In (III) , Ce (IV) , Ti (IV) , etc. A mechanism has been proposed which explains the increase in cerium(IV) sorption with the rise of acid concentration above 2 M. An example of separation of an artificial mixture of lead and bismuth has been given

  1. On the Structure-Property Relationships of Cation-Exchanged ZK-5 Zeolites for CO 2 Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Trong D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA; Hudson, Matthew R. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg Maryland 20899 USA; Brown, Craig M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA; Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg Maryland 20899 USA; Lobo, Raul F. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA


    The CO2 adsorption properties of cation-exchanged Li-, Na-, K-, and Mg-ZK-5 zeolites were correlated to the molecular structures determined by Rietveld refinements of synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Li-, K-, and Na-ZK-5 all exhibited high isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst) at low CO2 coverage, with Na-ZK-5 having the highest Qst (ca. 49 kJ mol-1). Mg2+ was located at the center of the zeolite hexagonal prism with the cation inaccessible to CO2, leading to a much lower Qst (ca. 30 kJ mol-1) and lower overall uptake capacity. Multiple CO2 adsorption sites were identified at a given CO2 loading amount for all four cation-exchanged ZK-5 adsorbents. Site A at the flat eight-membered ring windows and site B/B* in the γ-cages were the primary adsorption sites in Li- and Na-ZK-5 zeolites. Relatively strong dual-cation adsorption sites contributed significantly to an enhanced electrostatic interaction for CO2 in all ZK-5 samples. This interaction gives rise to a migration of Li+ and Mg2+ cations from their original locations at the center of the hexagonal prisms toward the α-cages, in which they interact more strongly with the adsorbed CO2.

  2. The effect of exchangeable cations in clinoptilolite and montmorillonite on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by cation-exchanged clinoptilolite zeolitic tuff and montmorillonite was investigated at 37°C and pH 3.8 from an aqueous electrolyte having a composition similar to that of gastric juices of animals. Both minerals were exchanged from the natural form to the sodium form and then to the Cu2+, Zn2+ and Co2+-rich forms. The cation exchange was different for the different cations, but in all cases the exchanges were larger on montmorillonite than on clinoptilolite. The degree of exchange on montmorillonite was 76 % for copper (from a total of CEC 0.95 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.73 meq/g and 85 % for zinc and cobalt. Under the same conditions (concentration, temperature, pH, contact time, the degree of exchange on zeolitic tuff was 12 % for Cu2+ (from a total CEC of 1.46 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.17 meq/g, 8 % for Zn2+ and 10 % for Co2+. Both groups of mineral adsorbents showed high AFB1 chemisorption indexes (ca. For the montmorillonite forms, ca ranged from 0.75 for the Cu-exchanged montmorillonite to 0.89 for the natural Ca-form, 0.90 for the Zn-exchanged form and 0.93 for the Co-exchanged montmorillonite. The adsorption of AFB1 on the different exchanged forms of clinoptilolite gave similar values of ca for the Cu and Ca forms (0.90 and values of 0.94 and 0.95 for the Zn- and Co-exchanged form. The impact of the mineral adsorbents on the reduction of essential nutrients present in animal feed (Cu, Zn, Mn and Co showed that the Ca-rich montmorillonite had a higher capability for the reduction of the microelements than the Ca-rich clinoptilolite.

  3. Exchange of interlayer cations in micaceous minerals. Final report, February 1, 1967--August 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.D.


    Laboratory experiments were carried out to establish a comprehensive understanding of the processes and factors governing the sorption and release of interlayer cations in micaceous minerals. A diverse approach with several lines of work was used to delineate the effects of different procedures, solution compositions and mineral properties. It was soon clear that the major factors controlling the exchange of interlayer cations are the blocking effects of dissolved fixable cations and the limiting effects of small particles. By using sodium tetraphenylboron to reduce the blocking effects and by excluding particles that were smaller than 2 μm, however, the subtle effects of many other factors were brought out. The redox status of structural iron, the hydroxyl groups, the interlayer spacing and the layer charge of the minerals are indicative of the type of factors involved and the fact that they are mainly interactive in nature. One conclusion from this work is that most experimental results for interlayer cation exchange are bound to reflect some combination of the controlling factors. More important, however, was the observation that proper management of interlayer cation exchange can make micaceous minerals a good sink for cesium and source of potassium

  4. [Determination of soil exchangeable base cations by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and extraction with ammonium acetate]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-ge; Xiao, Min; Dong, Yi-hua; Jiang, Yong


    A method to determine soil exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and extraction with ammonium acetate was developed. Results showed that the accuracy of exchangeable base cation data with AAS method fits well with the national standard referential soil data. The relative errors for parallel samples of exchangeable Ca and Mg with 66 pair samples ranged from 0.02%-3.14% and 0.06%-4.06%, and averaged to be 1.22% and 1.25%, respectively. The relative errors for exchangeable K and Na with AAS and flame photometer (FP) ranged from 0.06%-8.39% and 0.06-1.54, and averaged to be 3.72% and 0.56%, respectively. A case study showed that the determination method for exchangeable base cations by using AAS was proven to be reliable and trustable, which could reflect the real situation of soil cation exchange properties in farmlands.

  5. Enhanced desorption of Cs from clays by a polymeric cation-exchange agent. (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo


    We report on a new approach to increase the removal of cesium from contaminated clays based on the intercalation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into the clay interlayers. A highly charged cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI), was shown to intercalate into the negatively charged interlayers and readily replaced Cs ions adsorbed on the interlayers of montmorillonite. The polycation desorbed significantly more Cs strongly bound to the clay than did single cations. Moreover, additional NH 4 + treatment following the PEI treatment enhanced desorption of Cs ions that were less accessible by the bulky polyelectrolyte. This synergistic effect of PEI with NH 4 + yielded efficient desorption (95%) of an extremely low concentration of radioactive 137 Cs in the clay, which is very difficult to remove by simple cation-exchange methods due to the increased stability of the binding of Cs to the clay at low Cs concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conventional resin cation exchangers versus EDI for CACE measurement in power plants. Feasibility and practical field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Manuel [Swan Systeme AG, Hinwil (Switzerland)


    The conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger in power plants with steam turbines was introduced soon after 1950 by Larson and Lane. Due to the simple measuring principle, the sensitivity to ionic contaminations and to its high reliability, the conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger (CACE) has become the most commonly used online analytical method in power plants with steam generators. Swan has investigated electro deionisation (EDI) as substitution of the conventional cation exchange resin and has developed a new conductivity instrument using this principle. This paper provides a description of the conventional method for cation conductivity measurements as well as of the new AMI CACE using EDI method.

  7. Evaluation of a Weakly Cationic Exchange Poly (Methacrylic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Tablets made from PMD (thickness: 3.54 - 4.46 mm) were thicker than those of MCC (2.93 - 3.33 mm). At compression pressures ≥ 309 MPa, the crushing strength of PMD tablets was so high that it exceeded the capacity of the tester (500 N). PMD tablets rapidly disintegrated (0.43 - 9.56 min), but MCC tablets did ...

  8. Implications of cation exchange on clay release and colloid-facilitated transport in porous media. (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Kim, Hyunjung


    Column experiments were conducted to study chemical factors that influence the release of clay (kaolinite and quartz minerals) from saturated Ottawa sand of different sizes (710,360, and 240 microm). A relatively minor enhancement of clay release occurred when the pH was increased (5.8 to 10) or the ionic strength (IS) was decreased to deionized (DI) water. In contrast, clay release was dramatically enhanced when monovalent Na+ was exchanged for multivalent cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) on the clay and sand and then the solution IS was reduced to DI water. This solution chemistry sequence decreased the adhesive force acting on the clay as a result of an increase in the magnitude of the clay and sand zeta potential with cation exchange, and expansion of the double layer thickness with a decrease in IS to DI water. The amount of clay release was directly dependent on the Na+ concentration of the exchanging solution and on the initial clay content of the sand (0.026-0.054% of the total mass). These results clearly demonstrated the importance of the order and magnitude of the solution chemistry sequence on clay release. Column results and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images also indicated that the clay was reversibly retained on the sand, despite predictions of irreversible interaction in the primary minimum. One plausible explanation is that adsorbed cations increased the separation distance between the clay-solid interfaces as a result of repulsive hydration forces. A cleaning procedure was subsequently developed to remove clay via cation exchange and IS reduction; SEM images demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. The transport of Cu2+ was then shown to be dramatically enhanced by an order of magnitude in peak concentration by adsorption on clays that were released following cation exchange and IS reduction.

  9. Model Simulations of a Field Experiment on Cation Exchange-affected Multicomponent Solute Transport in a Sandy Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ammentorp, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    A large-scale and long-term field experiment on cation exchange in a sandy aquifer has been modelled by a three-dimensional geochemical transport model. The geochemical model includes cation-exchange processes using a Gaines-Thomas expression, the closed carbonate system and the effects of ionic...... by batch experiments and by the composition of the cations on the exchange complex. Potassium showed a non-ideal exchange behaviour with K&z.sbnd;Ca selectivity coefficients indicating dependency on equivalent fraction and K+ concentration in the aqueous phase. The model simulations over a distance of 35 m...

  10. Cation exchange in a temporally fluctuating thin freshwater lens on top of saline groundwater (United States)

    Eeman, S.; De Louw, P. G. B.; Van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.


    In coastal-zone fields with a high groundwater level and sufficient rainfall, freshwater lenses are formed on top of saline or brackish groundwater. The fresh and the saline water meet at shallow depth, where a transition zone is found. This study investigates the mixing zone that is characterized by this salinity change, as well as by cation exchange processes, and which is forced by seepage and by rainfall which varies as a function of time. The processes are first investigated for a one-dimensional (1D) stream tube perpendicular to the interface concerning salt and major cation composition changes. The complex sequence of changes is explained with basic cation exchange theory. It is also possible to show that the sequence of changes is maintained when a two-dimensional field is considered where the upward saline seepage flows to drains. This illustrates that for cation exchange, the horizontal component (dominant for flow of water) has a small impact on the chemical changes in the vertical direction. The flow's horizontal orientation, parallel to the interface, leads to changes in concentration that are insignificant compared with those that are found perpendicular to the interface, and are accounted for in the 1D flow tube. Near the drains, differences with the 1D considerations are visible, especially in the longer term, exceeding 100 years. The simulations are compared with field data from the Netherlands which reveal similar patterns.

  11. In vivo cation exchange in quantum dots for tumor-specific imaging. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyou; Braun, Gary B; Qin, Mingde; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sugahara, Kazuki N


    In vivo tumor imaging with nanoprobes suffers from poor tumor specificity. Here, we introduce a nanosystem, which allows selective background quenching to gain exceptionally tumor-specific signals. The system uses near-infrared quantum dots and a membrane-impermeable etchant, which serves as a cation donor. The etchant rapidly quenches the quantum dots through cation exchange (ionic etching), and facilitates renal clearance of metal ions released from the quantum dots. The quantum dots are intravenously delivered into orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice by using the tumor-penetrating iRGD peptide. Subsequent etching quenches excess quantum dots, leaving a highly tumor-specific signal provided by the intact quantum dots remaining in the extravascular tumor cells and fibroblasts. No toxicity is noted. The system also facilitates the detection of peritoneal tumors with high specificity upon intraperitoneal tumor targeting and selective etching of excess untargeted quantum dots. In vivo cation exchange may be a promising strategy to enhance specificity of tumor imaging.The imaging of tumors in vivo using nanoprobes has been challenging due to the lack of sufficient tumor specificity. Here, the authors develop a tumor-specific quantum dot system that permits in vivo cation exchange to achieve selective background quenching and high tumor-specific imaging.

  12. Composite membranes prepared from cation exchange membranes and polyaniline and their transport properties in electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Tshikatsu; Ishii, Yuuko; Kawamura, Kohei; Matsusaki, Koji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube City, Yamaguchi (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    A cation exchange membrane was modified with polyaniline by polymerizing aniline with ammonium peroxodisulfate on the membrane surfaces, producing a membrane with polyaniline layers on both surfaces or a membrane with a single polyaniline layer on the surface. The modified membranes, composite membranes, showed sodium ion permselectivity in electrodialysis compared with divalent cations at an optimum polymerization time. The electronic conductivity of dry membranes showed a maximum (ca. 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) at the same polymerization time as the time to attain a maximum value of the sodium ion permselectivity. Because emeraldine-based polyaniline is conductive and has a cationic charge, the sodium ion permselectivity is based on the difference in the electrostatic repulsion forces of the cationic charge on the membrane surface of a desalting side to divalent cations and sodium ions. In fact, the selective permeation of sodium ions appeared only when the layer faced the desalting side of the membrane, and was affected by dissociation of polyaniline. Further oxidized polyaniline, pernigraniline-based polyaniline, did not affect the permselectivity between cations, and the diffusion coefficient of neutral molecules, urea, increased with increasing polymerization time. Sodium ion permselectivity was maintained with repeated electrodialysis.

  13. The Metal Cation Chelating Capacity of Astaxanthin. Does This Have Any Influence on Antiradical Activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martínez


    Full Text Available In this Density Functional Theory study, it became apparent that astaxanthin (ASTA may form metal ion complexes with metal cations such as Ca+2, Cu+2, Pb+2, Zn+2, Cd+2 and Hg+2. The presence of metal cations induces changes in the maximum absorption bands which are red shifted in all cases. Therefore, in the case of compounds where metal ions are interacting with ASTA, they are redder in color. Moreover, the antiradical capacity of some ASTA-metal cationic complexes was studied by assessing their vertical ionization energy and vertical electron affinity, reaching the conclusion that metal complexes are slightly better electron donors and better electron acceptors than ASTA.

  14. The role of cation exchange in controlling groundwater chemistry at Aspo, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Construction-induced groundwater flow has resulted in the mixing of relatively dilute shallow groundwater with more concentrated groundwater at depth in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) at Aespoe, Sweden. The observed compositional variation of the mixed groundwater cannot be explained using a conservative mixing model. The geochemical modeling package EQ3/6, to which a cation-exchange model was added, was used to simulate mixing between the two fluids. The results of modeling simulations suggest that cation exchange between groundwater and fracture-lining clays can explain the major element fluid chemistry observed in the HRL. The quantity of exchanger required to match simulated with observed fluid chemistry is reasonable and is consistent with the observed fracture mineralogy. This preliminary study establishes cation exchange as a viable mechanism for controlling the chemical evolution of groundwaters in a fracture-dominated dynamic flow system. This modeling study also strengthens their confidence in the ability to model the potential effects of fracture-lining minerals on the transport of radionuclides in a high level nuclear waste repository

  15. Strong cation-exchange chromatography of proteins on a sulfoalkylated monolithic cryogel. (United States)

    Perçin, Işık; Khalaf, Rushd; Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Gezici, Orhan


    A new strong cation exchanger (SCX) monolithic column was synthesized by at-line surface modification of a cryogel prepared by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and glycidylmethacrylate (GMA). Sodium salt of 3-Mercaptopropane sulfonic acid (3-MPS) was used as the ligand to transform the surface of the monolith into a strong cation exchanger. The obtained material was characterized in terms of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) N2 adsorption, and used as a stationary phase for strong-cation exchange chromatography of some proteins, such as α-chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c and lysozyme. Water permeability of the column was calculated according to Darcy's law (2.66×10(-13)m(2)). The performance of the monolithic cryogel column was evaluated on the basis of Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP). Retention behavior of the studied proteins was modeled on the basis of Yamamoto model to understand the role of the ion-exchange mechanism in retention behaviors. The considered proteins were successfully separated, and the obtained chromatogram was compared with that obtained with a non-functionalized cryogel column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contribuição de constituintes de solo à capacidade de troca de cátions obtida por diferentes métodos de extração Contribution of soil constituents to the cation exchange capacity as determined by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi


    Full Text Available A capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC é uma propriedade físico-química intrínseca aos constituintes minerais e orgânicos do solo. Apesar do uso de diferentes extratores e procedimentos, a CTC é normalmente expressa considerando apenas o controle ou não do pH na solução extratora. O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir o significado da contribuição da matéria orgânica do solo prepresentada pelo carbono orgânico total (COT e da argila à capacidade de troca de cátions de um Argissolo quando diferentes métodos estão envolvidos na determinação desse parâmetro. Para isso, utilizaram-se 75 amostras de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico abrúptico da área do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, representando, em triplicata, cinco profundidades e cinco sistemas de uso e manejo de solo. A CTC efetiva (CTC E foi estimada pelo cloreto de hexamina cobalto (CTC E Cohex e pela soma de cátions Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ (CTC E SB + AlKCl, os três primeiros extraídos por KCl e o último por Mehlich-1; a CTC em pH 7,0 (CTC7 foi estimada por acetato de amônio (CTC7 Metson e pela soma de cátions Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ e H + Al estimado pelo índice SMP (CTC7 SB + H + AlSMP. Os valores de CTC obtidos pelos diferentes métodos se relacionam entre si, com coeficientes de correlação linear simples acima de 0,93. Os valores de CTC7 Metson são subestimados quando comparados com o método CTC7 (SB + H + AlSMP. Nesse sentido, as contribuições da argila e do COT à CTC7 foram, respectivamente, menores para a CTC7 Metson, 19 e 256 cmol c kg-1, que para a CTC7 (SB + H + AlSMP, 23 e 399 cmol c kg-1. A contribuição dos constituintes de solo depende, então, do cátion extrator e da capacidade de extração dos métodos empregados.The cation exchange capacity (CEC is a physicochemical property dependent on mineral and organic soil constituents. Despite the use of different procedures and extractors the CEC is normally

  17. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir


    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  18. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Sanyang


    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  19. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis of prepared cation exchangers from cellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; EI-Sherief, S.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, M.


    Different cation exchangers were prepared by incorporation of phosphate and sulfate groups into acid or alkali treated wood pulp. The molecular structure of these cation exchangers were followed by infrared spectroscopy and thermal degradation analysis technique. From infrared spectra, a new bands are seen at 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phosphorylated wood pulp due to the formation of C-O-P bond. Another bands were seen at 1400, 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phospho sulfonated wood pulp due to the formation of CO- P and C-O-S bonds. Also, it is seen from infrared spectra that the crystallinity index for acid treated wood pulp has a higher value than untreated and alkali treated wood pulp. On the other hand, the acid treated and phosphorylated acid treated wood pulp have a higher activation energy than untreated and phosphorylated alkali treated wood pulp

  20. Effects of Cationic Pendant Groups on Ionic Conductivity for Anion Exchange Membranes: Structure Conductivity Relationships (United States)

    Kim, Sojeong; Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Won Bo

    Anion exchange membranes(AEMs) have been widely studied due to their various applications, especially for Fuel cells. Previous proton exchange membranes(PEMs), such as Nafions® have better conductivity than AEMs so far. However, technical limitations such as slow electrode kinetics, carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning of metal catalysts, high methanol crossover and high cost of Pt-based catalyst detered further usages. AEMs have advantages to supplement its drawbacks. AEMs are environmentally friendly and cost-efficient. Based on the well-defined block copolymer, self-assembled morphology is expected to have some relationship with its ionic conductivity. Recently AEMs based on various cations, including ammonium, phosphonium, guanidinium, imidazolium, metal cation, and benzimidazolium cations have been developed and extensively studied with the aim to prepare high- performance AEMs. But more fundamental approach, such as relationships between nanostructure and conductivity is needed. We use well-defined block copolymer Poly(styrene-block-isoprene) as a backbone which is synthesized by anionic polymerization. Then we graft various cationic functional groups and analysis the relation between morphology and conductivity. Theoretical and computational soft matter lab.

  1. Cation-exchange membranes: comparison of homopolymer, block copolymer, and heterogeneous membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Llanos, J.; Žitka, Jan; Hnát, J.; Bouzek, K.


    Roč. 124, SI 1 (2012), E66-E72 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08005 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212903 - WELTEMP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cation-exchange membranes * poly(phenylene oxide) * poly(ether ketones) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  2. Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhai; Gamache, Paul; Guo, Zhimou; Steiner, Frank; Du, Nana; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye


    Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL -1 and 0.195-0.268mgL -1 , respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix. Copyright

  3. Quantitative electrochromatography of uranium and platinum on papers impregnated with thorium and antimony based cation exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.K.


    Electrochromatography of 32 metal ions have been studied on papers impregnated with thorium antimonate cation exchanger in aq. organic acids, aq. nitric acid as well as in EDTA buffers. On the basis of differential migration which depends on the ion exchange properties of thorium antimonate and nature of complexes formed with the electrolytes, some useful qualitative and quantitative separations of synthetic mixtures of metal ions have been achieved. The effect of some other physical parameter has also been discussed. Quantitative separation of platinum and uranium has been developed. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Solubility and cation exchange in phosphate rock and saturated clinoptilolite mixtures (United States)

    Allen, E. R.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.


    Mixtures of zeolite and phosphate rock (PR) have the potential to provide slow-release fertilization of plants in synthetic soils by dissolution and ion-exchange reactions. This study was conducted to examine solubility and cation-exchange relationships in mixtures of PR and NH4- and K-saturated clinoptilolite (Cp). Batch-equilibration experiments were designed to investigate the effect of PR source, the proportion of exchangeable K and NH4, and the Cp to PR ratio on solution N, P, K, and Ca concentrations. The dissolution and cation-exchange reactions that occurred after mixing NH4- and K-saturated Cp with PR increased the solubility of the PR and simultaneously released NH4 and K into solution. The more reactive North Carolina (NC) PR rendered higher solution concentrations of NH4 and K when mixed with Cp than did Tennessee (TN) PR. Solution P concentrations for the Cp-NC PR mixture and the Cp-TN PR mixture were similar. Solution concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and the ratios of these nutrients in solution varied predictably with the type of PR, the Cp/PR ratio, and the proportions of exchangeable K and NH4 on the Cp. Our research indicated that slow-release fertilization using Cp/PR media may provide adequate levels of N, P, and K to support plant growth. Solution Ca concentrations were lower than optimum for plant growth.

  5. Adsorption Behavior of Charge Isoforms of Monoclonal Antibodies on Strong Cation Exchangers. (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Wälchli, Ruben; Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo


    In this work, the adsorption behavior of the different charge isoforms of the same monoclonal antibody (mAb) on strong cation-exchange resins is analyzed. While charge isoforms of the same antibody mainly differ in their effective charge, the similar structure and size allows developing a simplified model, which describes the adsorption behavior of mAb charge isoforms independently of the number of isoforms with only four parameters. In contrast to classical model-based descriptions of the adsorption isotherm, the proposed work enables retrieving some physical meaning in the definition of the model parameters. These model parameters are determined for several resin-antibody combinations. Thereby it is found that for mAbs on commercial cation exchangers an effective resin charge density of 0.22 ± 0.08 mmol mL -1 of solid phase is used for protein binding, which was found to be independent of the absolute resin charge density measured by titration. The presented results help to understand the adsorption behavior of mAbs on cation-exchangers, which is applicable both for the isolation of the main charge isoform or for preserving a certain charge isoform pattern during the polishing processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin: Experimental and kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yuwang; Lu, Jie; Sun, Kaian; Ma, Lingling; Ding, Jincheng


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol was investigated in the presence of sulfonated cation exchange resin. • We studied kinetic model of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol according to experimental data. • The proposed kinetic model can well predict oleic acid conversion. - Abstract: This paper investigated the effects of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading, water content and catalyst recycling on sulfonated cation exchange resin in a stirred batch reactor under atmospheric pressure. When the esterification was carried out with an ethanol to oleic acid (42.4 g) molar ratio of 9:1, reflux of ethanol at 82 °C, 20 g of catalyst and 8 h of reaction time, the oleic acid conversion rate reached approximately 93%. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for describing the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol by the sulfonated cation exchange resin was developed on the basis of laboratorial results. The kinetic model can well predict the oleic acid conversion

  7. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico


    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  8. Influence of MgO template on carbon dioxide adsorption of cation exchange resin-based nanoporous carbon. (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin


    In this work, porous carbons with well-developed pore structures were directly prepared from a weak acid cation exchange resin (CER) by the carbonization of a mixture with Mg acetate in different ratios. The effect of the Mg acetate-to-CER ratio on the pore structure and CO(2) adsorption capacities of the obtained porous carbons was studied. The textural properties and morphologies of the porous carbons were analyzed via N(2)/77K adsorption/desorption isotherms, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The CO(2) adsorption capacities of the prepared porous carbons were measured at 298 K and 1 bar and 30 bar. By dissolving the MgO template, the porous carbons exhibited high specific surface areas (326-1276 m(2)/g) and high pore volumes (0.258-0.687 cm(3)/g). The CO(2) adsorption capacities of the porous carbons were enhanced to 164.4 mg/g at 1 bar and 1045 mg/g at 30 bar by increasing the Mg acetate-to-CER ratio. This result indicates that CER was one of the carbon precursors to producing the porous structure, as well as for improving the CO(2) adsorption capacities of the carbon species. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling of geochemical reactions and experimental cation exchange in MX 80 bentonite. (United States)

    Montes-H, G; Fritz, B; Clement, A; Michau, N


    Bentonites are widely used for waste repository systems because of their hydrodynamic, surface and chemical-retention properties. MX 80 bentonite (bentonite of Wyoming) contains approximately 85% Na/Ca-montmorillonite and 15% accessory minerals. The dominant presence of Na/Ca-montmorillonite in this clay mineral could cause it to perform exceptionally well as an engineered barrier for a radioactive waste repository because this buffer material is expected to fill up by swelling the void between canisters containing waste and the surrounding ground. However, the Na/Ca-montmorillonite could be transformed to other clay minerals as a function of time under repository conditions. Previous modelling studies based on the hydrolysis reactions have shown that the Na/Ca-montmorillonite-to-Ca-montmorillonite conversion is the most significant chemical transformation. In fact, this chemical process appears to be a simple cation exchange into the engineered barrier. The purpose of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, it was hoped to predict the newly formed products of bentonite-fluid reactions under repository conditions by applying a thermokinetic hydrochemical code (KIRMAT: Kinetic Reactions and Mass Transport). The system modelled herein was considered to consist of a 1-m thick zone of water-saturated engineered barrier. This non-equilibrated system was placed in contact with a geological fluid on one side, which was then allowed to diffuse into the barrier, while the other side was kept in contact with iron-charged water. Reducing initial conditions ( [P(O)2 approximately equals 0] ; Eh=-200 mV) and a constant reaction temperature (100 degrees C) were considered. Secondly, it was hoped to estimate the influence of inter-layer cations (Ca and Na) on the swelling behaviour of the MX 80 bentonite by using an isothermal system of water vapour adsorption and an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with a digital image analysis (DIA) program. Here, the

  10. Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan beads with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme. (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup


    Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange beads for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) beads were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 beads was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of beads by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) beads. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS gel electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A solid-state cation exchange reaction to form multiple metal oxide heterostructure nanowires. (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Huang, C W; Yeh, P H; Chen, J Y; Lin, T Y; Chang, C F; Wu, W W


    Metal oxide nanostructures have been investigated extensively due to their wide range of physical properties; zinc oxide is one of the most promising materials. It exhibits fascinating functional properties and various types of morphologies. In particular, ZnO heterostructures have attracted great attention because their performance can be modified and further improved by the addition of other materials. In this study, we successfully transformed ZnO nanowires (NWs) into multiple ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterostructure NWs via a solid-state cation exchange reaction. The experiment was carried out in situ via an ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM), which was equipped with a video recorder. Moreover, we analyzed the structure and composition of the heterostructure NWs by Cs-corrected STEM equipped with EDS. Based on these experimental results, we inferred a cation exchange reaction ion path model. Additionally, we investigated the defects that appeared after the cation reaction, which resulted from the remaining zinc ions. These multiple heterostructure ZnO/Al 2 O 3 NWs exhibited excellent UV sensing sensitivity and efficiency.

  12. Chabazite: stable cation-exchanger in hyper alkaline concrete pore water. (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; Wangermez, Wauter; Kurttepeli, Mert; de Blochouse, Benny; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Martens, Johan A; Maes, André; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Breynaert, Eric


    To avoid impact on the environment, facilities for permanent disposal of hazardous waste adopt multibarrier design schemes. As the primary barrier very often consists of cement-based materials, two distinct aspects are essential for the selection of suitable complementary barriers: (1) selective sorption of the contaminants in the repository and (2) long-term chemical stability in hyperalkaline concrete-derived media. A multidisciplinary approach combining experimental strategies from environmental chemistry and materials science is therefore essential to provide a reliable assessment of potential candidate materials. Chabazite is typically synthesized in 1 M KOH solutions but also crystallizes in simulated young cement pore water, a pH 13 aqueous solution mainly containing K(+) and Na(+) cations. Its formation and stability in this medium was evaluated as a function of temperature (60 and 85 °C) over a timeframe of more than 2 years and was also asessed from a mechanistic point of view. Chabazite demonstrates excellent cation-exchange properties in simulated young cement pore water. Comparison of its Cs(+) cation exchange properties at pH 8 and pH 13 unexpectedly demonstrated an increase of the KD with increasing pH. The combined results identify chabazite as a valid candidate for inclusion in engineered barriers for concrete-based waste disposal.

  13. Antifungal activities against toxigenic Fusarium specie and deoxynivalenol adsorption capacity of ion-exchanged zeolites. (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Cardoso, William A; Furtado, Bianca G; Bortolotto, Tiago; Zanoni, Elton T; Scussel, Rahisa; Rezende, Lucas F; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; Montedo, Oscar R K; Angioletto, Elidio


    Zeolites are often used as adsorbents materials and their loaded cations can be exchanged with metal ions in order to add antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to use the 4A zeolite and its derived ion-exchanged forms with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ and Co 2+ in order to evaluate their antifungal properties against Fusarium graminearum, including their capacity in terms of metal ions release, conidia germination and the deoxynivalenol (DON) adsorption. The zeolites ion-exchanged with Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ showed an excellent antifungal activity against F. graminearum, using an agar diffusion method, with a zone of inhibition observed around the samples of 45.3 ± 0.6 mm, 25.7 ± 1.5 mm, and 24.7 ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Similar results using agar dilution method were found showing significant growth inhibition of F. graminearum for ion-exchanged zeolites with Zn 2+ , Li + , Cu 2+ , and Co 2+ . The fungi growth inhibition decreased as zeolite-Cu 2+ >zeolite-Li + >zeolite-Co 2+ >zeolite-Zn 2+ . In addition, the conidia germination was strongly affected by ion-exchanged zeolites. With regard to adsorption capacity, results indicate that only zeolite-Li + were capable of DON adsorption significantly (P concentration. The antifungal effects of the ion-exchanged zeolites can be ascribed to the interactions of the metal ions released from the zeolite structure, especially for zeolite-Li + , which showed to be a promising agent against F. graminearum and its toxin.

  14. Synthesis of silver embedded poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate nano hybrid cation-exchanger applicable for membrane electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khan

    Full Text Available Poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate was expediently obtained by sol-gel mixing of Poly(o-anisidine into the inorganic matrices of molybdophosphate, which was allowed to react with silver nitrate to the formation of poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate embedded silver nano composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimertic Analysis. Ion exchange capacity and distribution studies were carried out to understand the ion-exchange capabilities of the nano composite. On the basis of highest distribution studies, this nano composite cation exchanger was used as preparation of heavy metal ion selective membrane. Membrane was characterized for its performance as porosity and swelling later on was used for the preparation of membrane electrode for Hg(II, having better linear range, wide working pH range (2-4.5 with fast response in the real environment.

  15. Comparison of methods for measuring the ion exchange capacity of a soil. Development of a quick method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amavis, R.


    In the course of a study on the movement of radioactive ions in soil we had to measure the cationic exchange capacity of various soil samples, this parameter being one of the most important in the appreciation of the extent of fixation of radioactive ions in the ground. The object of this report is to describe the various methods used and to compare the results obtained. A colorimetric method, using Co(NH 3 ) 6 3+ as exchangeable ion, was developed. It gives results comparable to those obtained with conventional methods, whilst considerably reducing the time necessary for the operations. (author) [fr

  16. Cation exchange removal of Cd from aqueous solution by NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Saddique, M.T.; Naeem, A.; Mustafa, S.; Dilara, B.; Raza, Z.A.


    Graphical abstract: Sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. - Abstract: Detailed adsorption experiments of Cd from aqueous solution on NiO were conducted under batch process with different concentrations of Cd, time and temperature of the suspension. The solution pH is found to play a decisive role in the metal ions precipitation, surface dissolution and adsorption of metal ions onto the NiO. Preliminary adsorption experiments show that the selectivity of NiO towards different divalent metal ions follows the trend Pb > Zn > Co > Cd, which is related to their first hydrolysis equilibrium constant. The exchange between the proton from the NiO surface and the metal from solution is responsible for the adsorption. The cation/exchange mechanism essentially remains the same for Pb, Zn, Co and Cd ions. The sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by the modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH) indicates the endothermic nature of the cation exchange process. Spectroscopic analyses provide evidence that Cd is chemisorbed onto the surface of NiO.

  17. Assessing the role of cation exchange in controlling groundwater chemistry during fluid mixing in fractured granite at Aespoe, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Geochemical modeling was used to simulate the mixing of dilute shallow groundwater with deeper more saline groundwater in the fractured granite of the Redox Zone at the Aespoe underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Fluid mixing simulations were designed to assess the role that cation exchange plays in controlling the composition of fluids entering the HRL via fracture flow. Mixing simulations included provision for the effects of mineral precipitation and cation exchange on fluid composition. Because the predominant clay mineral observed in fractures in the Redox Zone has been identified as illite or mixed layer illite smectite, an exchanger with the properties of illite was used to simulate cation exchange. Cation exchange on illite was modeled using three exchange sites, a planar or basal plane site with properties similar to smectite, and two edge sites that have very high affinities for K, Rb, and Cs. Each site was assumed to obey an ideal Vanselow exchange model, and exchange energies for each site were taken from the literature. The predicted behaviors of Na, Ca, and Mg during mixing were similar to those reported in a previous study in which smectite was used as the model for the exchanger. The trace elements Cs and Rb were predicted to be strongly associated with the illite exchanger, and the predicted concentrations of Cs in fracture fill were in reasonable agreement with reported chemical analyses of exchangeable Cs in fracture fill. The results of the geochemical modeling suggest that Na, Ca, and Sr concentrations in the fluid phase may be controlled by cation exchange reactions that occur during mixing, but that Mg appears to behave conservatively. There is currently not enough data to make conclusions regarding the behavior of Cs and Rb

  18. Contribuição dos constituintes da fração argila de solos subtropicais à área superficial específica e à capacidade de troca catiônica Contribution of clay fraction minerals of subtropical soils to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Granemann de Souza Junior


    area (SSA is related to several properties that define the soil physico-chemical behavior. In this research, 23 soil samples developed from different parent materials found in the southern Brazil were used. They were evaluated for the contribution of the main soil constituents to the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe and SSA. The clay fraction minerals were identified by X ray diffraction (XRD and quantified by thermal analysis; the CECe, the SSAt (total by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether method (EGME, the SSAe (external by the BET-N2 method, and the ASEi (internal by the difference of the values obtained with the two methods. The clay fraction samples were determined before and after the following sequential selective dissolution procedures: removal of organic matter (clay-NaOCl; removal of organic matter and free iron oxides (clay-NaOCl + DCB; removal of kaolinite, gibbsite and low cristalinity aluminosilicate minerals (clay-NaOCl+DCB + NaOH 5 mol L-1. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of the soils varied considerably, as verified by X ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and SSA and CECe values. For most soils kaolinite is the predominant mineral in the clay fraction, followed by expandable 2:1 clay mineral or iron and aluminum oxihydroxides. SSA and CECe of the natural clay fraction were not correlated due to the occlusion of the clay surface by organic matter. Iron oxide aggregate effects reduced SSAe by 21 %. For the studied samples, the 2:1 clay minerals were present in concentrations varying from 3 to 65 % of the silicate fraction and presented average values of 1.054 mmol c kg-1 and 202 m² g-1 for CECe and SSEt, respectively. SSAi contributed with 58 % of SSAt of the clay fraction, mostly due to 2:1 clay type minerals.

  19. Electrochemical characterization of mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes modified by simultaneous using ilmenite-co-iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Hamidi, Alireza; Moghadassi, Abdolreza [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Ilmenite-co-iron oxide nanoparticle was also employed as inorganic filler additive in membrane fabrication. The effect of the used additives on membrane electrochemical properties was studied. Membrane ion exchange capacity, membrane potential, transport number and selectivity all were improved by use of FeTiO{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. Utilizing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the casting solution also led to increase in ionic flux obviously. The modified membranes containing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed higher transport number, selectivity and ionic flux compared to modified membrane containing ilmenite. Electrodialysis experiment in laboratory scale also showed higher cation removal for modified membrane containing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles compared to other modified membranes and pristine ones. Results showed that membrane areal electrical resistance declined sharply by use of FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. Moreover, modified membrane containing ilmenite showed lower electrical resistance compared to others. Results showed that oxidative stability of membranes was decreased slightly by use of FeTiO{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The results revealed that modified membranes in this study are comparable with that of other commercial ones.

  20. Esterification of palm fatty acid distillate with epychlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst (United States)

    Budhijanto, Budhijanto; Subagyo, Albertus F. P. H.


    Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is one of the wastes from the conversion of crude palm oil (CPO) into cooking oil. The PFAD is currently only utilized as the raw material for low grade soap and biofuel. To improve the economic value of PFAD, it was converted into monoglyceride by esterification process. Furthermore, the monoglyceride could be polymerized to form alkyd resin, which is a commodity of increasing importance. This study aimed to propose a kinetics model for esterification of PFAD with epichlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst. The reaction was the first step from a series of reactions to produce the monoglyceride. In this study, the reaction between PFAD and epichlorohydirne was run in a stirred batch reactor. The stirrer was operated at a constant speed of 400 RPM. The reaction was carried out for 180 minutes on varied temperatures of 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, dan 90°C. Cation exchange resin was applied as solid catalysts. Analysis was conducted periodically by measuring the acid number of the samples, which was further used to calculate PFAD conversion. The data were used to determine the rate constants and the equilibrium constants of the kinetics model. The kinetics constants implied that the reaction was reversible and controlled by the intrinsic surface reaction. Despite the complication of the heterogeneous nature of the reaction, the kinetics data well fitted the elementary rate law. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constants indicated that the reaction is exothermic.

  1. Numerical simulation of cesium and strontium migration through sodium bentonite altered by cation exchange with groundwater components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Carnahan, C.L.


    Numerical simulations have been used to investigate how spatial and temporal changes in the ion exchange properties of bentonite affect the migration of cationic fission products from high-level waste. Simulations in which fission products compete for exchange sites with ions present in groundwater diffusing into the bentonite are compared to simulations in which the exchange properties of bentonite are constant. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Morphologically Aligned Cation-Exchange Membranes by a Pulsed Electric Field for Reverse Electrodialysis. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Hyuk; Kim, Seok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon


    A low-resistance ion-exchange membrane is essential to achieve the high-performance energy conversion or storage systems. The formation methods for low-resistance membranes are various; one of the methods is the ion channel alignment of an ion-exchange membrane under a direct current (DC) electric field. In this study, we suggest a more effective alignment method than the process with the DC electric field. First, an ion-exchange membrane was prepared under a pulsed electric field [alternating current (AC) mode] to enhance the effectiveness of the alignment. The membrane properties and the performance in reverse electrodialysis (RED) were then examined to assess the membrane resistance and ion selectivity. The results show that the membrane electrical resistance (MER) had a lower value of 0.86 Ω cm(2) for the AC membrane than 2.13 Ω cm(2) observed for the DC membrane and 4.30 Ω cm(2) observed for the pristine membrane. Furthermore, RED achieved 1.34 W/m(2) of maximum power density for the AC membrane, whereas that for the DC membrane was found to be 1.14 W/m(2) [a RED stack assembled with CMX, used as a commercial cation-exchange membrane (CEM), showed 1.07 W/m(2)]. Thereby, the novel preparation process for a remarkable low-resistance membrane with high ion selectivity was demonstrated.

  3. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto


    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  4. Investigations on complexing cation exchangers and their use for trace analysis in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.


    The practicability of cation preconcentrations from natural waters by use of EDTrA- and 5-s-oxine- celluloses has been studied. For that purpose the protonation constants as well as the complexation capacities were determined by use of acid/base titrations. In additional titration experiments the complex stability constants for Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Ca 2+ were determined examplarely. The interpretation of the experiments was performed using an optimised fit between calculated and experimentally determined pH-titration curves. Calculations have been done by the computer code 'MINEQL'. The determined stability constants are in the same order of magnitude as those given in literature for the water soluble complexes of EDTA, NTA or 5-s-oxine. The preconcentration of cations from natural water samples occurs in accordance with the theoretical predictions. Not ignorable disturbances appear for cations forming hydroxides or oxides in neutral or weakly acidic solutions. By use of radioactive isotopes for Sn 2+ , Zn 4+ and Nb 5+ it can be shown that those ions may form particles or colloids in natural waters. These particles will be filtered in the columns packed with the celluloses and can hardly be removed from there. (author)

  5. Comparative study of the ionic exchange of Ca++, Sr++, and Ba++ cations on resins and inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Batanero, P.


    With a view to applying the results to certain problems related to chemical separations in activation analysis, a study has been made, of the possibilities of separating the alkaline-earth elements Ca, Sr and Ba on organic resins and inorganic exchangers using the radioactive indicator method. The partition coefficients of the cations Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ have been measured on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin in the presence of EDTA - NTA - EGTA and DCTA as complexing agents, and on zirconium phosphate, tungstate and molybdate in the presence of HCl and NH 4 Cl. Methods have been developed for separating mixtures of alkaline-earth elements using DCTA-NH 4 + followed by elution on Dowex 50 W (NH 4 + ) x 8 resin columns and on zirconium phosphate. Amongst the complexing agents used on the ion-exchange resins the most promising appears to be DCTA which leads to partition coefficients Ca, Sr and Ba which are very different. The results of measurements of partition coefficients on zirconium phosphate (NH 4 + form) using DCTA-NH 4 + show the interesting possibilities of separations on columns. The separation of the alkaline-earth elements on zirconium phosphate seems to be less quantitative than on Dowex 50 resin; it is however much faster in the former case and this can be useful for treating short half-life radioisotopes in activation analysis. (author) [fr

  6. Structure-Selective Cation Exchange in the Synthesis of Zincblende MnS and CoS Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Fenton, Julie L; Schaak, Raymond E


    The ability to selectively form one crystal structure among several options in a polymorphic system is an important goal in solid-state synthesis. Nanocrystal cation exchange, which proceeds rapidly under mild conditions, can retain key structural features and yield otherwise inaccessible phases, but the extent to which crystal structure can be retained and therefore selectively targeted during such reactions has been limited. Here, we show that nanocrystals of digenite Cu 2-x S transform to zincblende MnS and CoS upon cation exchange. Zincblende MnS and CoS, which are metastable in bulk, retain both the tetrahedral cation coordination and cubic close packed anion sublattice of digenite Cu 2-x S. Comparison with wurtzite MnS and CoS, which have been accessed previously through analogous cation exchange of roxbyite Cu 2-x S, demonstrates the selective formation of the related zincblende vs. wurtzite polymorphs by cation exchange of structurally distinct templates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Effect of blastfurnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L.


    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+. Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement and CEM III (Portland cement + blastfurnace slag cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material.

  8. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  9. Formation of ZnSe/Bi2Se3 QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhi Jia


    Full Text Available Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi2Se3 quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi2Se3 shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  10. Modeling of cesium sorption on biotite using cation exchange selectivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, Jarkko; Hakanen, Martti; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Vehkamaeki, Marko [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Inorganic Chemistry


    For the modeling of cesium sorption on biotite, samples of natural biotite separated from gneissic rocks were converted into monoionic potassium, sodium, and calcium forms, and sorption isotherms for Cs/K, Cs/Na and Cs/Ca exchange were determined at pH 6 and 8 in 10{sup -4}-10{sup -8} M Cs solutions. Selectivity coefficients for Cs/K, Cs/Na, and Cs/Ca ion exchange reactions were calculated from the isotherm data, using the Gaines-Thomas convention. At Cs loadings below 1% of the total ion exchange capacity, the overall selectivity coefficient for Cs/Ca exchange was approximately five and seven orders of magnitude higher than those for Cs/Na and Cs/K exchange, respectively. Based on the selectivity coefficients, the ion exchange isotherms were modeled with the U.S. Geological Survey PhreeqC program, assuming three different types of ion exchange site: sites on the basal planes on biotite crystal surfaces with 95% site abundance, probable interlayer sites on crystal edges [frayed edge sites (FESs)] (0.02%) and third-type sites (5%), the physical background of which is unclear. Of these three types, the FES sites were superior in Cs selectivity, while the planar sites exhibited the lowest selectivity, and the third-type sites had selectivity between these two. The functionality of the model was successfully verified by modeling the Cs sorption isotherms on crushed mica gneiss rock in saline groundwater. Determination of the exchangeable ions K, Na, Ca, and Cs on the basal plane and edge surfaces by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) supports the results of modeling: edge sites highly prefer Cs ions and also Ca and Na ions but not K ions.

  11. Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography in Analysis of Posttranslational Modifications: Innovations and Perspectives (United States)

    Edelmann, Mariola J.


    Strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography has been utilized as an excellent separation technique that can be combined with reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, which is frequently used in peptide mass spectrometry. Although SCX is valuable as the second component of such two-dimensional separation methods, its application goes far beyond efficient fractionation of complex peptide mixtures. Here I describe how SCX facilitates mapping of the protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), specifically phosphorylation and N-terminal acetylation. The SCX chromatography has been mainly used for enrichment of these two PTMs, but it might also be beneficial for high-throughput analysis of other modifications that alter the net charge of a peptide. PMID:22174558

  12. Effect of cation exchange on the subsequent reactivity of lignite chars to steam. [108 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E. J.; Walker, Jr., P. L.


    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role which cations in coal play in the subsequent reactivity of chars. It is hoped that this investigation will aid in an understanding of the catalytic nature of inorganic constituents in coal during its gasification. It was found that increased heat treatment temperature decreased reactivity. The decrease in reactivity was shown to be due, at least in part, to the changes in the nature of the cation with increased heat treatment temperature. Reactivity was found to be a linear function of the amount of Ca(++) exchange on the demineralized coal. The constant utilization factor over the wide range of loadings employed indicated that below 800/sup 0/C the calcium did not markedly sinter. Potassium, sodium, and calcium-containing chars were found to be much more reactive than the iron and magnesium-containing chars. However, the iron and magnesium containing chars were more reactive than chars produced from the demineralized coal. The iron char was highly active at first but the iron phase was quickly oxidized to a comparatively unreactive ..gamma..Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ phase. The state of magnesium was found to be MgO. Sodium and calcium were equally active as catalysts but not as active as potassium.

  13. Synthesis of Grafted Hydrogels as Mono-Divalent Cation Exchange and Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Eid, M.


    ph-sensitive grafted poly vinyl alcohol-poly acrylic acid (PVA-PAA) hydrogels has been prepared by direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) onto PVA hydrogels. The grafting percent increase as the monomer concentration and irradiation dose increase. The maximum grafting yield was obtained at monomer concentration 50 % and irradiation dose 50 kGy. The swelling, thermogravimetric analysis, activation energy and scanning electron microscope of the grafted copolymer hydrogels were studied. The swelling of co-polymeric hydrogel was studied at different ph, and the gel demonstrate high swelling at ph 6.8. The de swelling of the swollen hydrogel in Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ cations solution was explained on the basis of mono-divalent cation exchange. The hydrogel was loaded by antihistaminic chlorphenamine maleate hydrochloride (CPM) as drug model. The release of (CPM) was faster in stimulated gastric fluid (SGF) of ph 1.1 than in stimulated intestinal fluid (SIF) of ph 6.8

  14. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, Sune; Thomas, Owen R. T.


    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...

  15. Reach-scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Runkel, Robert L.


    McMurdo dry valleys of Antarctica represent the largest of the ice-free areas on the Antarctic continent, containing glaciers, meltwater streams, and closed basin lakes. Previous geochemical studies of dry valley streams and lakes have addressed chemical weathering reactions of hyporheic substrate and geochemical evolution of dry valley surface waters. We examine cation transport and exchange reactions during a stream tracer experiment in a dry valley glacial meltwater stream. The injection solution was composed of dissolved Li+, Na+, K+, and Cl-. Chloride behaved conservatively in this stream, but Li+, Na+, and K+ were reactive to varying degrees. Mass balance analysis indicates that relative to Cl-, Li+ and K+ were taken up in downstream transport and Na+ was released. Simulations of conservative and reactive (first-order uptake or generation) solute transport were made with the OTIS (one-dimensional solute transport with inflow and storage) model. Among the four experimental reaches of Green Creek, solute transport simulations reveal that Li+ was removed from stream water in all four reaches, K+ was released in two reaches, taken up in one reach, and Na+ was released in all four reaches. Hyporheic sediments appear to be variable with uptake of Li+ in two reaches, uptake of K+ in one reach, release of K+ in two reaches, and uptake of Na+ in one reach. Mass balances of the conservative and reactive simulations show that from 1.05 to 2.19 moles of Li+ was adsorbed per reach, but less than 0.3 moles of K+ and less than 0.9 moles of Na+ were released per reach. This suggests that either (1) exchange of another ion which was not analyzed in this experiment or (2) that both ion exchange and sorption control inorganic solute transport. The elevated cation concentrations introduced during the experiment are typical of initial flows in each flow season, which flush accumulated dry salts from the streambed. We propose that the bed sediments (which compose the hyporheic

  16. Divalent Metal Cations Potentiate the Predatory Capacity of Amoeba for Cryptococcus neoformans. (United States)

    Fu, Man Shun; Casadevall, Arturo


    Among the best-studied interactions between soil phagocytic predators and a human-pathogenic fungus is that of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Cryptococcus neoformans The experimental conditions used in amoeba-fungus confrontation assays can have major effects on whether the fungus or the protozoan is ascendant in the interaction. In the presence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), C. neoformans was consistently killed when incubated with A. castellanii A. castellanii survived better in the presence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , even when incubated with C. neoformans In the absence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , C. neoformans survived when incubated with A. castellanii , and the percentage of dead amoebae was higher than when incubated without yeast cells. These results show that the presence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ can make a decisive contribution toward tilting the outcome of the interaction in favor of the amoeba. Of the two metals, Mg 2+ had a stronger effect than Ca 2+ The cations enhanced A. castellanii activity against C. neoformans via enhanced phagocytosis, which is the major mechanism by which amoebae kill fungal cells. We found no evidence that amoebae use extracellular killing mechanisms in their interactions with C. neoformans In summary, the presence of Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ enhanced the cell adhesion on the surfaces and the motility of the amoeba, thus increasing the chance for contact with C. neoformans and the frequency of phagocytosis. Our findings imply that the divalent cation concentration in soils could be an important variable for whether amoebae can control C. neoformans in the environment. IMPORTANCE The grazing of soil organisms by phagocytic predators such as amoebae is thought to select for traits that enable some of them to acquire the capacity for virulence in animals. Consequently, knowledge about the interactions between amoebae and soil microbes, such as pathogenic fungi, is important for understanding how virulence can emerge. We show that the

  17. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji


    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  18. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  19. Combined cation-exchange and extraction chromatographic method of pre-concentration and concomitant separation of Cu(II) with high molecular mass liquid cation exchanger after its online detection. (United States)

    Mandal, B; Roy, U S; Datta, D; Ghosh, N


    A selective method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic trace level separation of Cu(II) with Versatic 10 (liquid cation exchanger) coated on silanised silica gel (SSG-V10). Cu(II) has been extracted from 0.1M acetate buffer at the range of pH 4.0-5.5. The effects of foreign ions, pH, flow-rate, stripping agents on extraction and elution have been investigated. Exchange capacity of the prepared exchanger at different temperatures with respect to Cu(II) has been determined. The extraction equilibrium constant (K(ex)) and different standard thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by temperature variation method. Positive value of ΔH (7.98 kJ mol⁻¹) and ΔS (0.1916 kJ mol⁻¹) and negative value of ΔG (-49.16 kJ mol⁻¹) indicated that the process was endothermic, entropy gaining and spontaneous. Preconcentration factor was optimized at 74.7 ± 0.2 and the desorption constants K(desorption)¹(1.4 × 10⁻²) and K(desorption)²(9.8 × 10⁻²) were determined. The effect of pH on R(f) values in ion exchange paper chromatography has been investigated. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. Cu(II) has been separated from synthetic binary and multi-component mixtures containing various metal ions associated with it in ores and alloy samples. The method effectively permits sequential separation of Cu(II) from synthetic quaternary mixture containing its congeners Bi(III), Sn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) of same analytical group. The method was found effective for the selective detection, removal and recovery of Cu(II) from industrial waste and standard alloy samples following its preconcentration on the column. A plausible mechanism for the extraction of Cu(II) has been suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Luminescent CuInS2 quantum dots by partial cation exchange in Cu2- xS nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Stam, Ward; Berends, Anne C.; Rabouw, Freddy T.; Willhammar, Tom; Ke, Xiaoxing; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Bals, Sara; De Mello Donega, Celso


    Here, we show successful partial cation exchange reactions in Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) yielding luminescent CuInS2 (CIS) NCs. Our approach of mild reaction conditions ensures slow Cu extraction rates, which results in a balance with the slow In incorporation rate. With this method, we obtain CIS

  1. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: Separation of highly basic proteins using volatile acidic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Oostwaard, Th.M.J.; Laat, S.W. de; Zoelen, E.J.J. van


    The chromatographic behavior of a number of globular proteins was studied on a Bio-Sil TSK CM-2-SW weak cation exchange HPLC column under acidic conditions. A linear gradient of O-I M NH₄Ac in I M HOAc, inducing a convex pH gradient from 2.4-4.8, resulted in an excellent separation of highly

  2. Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, Anil O.; Fan, Zhaochuan; Goris, Bart; Li, Wun Fan; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Casavola, Marianna; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Van Huis, Marijn A.


    Here, we show a novel solid-solid-vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  3. Atomic Resolution Monitoring of Cation Exchange in CdSe-PbSe Heteronanocrystals during Epitaxial Solid?Solid?Vapor Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, A.O.; Fan, Z.; Goris, B.; Li, W.F.; Koster, R.S.; Fang, C.M.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Casavola, M.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Bals, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Van Huis, M.A.


    Here, we show a novel solid?solid?vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  4. Preparation and characterization of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Krupenko, O.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias


    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly

  5. Preparation of cation-exchange stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and its application to the analysis of soluble cations in milk by ion chromatography. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbin; Yuan, Dongxing


    In this study, a new cation-exchange coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) based on poly (acrylic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic material was synthesized. The effect of polymerization conditions such as the ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker and the content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detail. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the usability of the new coating for the extraction of inorganic cations, the analysis of soluble K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in milk by ion chromatography with conductivity detection was selected as a paradigm. Several extractive parameters, including pH value in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, low detection limits (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target cations were achieved within the range of 0.12-0.28 and 0.4-0.92 μg L(-1), respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction of inorganic cations. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to analyse three different trademarks of commercial milk samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 71.1% to 102.8%.

  6. Highly Stereoselective Heterogeneous Diene Polymerization by Co-MFU-4l: A Single-Site Catalyst Prepared by Cation Exchange. (United States)

    Dubey, Romain J-C; Comito, Robert J; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Guanghui; Rieth, Adam J; Hendon, Christopher H; Miller, Jeffrey T; Dincă, Mircea


    Molecular catalysts offer tremendous advantages for stereoselective polymerization because their activity and selectivity can be optimized and understood mechanistically using the familiar tools of organometallic chemistry. Yet, this exquisite control over selectivity comes at an operational price that is generally not justifiable for the large-scale manufacture of polyfolefins. In this report, we identify Co-MFU-4l, prepared by cation exchange in a metal-organic framework, as a solid catalyst for the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with high stereoselectivity (>99% 1,4-cis). To our knowledge, this is the highest stereoselectivity achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst for this transformation. The polymer's low polydispersity (PDI ≈ 2) and the catalyst's ready recovery and low leaching indicate that our material is a structurally resilient single-site heterogeneous catalyst. Further characterization of Co-MFU-4l by X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for discrete, tris-pyrazolylborate-like coordination of Co(II). With this information, we identify a soluble cobalt complex that mimics the structure and reactivity of Co-MFU-4l, thus providing a well-defined platform for studying the catalytic mechanism in the solution phase. This work underscores the capacity for small molecule-like tunability and mechanistic tractability available to transition metal catalysis in metal-organic frameworks.

  7. HTGR fuel development: loading of uranium on carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins using solvent extraction of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.


    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of 233 U to HTGR's (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. The purified 233 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution from a fuel reprocessing plant contains excess HNO 3 (NO 3 - /U ratio of approximately 2.2). The reference flowsheet for a 233 U recycle fuel facility at Oak Ridge uses solvent extraction of nitrate by a 0.3 M secondary amine in a hydrocarbon diluent to prepare acid-deficient uranyl nitrate. This nitrate extraction, along with resin loading and amine regeneration steps, was demonstrated in 14 runs. No significant operating difficulties were encountered. The process is controlled via in-line pH measurements for the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate solutions. Information was developed on pH values for uranyl nitrate solution vs NO 3 - /U mole ratios, resin loading kinetics, resin drying requirements, and other resin loading process parameters. Calculations made to estimate the capacities of equipment that is geometrically safe with respect to control of nuclear criticality indicate 100 kg/day or more of uranium for single nitrate extraction lines with one continuous resin loading contactor or four batch loading contactors. (auth)

  8. Cationic Polymerization of 1,2-Epoxypropane by an Acid Exchanged Montmorillonite Clay in the Presence of Ethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïcha Hachemaoui


    Full Text Available Abstract: The polymerization of propylene oxide (PO catalysed by maghnite-H+ (mag-H+ in the presence of ethylene glycol was investigated. Mag-H+ is a montmorillonite silicate sheet clay was prepared through a straight forward proton exchange process. It was found that the cationic polymerization of PO was initiated by mag-H+ at 20 °C both in bulk and in solution. The effect of the amount of mag-H+ and solvent was studied. These results indicated the cationic nature of the polymerization A possible initiation pathway, via the transfer of protons from mag-H+ to the monomer, is proposed.

  9. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers. (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam


    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Kinetic Analyses of Cation Exchange Rates in Synthetic Birnessite Measured by Time- Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (United States)

    Lopano, C. L.; Heaney, P. J.; Post, J. E.; Bandstra, J.; Brantley, S. L.


    Birnessite is the most abundant and chemically important layer-structure Mn-oxide phase found in soils, desert varnishes, and ocean nodules. It also is industrially important for use in battery technology and octahedral sieves. Due to the poorly crystalline nature of natural birnessite, synthetic analogues typically have been employed in studies that explore the structural response of birnessite to variations in interlayer composition. For this work, we measured changes in unit-cell parameters over time to quantify the degree of cation exchange as a function of concentration. Aqueous K+, Cs+, and Ba2+ cations at varying concentrations at pH 7 were exchanged for interlayer Na+ in synthetic birnessite (Na0.58(Mn4+1.42,Mn3+0.58)O4·1.5H2O) using a simple flow- through cell, and the exchange products were monitored via time-resolved X-ray powder diffraction at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected every 2-3 minutes. Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns for K- and Ba-exchanged birnessite revealed a decrease in unit- cell volume over time. In contrast, Cs+ substitution increased cell volume. For all three cations, the crystallographic data indicate that exchange occurred in two stages. A rapid and dramatic change in unit-cell volume was followed by a modest adjustment over longer timescales. Fourier electron difference syntheses revealed that the rapid, initial stage of exchange was marked by re-configuration of the interlayer species, whereas the second, protracted phase of substitution represented ordering into the newly established interlayer positions. For the first time, we have modeled the kinetics of interlayer substitution in Na-birnessite. For purposes of comparison, we have employed a simple one-stage reaction (i.e., Na-birnessite → K-birnessite) and a two stage reaction (i.e,. Na-birnessite → K-birnessitedisordered → K- birnessiteordered). For exchange with 0.01 M KCl solutions, the single

  11. Fractionation of whey proteins with high-capacity superparamagnetic ion-exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L.; Thomas, Owen R. T.


    In this study we describe the design, preparation and testing of superparamagnetic anion-exchangers, and their use together with cation-exchangers in the fractionation of bovine whey proteins as a model study for high-gradient magnetic fishing. Adsorbents prepared by attachment of trimethyl amine...... to 337 mg g(-1) with a dissociation constant of 0.042 muM. The latter anion-exchanger was selected for studies of whey protein fractionation. In these, crude bovine whey was treated with a superparamagnetic cation-exchanger to adsorb basic protein species, and the supernatant arising from this treatment......) was achieved with some simultaneous binding of immunoglobulins (1g). The immunoglobulins were separated from the other two proteins by desorbing with a low concentration of NaCl (less than or equal to0.4 M), whereas lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase were co-eluted in significantly purer form, e...

  12. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag/AgI/BiOI heteronanostructures supported on rectorite via a cation-exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yunfang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Jianzhang, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Shaoyou [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan [Institute of Engineering Technology of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Pollution Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510440 (China); Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Ximiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Zhanqiang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Highlights: • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared by twice cation-exchange process. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite photocatalyst possessed SPR and adsorption capacity. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite exhibited highly photocatalytic activity. • Trapped holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} were formed active species in the photocatalytic system. - Abstract: In this work, a new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared via a cation exchange process. The photocatalyst had been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen sorption (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, was enhanced significantly by loading Ag/AgI/BiOI nanoparticles onto rectorite. The photogenerated holes and superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were both formed as active species for the photocatalytic reactions under visible light irradiation. The existence of metallic Ag particles, which possess the surface plasmon resonance effect, acted as an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction.

  13. Sorptive Removal of Cesium and Cobalt Ions in a Fixed bed Column Using Lewatit S100 Cation Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.; Ibrahim, H.A.; El-Kamash, A.M.


    The sorptive removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column packed with Lewatit S100® cation exchange resin has been investigated. A preliminary batch studies were performed to estimate the effect of pH and contact time on the sorption process. Results indicated that Cs + and Co 2+ could be efficiently removed using Lewatit S100® at a ph range of 4-7 with more affinity towards Cs than Co 2+ . Kinetic models have been applied to the sorption rate data and the relevant parameters were determined. The obtained results indicated that the sorption of both Cs + and Co 2+ on Lewatit S100 followed pseudo second-order rather than pseudo first-order or Morris-Webber model. Fixed bed experiments were conducted at a constant initial concentration of 100 mg/l whereas the effect of bed depth (3, 4.5 and 6 cm) and volumetric flow rate (3 and 5 ml/min.) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption systems were determined. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the well-established column models namely; Thomas and BDST models to compute the different model parameters. The higher column sorption capacities were obtained at bed depth of 3 cm with a flow rate of 3 ml/min., for both Cs + and Co 2+ . The BDST model appeared to describe experimental results better than Thomas model. Results indicate that Lewatit S100® is an efficient material for the removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  14. Enhanced Transport of U(Vi) and Th(IV) Through Cation Exchange Membrane Using Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, E.E.; Aly, H.F.


    Transport of ionic species through ion exchange membrane found several applications for water effluents purification and metal ion separation. To enhance the transport performance, the effect of electric field was introduced in this work. The transport of U (Vi) and Th(IV) species in nitric acid solutions across cation exchange membrane was investigated. In this concern, different parameters affecting the transport were studied. These parameters include; nitric acid concentration in the feed solution, stripping solution concentration and applied electric field. From the results obtained the permeability coefficient of U(Vi) and Th(IV) were calculated. Based on these information, a process for separation of thorium from uranium is developed

  15. Recovery of Some Radioactive Nuclides from Radioactive Waste Solution Using Silicon(IV) Antimonate as a Cation Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Zakaria, E.S.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.


    A new inorganic ion exchanger, silicon(IV) antimonate was prepared by dropwise addition of antimony pentachloride and sodium silicate and shows excellent thermal and chemical stability. Ion exchange selectivities of cations Na +, Cs +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ in nitric acid media have been exchanged with protons of silicon antimonate using batch technique, from these results, distribution coefficient, selectivity was found in the order Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Na +> Cs +. The effective separation of Cs +, Na +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ have been achieved with column technique from nitric acid media. The values of diffusion coefficient, energy and entropy of activation of Cs +, Na +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ on silicon antimonate matrix were determined as a particle diffusion mechanism only and the values of diffusion inside the exchanger take the order Na +> Cs +> Co 2+ > Sr 2+

  16. Mixed-mode reversed-phase and ion-exchange separations of cationic analytes on polybutadiene-coated zirconia. (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Yang, Xiqin; Carr, Peter W


    The retention and selectivity of the chromatographic separation of basic (cationic) analytes on a polybutadiene-coated zirconia (PBD-ZrO2) stationary phase have been studied in greater detail than in previous studies. These separations are strongly influenced by the chemistry of the accessible surface of zirconia. In the presence of buffers which contain hard Lewis bases (e.g., phosphate, fluoride, carboxylic acids) zirconia's surface becomes negatively charged due to adsorption of the buffer anion at the hard Lewis acid sites. Consequently, under most conditions (e.g., neutral pH), cationic analytes undergo both hydrophobic and cation-exchange interactions. This mixed-mode retention process generally leads to greater retention factors for cations relative to those on silica-based reversed phases despite the lower surface areas of the zirconia phase, but, more importantly, adsorption of hard Lewis bases can be used to control the chromatographic selectivity for cationic analytes on these zirconia-based stationary phases. In contrast to our prior work, here we show that when mixed-mode retention takes place, both retention and selectivity are easily adjusted by changing the type of hard Lewis base buffer anion, the type of buffer counter-ion (e.g., sodium, potassium, ammonium), the pH, and the ionic strength of the eluent as well as the type and amount of organic modifier.

  17. Sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on montmorillonite clays: effects of exchangeable cations, pH, and ionic strength. (United States)

    Ren, Wenjie; Teng, Ying; Zhou, Qixing; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit


    Sorption interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl with montmorillonite clays was investigated under varied types of exchangeable cation, pH, and ionic strength conditions. Chlorimuron-ethyl sorption on bentonites exhibited pronounced cation dependency, and the sorption ability increased as the sequence Ca(2+)- clay type and much weaker for montmorillonites. The decrease of pH at the range of 4.0-6.0 prominently increased sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on all cation-exchanged montmorillonite clays, and nearly a neglected sorption (about 2 %) can be observed at pH over 7.0. In the presence of CaCl2, sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on Fe(3+)-bentonite was promoted because of complexion of Ca(2+) and the surface of Fe(3+)-bentonite. However, as the concentration of CaCl2 increased, chlorimuron-ethyl sorption on Ca(2+)- and Fe(3+)-exchanged bentonite decreased, suggesting that Ca bridging was not the prevailing mechanism for sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on these clays. Furthermore, chlorimuron-ethyl sorption was relatively sensitive to pH, and the change of pH may obscure effect of other factors on the sorption, so it was quite necessary to control pH at a constant value when the effect of other factor was being studied.

  18. A weak cation-exchange monolith as stationary phase for the separation of peptide diastereomers by CEC. (United States)

    Ludewig, Ronny; Nietzsche, Sandor; Scriba, Gerhard K E


    A CEC weak cation-exchange monolith has been prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylamide, methylenebisacrylamide and 4-acrylamidobutyric acid in a decanol-dimethylsulfoxide mixture as porogen. The columns were evaluated by SEM and characterized with regard to the separation of diastereomers and α/β-isomers of aspartyl peptides. Column preparation was reproducible as evidenced by comparison of the analyte retention times of several columns prepared simultaneously. Analyte separation was achieved using mobile phases consisting of acidic phosphate buffer and ACN. Under these conditions the peptides migrated due to their electrophoretic mobility but the EOF also contributed as driving force as a function of the pH of the mobile phase due to increasing dissociation of the carboxyl groups of the polymer. Raising the pH of the mobile phase also resulted in deprotonation of the peptides reducing analyte mobility. Due to these mechanisms each pair of diastereomeric peptides displayed the highest resolution at a different pH of the buffer component of the mobile phase. Comparing the weak-cation exchange monolith to an RP monolith and a strong cation-exchange monolith different elution order of some peptide diastereomers was observed, clearly illustrating that interactions with the stationary phase contribute to the CEC separations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of hybrid; Acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate a cation exchanger, effect of dielectric constant on distribution coefficient of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Syed A. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail:; Shalla, Aabid H. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)


    A new hybrid inorganic-organic cation exchanger acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate has been synthesized, characterized and its analytical application explored. The effect of experimental parameters such as mixing ratio of reagents, temperature, and pH on the properties of material has been studied. FTIR, TGA, X-ray, UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM and elemental analysis were used to determine the physiochemical properties of this hybrid ion exchanger. The material behaves as a monofunctional acid with ion-exchange capacity of 1.65 meq/g for Na{sup +} ions. The chemical stability data reveals that the exchanger is quite stable in mineral acids, bases and fairly stable in organic solvents, while as thermal analysis shows that the material retain 84% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600 deg. C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in solvents with increasing dielectric constant has also been explored. The sorption studies reveal that the material is selective for Pb{sup 2+} ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column. Pb{sup 2+} has been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures containing Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}. In order to demonstrate practical utility of the material quantitative separation of the Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in brass sample has been achieved on its columns.

  20. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.


    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  1. Experimental Research about Thermal Capacity Difference between Domestic and Foreign Plate Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ruihang


    Full Text Available Because of the noticeable advantages of plate heat exchangers compared with tube heat exchangers, it has been widely applied and researched. However, in the process of practical application, it is easy to find that the performance of heat exchangers produced domestically and from developed countries are quite different, which is one of the key factors that restrict the wide application of domestic plate heat exchangers, there are few studies on this subject yet. Thus, the paper analyzed the main difference of thermal capacity between a domestic and foreign plate heat exchangers through experimental researches, and the results all show that, foreign plate heat exchangers has a more superior thermal capacity and heat exchange efficiency than domestic one, which is in purpose of offering some guidance on technical improvements and applications in the future.

  2. The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan J


    Full Text Available Jing Yuan, Yanan Gao, Xinyu Wang, Hongzhuo Liu, Xin Che, Lu Xu, Yang Yang, Qifang Wang, Yan Wang, Sanming LiSchool of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug–fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug–fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid. Keywords: ion-exchange fibers, ionic reaction, drug load and release, opposing exchange kinetics, thermodynamics, influences

  3. Studies of cation exchange for the isolation and concentration of trace level components of complex aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczvinsky, J.R. Jr.


    Trace level organic bases are concentrated from aqueous solution by cation exchange on a column of sulfonated macroreticular XAD-4 resin. Washing of the column with organic solvents removes neutrals and acids. Ammonia gas is introduced into the column prior to elution of the basic organics with either methanol or ether containing ammonia. After solvent evaporation, the concentrated sample is analyzed by gas chromatography. Recoveries of over 85% are found with at least one of the eluents for over 50 bases tested at levels < 1 ppm. Improved recoveries and reproducibility are seen over a simple ether extraction procedure. Samples of river water, shale oil process water, and supernatant from an agricultural chemical disposal pit are analyzed. Preliminary studies of functionalized poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)s, coated exchangers, and liquid ion exchangers as possible approaches to nuclear waste decontamination are performed

  4. NHE8 is an intracellular cation/H+ exchanger in renal tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. (United States)

    Piermarini, Peter M; Weihrauch, Dirk; Meyer, Heiko; Huss, Markus; Beyenbach, Klaus W


    The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the hypothesized apical cation/H(+) exchanger responsible for K(+) and/or Na(+) secretion in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. From Aedes Malpighian tubules, we cloned "AeNHE8," a full-length cDNA encoding an ortholog of mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 8 (NHE8). The expression of AeNHE8 transcripts is ubiquitous among mosquito tissues and is not enriched in Malpighian tubules. Western blots of Malpighian tubules suggest that AeNHE8 is expressed primarily as an intracellular protein, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical localizations in Malpighian tubules. AeNHE8 immunoreactivity is expressed in principal cells of the secretory, distal segments, where it localizes to a subapical compartment (e.g., vesicles or endosomes), but not in the apical brush border. Furthermore, feeding mosquitoes a blood meal or treating isolated tubules with dibutyryl-cAMP, both of which stimulate a natriuresis by Malpighian tubules, do not influence the intracellular localization of AeNHE8 in principal cells. When expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AeNHE8 mediates EIPA-sensitive Na/H exchange, in which Li(+) partially and K(+) poorly replace Na(+). The expression of AeNHE8 in Xenopus oocytes is associated with the development of a conductive pathway that closely resembles the known endogenous nonselective cation conductances of Xenopus oocytes. In conclusion, AeNHE8 does not mediate cation/H(+) exchange in the apical membrane of Aedes Malpighian tubules; it is more likely involved with an intracellular function.

  5. Separation of macro-quantities of actinide elements at Savannah River by high-pressure cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, G.A.


    Large-scale separation of actinides from fission products and from each other by pressurized cation exchange chromatography at Savannah River is reviewed. Several kilograms of 244 Cm have been separated, with each run containing as much as 150 g of 244 Cm. Dowex 50W-X8 (Dow Chemical Co.) cation resin, graded to 30-70 micron size range, is used, and separation is made by eluting with 0.05M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) at a pH of 3. The effluent from the column is continuously monitored by a BF 3 detector, a NaI detector, and a lithium-drifted germanium detector and gamma spectrometer to guide collection of product fractions. Operating the columns at 300 to 1000 psi pressure eliminates resin bed disruption caused by radiolytically produced gases, and operating at increased flow rates decreases the radiolytic degradation of the resin per unit of product processed. A portion of the hot canyon of a production radiochemical separation plant was converted from a remote crane-operated facility to a master-slave manipulator-operated facility for separation and purification of actinide elements by pressurized cation exchange. It also contains an evaporator, furnaces, a calorimeter, and several precipitators and associated tanks. Actinide processing from target dissolution to packaging of purified product is planned in this facility

  6. An Investigation into the Effect of Cation-exchange on the Adsorption Performance of Indium-based Sodalite-ZMOF

    KAUST Repository

    Samin, Umer A.


    There is a pressing need for advanced solid-state materials that can be implemented in industrial gas separation processes to achieve separations with a significantly reduced energy input compared to what is typically required from current technologies. Although certain porous materials like zeolites bear some commercial significance for gas separation; their inherent lack of tunability limits the extent to which these materials may be exploited in industry. Zeolite-like Metal-Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs) are a sub-class of Metal-Organic Framework materials (MOFs) that show a structural semblance to zeolites while possessing the tunability advantages of MOF materials. ZMOFs which are topologically similar to certain zeolites can be functionalised and tuned in numerous ways to improve their gas separation properties. In this work, indium-based sod-ZMOF was tuned by cation-exchange and then characterised by different experimental tools such as single-crystal x-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and gas adsorption. It was found that various parameters like the choice of cation, the concentration of salt solution and the choice of solvent had a significant bearing on the cation-exchange of sod-ZMOF and its subsequent adsorption properties.

  7. Acute Hypocalcemia and Metabolic Alkalosis in Children on Cation-Exchange Resin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Kakajiwala


    Full Text Available Background. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS is a chelating agent used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. SPS has a wide range of exchange capacity requiring close monitoring of serum electrolytes. We observed two patients who developed acute hypocalcemia and increased metabolic alkalosis after initiating SPS therapy. We report these cases to draw attention to the potential risk of this medication in pediatric patients. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Two children with chronic kidney disease on dialysis were started on SPS for hyperkalemia. Within a week after initiation of the medication, both patients developed hypocalcemia on routine labs without overt clinical manifestations. The hypocalcemia was rapidly corrected with oral supplementation and discontinuation of SPS. Conclusions. Severe hypocalcemia can develop after SPS therapy. The metabolic alkalosis in these patients associated with the hypocalcemia put them at increased risk for complications. Hence, careful attention must be paid to the state of calcium metabolism in all patients receiving SPS. Often calcium supplementation is required to maintain normal calcium levels.

  8. Behavior of cationic, anionic and colloidal species of titanium, zirconium and thorium in presence of ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Filho, G. de; Abrao, A.


    The distribution of titanium, zirconium and thorium is aqueous and resin phases has been studied using strong cationic resin in the R-NH 4 form. Solutions of the above elements in perchloric, nitric, hydrochloric and suphuric media were used. Each set of experiments was made by separately varying one of the five parameters - type of anion present, acidity of solution, temperature of percolation, age of solution and concentration of the element. It was found that, depending on the particular balance of these parameters, the elements investigated may be found in acidic solutions either as cationic, anionic or colloidal species. It is emphasized that the colloidal species of titanium, zirconium or thorium are not retained by the ion exchangers, and from this property a method for the separation and purification of the above elements has been outlined [pt

  9. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y


    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  10. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Amezaga, S.


    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs

  11. Modification of Nafion Membranes by IL-Cation Exchange: Chemical Surface, Electrical and Interfacial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero


    A study of time evolution of the impedance curves measured in the system “IL aqueous solution/Nafion-112 membrane/IL aqueous solution” was also performed. This study allows us monitoring the electrical changes associated to the IL-cation incorporation in both the membrane and the membrane/IL solution interface, and it provides supplementary information on the characteristic of the Nafion/DTA+ hybrid material. Moreover, the results also show the significant effect of water on the electrical resistance of the Nafion-112/IL-cation-modified membrane.

  12. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange (United States)


    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  13. Separation of Pu and Nd from Uranium matrix by equilibrated cation exchanger for burnup measurement of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Jung Suk; Jeon, Young Shin; Han, Sun Ho; Eom, Tae Yoon


    Ion chromatographic method has been applied for burnup measurement of irradiated nuclear fuel by dynamic system using 1-octanesulfonate as a cation exchanger and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as an eluant. A number of elution techniques were evaluated for the optimum separation of plutonium, uranium and neodymium. These elements were individually separated and collected by gradient elution between 0.05 M and 0.40 M of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid in a single column, and finally determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The burnup data from this method were compared with those from conventional anion exchange method. The results showed a good agreement within 3.5 % of difference between two methods. (Author)

  14. Determination of organoarsenic species in marine samples using gradient elution cation exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, Kåre


    and dimethylarsinoylacetic acid, whereas the cationic arsenocholine ion and tetramethylarsonium ion were not affected. The accuracy of the method for DMA, AsB and TMAs was validated with the CRMs DORM-2 and BCR626 Tuna. The concentrations found for arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and tetramethylarsonium ion were within...

  15. Comparison of gaseous oxidized Hg measured by KCl-coated denuders, and nylon and cation exchange membranes. (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Miller, Matthieu B; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Gustin, Mae Sexauer


    The chemical compounds that make up gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in the atmosphere, and the reactions responsible for their formation, are not well understood. The limitations and uncertainties associated with the current method applied to measure these compounds, the KCl-coated denuder, are not known due to lack of calibration and testing. This study systematically compared the uptake of specific GOM compounds by KCl-coated denuders with that collected using nylon and cation exchange membranes in the laboratory and field. In addition, a new method for identifying different GOM compounds using thermal desorption is presented. Different GOM compounds (HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO) were found to have different affinities for the denuder surface and the denuder underestimated each of these compounds. Membranes measured 1.3 to 3.7 times higher GOM than denuders in laboratory and field experiments. Cation exchange membranes had the highest collection efficiency. Thermodesorption profiles for the release of GOM compounds from the nylon membrane were different for HgO versus HgBr2 and HgCl2. Application of the new field method for collection and identification of GOM compounds demonstrated these vary as a function of location and time of year. Understanding the chemistry of GOM across space and time has important implications for those developing policy regarding this environmental contaminant.

  16. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences. (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer


    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies.

  17. Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Pan, Bingcai; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Weiming; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Quanxing


    A novel polymeric hybrid sorbent, namely ZrPS-001, was fabricated for enhanced sorption of heavy metal ions by impregnating Zr(HPO3S)2 (i.e., ZrPS) nanoparticles within a porous polymeric cation exchanger D-001. The immobilized negatively charged groups bound to the polymeric matrix D-001 would result in preconcentration and permeation enhancement of target metal ions prior to sequestration, and ZrPS nanoparticles are expected to sequester heavy metals selectively through an ion-exchange process. Highly effective sequestration of lead, cadmium, and zinc ions from aqueous solution can be achieved by ZrPS-001 even in the presence of competing calcium ion at concentration several orders of magnitude greater than the target species. The exhausted ZrPS-001 beads are amenable to regeneration with 6 M HCI solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Fixed-bed column treatment of simulated waters containing heavy metals at high or trace levels was also performed. The content of heavy metals in treated effluent approached or met the WHO drinking water standard.

  18. Microwave-assisted grafting polymerization modification of nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer fibers for enhanced weak cation exchange protein separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R. Kenneth, E-mail:


    A weak cation exchange liquid chromatography stationary phase (nylon-COOH) was prepared by grafting polyacrylic acid on to native nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers via a microwave-assisted radical polymerization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of applying microwave-assisted grafting polymerization to affect nylon material for protein separation. The C-CP fiber surfaces were characterized by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anticipated carbonyl peak at 1722.9 cm{sup −1} was found on the nylon-COOH fibers, but was not found on the native fiber, indicating the presence of the polyacrylic acid on nylon fibers after grafting. The nylon-COOH phase showed a ∼12× increase in lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (∼12 mg mL{sup −1}) when compared to the native fiber phase (∼1 mg mL{sup −1}). The loading capacity of the nylon-COOH phase is nearly independent of the lysozyme loading concentration (0.05–1 mg mL{sup −1}) and the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3–73 mm s{sup −1}). The reproducibility of the lysozyme recovery from the nylon-COOH (RSD = 0.3%, n = 10) and the batch-to-batch variability in the functionalization (RSD = 3%, n = 5) were also investigated, revealing very high levels of consistency. Fast baseline separations of myoglobin, α-chymotrypsinogen A, cytochrome c and lysozyme were achieved using the nylon-COOH column. It was found that a 5× increase in the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3-to-36.5 mm s{sup −1}) had little effect on the separation resolution. The microwave-assisted grafting polymerization has great potential as a generalized surface modification methodology across the applications of C-CP fibers. - Highlights: • A microwave-assisted grafting method to attach acrylic acid is described for the first time for chromatographic phases. • A high-density, weak cation exchange surface is created on a nylon

  19. Conformations of cationized linear oligosaccharides revealed by FTMS combined with in-ESI H/D exchange. (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene


    Previously (Kostyukevich et al. Anal Chem 2014, 86, 2595), we have reported that oligosaccharides anions are produced in the electrospray in two different conformations, which differ by the rate of gas phase hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reaction. In the present paper, we apply the in-electrospray ionization (ESI) source H/D exchange approach for the investigation of the oligosaccharides cations formed by attaching of metal ions (Na, K) to the molecule. It was observed that the formation of different conformers can be manipulated by varying the temperature of the desolvating capillary of the ESI interphase. Separation of the conformers was performed using gas phase H/D approach. Because the conformers have different rates of the H/D exchange reaction, the deuterium distribution spectrum becomes bimodal. It was found that the conformation corresponding to the slow H/D exchange rate dominates in the spectrum when the capillary temperature is low (~200 °C), and the conformation corresponding to the fast H/D exchange rate dominates at high (~400 °C) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature region, two conformers are present simultaneously. It was also observed that large oligosaccharide requires higher temperature for the formation of another conformer. It was found that the presence of the conformers considerably depends on the solvent used for ESI and the pH. We have compared these results with the previously performed in-ESI source H/D exchange experiments with peptides and proteins. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Water quality monitoring system for determination of ionic nutrients by ion-exclusion chromatography with spectrophotometric detection on cation- and anion-exchange resin columns using water eluent. (United States)

    Kozaki, Daisuke; Nakatani, Nobutake; Mori, Masanobu; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko


    A unified ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) system for monitoring anionic and cationic nutrients like NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, phosphate ion, silicate ion and HCO3- was developed and applied to several environmental waters. The IEC system consisted of four IEC methodologies, including the IEC with ultraviolet (UV) form connected with detection at 210 nm for determining NH4+ on anion-exchange separation column in OH anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining simultaneously NO3- and NO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form, the IEC with UV-detection at 210 nm for determining HCO3- on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form connected with anion-exchange UV-conversion column in I- form in tandem, and the IEC with visible-detection based on molybdenum-blue reaction for determining simultaneously silicate and phosphate ions on cation-exchange separation column in H+ form. These IEC systems were combined through three manually-driven 6-port column selection valves to select each separation column to determine selectively the ionic nutrients. Using this sequential water quality monitoring system, the analytical performances such as calibration linearity, reproducibility, detection limit and recovery were also tested under the optimized chromatographic conditions. This novel water quality monitoring system has been applied successfully for the determination of the ionic eutrophication components in sub-urban river waters.

  1. Towards high capacity latex-coated porous polymer monoliths as ion-exchange stationary phases. (United States)

    Hutchinson, Joseph P; Hilder, Emily F; Shellie, Robert A; Smith, Jason A; Haddad, Paul R


    The preparation of high capacity agglomerated monolithic ion-exchangers for capillary ion chromatography is described. Post-modification of reactive monoliths was investigated as an alternative to co-polymerisation of a suitable functional monomer with an overarching goal of increasing ion-exchange capacity. Direct sulfonation of poly styrene-co-divinyl benzene monoliths using concentrated sulfuric acid or chlorosulfonic acid was unsuccessful even for monoliths containing as low as 8% crosslinker. In contrast, chemical transformation of reactive monoliths containing glycidyl methacrylate was used to increase the ion-exchange capacity by up to more than thirty-fold with ion exchange capacities of 14-29 microequiv g(-1) achieved. Three different reactions were considered, including reaction with 4-hydroxybenenesulfonic acid under basic conditions; reaction with thiobenzoic acid followed by transformation to a reactive thiol and the subsequent oxidation to the sulfonic acid; and direct sulfonation with sodium sulfite. Of these, the reaction with sodium sulfite resulted in the most significant increase in the capacity and the best separation performance. In the isocratic mode separation efficiencies of over 13,500 plates m(-1) were observed (for iodate). The separation of seven inorganic anions was also demonstrated using a hydroxide gradient.

  2. Ion exchange of some transition metal cations on hydrated titanium dioxide in aqueous ammonia solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilewicz, A.; Narbutt, J.; Dybczynski, R.


    The adsorption of transition metal cations on hydrated titanium dioxide in complexing ammonia and amine solutions has been studied as a function of ammonia (amine) concentration. The relationships between the distribution coefficients and ammonia concentration as well as the effects of various amines on sorption of transition metals indicate that a coordinate bond is formed between the metal ions and the hydroxy groups of the sorbent. The distribution coefficients of silver(I) and cobalt(II), which form strong ammonia complexes in aqueous solutions, decrease with increasing concentration of ammonia already at concentrations exceeding 10 -3 *mol*dm -3 . Cations of zinc, manganese and mercury which form much weaker ammonia complexes do not exhibit any effect of ammonia concentration in the whole range investigated. In the case of sorption of macroamounts of ammonia or amine complexes of silver, the molecular sieve effect plays an important role. The differences in the affinity of hydrated titanium dioxide for ammonia solvates of various transition metal ions can serve as a tool for effective separation of these ions in ammonia solutions. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Design of a fixed-bed ion-exchange process for the treatment of rinse waters generated in the galvanization process using Laminaria hyperborea as natural cation exchanger. (United States)

    Mazur, Luciana P; Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Mayer, Diego A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P


    In this study, the removal of zinc from galvanization wastewaters was performed in a fixed bed column packed with brown macro-algae Laminaria hyperborea, acting as a natural cation exchanger (resin). The rinse wastewater presents a zinc concentration between 9 and 22 mg/L, a high concentration of light metals (mainly Na and Ca), a high conductivity (0.5-1.5 mS/cm) and a low organic content (DOC = 7-15 mg C/L). The zinc speciation diagram showed that approximately 80% of zinc is in the form of Zn(2+) and ≅20% as ZnSO4, considering the effluent matrix. From all operational conditions tested for zinc uptake (17 treatment of 2.4 m(3)/day of galvanization wastewater, resulting in an estimated reactants cost of 2.44 €/m(3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Building knowledge development and exchange capacity in Canada: lessons from Youth Excel. (United States)

    Riley, B; Wong, K; Manske, S


    Youth Excel was a 3-year pan-Canadian initiative to advance youth health through improving knowledge development and exchange (KDE) capacity. KDE capacity refers to an improvement cycle linking evidence and action. Capacities include local surveillance of youth behaviours; knowledge exchange; skills, resources and a supportive environment to use knowledge; and evaluation. Interviews were conducted with Youth Excel members, including 7 provincial teams and 2 national organizations. Interviews explored participant experiences with building KDE capacity. Local surveillance systems were considered the backbone to KDE capacity, strengthened by co-ordinating surveys within and across jurisdictions and using common indicators and measures. The most effective knowledge exchange included tailored products and opportunities for dialogue and action planning. Evaluation is the least developed KDE component. Building KDE capacity requires frequent dialogue, mutually beneficial partnerships and trust. It also requires attention to language, vision, strategic leadership and funding. Youth Excel reinforces the need for a KDE system to improve youth health that will require new perspectives and sustained commitment from individual champions and relevant organizations.

  5. On the swelling behavior of cationic exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions in a C3S paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chartier, D.; Gauffinet, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Stefan, L.


    Ion exchange resins (IERs) are widely used in the nuclear industry to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Spent resins are usually encapsulated in cementitious materials. However, the solidified waste form can exhibit strong expansion, possibly leading to cracking, if the appropriate binder is not used. In this work, the interactions between cationic resins in the Na + form and tricalcium silicate are investigated during the early stages of hydration in order to gain a better understanding of the expansion process. It is shown that the IERs exhibit a transient swelling of small magnitude due to the decrease in the osmotic pressure of the external solution. This expansion, which occurs just after setting, is sufficient to damage the material which is poorly consolidated for several reasons: low degree of hydration, precipitation of poorly cohesive sodium-bearing C-S-H, and very heterogeneous microstructure with zones of high porosity. (authors)

  6. Accurate determination of trace amounts of thorium in silicate rocks by cation-exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, A.H.; Strelow, F.W.E.


    Thorium in four of the South African NIMROC standards and in four secondary standards is determined accurately by means of spectrophotometry with arsenazo-III after a selective cation-exchange separation on an AG50W-X4 resin column. All other elements are eluted with 6 M hydrobromic acid before the final elution of thorium with 5 M nitric acid. Small amounts of zirconium which may be present in the thorium eluate, are effectively complexed with oxalic acid which also eliminates the spectrophotometric interferences caused by organic material leached from the resin column. The accuracy and precision of the method are demonstrated by the analysis of synthetic mixtures containing various amounts of thorium. Amounts of 10 and 100 μg of thorium can finally be determined with coefficients of variation of 1% and 0.2%, respectively. (Auth.)

  7. Cation exchange and CaCO 3 dissolution during artificial recharge of effluent to a calcareous sandstone aquifer (United States)

    Goren, Orly; Gavrieli, Ittai; Burg, Avihu; Lazar, Boaz


    SummaryThis research describes a field study and laboratory simulations of the geochemical evolution of groundwater following a recharge of effluent into aquifers. The study was conducted in the soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system of the Shafdan sewage reclamation plant, Israel. The SAT system recharges secondary effluent into the calcareous sandstone sediments of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer as a tertiary treatment. The reclaimed effluent is recovered ca. 500 m off the recharge basin and is used for unlimited irrigation. The laboratory simulations in which effluent was pumped through experimental columns packed with pristine Shafdan sediment showed that the chemical composition of the outflowing water was controlled mainly by cation exchange and CaCO 3 dissolution. Na +, K + and Mg 2+ were adsorbed and Ca 2+ was desorbed during the initial stage of recharge. The equilibrium distribution of the adsorbed cations was: Ca 2+ ˜ 60%, Mg 2+ ˜ 20%, and Na + and K + ˜ 10% each. The Ca 2+ in the Shafdan production wells and in the experimental columns outflow (˜5 meq L -1) was always higher than the Ca 2+ in the recharged effluent (˜3.5 meq L -1), indicating continuous CaCO 3 dissolution. This study demonstrates that besides mixing, a suite of geochemical processes should be considered when assessing groundwater quality following artificial recharge of aquifers.

  8. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.


    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  9. Quantification of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides by Cation Exchange High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Kammermeier, Lukas; Schramm, Sebastian; Towfique, Nayeem; Adebimpe Adedeji, N; Adesola Ajayi, S; Poppenberger, Brigitte


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites with considerable hepatoxic, tumorigenic and genotoxic potential. For separation, reversed phase chromatography is commonly used because of its excellent compatibility with detection by mass spectrometry. However, reversed phase chromatography has a low selectivity for PAs. The objective of this work was to investigate the suitability of cation exchange chromatography for separation of PAs and to develop a rapid method for quantification of jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides that is suitable for analysis of huge sample numbers as required for mutant screening procedures. We demonstrate that cation exchange chromatography offers excellent selectivity for PAs allowing their separation from most other plant metabolites. Due to the high selectivity, plant extracts can be directly analysed after simple sample preparation. Detection with UV at 200 nm instead of mass spectrometry can be applied, which makes the method very simple and cost-effective. The recovery rate of the method exceeded 95%, the intra-day and inter-day standard deviations were below 7% and the limit of detection and quantification were 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for reproducible detection of jacobine in C. crepidioides. Simple sample preparation and rapid separation allows for quantification of jacobine in plant material in a high-throughput manner. Thus, the method is suitable for genetic screenings and may be applicable for other plant species, for instance Jacobaea maritima. In addition, our results show that C. crepidioides cannot be considered safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Drivers of leaf carbon exchange capacity across biomes at the continental scale. (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas G; Dukes, Jeffrey S


    Realistic representations of plant carbon exchange processes are necessary to reliably simulate biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks. These processes are known to vary over time and space, though the drivers of the underlying rates are still widely debated in the literature. Here, we measured leaf carbon exchange in >500 individuals of 98 species from the neotropics to high boreal biomes to determine the drivers of photosynthetic and dark respiration capacity. Covariate abiotic (long- and short-term climate) and biotic (plant type, plant size, ontogeny, water status) data were used to explore significant drivers of temperature-standardized leaf carbon exchange rates. Using model selection, we found the previous week's temperature and soil moisture at the time of measurement to be a better predictor of photosynthetic capacity than long-term climate, with the combination of high recent temperatures and low soil moisture tending to decrease photosynthetic capacity. Non-trees (annual and perennials) tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than trees, and, within trees, adults tended to have greater photosynthetic capacity than juveniles, possibly as a result of differences in light availability. Dark respiration capacity was less responsive to the assessed drivers than photosynthetic capacity, with rates best predicted by multi-year average site temperature alone. Our results suggest that, across large spatial scales, photosynthetic capacity quickly adjusts to changing environmental conditions, namely light, temperature, and soil moisture. Respiratory capacity is more conservative and most responsive to longer-term conditions. Our results provide a framework for incorporating these processes into large-scale models and a dataset to benchmark such models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the ion-exchange capacity of anion-selective membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, F.; Hnát, J.; Paidar, M.; Schauer, Jan; Bouzek, K.


    Roč. 39, č. 10 (2014), s. 5054-5062 ISSN 0360-3199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : ion-exchange capacity * anion-selective membranes * titration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.313, year: 2014

  12. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald


    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  13. Partial exchange of the Li+, Na+ and K+ alkaline cations in the HNi(PO4).H2O layered compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobal, Jaione; Mesa, Jose; Pizarro, Jose; Bazan, Begona; Arriortua, Maria; Rojo, Teofilo


    The exchange of the Li + (1), Na + (2) and K + (3) alkaline cations in the layered HNi(PO 4 ).H 2 O was carried out starting from a methanolic solution containing the Li(OH).H 2 O hydroxide for (1) and the M(OH) (M=Na and K) hydroxides together with the (C 6 H 13 NH 2 ) 0.75 HNiPO 4 .H 2 O phases for (2) and (3). The compounds are stable until, approximately, 280 o C for (1) and 400 deg. C for phases (2) and (3), respectively. The IR spectra show the bands belonging to the water molecule and the (PO 4 ) 3- oxoanion. The diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the existence of Ni(II), d 8 , cations in slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The calculated Dq and Racah (B and C) parameters have a mean value of Dq=765, B=905 and C=3895cm -1 , respectively, in accordance with the values obtained habitually for this octahedral Ni(II) cation. The study of the exchange process performed by X-ray powder diffraction indicates that the exchange of the Li + cation in the lamellar HNi(PO 4 ).H 2 O phase is the minor rapid reaction, whereas the exchange of the Na + and K + cations needs the presence of the intermediate (C 6 H 13 NH 2 ) 0.75 HNiPO 4 .H 2 O intercalate in order to obtain the required product with the sodium and potassium ions. The Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images show a mean size of particle of 5μm. The Li + exchanged compound exhibits small ionic conductivity (Ωcm -1 is in the 10 -8 -10 -9 range) probably restrained by the methanol solvent. Magnetic measurements carried out from 5K to room temperature indicate antiferromagnetic coupling as the major interaction in the three phases. Notwithstanding the Li and K phases show a weak ferromagnetism at low temperatures

  14. Some mica-vermiculite alterations-relation to the exchange capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misak, N.Z.; Abdel-Gawad, A.S.; Maghrawy, H.B.; Shafik, A.; Sayyah, T.


    The effect of treatment of six Indian mica-vermiculite minerals with sodium cobaltinitrite (I) and NaCl+H 2 O 2 (II) with the aim of producing more vermiculite in the structure and thus a higher sorption capacity, was studied. The changes occuring in the minerals were followed by X-ray, TG, DTA, and chemical analyses. The measured Sr 2+ and Co 2+ capacities were in basic agreement with the detected changes that revealed generally a minor alteration due to treatment I and a considerable one but to treatment II. Treatment II increased tremendously the capacity of the main-mica minerals, having a very small capacity in the natural form, and made them suitable for use as potential ion exchangers

  15. A practical method for measuring the ion exchange capacity decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes during intrinsic degradation (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Jannasch, Patric


    In this work we present a practical thermogravimetric method for quantifying the IEC (ion exchange capacity) decrease of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs) during intrinsic degradation mainly occurring through nucleophilic attack of the anion exchanging group by hydroxide ions. The method involves measuring weight changes under controlled temperature and relative humidity. These conditions are close to these in a fuel cell, i.e. the measured degradation rate includes all effects originating from the polymeric structure, the consumption of hydroxide ions and the release of water. In particular, this approach involves no added solvents or base, thereby avoiding inaccuracies that may arise in other methods due to the presence of solvents (other than water) or co-ions (such as Na+ or K+). We demonstrate the method by characterizing the decomposition of membranes consisting of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) functionalized with trimethyl-pentyl-ammonium side chains. The decomposition rate is found to depend on temperature, relative humidity RH (controlling the hydration number λ) and the total water content (controlled by the actual IEC and RH).

  16. Measurement of acid dissociation constants of weak acids by cation exchange and conductometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Nara, Osamu (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))


    A simple strategy is presented for the determination of acid dissociation constants based on the measurement of conductance of a known concentration of the acid and/or the conductance of a solution of its fully or partially neutralized alkali-metal salts. For an n-protic acid, 2n conductance measurements are minimally necessary. In the simplest case of a typical monoprotic acid, the conductance of its alkali salt solution is measured before and after passage through an H{sup +}-form exchanger. From these data both the pK{sub a} of the acid and the equivalent conductance of the anion can be computed. The underlying equations are rigorously solved for monoprotic acids and some diprotic acid systems. For other diprotic and multiprotic acid systems, initial estimates are obtained by making approximations; the complete data set is then subjected to multiparametric fitting. The method does not require pH measurements; conductance can generally be measured accurately at low enough ionic strengths to obviate the need for major activity correction. Several experimental measurements are presented and excellent agreement with literature pK{sub a} values is observed. The reliability of the equivalent conductance values computed in this fashion is limited, however.

  17. Use of Novel Reinforced Cation Exchange Membranes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish-Kumar; Romano, Sergio Mollá; Moreno, Vicente Compañ; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M.; Solorza-Feria, O.


    This work has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of different blended membranes SPEEK-35PVA (Water), SPEEK-35PVA (DMAc) prepared by casting and nanofiber-reinforced proton exchange membranes Nafion-PVA-15, Nafion-PVA-23 and SPEEK/PVA-PVB. The two first reinforced membranes were made up of Nafion® polymer deposited between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The last composite membrane is considered because the PVA is a hydrophilic polymer which forms homogeneous blends with SPEEK suitable to obtain high proton conductivity, while the hydrophobic PVB can produce blends in a phase separation morphology in which very low water uptake can be found. The synthesized membranes showed an outstanding stability, high proton conductivity, and enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. The membranes were characterized in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) using electrochemically enriched high sodic saline hybrid H-inocula (Geobacter metallireducen, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus, and Marinobacter adhaerens) as biocatalyst. The best performance was obtained with Nafion-PVA-15 membrane, which achieved a maximum power density of 1053 mW/m 3 at a cell voltage of 340 mV and displayed the lowest total internal resistance (Rint ≈ 522 Ω). This result is in agreement with the low oxygen permeability and the moderate conductivity found in this kind of membranes. These results are encouraging towards obtaining high concentrated sodic saline model wastewater exploiting MFCs

  18. Reversible dissociation and ligand-glutathione exchange reaction in binuclear cationic tetranitrosyl iron complex with penicillamine. (United States)

    Syrtsova, Lidia; Sanina, Natalia; Lyssenko, Konstantin; Kabachkov, Evgeniy; Psikha, Boris; Shkondina, Natal'ja; Pokidova, Olesia; Kotelnikov, Alexander; Aldoshin, Sergey


    This paper describes a comparative study of the decomposition of two nitrosyl iron complexes (NICs) with penicillamine thiolic ligands [Fe2(SC5H11NO2)2(NO)4]SO4 ·5H2O (I) and glutathione- (GSH-) ligands [Fe2(SC10H17N3O6)2(NO)4]SO4 ·2H2O (II), which spontaneously evolve to NO in aqueous medium. NO formation was measured by a sensor electrode and by spectrophotometric methods by measuring the formation of a hemoglobin- (Hb-) NO complex. The NO evolution reaction rate from (I)  k 1 = (4.6 ± 0.1)·10(-3) s(-1) and the elimination rate constant of the penicillamine ligand k 2 = (1.8 ± 0.2)·10(-3) s(-1) at 25°C in 0.05 M phosphate buffer,  pH 7.0, was calculated using kinetic modeling based on the experimental data. Both reactions are reversible. Spectrophotometry and mass-spectrometry methods have firmly shown that the penicillamine ligand is exchanged for GS(-) during decomposition of 1.5·10(-4) M (I) in the presence of 10(-3) M GSH, with 76% yield in 24 h. As has been established, such behaviour is caused by the resistance of (II) to decomposition due to the higher affinity of iron to GSH in the complex. The discovered reaction may impede S-glutathionylation of the essential enzyme systems in the presence of (I) and is important for metabolism of NIC, connected with its antitumor activity.

  19. Effect of water content and specific surface on exchange capacity of cellulose anionite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaulova, T.A.; Lutysyk, R.V.; Morin, B.P.; Ennan, A.A.


    The specific features of fibrous anion exchange cellulose materials make them suitable for sanitary gas purification, especially as individual respirators to protect the wearer from acidic gases and vapors. In the USSR, highly basic cellulose anionite TSM-A2ND used for this purpose is prepared in nonwoven form from TsM-A2 fiber, which is obtained by graft polymerization of cellulose (viscose staple fiber) to 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine followed by alkylation with epichlorohydrin. Gas adsorption is known to increase with rising water content and a study was made of the effects of pore structure and type of water bond with TsM-A2 fiber on its exchange capacity. Fiber samples containing 15-63% grafted polymethyl-vinylpyridine were used. The study shows that although TsM-A2 has a high water capacity and a highly developed surface, its exchange capacity is relatively low. Evidently, the effectiveness of similar adsorbents may be increased by changing their physical structure and thereby increasing access to ionogenic groups. 11 references, 3 figures.

  20. Microchemical determination of nine rare earth elements in silicate rocks by cation-exchange preconcentration - ion-interaction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, K.; Sato, K.; Kuroda, R.


    A method of applying ion-interaction chromatography to the determination of the rare earth elements in silicate rocks on a 100 to 200 mg sample basis has been developed. The rare earths are first separated as a group from matrices by cation-exchange chromatography in hydrochloric acid-thiocyanate media and isolated in a small, defined volume (3.00 ml). Using fractions of this, on-column concentration of the rare earths on a C-18 bonded phase silica coated with 1-octanesulfonate and a subsequent concentration gradient elution with glycolate (0.05 to 0.35 M) at pH 3.5 allows the respective separation of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y (100 μl aliquot used) and of Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (2.00 ml aliquot used). Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy elute together, and Ho is not sufficiently well resolved from these middle rare earth elements. The eluted rare earth elements are detected and quantified by post-column reaction with Arsenazo III photometrically, using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 650 nm. The method is shown to be capable of determining nine of the rare earth elements in a variety of international reference rock samples with good precision and accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Kinetics, thermodynamics and surface heterogeneity assessment of uranium(VI) adsorption onto cation exchange resin derived from a lignocellulosic residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India); Radhakrishnan, P.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)


    A new cation exchange resin (PGTFS-COOH) having a carboxylate functional group at the chain end was prepared by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto tamarind fruit shell, TFS (a lignocellulosic residue) using potassium peroxydisulphate-sodium thiosulphate redox initiator, and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, followed by functionalisation. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of FTIR, XRD, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and potentiometric titrations. The kinetic and isotherm data, obtained at optimum pH value 6.0 at different temperatures could be fitted with pseudo-second-order equation and Sips isotherm model, respectively. An increase in temperature induces positive effect on the adsorption process. The calculated activation energy of adsorption (E{sub a}, 18.67 kJ/mol) indicates that U(VI) adsorption was largely due to diffusion-controlled process. The values of adsorption enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy were calculated using thermodynamic function relationships. The decrease in adsorption enthalpy with increasing U(VI) uploading on the adsorbent, reflects the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent. The isosteric heat of adsorption was quantitatively correlated with the fractional loading for the U(VI) ions adsorption onto PGTFS-COOH. The results showed that the PGTFS-COOH possessed heterogeneous surface with sorption sites having different activities.

  2. Kinetics, thermodynamics and surface heterogeneity assessment of uranium(VI) adsorption onto cation exchange resin derived from a lignocellulosic residue (United States)

    Anirudhan, T. S.; Radhakrishnan, P. G.


    A new cation exchange resin (PGTFS-COOH) having a carboxylate functional group at the chain end was prepared by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto tamarind fruit shell, TFS (a lignocellulosic residue) using potassium peroxydisulphate-sodium thiosulphate redox initiator, and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, followed by functionalisation. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of FTIR, XRD, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and potentiometric titrations. The kinetic and isotherm data, obtained at optimum pH value 6.0 at different temperatures could be fitted with pseudo-second-order equation and Sips isotherm model, respectively. An increase in temperature induces positive effect on the adsorption process. The calculated activation energy of adsorption ( Ea, 18.67 kJ/mol) indicates that U(VI) adsorption was largely due to diffusion-controlled process. The values of adsorption enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy were calculated using thermodynamic function relationships. The decrease in adsorption enthalpy with increasing U(VI) uploading on the adsorbent, reflects the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent. The isosteric heat of adsorption was quantitatively correlated with the fractional loading for the U(VI) ions adsorption onto PGTFS-COOH. The results showed that the PGTFS-COOH possessed heterogeneous surface with sorption sites having different activities.

  3. Solid cation exchange phase to remove interfering anthocyanins in the analysis of other bioactive phenols in red wine. (United States)

    da Silva, Letícia Flores; Guerra, Celito Crivellaro; Klein, Diandra; Bergold, Ana Maria


    Bioactive phenols (BPs) are often targets in red wine analysis. However, other compounds interfere in the liquid chromatography methods used for this analysis. Here, purification procedures were tested to eliminate anthocyanin interference during the determination of 19 red-wine BPs. Liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), was used to compare the direct injection of the samples with solid-phase extractions: reversed-phase (C18) and strong cation-exchange (SCX). The HPLC-DAD method revealed that, out of 13BPs, only six are selectively analyzed with or without C18 treatment, whereas SCX enabled the detection of all BPs. The recovery with SCX was above 86.6% for eight BPs. Moreover, UPLC-MS demonstrated the potential of SCX sample preparation for the determination of 19BPs. The developed procedure may be extended to the analysis of other red wine molecules or to other analytical methods where anthocyanins may interfere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy


    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Purification of Monoclonal Antibodies Using a Fiber Based Cation-Exchange Stationary Phase: Parameter Determination and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schwellenbach


    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAb currently dominate the market for protein therapeutics. Because chromatography unit operations are critical for the purification of therapeutic proteins, the process integration of novel chromatographic stationary phases, driven by the demand for more economic process schemes, is a field of ongoing research. Within this study it was demonstrated that the description and prediction of mAb purification on a novel fiber based cation-exchange stationary phase can be achieved using a physico-chemical model. All relevant mass-transport phenomena during a bind and elute chromatographic cycle, namely convection, axial dispersion, boundary layer mass-transfer, and the salt dependent binding behavior in the fiber bed were described. This work highlights the combination of model adaption, simulation, and experimental parameter determination through separate measurements, correlations, or geometric considerations, independent from the chromatographic cycle. The salt dependent binding behavior of a purified mAb was determined by the measurement of adsorption isotherms using batch adsorption experiments. Utilizing a combination of size exclusion and protein A chromatography as analytic techniques, this approach can be extended to a cell culture broth, describing the salt dependent binding behavior of multiple components. Model testing and validation was performed with experimental bind and elute cycles using purified mAb as well as a clarified cell culture broth. A comparison between model calculations and experimental data showed a good agreement. The influence of the model parameters is discussed in detail.

  6. [Preparation of strong cation-exchange monolithic column and its application in polypeptide separation by capillary electrochromatography]. (United States)

    Qi, Nan; Cui, Ruihong; You, Huiyan


    A strong cation-exchange monolithic column was prepared by polymerization inside the fused-silica capillary. The solution consisted of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid as functional monomers, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent, dimethyl suiphoxide and dodecanol, 1 , 4-butanediol as organic porogenic solvents and azobisisobutyronitrile as a suitable initiator. The effects of the applied voltage, concentrations of organic modifier and salt solution, pH value on the electroosmotic flow were investigated. The experimental results showed that there existed a good linear relationship between the applied voltage and electroosmotic flow with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981; When the concentration of organic modifier (acetonitrile, ACN) was less than 70%, the swelling degree of stationary phase played a main role and the electroosmotic flow was decreased abnormally with the increase of ACN concentration; The electroosmotic flow was decreased with the increase of the concentration of phosphate. When the pH value was in the range of 3-9, it did not exert a significant change in electroosmotic flow. These results were consistent with the theoretical role. At the same time, five peptides were separated successfully under the optimal experimental conditions on the monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography. The column has obvious advantages in polypeptide separation and will be favorable for the protein investigation.

  7. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst. (United States)

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki


    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Sulfonation modification-assisted enrichment and identification of histidine-containing peptides by strong cation exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry]. (United States)

    Cao, Dong; Zhou, Chunxi; Zhang, Yangjun; Han, Chunguang; Deng, Yulin; Qian, Xiaohong


    By the sulfonation at the N-terminal of peptides, the charge state of histidine-containing peptides is different from that of other peptides in pH sulfonated histidine-containing peptides from tryptic digest of proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS). Using the standard proteins containing histidines as the model, the methodology was evaluated. The results show that sulfonated histidine-containing peptides were efficiently enriched by SCX, and the N-terminal sulfonation of the peptides simplifies the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra and facilitates the sequencing of histidine-containing peptides by producing consecutive and predominant ions in positive mode MS2 spectra, which is thought to be the result of the charge neutralization of b ions by the N-terminal sulfonic acid group. The discrimination of b ions and y ions can greatly enhance the confidence in peptide and subsequent protein identification. It is feasible to isolate and enrich the histidine-containing peptides by using this method which has the potential applications in proteomics.

  9. Advanced analytical method of nereistoxin using mixed-mode cationic exchange solid-phase extraction and GC/MS. (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Heesang; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Jung, Jee H


    Nereistoxin(NTX) was originated from a marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda and its analogue pesticides including cartap, bensultap, thiocyclam and thiobensultap have been commonly used in agriculture, because of their low toxicity and high insecticidal activity. However, NTX has been reported about its inhibitory neuro toxicity in human and animal body, by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and it cause significant neuromuscular toxicity, resulting in respiratory failure. We developed a new method to determine NTX in biological fluid. The method involves mixed-mode cationic exchange based solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for final identification and quantitative analysis. The limit of detection and recovery were substantially better than those of other methods using liquid-liquid extraction or headspace solid phase microextraction. The good recoveries (97±14%) in blood samples were obtained and calibration curves over the range 0.05-20 mg/L have R2 values greater than 0.99. The developed method was applied to a fatal case of cartap intoxication of 74 years old woman who ingested cartap hydrochloride for suicide. Cartap and NTX were detected from postmortem specimens and the cause of the death was ruled to be nereistoxin intoxication. The concentrations of NTX were 2.58 mg/L, 3.36 mg/L and 1479.7 mg/L in heart, femoral blood and stomach liquid content, respectively. The heart blood/femoral blood ratio of NTX was 0.76. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. From Binary Cu2S to ternary Cu-In-S and quaternary Cu-In-Zn-S nanocrystals with tunable composition via partial cation exchange. (United States)

    Akkerman, Quinten A; Genovese, Alessandro; George, Chandramohan; Prato, Mirko; Moreels, Iwan; Casu, Alberto; Marras, Sergio; Curcio, Alberto; Scarpellini, Alice; Pellegrino, Teresa; Manna, Liberato; Lesnyak, Vladimir


    We present an approach for the synthesis of ternary copper indium sulfide (CIS) and quaternary copper indium zinc sulfide (CIZS) nanocrystals (NCs) by means of partial cation exchange with In(3+) and Zn(2+). The approach consists of a sequential three-step synthesis: first, binary Cu2S NCs were synthesized, followed by the homogeneous incorporation of In(3+) by an in situ partial cation-exchange reaction, leading to CIS NCs. In the last step, a second partial exchange was performed where Zn(2+) partially replaced the Cu(+) and In(3+) cations at the surface, creating a ZnS-rich shell with the preservation of the size and shape. By careful tuning reaction parameters (growth and exchange times as well as the initial Cu(+):In(3+):Zn(2+) ratios), control over both the size and composition was achieved. This led to a broad tuning of photoluminescence of the final CIZS NCs, ranging from 880 to 1030 nm without altering the NCs size. Cytotoxicity tests confirmed the biocompatibility of the synthesized CIZS NCs, which opens up opportunities for their application as near-infrared fluorescent markers in the biomedical field.

  11. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji


    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  12. {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy of cationic species in CO{sub 2} selective alkaline earth metal porous silicoaluminophosphates prepared via liquid and solid state ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Dugar, Sneha; Fu, Riqiang [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico-Mayagueez Campus, Mayagueez, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico)


    The location of extraframework cations in Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion-exchanged SAPO-34 was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR spectroscopy and spectral deconvolution. Incorporation of the alkaline earth metal cations onto the SAPO framework was achieved via liquid state ion exchange, coupled partial detemplation/solid-state ion exchange, and combination of both techniques. MAS NMR revealed that the level of ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations near hexagonal prisms (site SI), which are relatively difficult to exchange with the alkaline earth metal due to steric and charge repulsion criteria. In addition, the presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange of otherwise tenacious hydrogen as corroborated by unit cell compositional data as well as enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption at low partial pressures. The extraframework ammonium species were produced from partial detemplation of the structure-directing agent employed for the SAPO-34 synthesis, tetraethylammonium. - Graphical abstract: MAS NMR was used to elucidate the position the cationic species in alkaline earth metal exchanged silicoaluminophosphates. These species played a significant role during the ion exchange process and, therefore, the materials ultimate CO{sub 2} adsorption performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Location of extraframework Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} cations was estimated by means of {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na MAS NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of Sr{sup 2+} or Ba{sup 2+} ion exchange was limited by the presence of protons and sodium cations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of ammonium cations in the supercages facilitated the exchange. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} ion exchanged SAPOs are outstanding CO{sub 2} adsorbents.

  13. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions (United States)

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.


    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  14. A determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by cation exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Desheng; Duan Shirong; Qin Fengzhou; Li Jinying; Zhang Huaili


    The authors describe a determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in HLLW with cation-exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement. A sample of HLLW was treated with the hydrochloride acid containing enough sodium chloride, then passed through a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column, the Ru, Rh and Pd as chloro-complexes go to the eluate while the interference elements are absorbed on the resins in the column. The Ru, Rh and Pd are collected and determined by ICP-AES. The obtained results show that the recovery is 90% and the relative standard deviation is 6% as the Ru content within the range (35-230) x 10 -6 ; the recovery is 106% and RSD is 10% as the Rh content within (2-20) x 10 -6 ; and the recovery of Pd is 72% as its content less than 2 x 10 -6

  15. High pH reversed-phase chromatography with fraction concatenation as an alternative to strong-cation exchange chromatography for two-dimensional proteomic analysis


    Yang, Feng; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.


    Orthogonal high-resolution separations are critical for attaining improved analytical dynamic range and protein coverage in proteomic measurements. High pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) followed by fraction concatenation affords better peptide analysis than conventional strong-cation exchange (SCX) chromatography applied for the two-dimensional proteomic analysis. For example, concatenated high pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography increased identification for peptides (1.8-fo...

  16. Rational methods for predicting human monoclonal antibodies retention in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Structure-based chromatography design for monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tamada, Taro; Yamamoto, Shuichi


    Rational methods for predicting the chromatographic behavior of human monoclonal antibodies (hMabs) in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography from the amino acid sequences information were proposed. We investigated the relation between the structures of 28 hMabs and their chromatographic behavior in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography using linear gradient elution experiments. In protein A affinity chromatography, the elution pH of the hMabs was correlated with not only the structure of the Fc region (subclass), but also that of the variable region. The elution pH of hMabs that have LYLQMNSL sequences in between the CDR2 and CDR3 regions of the heavy chain became lower among the same subclass of hMabs. In cation exchange chromatography, the peak salt concentrations IR of hMabs that have the same sequences of variable regions (or that have a structural difference in their Fc region, which puts them into a subclass) were similar. The IR values of hMabs were well correlated with the equilibrium association constant Ke, and also with the surface positive charge distribution of the variable region of the heavy chain (corrected surface net positive charge (cN) of the VH region). Based on these findings, we developed rational methods for predicting the retention behavior, which were also tested with eight additional hMabs. By considering the information on the number of binding sites associated with protein adsorption as determined experimentally, and the surface positive charge distribution from the three-dimensional structure of Mab A, we hypothesized that hMabs is separated by cation exchange chromatography as the surface positive charge distribution of the VH region is recognized.

  17. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography for variant hemoglobins and HbF/A2: What must hematopathologists know about methodology?


    Sharma, Prashant; Das, Reena


    Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is a widely used laboratory test to detect variant hemoglobins as well as quantify hemoglobins F and A2 for the diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. It’s versatility, speed, reproducibility and convenience have made CE-HPLC the method of choice to initially screen for hemoglobin disorders. Despite its popularity, several methodological aspects of the technology remain obscure to pathologists and this may have consequences in spec...

  18. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions onto a new cation exchanger derived from tamarind fruit shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581 (India)], E-mail:; Radhakrishnan, P.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581 (India)


    A novel cation exchanger (TFS-CE) having carboxylate functionality was prepared through graft copolymerization of hydroxyethylmethacrylate onto tamarind fruit shell (TFS) in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent using K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}/Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} initiator system, followed by functionalisation. The TFS-CE was used for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. At fixed solid/solution ratio the various factors affecting adsorption such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, and temperature were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that the amount of Cu(II) adsorbed increased with increase in Cu(II) concentration and equilibrium was attained at 1 h. The kinetics of adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant increases with increase in temperature indicating endothermic nature of adsorption. The Arrhenius and Eyring equations were used to obtain the kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E{sub a}) and enthalpy ({delta}H'), entropy ({delta}S') and free energy ({delta}G') of activation for the adsorption process. The value of E{sub a} for adsorption was found to be 10.84 kJ . mol{sup -1} and the adsorption involves diffusion controlled process. The equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was 64 . 10 mg . g{sup -1} at T = 303 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as changes in free energy ({delta}G{sup 0}), enthalpy ({delta}H{sup 0}), and entropy ({delta}S{sup 0}) were derived to predict the nature of adsorption process. The isosteric heat of adsorption increases with increase in surface loading indicating some lateral interactions between the adsorbed metal ions.

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of VIII group elements, especially ruthenium, by synergic combinations or aromatic polyimines and micellar cationic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, X.


    This thesis aims to characterize and to quantify the chemical equilibria involved in d-elements liquid-liquid extraction systems, especially elements belonging to the VIII group (Fe, Ni, Co, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt). These systems are composed of synergic combination of aromatic polyimines and micellar cationic exchangers. Substitutions are first performed in aqueous acidic media by aromatic polyimines; then extractions are operated using micellic canionic exchangers. Chemical equilibria, selectivity effects, especially those due to ion-pair formations, kinetics, extractant behaviour are analysed and quantified [fr

  20. Effect of the intercalated cation-exchanged on the properties of nanocomposites prepared by 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toumi, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Benyoucef, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Yahiaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Quijada, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Pza Ferrandiz i Carbonel, E-03801 Alcoy, Alicante (Spain); Morallon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared. Intercalation of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline monomers into montmorillonite modified by cation was followed by subsequent oxidative polymerization of monomers in the interlayer spacing. The clay was prepared by cation exchange process between sodium cation in (M-Na) and copper cation (M-Cu). XRD analyses show the manifestation of a basal spacing (d-spacing) for M-Cu changes depending on the inorganic cation and the polymer intercalated in the M-Cu structure. TGA analyses reveal that polymer/M-Cu composites is less stable than M-Cu. The conductivity of the composites is found to be 10{sup 3} times higher than that for M-Cu. The microscopic examinations including TEM picture of the nanocomposite demonstrated an entirely different and more compatible morphology. Remarkable differences in the properties of the polymers have also been observed by UV-Vis and FTIR, suggesting that the polymer produced with presence of aniline has a higher degree of branching. The electrochemical behavior of the polymers extracted from the nanocomposites has been studied by cyclic voltammetry which indicates the electroactive effect of nanocomposite gradually increased with aniline in the polymer chain.

  1. Hydrothermal Cation Exchange Enabled Gradual Evolution of Au@ZnS–AgAuS Yolk–Shell Nanocrystals and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications (United States)

    Feng, Jingwen; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng


    Abstract Yolk–shell hybrid nanoparticles with noble metal core and programmed semiconductor shell composition may exhibit synergistic effects and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, the hydrothermal cation exchange synthesis of Au@ZnS–AgAuS yolk–shell nanocrystals (Y–S NCs) with well‐fabricated void size, grain‐boundary‐architectured ZnS–AgAuS shell and in situ generated Au cocatalyst are demonstrated. Starting from the novel cavity‐free Au@AgAuS core‐shell NCs, via aqueous cation exchange reaction with Zn2+, the gradual evolution with produced Au@ZnS–AgAuS Y–S NCs can be achieved successfully. This unprecedented evolution can be reasonably explained by cation exchange initialized chemical etching of Au core, followed by the diffusion through the shell to be AgAuS and then ZnS. By hydrothermal treatment provided optimal redox environment, Au ions in shell were partially reduced to be Au NCs on the surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra evolution and visible light photocatalytic performances, including improved photodegradation behavior and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity, have demonstrated their potential applications. This new one‐pot way to get diverse heterointerfaces for better photoinduced electron/hole separation synergistically can be anticipated for more kinds of photocatalytic organic synthesis. PMID:29375968

  2. Hydrothermal Cation Exchange Enabled Gradual Evolution of Au@ZnS-AgAuS Yolk-Shell Nanocrystals and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications. (United States)

    Feng, Jingwen; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jiatao


    Yolk-shell hybrid nanoparticles with noble metal core and programmed semiconductor shell composition may exhibit synergistic effects and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, the hydrothermal cation exchange synthesis of Au@ZnS-AgAuS yolk-shell nanocrystals (Y-S NCs) with well-fabricated void size, grain-boundary-architectured ZnS-AgAuS shell and in situ generated Au cocatalyst are demonstrated. Starting from the novel cavity-free Au@AgAuS core-shell NCs, via aqueous cation exchange reaction with Zn 2+ , the gradual evolution with produced Au@ZnS-AgAuS Y-S NCs can be achieved successfully. This unprecedented evolution can be reasonably explained by cation exchange initialized chemical etching of Au core, followed by the diffusion through the shell to be AgAuS and then ZnS. By hydrothermal treatment provided optimal redox environment, Au ions in shell were partially reduced to be Au NCs on the surface. The UV-vis absorption spectra evolution and visible light photocatalytic performances, including improved photodegradation behavior and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity, have demonstrated their potential applications. This new one-pot way to get diverse heterointerfaces for better photoinduced electron/hole separation synergistically can be anticipated for more kinds of photocatalytic organic synthesis.

  3. [Preparation of weak cation exchange monolithic column and its applications for on-line determination of nifedipine in human plasma]. (United States)

    Yang, Xinru; Yang, Gengliang; Zhu, Tao; Feng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Guanqun


    A cation exchange monolithic column was prepared with methylacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross linker. This column was applied to remove the matrix compounds and enrich the ionic medicines in human plasma with water as the mobile phase. As a result, the human plasma samples can be directly injected into chromatographic system. The relationship between the mobile phase flow rate and back pressure was studied. The results showed that the monolithic column had good performances in lower pressure and higher permeability. In addition, the maximum adsorption of nifedipine on this monolithic column was investigated. The on-line clean-up and enrichment of samples were carried out using this column as the solid-phase extraction material and the C18 column as the analytical column. The chromatography was performed on a C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection at 235 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-water (70:30, v/v), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The linear range of nifedipine in human plasma was 5.0-75.0 microg/L. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were both less than 5.0%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1 microg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4 microg/L. In this method tedious pretreatment procedure is not necessary. It is a fast, economical, reproducible and efficient method for assaying trace nifedipine in human plasma.

  4. The grapevine VvCAX3 is a cation/H+exchanger involved in vacuolar Ca2+homeostasis. (United States)

    Martins, Viviana; Carneiro, Filipa; Conde, Carlos; Sottomayor, Mariana; Gerós, Hernâni


    The grapevine VvCAX3 mediates calcium transport in the vacuole and is mostly expressed in green grape berries and upregulated by Ca 2+ , Na + and methyl jasmonate. Calcium is an essential plant nutrient with important regulatory and structural roles in the berries of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). On the other hand, the proton-cation exchanger CAX proteins have been shown to impact Ca 2+ homeostasis with important consequences for fruit integrity and resistance to biotic/abiotic stress. Here, the CAX gene found in transcriptomic databases as having one of the highest expressions in grapevine tissues, VvCAX3, was cloned and functionally characterized. Heterologous expression in yeast showed that a truncated version of VvCAX3 lacking its NNR autoinhibitory domain (sCAX3) restored the ability of the yeast strain to grow in 100-200 mM Ca 2+ , demonstrating a role in Ca 2+ transport. The truncated VvCAX3 was further shown to be involved in the transport of Na + , Li + , Mn 2+ and Cu 2+ in yeast cells. Subcellular localization studies using fluorescently tagged proteins confirmed VvCAX3 as a tonoplast transporter. VvCAX3 is expressed in grapevine stems, leaves, roots, and berries, especially at pea size, decreasing gradually throughout development, in parallel with the pattern of calcium accumulation in the fruit. The transcript abundance of VvCAX3 was shown to be regulated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA), Ca 2+ , and Na + in grape cell suspensions, and the VvCAX3 promotor contains several predicted cis-acting elements related to developmental and stress response processes. As a whole, the results obtained add new insights on the mechanisms involved in calcium homeostasis and intracellular compartmentation in grapevine, and indicate that VvCAX3 may be an interesting target towards the development of strategies for enhancement of grape berry properties.

  5. Spectrum of haemoglobinopathies diagnosed by cation exchange-HPLC & modulating effects of nutritional deficiency anaemias from north India. (United States)

    Rao, Seema; Kar, Rakhee; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Chopra, Anita; Saxena, Renu


    The usefulness of cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) as a tool for detection of thalassaemia/haemoglobin variants was evaluated in a prospective study in a tertiary care centre in north India. We also tried to evaluate the effect of concurrent nutritional deficiency on the HPLC pattern in the local ethnic population. A total of 800 blood samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant HPLC system by β-thal short program. The retention times, proportion of the haemoglobin (%), and the peak characteristics for all haemoglobin fractions were recorded. Alkaline and acid haemoglobin electrophoresis was performed to document the identities of the haemoglobin variants, wherever necessary. Many cases were subjected to family studies for a definitive diagnosis. Among 800 samples tested, 553 (69.1%) were found to have normal HPLC pattern. Apart from β- thalassaemia, nine additional variants were encountered; HbS (2.8%), HbE (2.5%) and HbD (1.1%) being the most common variants present. Other variants included Hb Q-India, Hb-Lepore, δβ-thalassemia/ HPFH, HbD-Iran, HbJ-Meerut and HbH disease. There was a significant decrease in the level of HbA2 associated with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (P=0.004) and increase in megaloblastic anaemia (P<0.001) among subjects with normal HPLC pattern. HPLC was found to be a simple, rapid and reliable method for the detection of hemoglobin variants. An accurate diagnosis can be provided in majority of cases by use of retention time, proportion of total haemoglobin, and peak characteristics of HPLC. Haemoglobin electrophoresis and family studies play a valuable role in difficult cases. Concurrent nutritional deficiency also has an effect on HbA 2 levels.

  6. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.


    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h -1 from a 60 Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  7. Solvent and irradiation doses effects on the ion exchange capacity of sulfonated styrene grafted PVDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Polymers exhibiting ion exchange capacity are studied for many years due to their application in several fields, such as membranes for proton exchange fuel cells, filtration membranes, heavy ions recovery and artificial muscles and sensors. Radiation induced grafting followed by sulfonation is a well-known way to obtain ion exchange polymers. Fluorinated polymers are frequently used as polymeric matrix for grafting due to their excellent physicochemical properties. Radiation induced grafting of styrene into poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) by simultaneous method in 1:1 styrene/toluene or styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide solutions was studied. Irradiations were performed under nitrogen atmosphere, room temperature and at doses of 5, 10 and 20 kGy with dose rate of 5 kGy.h{sup -1} from a {sup 60}Co gamma source. After washing, grafted materials were sulfonated in 10% chlorosulfonic acid/1,2-dichloroethane solutions for 4 h at room temperature. Characterization shows that increasing irradiation dose corresponds to increases in the grafting yield (GY %) gravimetrically calculated and these different solvents shows different grafting behaviors. Toluene allows no more than 3 % of grafting while DMF allows up to 55 % of grafting in the same condition. Grafting in toluene solution occurs on the surface and in DMF solution it occurs in the bulk, as confirmed by SEM. Both irradiation doses and solvent used have direct effects in the ion exchange capacities (calculated after titrations). FT-IR spectra exhibit new peaks after grafting and after sulfonation, attributed to grafted monomer and sulfonic groups attached to the styrene. DSC shows differences in thermal behavior of the polymer before and after each step. (author)

  8. Developing additional capacity for wilderness management: An international exchange program between South Africa and United States wilderness rangers (United States)

    Pierre van den Berg; Ralph Swain


    Wilderness managers have limited time to initiate international exchanges. Additionally, the benefits to developing capacity for wilderness management around the globe are not significant enough to make the effort cost-effective. International assistance, including wilderness management exchange programs, is critical to protecting wild areas around the globe. Former...

  9. Effect of rare earth cations on activity of type Y zeolites in ethylene transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezhnova, G.N.; Zhavoronkov, M.N.; Dorogochinskij, A.Z.; Proskurin, A.L.; Shmailova, V.I.


    The ethylene transformations on type Y rare earth zeolites with high degrees of sodium exchange are studied. It is shown that rare earth cations increase zeolites activity with growth of electronoacceptor capacity. The ethylene oligomerization occurs on polyvalent cations while subsequent oligomer transformations - on hydroxyl groups of zeolites

  10. Chemistry of sustainability-Part I: Carbon dioxide as an organic synthon and Part II: Study of thermodynamics of cation exchange reactions in semiconductor nanocrystals (United States)

    Sathe, Ajay A.

    Sustainability is an important part of the design and development of new chemical and energy conversion processes. Simply put sustainability is the ability to meet our needs without sacrificing the ability of the next generations to meet theirs. This thesis describes our efforts in developing two orthogonal strategies for the fixation of CO2 by utilizing high energy intermediates which are generated via oxidative or reductive processes on common organic substrates and of thermochemical measurements of cation exchange reactions which will aid the development of new materials relevant for energy conversion and storage. The first chapter lays a background for the challenges and opportunities for the use of CO2 in organic synthesis. The rapidly growing field of continuous flow processing in organic synthesis is introduced, and its importance in the development of sustainable chemical conversions is highlighted. The second chapter describes the development of a novel route to alpha-amino acids via reductive carboxylation of imines. A mechanistic proposal is presented and the reaction is shown to proceed through the intermediacy of alpha-amino alkyl metal species. Possible strategies for designing catalytic and enantioselective variants of the reaction are presented. The third chapter describes the development of a catalytic oxidative carboxylation of olefins to yield cyclic carbonates. The importance of flow chemistry and membrane separation is demonstrated by allowing the combination of mutually incompatible reagents in a single reaction sequence. While the use of carbon dioxide for synthesis of organic fine chemicals is not expected to help reduce the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, or tackle climate change, it certainly has the potential to reduce our dependence on non-sustainable carbon feedstocks, and help achieve a carbon neutral chemical life cycle. Having described the use of carbon dioxide and flow chemistry for sustainable chemical conversion, the fourth

  11. Cross-linked poly(arylene ether ketone) proton exchange membranes with high ion exchange capacity for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S.; Hai, S.D.; Kim, D. [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Kyunggi (Korea, Republic of)


    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) possessing the pendant carboxylic acid groups was synthesized. The carboxylic acid groups of SPAEK were reacted with a cross-linking reagent to prepare a cross-linked membrane with a high ion exchange capacity (IEC), a high oxidative stability, and an excellent mechanical strength. The cross-linking hindered the mobility of the polymer chains and thus strongly affected the water uptake and the methanol permeability of the membranes. Also, as the cross-linker used in this study bore sulfonic acid groups, cross-linking did not lead to a noticeable loss of the proton conductivity. The cross-linked SPAEK membrane with 20% cross-linking density, CSPAEK-20% membrane, exhibited a high proton conductivity of 0.045 S cm{sup -1} associated with a high IEC value of 1.78 mmol g{sup -1} but a low methanol permeability of 4.3 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. The CSPAEK-20% membrane also showed excellent cell performance and oxidation resistance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Near-Infrared Emitting CuInSe2/CuInS2 Dot Core/Rod Shell Heteronanorods by Sequential Cation Exchange (United States)


    The direct synthesis of heteronanocrystals (HNCs) combining different ternary semiconductors is challenging and has not yet been successful. Here, we report a sequential topotactic cation exchange (CE) pathway that yields CuInSe2/CuInS2 dot core/rod shell nanorods with near-infrared luminescence. In our approach, the Cu+ extraction rate is coupled to the In3+ incorporation rate by the use of a stoichiometric trioctylphosphine-InCl3 complex, which fulfills the roles of both In-source and Cu-extracting agent. In this way, Cu+ ions can be extracted by trioctylphosphine ligands only when the In–P bond is broken. This results in readily available In3+ ions at the same surface site from which the Cu+ is extracted, making the process a direct place exchange reaction and shifting the overall energy balance in favor of the CE. Consequently, controlled cation exchange can occur even in large and anisotropic heterostructured nanocrystals with preservation of the size, shape, and heterostructuring of the template NCs into the product NCs. The cation exchange is self-limited, stopping when the ternary core/shell CuInSe2/CuInS2 composition is reached. The method is very versatile, successfully yielding a variety of luminescent CuInX2 (X = S, Se, and Te) quantum dots, nanorods, and HNCs, by using Cd-chalcogenide NCs and HNCs as templates. The approach reported here thus opens up routes toward materials with unprecedented properties, which would otherwise remain inaccessible. PMID:26449673

  13. Integrated SDS removal and peptide separation by strong-cation exchange liquid chromatography for SDS-assisted shotgun proteome analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Difei; Wang, Nan; Li, Liang


    We report an improved shotgun method for analyzing proteomic samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This method is based on the use of strong-cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatography (LC) for SDS removal that can be integrated with peptide separation as the first dimension of the two-dimensional LC tandem mass spectrometry workflow. To optimize the performance of SDS removal, various experimental conditions, including the concentrations of chemical reagents and salts in the sample, the SDS concentration, and the SCX mobile phase composition, were investigated. It was found that a peptide recovery rate of about 90% could be achieved while removing SDS efficiently. One key finding was that, by increasing the SDS concentration to a certain level (0.5%) in the digested peptide sample, the sample recovery rate could be increased. The peptide recovery rate of BSA digests was found to be 90.6 ± 1.0% (n = 3), and SDS in the SCX fractions collected was not detectable by pyrolysis GC-MS, i.e., below the detection limit of 0.00006% for the undesalted SCX fractions. The peptide recovery rates were found to be 90.9% ± 2.7 (n = 3) and 89.5% ± 0.5% (n = 3) for the digests of the membrane-protein-enriched fractions of E. coli cell lysates and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, respectively. Compared to the methods that use acid-labile surfactants, such as RapiGest and PPS, for the MCF-7 membrane fraction sample, the SDS method identified, on average (n = 3), more peptides (∼5%) and proteins (∼16%) than the RapiGest method, while the RapiGest method identified more peptides (∼21%) and proteins (∼7%) from the E. coli membrane fraction than the SDS method. In both cases, the two methods identified more peptides and proteins than the PPS method. Since SCX is widely used as the first dimension of 2D-LC MS/MS, integration of SDS removal with peptide separation in SCX does not add any extra steps to the sample handling process. We demonstrated the application of

  14. Insights in understanding aggregate formation and dissociation in cation exchange chromatography for a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein. (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, Chao; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Zheng Jian


    Cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) of a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein exhibited multi-peak elution profile upon a salt-step elution due to protein aggregation during intra-column buffer transition where low pH and high salt coexisted. The protein exhibited a single-peak elution behavior during a pH-step elution; nevertheless, the levels of soluble aggregates (i.e. high molecular weight species, HMW) in the CEX eluate were still found up to 12-fold higher than that for the load material. The amount of the aggregates formed upon the pH-step elution was dependent on column loading with maximum HMW achieved at intermediate loading levels, supporting the hypothesis that the aggregation was the result of both the conformational changes of the bound protein and the solution concentration of the aggregation-susceptible proteins during elution. Factors such as high load pH, short protein/resin contact time, hydrophilic resin surface, and weak ionizable ligand were effective, to some extent, to reduce aggregate formation by improving the structural integrity of the bound protein. An orthogonal technique, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) using Sypro Orange dye confirmed that the bound protein exposed more hydrophobic area than the native molecule in free solution, especially in the pH 4-5 range. The Sypro Orange dye study of resin surface property also demonstrated that the poly[styrene-divinylbenzene]-based Poros XS with polyhydroxyl surface coating is more hydrophobic compared to the agarose-based CM Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF. The hydrophobic property of Poros XS contributed to stronger interactions with the partially unfolded bound protein and consequently to the higher aggregate levels seen in Poros XS eluate. This work also investigates the aggregation reversibility in CEX eluate where up to 66% of the aggregates were observed to dissociate into native monomers over a period of 120h, and links the aggregate stability to such conditions as resin

  15. The k{sub 0}-INAA method for the determination of the anion-exchange capacity of propylpyridium silicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auler, Lucia M.L.A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Amaral, Angela Maria [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Silva, Cesar R.; Collins, Kenneth E.; Collins, Carol [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Cromatografia Liquida (LABCROM)]. E-mail:


    The present work describes the k{sub 0}-INAA method as an alternative for determination of the ion-exchange capacity of a propyl pyridinium modified silica, which has been recently employed as stationary phase for anion -exchange chromatography. The exchange capacity of the modified silicas was investigated by determining its exchangeable chloride content with k{sub 0}-Instrumental Neutron Activation Analyses. Irradiation experiments were performed in the reactor TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 located at CDTN/CNEN (Nuclear Technology Development Center / Nuclear Energy National Commission). The results showed that the exchangeable chloride concentration was successfully determined by this analytical method instead of the conventional potentiometric determination with silver nitrate titrimetry. (author)

  16. Microbial desalination cell with sulfonated sodium poly(ether ether ketone) as cation exchange membranes for enhancing power generation and salt reduction. (United States)

    Moruno, Francisco Lopez; Rubio, Juan E; Atanassov, Plamen; Cerrato, José M; Arges, Christopher G; Santoro, Carlo


    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system capable of oxidizing organics, generating electricity, while reducing the salinity content of brine streams. As it is designed, anion and cation exchange membranes play an important role on the selective removal of ions from the desalination chamber. In this work, sulfonated sodium (Na + ) poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) cation exchange membranes (CEM) were tested in combination with quaternary ammonium chloride poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO) anion exchange membrane (AEM). Non-patterned and patterned (varying topographical features) CEMs were investigated and assessed in this work. The results were contrasted against a commercially available CEM. This work used real seawater from the Pacific Ocean in the desalination chamber. The results displayed a high desalination rate and power generation for all the membranes, with a maximum of 78.6±2.0% in salinity reduction and 235±7mWm -2 in power generation for the MDCs with the SPEEK CEM. Desalination rate and power generation achieved are higher with synthesized SPEEK membranes when compared with an available commercial CEM. An optimized combination of these types of membranes substantially improves the performances of MDC, making the system more suitable for real applications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Abiotic and biotic determinants of leaf carbon exchange capacity from tropical to high boreal biomes (United States)

    Smith, N. G.; Dukes, J. S.


    Photosynthesis and respiration on land represent the two largest fluxes of carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface. As such, the Earth System Models that are used to project climate change are high sensitive to these processes. Studies have found that much of this uncertainty is due to the formulation and parameterization of plant photosynthetic and respiratory capacity. Here, we quantified the abiotic and biotic factors that determine photosynthetic and respiratory capacity at large spatial scales. Specifically, we measured the maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax), the maximum rate of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration (Jmax), and leaf dark respiration (Rd) in >600 individuals of 98 plant species from the tropical to high boreal biomes of Northern and Central America. We also measured a bevy of covariates including plant functional type, leaf nitrogen content, short- and long-term climate, leaf water potential, plant size, and leaf mass per area. We found that plant functional type and leaf nitrogen content were the primary determinants of Vcmax, Jmax, and Rd. Mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation were not significant predictors of these rates. However, short-term climatic variables, specifically soil moisture and air temperature over the previous 25 days, were significant predictors and indicated that heat and soil moisture deficits combine to reduce photosynthetic capacity and increase respiratory capacity. Finally, these data were used as a model benchmarking tool for the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). The benchmarking analyses determined errors in the leaf nitrogen allocation scheme of CLM 4.5. Under high leaf nitrogen levels within a plant type the model overestimated Vcmax and Jmax. This result suggested that plants were altering their nitrogen allocation patterns when leaf nitrogen levels were high, an effect that was not being captured by the model. These data, taken with models in mind

  18. The role of nonmagnetic d{sup 0} vs. d{sup 10}B-type cations on the magnetic exchange interactions in osmium double perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Hai L., E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Yamaura, Kazunari [Research Center for Functional Materials, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Jansen, Martin, E-mail: [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden 01187 (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)


    Polycrystalline samples of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were synthesized by solid state reactions. They adopt the cubic double perovskite structures (space group, Fm-3m) with ordered B and Os arrangements. Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) show antiferromagnetic transitions at 93 K, 69 K, and 28 K, respectively. The Weiss-temperatures are −590 K for Ba{sub 2}ScOsO{sub 6}, −571 K for Ba{sub 2}YOsO{sub 6}, and −155 K for Ba{sub 2}InOsO{sub 6}. Sc{sup 3+} and Y{sup 3+} have the open-shell d{sup 0} electronic configuration, while In{sup 3+} has the closed-shell d{sup 10}. This indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) to their Sr and Ca analogues shows that the structural distortions weaken the overall magnetic exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic properties of osmium double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. Comparison of Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6}indicates that a d{sup 0} B-type cation induces stronger overall magnetic exchange interactions in comparison to a d{sup 10}. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskites Ba{sub 2}BOsO{sub 6} (B=Sc, Y, In) were studied. • A d{sup 0}B-type cation induces stronger magnetic interactions than a d{sup 10}. • Structural distortions weaken the overall Os{sup 5+}-Os{sup 5+} magnetic interactions.

  19. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill


    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  20. Properties of solvated electrons, alkali anions and other species in metal solutions and kinetics of cation and electron exchange reactions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, J.L.


    The properties of solutions of alkali metals in amine solvents were studied by optical, ETR, NMR and electrochemical methods. Complexation of the alkali cations by crown ethers and cryptands permitted the preparation of concentrated solutions of alkali metals in amine and ether solvents. Extensive alkali metal NMR studies of the exchange of M + with crown-ethers and cryptands and of the alkali metal anion, M - , were made. The first crystalline salt of an alkali metal anion, Na + Cryptand [2.2.2]Na - was synthesized and characterized and led to the preparation of other alkali metal anion salts. This research provided the foundation for continuing studies of crystalline alkalide salts

  1. Use of combined ion exchangers on the basis of KU-23 and KM-2p cation exchangers for purification of ammonium molybdate and tungstate solutions from phosphate, arsenate, and silicate impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Majorov, D.Yu.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Taushkanov, V.P.


    Using the Tracer technique ( 32 P) and elementary analysis, potentiality of using combined ionites on the basis of macroporous cation-exchange resins KU-23 or KM-2p and hydrated zirconium oxide for purification of concentrated solutions of ammonium molybdate and tungstate from phosphate-, arsenate-, and silicate-ions impurities was studied. High selectivity of the combined ionites towards impurity ions was ascertained, which permits reducing the content of impurities by a factor of 50-100 compared with the initial one [ru

  2. Retrofitting of heat exchanger networks involving streams with variable heat capacity: Application of single and multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna; Rangaiah, G.P.


    Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofitting improves the energy efficiency of the current process by reducing external utilities. In this work, HEN retrofitting involving streams having variable heat capacity is studied. For this, enthalpy values of a stream are fitted to a continuous cubic polynomial instead of a stepwise approach employed in the previous studies [1,2]. The former methodology is closer to reality as enthalpy or heat capacity changes gradually instead of step changes. Using the polynomial fitting formulation, single objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a HEN retrofit problem are investigated. The results obtained show an improvement in the utility savings, and MOO provides many Pareto-optimal solutions to choose from. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions involving area addition in existing heat exchangers only (but no new exchangers and no structural modifications) are found and provided for comparison with those involving new exchangers and structural modifications as well. - Highlights: • HEN retrofitting involving streams with variable heat capacities is studied. • A continuous approach to handle variable heat capacity is proposed and tested. • Better and practical solutions are obtained for HEN retrofitting in process plants. • Pareto-optimal solutions provide many alternate choices for HEN retrofitting

  3. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, R.J.; Muller, S.H.; Vincent, A.; Hilgers, F.J.M.


    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenstra, Renske J.; Muller, Sara H.; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J. M.


    Background. The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements

  5. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.


    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  6. Modulations of exchange coupling in oxoferrylporphyrin cation radical complexes detected by Mössbauer and EPR measurements (United States)

    Bill, E.; Ding, X.-Q.; Bominaar, E. L.; Butzlaff, Ch.; Trautwein, A. X.; Mandon, D.; Weiss, R.; Gold, A.


    Oxoferrylporphyrin cation radical complexes were generated using the prophyrin dianions: tetrakis 2,6-dichlorophenyl (TDCPP) and tetrakis 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TTMPP). Spin coupling between ferryl iron (S=1) and porphyrin radical S'=1/2), ligand field interaction and hyperfine parameters of iron were studied by Mössbauer and EPR measurements and corresponding spin Hamiltonian analyses. Samples of [FeIV=0 TDCPP], which had to be prepared in CH2Cl2, were “vacuum dried” in order to obtain Mössbauer spectra.

  7. Phytochemical profile and ABTS cation radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and anticholinesterase activities of endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulselam Ertaş


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the chemical compositions and biological activities of an endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis. Methods: Essential oil and fatty acid composition were determined by GC/MS analysis. ABTS cation radical decolourisation and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were carried out to indicate the antioxidant activity. The anticholinesterase potential of the extracts were determined by Ellman method. Results: The major compounds in the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic (36.0% and linoleic acids (14.3%. The major components of essential oil were 1-hexacosanol (26.7%, germacrene-D (9.3% and caryophyllene oxide (9.3%. The water extract indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, at 100 µg/ mL. The acetone extract showed 71.58 and 44.71% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The water and acetone extracts of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica can be investigated in terms of both phytochemical and biological aspects to find natural active compounds.

  8. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure. (United States)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi


    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions.

  9. Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil salinity, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity and macro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif A. Al-Khamisi


    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Agriculture Research Center, Oman during the year 2010/2011 to monitor the impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties after wheat, cowpea and maize cultivation (in rotation. Three different water sources (Groundwater (GW, desalinized water (DW, and Reclaimed Water (RW were used as the treatments in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with 3 blocks (replicates. Samples were taken from four depths (30, 45, 60 and 90 cm after harvesting time of the three crops. Soil salinity (ECe in all soil depths decreased with time. Organic carbon did not show significant difference between harvest timings of wheat and cowpea. Organic carbon increased with time in soil irrigated with reclaimed water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, Ksat didn’t show significant difference among the water types and their interaction with soil depths. Total nitrogen was the highest after cowpea harvest in reclaimed water irrigation. The soil phosphorus and potassium were not affected by any of the three water irrigation types. The highest concentrations of phosphorus and potassium were found to be in the upper soil layers. Overall, no adverse impacts of reclaimed water irrigation were observed after growing three crops of rotation.

  10. Review of the thermal stability and cation exchange properties of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime; applications to radioactive waste isolation in silicic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Caporuscio, F.A.


    Silicic tuffs of the southern Great Basin and basalts of the Columbia River Plateau are under investigation as potential host rocks for high- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Nonwelded and partially welded tuffs may contain major amounts (> 50%) of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime. Densely welded tuffs and some basalt flows may contain clinoptilolite as fracture filling that limits the permeability of these rocks. The cation exchange properties of these zeolite minerals allow them to pose a formidable natural barrier to the migration of cationic species of various radionuclides in aqueous solutions. However, these minerals are unstable at elevated temperatures and at low water-vapor pressures and may break down either by reversible dehydration or by irreversible mineralogical reactions. All the breakdown reactions occurring at increased temperature involve a net volume reduction and evolution of fluids. Thus, they may provide a pathway (shrinkage fractures) and a driving force (fluid pressure) for release of radionuclides to the biosphere. These reactions may be avoided by keeping zeolite-bearing horizons saturated with water and below about 85 0 C. This may restrict allowable gross thermal loadings in waste repositories in volcanic rocks

  11. Rapid preparation of biosorbents with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. (United States)

    Rungrodnimitchai, Supitcha


    This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g) and shorter reaction time (1.5-5.0 min) than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb²⁺, Cd²⁺, and Cr³⁺ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L). The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax). As a result of Pb²⁺ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W) removed Pb²⁺ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin) took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  12. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai


    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  13. LA-ICP-MS of rare earth elements concentrated in cation-exchange resin particles for origin attribution of uranium ore concentrate. (United States)

    Asai, Shiho; Limbeck, Andreas


    Rare earth elements (REE) concentrated on cation-exchange resin particles were measured with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain chondrite-normalized REE plots. The sensitivity of REE increased in ascending order of the atomic number, according to the sensitivity trend in pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS (PN-ICP-MS). The signal intensities of REE were nearly proportional to the concentrations of REE in the immersion solution used for particle-preparation. Minimum measurable concentration calculated from the net signals of REE was approximately 1 ng/g corresponding to 0.1 ng in the particle-preparation solution. In LA analysis, formation of oxide and hydroxide of the light REE and Ba which causes spectral interferences in the heavy REE measurement was effectively attenuated due to the solvent-free measurement capability, compared to conventional PN-ICP-MS. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, the REE-adsorbed particles prepared by immersing them in a U-bearing solution (commercially available U standard solution) were measured with LA-ICP-MS. Aside from the LA analysis, each concentration of REE in the same U standard solution was determined with conventional PN-ICP-MS after separating REE by cation-exchange chromatography. The concentrations of REE were ranging from 0.04 (Pr) to 1.08 (Dy) μg/g-U. The chondrite-normalized plot obtained through LA-ICP-MS analysis of the U standard sample exhibited close agreement with that obtained through the PN-ICP-MS of the REE-separated solution within the uncertainties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Roles of cation valance and exchange on the retention and colloid-facilitated transport of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes in a natural soil. (United States)

    Zhang, Miaoyue; Bradford, Scott A; Šimůnek, Jirka; Vereecken, Harry; Klumpp, Erwin


    Saturated soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the transport, retention, and release behavior of a low concentration (1 mg L -1 ) of functionalized 14 C-labeled multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a natural soil under various solution chemistries. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for MWCNTS exhibited greater amounts of retardation and retention with increasing solution ionic strength (IS) or in the presence of Ca 2+ in comparison to K + , and retention profiles (RPs) for MWCNTs were hyper-exponential in shape. These BTCs and RPs were well described using the advection-dispersion equation with a term for time- and depth-dependent retention. Fitted values of the retention rate coefficient and the maximum retained concentration of MWCNTs were higher with increasing IS and in the presence of Ca 2+ in comparison to K + . Significant amounts of MWCNT and soil colloid release was observed with a reduction of IS due to expansion of the electrical double layer, especially following cation exchange (when K + displaced Ca 2+ ) that reduced the zeta potential of MWCNTs and the soil. Analysis of MWCNT concentrations in different soil size fractions revealed that >23.6% of the retained MWCNT mass was associated with water-dispersible colloids (WDCs), even though this fraction was only a minor portion of the total soil mass (2.38%). More MWCNTs were retained on the WDC fraction in the presence of Ca 2+ than K + . These findings indicated that some of the released MWCNTs by IS reduction and cation exchange were associated with the released clay fraction, and suggests the potential for facilitated transport of MWCNT by WDCs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Selective adsorption and ion exchange of metal cations and anions with silico-titanates and layered titanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.G.; Philip, C.V.


    Metal ions may be removed from aqueous wastes from metal processing plants and from refineries. They may also be used in concentrating radioactive elements found in dilute, aqueous, nuclear wastes. A new series of silico-titanates and alkali titanates are shown to have specific selectivity for cations of lead, mercury, and cadmium and the dichromate anion in solutions with low and high pH. Furthermore, one particular silico-titanate, TAM-5, was found to be highly selective for Cs + and Sr 2+ in solutions of 5.7 M Na + and 0.6 M Oh - . A high potential exists for these materials for removing Cs + and Sr 2+ from radioactive aqueous wastes containing high concentrations of Na + at high and low pH

  16. Influence of Rb/Cs Cation-Exchange on Inorganic Sn Halide Perovskites: From Chemical Structure to Physical Properties. (United States)

    Jung, Young-Kwang; Lee, Ji-Hwan; Walsh, Aron; Soon, Aloysius


    CsSnI 3 is a potential lead-free inorganic perovskite for solar energy applications due to its nontoxicity and attractive optoelectronic properties. Despite these advantages, photovoltaic cells using CsSnI 3 have not been successful to date, in part due to low stability. We demonstrate how gradual substitution of Rb for Cs influences the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties on the basis of first-principles density functional theory calculations. By examining the effect of the Rb:Cs ratio, we reveal a correlation between octahedral distortion and band gap, including spin-orbit coupling. We further highlight the cation-induced variation of the ionization potential (work function) and the importance of surface termination for tin-based halide perovskites for engineering high-performance solar cells.

  17. Relations between soil respiration, humus quali­ty and ca­tion exchange capacity in selected subtypes of chernozem in South Moravia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiřina Foukalová


    Full Text Available Soil organic matter (SOM undergoes short and long-term transformation in the soil. Microorganisms through their enzymes are able to mineralize organic carbon while the rate of this process is different. Biological test though referred to one of the main diagnostic methods for evaluating soil qualit­y/health. The aim of our work was to determine basal respiration, total carbon content, fractio­nal composition of humus and basic parameters of soil colloidal complex in selected subtypes of chernozem in South Moravia region. Basal respiration was measured using Vaisala GMT220 apparatus. Total carbon content was determined by oxidimetric titration and basic parameters of soil colloidal according to Mehlich. Results showed that production of carbon dioxide varied from 0.09 to 0.27 mg CO2/100g/h. Linear correlation between basal respiration and humification degree was found. Humus content varied from 2.15% to 4.6%. No correlation between quantity of humus and basal respiration was observed. Higher values of basal respiration were connected with higher quality of HS. Significant linear correlation between total carbon content (TOC and cation exchange capacity (CEC was found.

  18. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti-Pekka E. Rissanen


    Full Text Available The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O2 carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O2 carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O2Hb], deoxy- (Δ[HHb] and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb], and tissue saturation index (TSI. NIRS inflection points (NIP, reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds (anaerobic threshold (AT, respiratory compensation point (RC; V-slope method was examined. Blood O2 carrying capacity (total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p < 0.01, but not with arm muscle- or cerebral deoxygenation. In conclusion, regional tissue oxygenation was characterized by inflection points, and tissue oxygenation in relation to alveolar gas exchange during incremental treadmill exercise resembled previous findings made during incremental cycling. It was also found out, that O2 delivery to less active m. biceps brachii may be limited by an accelerated increase in ventilation at high running intensities. In addition, high capacity for blood O2 carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak

  19. Recover of some rare earth elements from leach liquor of the Saghand uranium ore using combined precipitation and cation exchange methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A. R.; Rafati, H.; Rezvaniyanzadeh, M. R.


    In this research work, the recovery and separation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) and Nd(III) from Saghand uranium ore have been studied by precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography methods using Dowex 50 W-X 8 cation exchanger. At first, some preliminary and preconcentration experiments such as comminution, sieve analysis, gravity table and electrostatic in preconcentration of lanthanides were performed. Then, acidic digesting and leaching procedure were used. The results of experiments showed that rare earth elements, along with interfering ions such as Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II) and Mn(II) present in the leach liquor solution. The investigation of separation process by precipitation method revealed that precipitation and then fast separation using centrifugal technique had the best results in the elimination of interference elements. In order to separate the lanthanides and to obtain their elution curves, the chromatographic column containing Dowex 50 W-X 8 resin was employed. For efficient separation of lanthanides from interference elements the hydrochloric acid with concentration of two and six molar was used respectively. Recovery of lanthanides from the leach liquor solution was achieved more than 85%

  20. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan


    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  1. Ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio


    Radiation grafting is gaining attention as a method for producing high performance materials. This method can be applied to add functions to existing polymer plastics. The author participated in the research program on the production of ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting and its applicability at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Consequently, it was clarified that it was possible to introduce the cation exchange group, represented by sulfonic and carboxyl groups, and the anion exchange group, represented by the quarternary ammonium group, to polypropylene fiber available on the market. The ion exchange capacity was able to be controlled by the degree of grafting, i.e. approximately up to 3 meq/g in both strong acid and strong base and approximately up to 5 meq/g in weak acid were obtained. The adsorption performance of ammonia, a representative malodorous substance, was also studied using test cation exchange fiber. The adsorption rate of H type strong acid cation exchange fiber was great, due to the H type having neutral reaction, and the adsorption capacity matched the ion exchange capacity. Although the Cu and Ni types features coordinated adsorption and their adsorption rates were from 1/2 to 1/3 of that of the H type, their adsorption capacities showed increase along with the metal adsorbed. (author)

  2. 3.5 Radiation stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhol, M.


    The main knowledge is summed up of the radiation stability of ion exchangers. No basic changes occur in inorganic ion exchangers with the exception of the exchange capacity at doses of up to 10 9 rad. This also applies to coal-based ion exchangers. Tables are given showing the changes in specific volume, exchange capacity and weight of different types of organic ion exchangers in dependence on the radiation dose. The effects are discussed of the structure of organic cation and anion exchangers, polymeric strong basic anion exchangers, polycondensate anion exchangers and ion exchange membranes on their radiation stability. General experimental procedures are given for laboratory tests of the radiation stability of exchangers. (L.K.)

  3. Field scale interaction and nutrient exchange between surface water and shallow groundwater in the Baiyang Lake region, North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Song, Xianfang


    -N. Measurement results supported by PHREEQC-modeling indicated cation exchange, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled with partial denitrification as major nitrogen removal pathways. Despite the current removal capacity, the excessive nitrogen fertilization may pose a future...

  4. The critical relation between chemical stability of cations and water in anion exchange membrane fuel cells environment (United States)

    Dekel, Dario R.; Willdorf, Sapir; Ash, Uri; Amar, Michal; Pusara, Srdjan; Dhara, Shubhendu; Srebnik, Simcha; Diesendruck, Charles E.


    Anion exchange membrane fuel cells can potentially revolutionize energy storage and delivery; however, their commercial development is hampered by a significant technological impedance: the chemical decomposition of the anion exchange membranes during operation. The hydroxide anions, while transported from the cathode to the anode, attack the positively charged functional groups in the polymer membrane, neutralizing it and suppressing its anion-conducting capability. In recent years, several new quaternary ammonium salts have been proposed to address this challenge, but while they perform well in ex-situ chemical studies, their performance is very limited in real fuel cell studies. Here, we use experimental work, corroborated by molecular dynamics modeling to show that water concentration in the environment of the hydroxide anion, as well as temperature, significantly impact its reactivity. We compare different quaternary ammonium salts that have been previously studied and test their stabilities in the presence of relatively low hydroxide concentration in the presence of different amounts of solvating water molecules, as well as different temperatures. Remarkably, with the right amount of water and at low enough temperatures, even quaternary ammonium salts which are considered "unstable", present significantly improved lifetime.

  5. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.


    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO 2 + ) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO 2 + ; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO 2 + cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO 2 + species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO 2 + have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO 2 + cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe 3+ and Cr 3+ and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + ·Th 4+ , PuO 2 + ·UO 2 2+ , and PuO 2 + ·Th 4+ at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 ± 0.2, 1.8 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 1.5, and ∼0.8 M -1

  6. An on-line monitor for cation exchange elution chromatography using lithium silicate glass beads as solid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Yang Liucheng; Wei Liansheng; Ji Liqiang; Zhang Zengrui


    A new type of on-line monitoring system used to monitor radioactive nuclides with α or soft β radiation in the effluent from a high pressure ion exchange column is described. The beads made of cerium-impregnated lithium silicate glass are used as scientillation material. They are filled into a quartz glass tube to form a flow cell. By reducing the diameter of glass beads to more closly approximate the average range of α or soft β radiation in solution, the absolute counting efficiency for 241 Am, 242 Cm α radiation have reached and 85.8% and 92.8% respectively, for 14 C, 90 Sr- 90 Y β radiation, 62.1% and 88.6% respectively. These values can be comparable to those achieved with on-line liquid scientillation technique. When the total amount of 241 Am added into column is decreased to 7.4 Bq it is still possible to obtain a clear chromatography peak (half peak width = 0.22 mL)

  7. Isomerization of propargyl cation to cyclopropenyl cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step) for isomeri- zation of the linear propargyl cation to ..... C3, C4 and C5. The ZPE corrections in each case are derived from the. B3LYP calculations. ..... the converse of which gives the relative capacity of the. LPD's to stabilize TS6 with respect ...

  8. Cation-exchange antibody labeling for simultaneous electrochemical detection of tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangjie; Qing, Yi; Shan, Jinlu; Jin, Feng; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Ruo


    We report on a new kind of non-covalent multi-label electrochemical immunoassay that was applied to simultaneously quantify the tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9. The method employs a nanohybrid composed of an ionomer and conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles that act as a matrix support for the antibodies. The two antibodies (anti-CA153 and anti-CA199) were labeled (a) with a cobaltous dipyridine complex, and (b) with methylene blue. Labeling is based on cation-exchange interaction rather than on covalent conjugation. The redox potentials of the two labels are separated by an interval of 0.3 V. The resulting sandwich-type immunosensor was read out by differential pulse voltammetry. The potential sites and currents of the two redox probes reflect the concentration of the two analytes. The two analytes were determined with a detection limit of 1.6 U mL −1 for CA19-9, and of 0.3 U mL −1 for CA15-3 (author)

  9. Fast analysis of quaternary ammonium pesticides in food and beverages using cation-exchange chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Nardin, Tiziana; Barnaba, Chiara; Abballe, Franco; Trenti, Gianmaria; Malacarne, Mario; Larcher, Roberto


    A fast separation based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry is proposed for simultaneous determination of chlormequat, difenzoquat, diquat, mepiquat and paraquat in several food and beverage commodities. Solid samples were extracted using a mixture of water/methanol/formic acid (69.6:30:0.4, v/v/v), while liquid samples were ten times diluted with the same solution. Separation was carried out on an experimental length-modified IonPac CS17 column (2 × 15 mm 2 ) that allowed the use of formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Detection limits for food and beverage matrices were established at 1.5 μg/L for chlormequat, difenzoquat and mepiquat, and 3 μg/L for diquat and paraquat, while for drinking water a pre-analytical sample concentration allowed detection limits of 9 and 20 ng/L, respectively. Precision, as repeatability (RSD%), ranged from 0.2 to 24%, with a median value of 6%, and trueness, as recovery, ranged from 64 to 118%, with a median value of 96%. The method developed was successfully applied to investigate the presence of herbicide residues in commercial commodities (mineral water, orange juice, beer, tea, green coffee bean, toasted coffee powder, cocoa bean, white corn flour, rice and sugar samples). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography for variant hemoglobins and HbF/A2: What must hematopathologists know about methodology? (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Das, Reena


    Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is a widely used laboratory test to detect variant hemoglobins as well as quantify hemoglobins F and A2 for the diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. It's versatility, speed, reproducibility and convenience have made CE-HPLC the method of choice to initially screen for hemoglobin disorders. Despite its popularity, several methodological aspects of the technology remain obscure to pathologists and this may have consequences in specific situations. This paper discusses the basic principles of the technique, the initial quality control steps and the interpretation of various controls and variables that are available on the instrument output. Subsequent sections are devoted to methodological considerations that arise during reporting of cases. For instance, common problems of misidentified peaks, totals crossing 100%, causes of total area being above or below acceptable limits and the importance of pre-integration region peaks are dealt with. Ultimately, CE-HPLC remains an investigation, the reporting of which combines in-depth knowledge of the biological basics with more than a working knowledge of the technological aspects of the technique.

  11. Flooding tolerance of Carex species. II. Root gas-exchange capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moog, PR; Bruggemann, W


    Root CO2 and O-2 gas exchange were measured in young Carer extensa Good. (flooding sensitive), C. remota L. and C. pseudocyperus L. (both flooding tolerant) plants, precultured either aerobically or anaerobically. Temperature changes form 21 to II degrees C had small effects on root CO2 release from

  12. Water-Chemistry Evolution and Modeling of Radionuclide Sorption and Cation Exchange during Inundation of Frenchman Flat Playa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald; Cablk, Mary; LeFebre, Karen; Fenstermaker, Lynn; Decker, David


    dioxide and calcite; dissolution of sodium chloride, gypsum, and composite volcanic glass; and precipitation of composite clay and quartz represented changes in water as it disappeared from the playa. This modeling provided an understanding of the water-soil geochemical environment, which was then used to evaluate the potential mobility of residual radionuclides into the playa soils by water. Because there is no information on the chemical forms of anthropogenic radionuclides in Frenchman Flat playa soil, it was assumed that soil radionuclides go into solution when the playa is inundated. In mobility modeling, a select group of radionuclides were allowed to sorb onto, or exchange with, playa soil minerals to evaluate the likelihood that the radionuclides would be removed from water during playa inundation. Radionuclide mobility modeling suggested that there would be minimal sorption or exchange of several important radionuclides (uranium, cesium, and technetium) with playa minerals such that they may be mobile in water when the playa is inundated and could infiltrate into the subsurface. Mobility modeling also showed that plutonium may be much less mobile because of sorption onto calcite, but the amount of reactive surface area of playa soil calcite is highly uncertain. Plutonium is also known to sorb onto colloidal particles suspended in water, suspended colloidal particles will move with the water, providing a mechanism to redistribute plutonium when Frenchman Flat playa is inundated. Water chemistry, stable isotopes, and geochemical modeling showed that residual radionuclides in Frenchman Flat playa soils could be mobilized in water when the playa is inundated with precipitation. Also, there is potential for these radionuclides to infiltrate into the subsurface with water. As a result of the information obtained both during this study and the conclusions drawn from it, additional data collection, investigation, and modeling are recommended. Specifically: sampling the

  13. CO(2)-forced evolution of plant gas exchange capacity and water-use efficiency over the Phanerozoic. (United States)

    Franks, P J; Beerling, D J


    The capacity of plants to fix carbon is ultimately constrained by two core plant attributes: photosynthetic biochemistry and the conductance to CO(2) diffusion from the atmosphere to sites of carboxylation in chloroplasts, predominantly stomatal conductance. Analysis of fossilized plant remains shows that stomatal density (number per unit area, D) and size (length by width, S) have fluctuated widely over the Phanerozoic Eon, indicating changes in maximum stomatal conductance. Parallel changes are likely to have taken place in leaf photosynthetic biochemistry, of which maximal rubisco carboxylation rate, V(cmax) is a central element. We used measurements of S and D from fossilized plant remains spanning the last 400 Myr (most of the Phanerozoic), together with leaf gas exchange data and modeled Phanerozoic trends in atmospheric CO(2) concentration, [CO(2)](a), to calibrate a [CO(2)](a)-driven model of the long-term environmental influences on S, D and V(cmax). We show that over the Phanerozoic large changes in [CO(2)](a) forced S, D and V(cmax) to co-vary so as to reduce the impact of the change in [CO(2)](a) on leaf CO(2) assimilation for minimal energetic cost and reduced nitrogen requirements. Underlying this is a general negative correlation between S and D, and a positive correlation between water-use efficiency and [CO(2)](a). Furthermore, the calculated steady rise in stomatal conductance over the Phanerozoic is consistent with independent evidence for the evolution of plant hydraulic capacity, implying coordinated and sustained increase in gas exchange capacity and hydraulic capacity parallel long-term increases in land plant diversity.

  14. Seismic capacity evaluation of a group of vertical U-tube heat exchanger with support frames for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuichi; Muramatsu, Ken; Oikawa, Tetsukuni


    This paper presents an evaluation of seismic capacity of a group of vertical U-tube type heat exchangers (HXs) with support frames to contribute to refinement of seismic capacity data for seismic Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in Japan. According to usual practice of seismic PSAs, capacity of component is represented as a log-normally distributed random variable defined by a median and logarithmic standard deviations (LSDs), which represent inherent randomness about the median, β r , and uncertainty in the median due to lack of knowledge, β u . Using design specifications of four HXs for residual heat removal systems of 1100 MWe BWRs, the authors evaluated a generic capacity of HXs with a LSD for uncertainty due to lack of knowledge to take into account design variability. The median capacity was evaluated by the use of a time history response analysis with a detailed model for a selected representative HX, which was extended from a model used in seismic design. The LSD for uncertainty due to lack of knowledge was evaluated with consideration of the variabilities in three influential design parameters, i.e., diameter of anchor bolt, weight of HX and position of center of gravity of HX with the detailed model and a simplified static model. The LSD for uncertainty due to randomness was determined from the variability in material property. The dominant failure mode of HXs was identified as the failure of anchor bolts of lugs mainly due to shearing stress. The capacity expressed in terms of zero period acceleration on the foundation of HX was evaluated to be 4180 Gal (4.3 g) for median, LSD for uncertainty due to randomness was 0.11 and LSD due to lack of knowledge was 0.21-0.53 depending on combination of the variabilities in design parameters to be considered

  15. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Ma


    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are −18 °C–7 °C, 7 °C–25 °C and 25 °C–44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are −18 °C~10 °C, −10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  16. Determination of Specific Heat Capacity on Composite Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Materials and Asphalt Mixtures by Heat Exchange System. (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Zhou, Xue-Yan; Liu, Jiang; You, Zhanping; Wei, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Feng


    Previous research has shown that composite shape-stabilized phase change material (CPCM) has a remarkable capacity for thermal storage and stabilization, and it can be directly applied to highway construction without leakage. However, recent studies on temperature changing behaviors of CPCM and asphalt mixture cannot intuitively reflect the thermoregulation mechanism and efficiency of CPCM on asphalt mixture. The objective of this paper is to determine the specific heat capacity of CPCM and asphalt mixtures mixed with CPCM using the heat exchange system and the data acquisition system. Studies have shown that the temperature-rise curve of 5 °C CPCM has an obvious temperature plateau, while an asphalt mixture mixed with 5 °C CPCM does not; with increasing temperature, the specific heat capacities of both 5 °C CPCM and asphalt mixture first increase and then decrease, while the variation rate of 5 °C CPCM is larger than that of the asphalt mixture, and the maximum specific heat capacity of 5 °C CPCM appears around the initial phase change temperature. It is concluded that the temperature intervals of 5 °C CPCM are -18 °C-7 °C, 7 °C-25 °C and 25 °C-44 °C, respectively, and that of the asphalt mixture are -18 °C~10 °C, -10 °C~5 °C and 5 °C~28 °C. A low dosage of 5 °C CPCM has little influence on the specific heat capacity of asphalt mixture. Finally, the functions of specific heat capacities and temperature for CPCM and asphalt mixture mixed with CPCM were recommended by the sectional regression method.

  17. Assessment of the effects of cadmium and lead on pH and cation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of heavy metals pollution on agricultural produce can not be over emphasize. To estimate the effect of heavy metal on pH and Cation Exchange Capacities of soil on incubation, relationships between availability of metals in soil after contamination were investigated for a range of soils and metals.

  18. P retention and cation exchange as affected by nanoparticle of volcanic ash and application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on Andisol Ciater, West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Fitriatin, Betty Natalie; Arifin, Mahfud; Devnita, Rina; Yuniarti, Anni; Haryanto, Rachmat; Setiabudi, Mariska Amalia


    Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to study the effect of nanoparticle volcanic ash and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) on P retention and cation exchangeable (CEC) in Andisol Ciater, West Java. This research was conducted from October 2016 to March 2017. The design of the analysis used was a complete randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor was nanoparticle volcanic ash (a) consists of four dosages based on weight percentage (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and the second factor was PSB (h) consists of two dosages (without biofertilizer and with biofertilizer 1 g/Kg soil). The combination treatments replicated three times were incubated for 4 months. Soil samples were analyzed at first month and fourth month after incubation. The results showed that all dosages of nanoparticle volcanic ash and application of PSB decreased P retention by 75-77% at the first month after incubation. Nanoparticle volcanic ash dosage decreased to 7.5% the P retention reaches 90.36% in the fourth month after incubation. The nanoparticle of volcanic ash dosage 7.5% increased with CEC (24.787 and 16.555 at the first and fourth months after incubation. The application of PSB increased the CEC (28.606 in the first month after incubation.

  19. Prevalence of hemoglobin variants and hemoglobinopathies using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in central reference laboratory of India: A report of 65779 cases (United States)

    Warghade, Sandeep; Britto, Jyothi; Haryan, Reshma; Dalvi, Tejaswi; Bendre, Rajesh; Chheda, Pratiksha; Matkar, Sunmeet; Salunkhe, Yogita; Chanekar, Milind; Shah, Nilesh


    CONTEXT: Hemoglobinopathies constitute the world's most common genetically inherited red blood cell disorder. Screening and accurate identification of hemoglobin (Hb) variants have become increasingly important in antenatal diagnosis and prevention of Hb disorders. AIM: The aim of this study was to screen and identify Hb fractions prevalent in the Central Reference Laboratory of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65,779 cases were screened for hemoglobinopathies on the bio-rad variant high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system by beta-thalassemia short program. The retention times, proportion of the hemoglobin (%) and the peak characteristics for all hemoglobin fractions were recorded. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene was carried out by DNA sequencing on eight cases. RESULTS: Total number of abnormal Hb fractions on cation exchange-HPLC (CE-HPLC) was seen in 12,131 (18.44%) cases. Beta-thalassemia trait was the predominant genetic Hb disorder accounting for 7377 cases (11.21%) of the total cases. This was followed by sickle cell trait (2.01%), sickle cell disease (1.59%), beta-thalassemia syndrome (0.80%), HbE trait (0.79%), and borderline HbA2 (0.51%). Molecular characterization of eight rare cases of hemoglobin variants by beta-globin gene sequencing identified three cases of Hb Beth Israel, two cases of Hb Hofu trait, and one case each of Hb J Cambridge, Hb Mizunami, and Hb Sherwood Forest. CONCLUSION: Superior resolution, rapid assay time, and accurate quantification make CE-HPLC suitable for the routine investigation of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:29403210

  20. A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential in water pollution studies (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Löwemark, Ludvig; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Chang, Queenie; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Croudace, Ian W.


    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast, and convenient technique to assess elemental variations for a wide variety of research topics. However, the XRF scanning counts are often considered a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by down core variability in physical properties. To overcome this problem and extend the applications of XRF-scanning to water pollution studies, we propose to use cation exchange resin (IR-120) as an "elemental carrier", and to analyze the resins using the Itrax-XRF core scanner. The use of resin minimizes the matrix effects during the measurements, and can be employed in the field in great numbers due to its low price. Therefore, the fast, and non-destructive XRF-scanning technique can provide a quick and economical method to analyze environmental pollution via absorption in the resin. Five standard resin samples were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner at different exposure times (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to allow the comparisons of scanning counts with the absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in pollution studies (Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were examined for the different exposure times. The result shows that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are all higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Therefore, we propose to use this method in the field to monitor for example sewage disposal events. The low price of resin, and fast, multi elements and precise XRF-scanning technique provide a viable, cost- and time-effective approach that allows large sample numbers to be processed. In this way, the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can be traced for the purpose of environmental monitoring and environmental forensics.

  1. Monoclonal antibody heterogeneity analysis and deamidation monitoring with high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing using simple, two component buffer systems. (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhen; Kutzko, Joseph P; Hayes, Michael L; Frey, Douglas D


    The use of either a polyampholyte buffer or a simple buffer system for the high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing of monoclonal antibodies is demonstrated for the case where the pH gradient is produced entirely inside the column and with no external mixing of buffers. The simple buffer system used was composed of two buffering species, one which becomes adsorbed onto the column packing and one which does not adsorb, together with an adsorbed ion that does not participate in acid-base equilibrium. The method which employs the simple buffer system is capable of producing a gradual pH gradient in the neutral to acidic pH range that can be adjusted by proper selection of the starting and ending pH values for the gradient as well as the buffering species concentration, pKa, and molecular size. By using this approach, variants of representative monoclonal antibodies with isoelectric points of 7.0 or less were separated with high resolution so that the approach can serve as a complementary alternative to isoelectric focusing for characterizing a monoclonal antibody based on differences in the isoelectric points of the variants present. Because the simple buffer system used eliminates the use of polyampholytes, the method is suitable for antibody heterogeneity analysis coupled with mass spectrometry. The method can also be used at the preparative scale to collect highly purified isoelectric variants of an antibody for further study. To illustrate this, a single isoelectric point variant of a monoclonal antibody was collected and used for a stability study under forced deamidation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Online coupling of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for simultaneous proteomics and N-glycomics analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Lam, Herman C; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Chu, Ivan K


    In this study we developed a fully automated three-dimensional (3D) liquid chromatography methodology-comprising hydrophilic interaction separation as the first dimension, strong cation exchange fractionation as the second dimension, and low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation as the third dimension-in conjunction downstream with additional complementary porous graphitic carbon separation, to capture non-retained hydrophilic analytes, for both shotgun proteomics and N-glycomics analyses. The performance of the 3D system alone was benchmarked through the analysis of the total lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to improved hydrophilic peptide coverage, from which we identified 19% and 24% more proteins and peptides, respectively, relative to those identified from a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and low-pH RP chromatography (HILIC-RP) system over the same mass spectrometric acquisition time; consequently, the 3D platform also provided enhanced proteome and protein coverage. When we applied the integrated technology to analyses of the total lysate of primary cerebellar granule neurons, we characterized a total of 2201 proteins and 16,937 unique peptides for this primary cell line, providing one of its most comprehensive datasets. Our new integrated technology also exhibited excellent performance in the first N-glycomics analysis of cynomolgus monkey plasma; we successfully identified 122 proposed N-glycans and 135 N-glycosylation sites from 122 N-glycoproteins, and confirmed the presence of 38 N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing N-glycans, a rare occurrence in human plasma, through tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Unfolding and aggregation of a glycosylated monoclonal antibody on a cation exchange column. Part I. Chromatographic elution and batch adsorption behavior. (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Shaojie; Carta, Giorgio


    A glycosylated IgG2 monoclonal antibody exhibits a two-peak elution behavior when loaded on a strong cation exchange column and eluted with either a linear salt gradient or two salt steps at increasing salt concentrations. The two-peak behavior is more pronounced for conditions where the initial antibody binding is stronger, i.e. at lower pH and buffer concentration, where the hold time prior to elution is longer, where the protein mass load is lower, and where the load flow rate is higher. The effect is also dependent on the resin type, being prominent for the polymer-functionalized resin Fractogel EMD SO₃(-) and virtually absent for a macroporous resin with similar backbone but no grafted polymers. Size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering show that the early eluting peak consists exclusively of the native monomeric species while the late eluting peak is a mixture of monomeric and aggregated species. Batch adsorption/desorption experiments show that the bound protein can be desorbed in two steps, with a fraction desorbed in 0.33 M NaCl, corresponding to native monomer, and a second fraction desorbed in 1M NaCl. The latter fraction decreases with protein mass load and becomes almost negligible when the resin is initially completely saturated with protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the two-peak elution/desorption behavior is related to the unique kinetics of protein binding in the Fractogel resin. Following partial loading of the resin, the bound protein migrates toward the center of the particles during a hold step and is redistributed across the particle volume attaining low local bound protein concentrations. For these conditions the protein is apparently destabilized forming a strongly-bound unfolded intermediate that, in turn, generates aggregates upon elution in high salt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Coating of nanoparticles on cryogel surface and subsequent double-modification for enhanced ion-exchange capacity of protein. (United States)

    Tao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Chuan; Sun, Yan


    A novel composite cryogel monolith was developed by coating poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (NPs) onto the pore wall surface of poly(acrylamide) cryogel. The NPs-coated column was double-modified with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) and diethylaminoethyl in sequence. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the dense coating of the NPs on the cryogel surface, but the NPs-coating did not result in distinct changes of the column porosity and permeability. The rough pore wall surface and extended polymer chains offered more binding sites, so the dynamic binding capacity of the composite cryogel bed for bovine serum albumin reached 11.7mg/mL bed volume at a flow rate of 6cm/min, which was 4.2 times higher than that of the cryogel bed modified with PEI without coating NPs (2.8mg/mL). The binding capacity as well as column efficiency decreased only slightly with increasing flow rate from 0.6 to 12cm/min. The results indicated that the strategy of NPs-coating incorporating with double ion-exchanger modifications is promising for enhancing cryogel capacities, and the novel material would be useful for high-speed protein chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sorption of metal ions on synthetic organo-inorganic ion exchanger polyacrylonitrile-Ti(IV) tungstophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidary, A.; Ahmadi, S. J.; Asadi, M. R.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Ashtari, P.


    In this study two Polyacrylonitrile-Ti(IV) tungstophosphate organo-inorganic ion exchangers with different molar ratios have been synthesized. These ion exchangers have been characterized by fourier transform-IR, X- ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric, scanning electron microscopy and CHNSO techniques and their cation exchange capacity bas been measured by continuous method. Distribution coefficients (K d ) for metal ions and radionuclides were determined by batch method and with these ion exchangers, separation of metal ions was achieved on a glass column.

  6. Ion exchange reactions of major inorganic cations (H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+) on beidellite: Experimental results and new thermodynamic database. Toward a better prediction of contaminant mobility in natural environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, Valentin; Tertre, Emmanuel; Beaufort, Daniel; Regnault, Olivier; Sardini, Paul; Descostes, Michael


    Highlights: • Multi-site ion exchange model for beidellite for Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , K + and H + . • Validity over the 1–7 pH range and total normality >5 × 10 −3 mol/L. • Application to equilibrium between smectite and acidic solution from mining sites. • Impact of crystal chemistry of smectites on their sorption properties. - Abstract: To our knowledge, no thermodynamic database is available in the literature concerning ion-exchange reactions occurring in low-charge smectite with tetrahedral charge (beidellite). The lack of this information makes it difficult to predict the mobility of contaminants in environments where beidellite and major cations, which act as competitors with contaminants for sorption on the clay phase, are present. The present study proposes a multi-site ion exchange model able to describe experimental data obtained for H + and the four major cations (Na + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and K + ) found in natural waters interacting with a <0.3 μm size fraction of Na-beidellite. The nature of the sites involved in the sorption processes is assessed using qualitative structural data. Moreover, the effect of the charge location in the smectite on the selectivity coefficient values is discussed by comparison with the results reported in the literature for smectite characterized by octahedral charge (montmorillonite). The new thermodynamic database proposed in this study is based on the same total sorption site density and distribution of sites regardless of the cations investigated. This database is valid for a large range of physico-chemical conditions: a [1–7] pH range, a total normality higher than 5 × 10 −3 mol/L corresponding to a flocculated state for water/clay systems, and when sorption of ions pairs can be neglected. Note that this study provides evidence that a thermodynamic database describing ion exchange reactions between H + and the four major cations of natural water for smectite cannot be valid irrespective of the total


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.


    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  8. Pulmonary gas exchange efficiency during exercise breathing normoxic and hypoxic gas in adults born very preterm with low diffusion capacity. (United States)

    Duke, Joseph W; Elliott, Jonathan E; Laurie, Steven S; Beasley, Kara M; Mangum, Tyler S; Hawn, Jerold A; Gladstone, Igor M; Lovering, Andrew T


    Adults with a history of very preterm birth (breathing hypoxic gas because of a reduced O2 driving gradient and pulmonary capillary transit time. We hypothesized that PRET would have significantly worse pulmonary gas exchange efficiency [i.e., increased alveolar-to-arterial Po2 difference (AaDO2)] during exercise breathing room air or hypoxic gas (FiO2 = 0.12) compared with CONT. To test this hypothesis, we compared the AaDO2 in PRET (n = 13) with a clinically mild reduction in DLCO (72 ± 7% of predicted) and CONT (n = 14) with normal DLCO (105 ± 10% of predicted) pre- and during exercise breathing room air and hypoxic gas. Measurements of temperature-corrected arterial blood gases, and direct measure of O2 saturation (SaO2), were made prior to and during exercise at 25, 50, and 75% of peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2peak) while breathing room air and hypoxic gas. In addition to DLCO, pulmonary function and exercise capacity were significantly less in PRET. Despite PRET having low DLCO, no differences were observed in the AaDO2 or SaO2 pre- or during exercise breathing room air or hypoxic gas compared with CONT. Although our findings were unexpected, we conclude that reduced pulmonary function and low DLCO resulting from very preterm birth does not cause a measureable reduction in pulmonary gas exchange efficiency. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. The influence of plutonium concentration and solution flow rate on the effective capacity of macroporous anion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Gallegos, T.D.


    The principal aqueous process used to recover and purify plutonium at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility is anion exchange in nitric acid. Previous studies with gel-type anion exchange resin have shown an inverse relationship between plutonium concentration in the feed solution and the optimum flow rate for this process. Because gel-type resin has been replaced with macroporous resin at Los Alamos, the relationship between plutonium concentration and solution flow rate was reexamined with the selected Lewatit MP-500-FK resin using solutions of plutonium in nitric acid and in nitric acid with high levels of added nitrate salts. Our results with this resin differ significantly from previous data obtained with gel-type resin. Flow-rate variation from 10 to 80 liters per hour had essentially no effect on the measured quantities of plutonium sorbed by the macroporous resin. However, the effect of plutonium concentration in the feed solutions was pronounced, as feed solutions that contained the highest concentrations of plutonium also produced the highest resin loadings. The most notable effect of high concentrations of dissolved nitrate salts in these solutions was an increased resin capacity for plutonium at low flow rates. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Chemical studies on polyaniline titanotungstate as a new composite cation exchanger and its analytical applications for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.K.M.


    Polyaniline titanotungstate has been synthesized by incorporation of organic polymer polyaniline into the inorganic precipitate of titanotungstate. This material was characterized using IR, X-Ray, SEM and DTA-TGA analysis. The influences of initial concentration of metal ions, particle size and temperature have been reported. The material stability was investigated in water, acids, alkaline solutions, and at high temperature up to 850 degree C. Ion-exchange capacity and distribution coefficients (K d ) for ten metal ions have been determined. It was found that the polyaniline titanotungstate has high affinity and high selectivity for Cs + . The material has high separation for Cs + ion from other metal ions. The comparison of composite (PATiW) and inorganic material (TiW) was studied and indicated that the composite material is better than the inorganic one in selectivity of Cs + . Thermodynamic parameter of Cs + exchange process, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (δG o ), enthalpy (δH o ), and entropy (δS o ) have been calculated. It was found that numerical value of δG decrease with an increase in temperature,indicating that the sorption reaction of adsorbent was spontaneous and more favorable at higher temperature. The positive value of δH o corresponds to the endothermic nature of sorption processes and suggested that chemisorptions were the predominant mechanism. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the sorption rate data of Cs + was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, homogeneous particle diffusion, shell model and intraparticle diffusion models. The results showed that Cs + is sorption onto PATiW and TiW with particle diffusion mechanism. Self diffusion coefficient (D i ), Activation energy (Ea) and entropy (δS * ) of activation were also computed from thelinearized form of Arrhenius equation. Column studies in acid and alkaline solutions were studied. A kinetic study for removal cesium from milk was investigated.

  11. Influence of temperature, exchangeable cation composition, salinity and density in the adsorption of water by a bentonite: implications to the pore water composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Melon, A.M.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted bentonites are being considered in many countries as a sealing material in high-level radioactive waste disposal (HLW) concepts because of their low permeability, high swelling capacity and high plasticity. In this context, the knowledge of the pore water composition in bentonites is an uncertainty associated to the retention and transport processes through highly compacted material. The nature of the pore water directly affects how the radionuclides are transported through the buffer materials because of a potential distribution is developed at the solid-liquid interface. Besides, the moisture potential of bentonites is closely related to swelling pressure. The pore water chemistry depends on the hydration and swelling of bentonites (matric and osmotic potentials), and therefore on the distribution of the external and the interlayer water. This relationship depends, in turn, on parameters such as water content, bulk dry density, temperature, type of cations at interlayers and salinity. The osmotic potential is related to the dissolved salt content and increases with pore water salinity. It is well-known that variations in pore water osmotic suction affect osmotic repulsion pressure caused by the diffuse double layers interactions of adjacent particles as both are functions of dissolved salt concentration in pore water. In this work, the moisture potential has been analysed as a function of the water content, temperature (20, 30 and 60 deg. C), type of cations at interlayers, salinity and degree of compaction of the FEBEX bentonite. The aim was to analyse the hydration of this bentonite, and the types and distribution of water as a function of these parameters, since both the Cl-accessible porosity (key parameter for transport processes) and the amount of internal (interlayer)/external water depend strongly on the ionic strength of the saturating solution, the composition at interlayers and the

  12. Heat and moisture exchange capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate. (United States)

    Scheenstra, Renske J; Muller, Sara H; Vincent, Andrew; Hilgers, Frans J M


    The aim of this study was to assess the heat and moisture exchange (HME) capacity of the upper respiratory tract and the effect of tracheotomy breathing on endotracheal climate in patients with head and neck cancer. We plotted the subglottic temperature and humidity measurements in 10 patients with head and neck cancer with a temporary precautionary tracheotomy during successive 10-minute periods of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing in a randomized sequence. End-inspiratory temperatures of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 31.1, 31.3, and 28.3°C, respectively. End-inspiratory humidity measurements of nose, mouth, and tracheotomy breathing were 29.3, 28.6, and 21.1 mgH₂O/L, respectively. There was a trend toward lower end-inspiratory humidity in patients with radiotherapy or with large surgery-induced oropharyngeal mucosal defects, whereas temperatures were similar. This study gives objective information about the HME capacity of the upper respiratory tract in patients with head and neck cancer with precautionary tracheotomy, and thus provides target values for HMEs for laryngectomized and tracheotomized patients. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  13. Sorption phenomena of modification of clinoptilolite tuffs by surfactant cations. (United States)

    Rozić, M; Ivanec Sipusić, D; Sekovanić, L; Miljanić, S; Curković, L; Hrenović, J


    The sorption of cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) onto the solid/liquid interfaces of different clinoptilolite rich tuffs (CT) is examined. Examined were CT from Serbia with 75% clinoptilolite, CT from Turkey with 70% clinoptilolite, and CT from Croatia with 60% clinoptilolite. The sorption of HDTMA cations increased in the following order: CT from Serbia>CT from Turkey>CT from Croatia. The maximum amounts of sorbed HDTMA cations, normalized with regard to external cation exchange capacities of tuffs, were 1.79, 1.70, and 1.14 for Serbian, Turkish, and Croatian CT. FTIR analysis of samples with the maximum amount of sorbed HDTMA cations showed that HDTMA chains on Serbian CT adopt mainly a stretched all-trans conformation, while at the surfaces of CT from Turkey and Croatia the amount of gauche conformations increased. The zeta potentials of CT samples with the maximum amount of sorbed HDTMA cations and the sorption of benzoate anions on these samples increased in the following order: CT from Turkey>CT from Serbia>CT from Croatia. It can be assumed that on the surface of CT from Turkey iron (hydr)oxide clusters or nanoparticles with positive surface sites are present, due to which the isoelectric point is sifted toward lower and the zeta potential toward higher values. Therefore, the sorption of benzoate anions on modified CT from Turkey is also higher.

  14. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid; Mecanismo de la elucion del erbio en un cambiador cationico con el acido n-hidroxietil-etilen-diamono-triacetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer Amezaga, S.


    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs.

  15. Influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of heavy-metal sorption by algae-sorption of copper cations by the algaPalmaria palmata(Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr (Rhodophyta). (United States)

    Kłos, Andrzej; Rajfur, Małgorzata


    The influence of hydrogen cations on kinetics and equilibria of sorption of copper cations by the marine alga Palmaria palmata (Linnaeus) Weber & Mohr was studied under static conditions. The competitive effect of the H + cations is described, which influenced the uncertainty of evaluation of the alga sorption capacity. Under static conditions, the variation of the Cu 2+ /H + concentration ratio during sorption was found nonmonotonic. The Langmuir isotherm model was used to determine the sorption capacity of the alga, namely 12.4 mg g -1 of dry algae mass. A similar value was determined from the kinetic parameters of the ionic exchange which is considered a pseudo-second-order chemical reaction. The consistent results indicated that the mathematical models used correctly described the equilibria and kinetics of the ionic exchange between algae and solutions.

  16. Sample pre-treatment to eliminate cationic methylated arsenic for determining arsenite on an anion-exchange column by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Huang, Jen-How; Ilgen, Gunter; Decker, Berryinne


    Co-elution of cationic methylated arsenic, e.g. arsenobetaine may interfere with the determination of arsenite on the Hamilton PRP-X100 anion-exchange column using a phosphate buffer isocratically. Therefore, a sample pre-treatment method with self-packed AG MP-50 cation-exchange cartridges was proposed, which enables the arsenite determination in samples containing arsenobetaine on a PRP-X100 column using a phosphate buffer (pH 5.6) isocratically. Methylated arsenic, including dimethylarsinic acid, trimethylarsine oxide, tetramethylarsonium ion, arsenobetaine and arsenocholine, with concentrations below 1000microgAsL(-1), may be completely retained in the AG MP-50 cartridge without any changes of arsenite, arsenate and monomethylarsonic acid speciation. Such retention was independent of the pH and matrix. It is proposed to be based on hydrophobic interaction. With the help of AG MP-50 cartridges, 11 arsenic species were detected in fish (DORM-2), mussels (BCR-477) and red algae (Porphyra tenera) in 10min on the PRP-X100 column using a phosphate buffer isocratically. Arsenite was the only minor species (up to 0.9%) among all water extractable arsenic species in fish, mussel and red algae.

  17. New inorganic (an)ion exchangers with a higher affinity for arsenate and a competitive removal capacity towards fluoride, bromate, bromide, selenate, selenite, arsenite and borate

    KAUST Repository

    Chubar, Natalia


    Highly selective materials and effective technologies are needed to meet the increasingly stronger drinking water standards for targeted ionic species. Inorganic ion exchangers based on individual and mixed-metal hydrous oxides (or mixed adsorbents that contain inorganic ion exchangers in their composition) are adsorptive materials that are capable of lowering the concentrations of anionic contaminants, such as H 2AsO 4 -, H 3AsO 3, F -, Br -, BrO 3 -, HSeO 4 -, HSeO 3 - and H 3BO 3, to 10 μg/L or less. To achieve a higher selectivity towards arsenate, a new ion exchanger based on Mg-Al hydrous oxides was developed by a novel, cost-effective and environmentally friendly synthesis method via a non-traditional (alkoxide-free) sol-gel approach. The exceptional adsorptive capacity of the Mg-Al hydrous oxides towards H 2AsO 4 - (up to 200 mg[As]/gdw) is due to the high affinity of this sorbent towards arsenate (steep equilibrium isotherms) and its fast adsorption kinetics. Because of the mesoporous (as determined by N 2 adsorption and SEM) and layered (as determined by XRD and FTIR) structure of the ion-exchange material as well as the abundance of anion exchange sites (as determined by XPS and potentiometric titration) on its surface the material demonstrated very competitive (or very high) removal capacity towards other targeted anions, including fluoride, bromide, bromate, selenate, selenite, and borate. © 2011 IWA Publishing.

  18. Humidity recovery capacity of rotary heat exchangers; New calculation methods are to provide clear data. Feuchterueckgewinnungsleistung von Rotationswaermeaustauschern; Neues Berechnungsverfahren soll klare Daten liefern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenbruch, D.


    Due to a special coating of the storage substance it is possible with regenerative heat exchangers to exchange at the same time sensible and latent heat between exhaust air and outdoor air. According to the method of humidity transfer rotor systems are devided into condensation and sorption-type regenerators. As today capacity data is determined on the basis of annual average outdoor air conditions and not on the basis of maximum outdoor air conditions extensive measurements had to be carried out. Based on the measurement results an EDP-assisted calculation method was developed. (BWI)

  19. Radical cations in condensed phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symons, M.C.R. (Leicester Univ. (UK). Dept. of Chemistry)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction (scope of present Review); preparative procedures; alkane and cycloalkane cations; alkene and cyclic alkene cations; alkyl-halide cations; alcohol and ether cations; carbonyl cations (aldehyde, ketone and ester cations); sulphur-centred cations; selenium-centred cations; nitrogen-centred cations; phosphorus-centred cations; tin- and lead-centred cations; aromatic cations; five membered hetero-aromatic cations; vinyl cations; inorganic cations.


    Khym, J.X.


    The chromatographic separation of fission product cations is discussed. By use of this method a mixture of metal cations containing Zr, Cb, Ce, Y, Ba, and Sr may be separated from one another. Mentioned as preferred exchange adsorbents are resins containing free sulfonic acid groups. Various eluants, such as tartaric acid, HCl, and citric acid, used at various acidities, are employed to effect the selective elution and separation of the various fission product cations.

  1. Science exchange in an era of diminished capacity: recreation management in the U.S. Forest Service (United States)

    Clare M. Ryan; Lee K. Cerveny


    Promotion of effective science exchange between government scientists and managers requires thoughtful arrangement and operation of research and management functions. The U.S. Forest Service was established at the peak of the Progressive Era, when science exchange was designed to occur between researchers and resource managers who worked in distinct arms of the agency...

  2. Anion exchange membranes composed of a poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) random copolymer functionalized with a bulky phosphonium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Bingzi; Kinsinger, Corey L.; Yang, Yuan; Seifert, Soenke; Yan, Yushan; Mark Maupin, C.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Herring, Andrew M.


    A random copolymer, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium functionalized poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO-TPQP) was cast from three different solvents: dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethyl lactate, or a 41:59 vol% mixture of DMSO and ethyl lactate. Solvents were selected via analysis of the Hansen solubility parameters to vary the phase separation of the polymer in the films. An optimized mixture of DMSO and ethyl lactate chosen for film fabrication and this film was contrasted with films cast from the neat constituent solvents. Atomic force microscopy identified domains from nanometer to tens of nanometer sizes, while the light microscopy showed features on the order of micron. SAXS revealed a cation scattering peak with a d-spacing from 7 to 15 A. Trends in conductivity and water diffusion for the membranes vary depending on the solvent from which they are cast. The mixed solvent cast membrane shows a linear Arrhenius behavior indicating fully dissociated cationic/anionic groups, and has the highest bromide conductivity of 3 mS/cm at 95% RH, 90 degrees C. The ethyl lactate cast membrane shows a linear Arrhenius relation in conductivity, but a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher behavior in its water self-diffusion. While water increases bromide dissociation, water and bromide transport in these films seems to be decoupled. This is particularly true for the film cast from ethyl lactate.

  3. Cationic exchange in nanosized ZnFe2O4 spinel revealed by experimental and simulated near-edge absorption structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, S. J.; Figueroa, S. J. A.; Ramallo Lopez, J. M.; Requejo, F. G.; Marchetti, S. G.; Bengoa, J. F.; Prado, R. J.


    The nonequilibrium cation site occupancy in nanosized zinc ferrites (∼6-13 nm) with different degree of inversion (∼0.2 to 0.4) was investigated using Fe and Zn K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and magnetic measurements. The very good agreement between experimental and ab initio calculations on the Zn K-edge XANES region clearly shows the large Zn 2+ (A)→Zn 2+ [B] transference that takes place in addition to the well-identified Fe 3+ [B]→Fe 3+ (A) one, without altering the long-range structural order. XANES spectra features as a function of the spinel inversion were shown to depend on the configuration of the ligand shells surrounding the absorbing atom. This XANES approach provides a direct way to sense cationic inversion in these Zn-containing spinel ferrites. We also demonstrated that a mechanical crystallization takes place on nanocrystalline spinel that causes an increase of both grain and magnetic sizes and, simultaneously, generates a significant augment of the inversion

  4. Enhancement of sorption capacity of cocoa shell biomass modified with non-thermal plasma for removal of both cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Takam, Brice; Acayanka, Elie; Kamgang, Georges Y; Pedekwang, Merlin T; Laminsi, Samuel


    Removal of cationic dye, Azur II, and anionic dye, Reactive Red 2 (RR-2) from aqueous solutions, has been successfully achieved by using a modified agricultural biomaterial waste: cocoa shell husk (Theobroma cacao) treated by gliding arc plasma (CPHP). The biomass in its natural form CPHN and modified form CPHP was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and point of zero charge (pH pzc ). Experimental variables such as initial pH, contact time, and temperature were optimized for adsorptive characteristics of CPHN and CPHP. The results show that the removal of the Azur II dye was favorable in the basic pH region (pH 10) while the Reactive Red 2 dye was favorable in the acidic pH region (pH 2). The minimum equilibrium time for Azur II and RR-2 dye was obtained after 40 and 240 min, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm data obtained were best described by a pseudo-second-order kinetic rate model and a combination of Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. This work indicates that the plasma-treated raw materials are good alternative multi-purpose sorbents for the removal of many coexisting pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  5. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J


    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  6. environmental studies for removal of some radioactive elements using zirconium silicate as inorganic ion exchange material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aryan, Y.F.A.


    inorganic ion exchangers have a good potential than the commonly used organic ones for removal and separation of radionuclides from irradiated nuclear fuel solutions. therefore, the main aim of this work is directed to find the optimum conditions for removal of some radionuclides such as Cs + ,Co 2+ ,and Eu 3+ by the prepared zirconium silicate as cation exchanger. the following items will be involved:-1- preparation of zirconium silicate as a cation exchanger. 2- characterization of the prepared exchanger using IR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, DTA and TG analyses. 3-chemical stability, capacity and equilibrium measurements will be determined on the materials using at different conditions (heating temperature and reaction temperature). 4- ion exchange isotherms. 5- breakthrough curves for removal of the investigated metal ions on the prepared exchanger under certain conditions

  7. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 1: Cesium Exchange Capacity of a 15-cm3 Column and Dynamic Stability of the Exchange Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd


    Bench-scale column tests were performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution representative of liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtm IE-911 (UOP, Mt Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in 15 cm3 columns at a flow rate of 5 bed volumes per hour. These experiments showed the ion exchange material to have reasonable selectivity and capacity for removing cesium from the complex chemical matrix of the solution. However, previous testing indicated that partial neutralization of the feed stream was necessary to increase the stability of the ion exchange media. Thus, in these studies, CST degradation was determined as a function of throughput in order to better assess the stability characteristics of the exchanger for potential future waste treatment applications. Results of these tests indicate that the degradation of the CST reaches a maximum very soon after the acidic feed is introduced to the column and then rapidly declines. Total dissolution of bed material did not exceed 3% under the experimental regime used

  8. Exchange of lyotropic series cations by micaceous vermiculite and its weathering products determined by electron microscopy and radiochemical analysis. Progress report, August 1, 1974--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.L.; Helmke, P.A.


    Determination of layer charge of micas by 235 U fission particle tracks (thermal neutron activated) was completed by a development of a unique method of UO 2+ saturation at pH 2.4 and removal of excess salts physically. The U content and age-dating of soil micas was also accomplished by fission particle counting. Thermodynamic metastability of micaceous vermiculite in soils with reversible mica-vermiculite reactions were found to result in extremely tenacious natural fixation of Cs + in soil fine fractions and weathering rock, a model for 137 Cs + retention. Visual models for Cs + fixation were obtained as structural layer images of micaceous vermiculite wedges in clays, including kaolinites. Diverse divalent cations were found to adsorb specifically (i.e., in lM NaNO 3 ) on hydrous oxides of Fe and Al, materials common in soils and capable of ''holding up'' 90 Sr 2+ , 45 Ca 2+ , and other fission products from free movement in groundwaters. Aerosol size quartz (1 to 10 μm), from dusts containing Cs + fixing micaceous vermiculites, was characterized by oxygen isotopic ratio analysis and the ratios found useful in tracing dust provenance. Quartz of chert origin was revealed electron microscopically as clusters of fine subhedral crystals. Of the 20 elements measured in Cretaceous shales La, Sm, Ba, and Hf showed trends in concentration from igneous shore line to central basin, correlative with change in oxygen isotopic ratio

  9. Cation mobility and kinetics of ion exchange in zirconium hydrogen monothiophosphate hydrate, Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O. (United States)

    Stenina, I A; Aliev, A D; Dorhout, P K; Yaroslavtsev, A B


    The ion conductivity of zirconium hydrogen monothiophosphate (Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O) has been measured by impedance spectroscopy. The measured value of proton conductivity is 3 x 10(-5) S/cm at 298 K. Conductivity was shown to decrease with increasing temperature due to a dehydration process. Above 450 K, the conductivity is likely governed by proton transport in the anhydrous phase Zr(HPO(3)S)(2). The activation energies of proton conductivity were measured to be 18 +/- 2 kJ/mol for Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O and 60 +/- 3 kJ/mol for the anhydrous compound. The kinetics of ion exchange was studied with the use of potentiometric titration for several ion pairs, H(+)/Na(+), H(+)/Zn(2+), and Na(+)/Zn(2+) in Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O. The diffusion coefficient values for H(+)/Na(+) ion exchange in Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O are lower than those reported in alpha-zirconium phosphate. At the same time, the mobility of zinc ions in Zr(HPO(3)S)(2)x1.5H(2)O is higher than sodium ion mobility. The ion exchange H(+)/Zn(2+) is accompanied by the slow hydrolysis of the initial compound. In all cases, the powdered solids were evaluated by powder X-ray diffraction, and particle sizes were controlled by grinding and sieving the powders.

  10. Electrokinetically-driven cation-exchange chromatography of proteins and its comparison with pressure-driven high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Xu, W; Regnier, F E


    This paper examines protein ion-exchange behavior in electrokinetically-driven open-tubular chromatography with columns produced by immobilization of poly(aspartic acid) on capillary walls. Retention and selectivity are similar in the electrokinetic elution mode to that observed in HPLC. The separation mechanism was found to depend on the relationship of mobile phase pH to that of protein pI and ionic strength. Column efficiency in the electrokinetic elution mode was found to be 10-100-times higher than in HPLC. The best separations were achieved at intermediate ionic strength and high pH. The great advantage of these low-phase-ratio, high-efficiency open tubular columns is that isocratic separations in the electrokinetic elution mode were equivalent to gradient elution in the HPLC mode. Low phase ratio has the net effect of collapsing the chromatogram into a narrow elution window while the very high efficiency produces the requisite resolution.

  11. Effect of Clay Mineralogy and Exchangeable Cations on Permeability of Saudi Sandstone Reservoirs Effet de la minéralogie des argiles et des cations échangeables sur la perméabilité des réservoirs gréseux d'Arabie Saoudite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahab A. S.


    Full Text Available Reservoir rocks are susceptible to formation damage during secondary recovery operations due to the particular mineralogical, textural and electrochemical properties of the clay minerals they contain. This damage can be explained by the swelling of indigeneous clays present, resulting in the constricting of pores, or by the dispersion of indigeneous nonswelling particle rearrangements during fluid flow, resulting in the plugging of the pore system, or by a combination of the two. This article describes a laboratory study showing the effect of clay mineralogy on the permeability of actual Saudi sandstone reservoirs during water flooding operations. The study shows that the permeability damage of Saudi sandstone reservoirs depends upon the amount of swelling clays and exchangeable ions as well as on the nature of these ions. Monovalent cations cause more damage than multivalent ones but within the same group of metals, those with smaller atomic mass cause more damage. Les roches réservoirs peuvent être endommagées pendant les opérations de récupération secondaire à cause des propriétés minéralogiques, texturales et électrochimiques particulières des minéraux argileux qu'elles contiennent. Cet endommagement peut s'expliquer, soit par le gonflement des argiles qui conduit à un rétrécissement des pores, soit par la migration de particules non gonflantes pendant l'écoulement des fluides qui entraîne le colmatage des milieux poreux, soit par une combinaison des deux mécanismes. Cet article présente une étude de laboratoire montrant l'effet de la minéralogie des argiles sur la perméabilité des roches réservoirs réelles d'Arabie Saoudite pendant des opérations d'injection d'eau. L'étude montre que l'endommagement de la perméabilité des roches réservoirs d'Arabie Saoudite dépend de la quantité d'argiles gonflantes et d'ions échangeables, ainsi que de la nature de ces ions. Les cations monovalents provoquent plus d

  12. Tackling capacity fading in vanadium flow batteries with amphoteric membranes (United States)

    Oldenburg, Fabio J.; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz


    Capacity fading and poor electrolyte utilization caused by electrolyte imbalance effects are major drawbacks for the commercialization of vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The influence of membrane type (cationic, anionic, amphoteric) on these effects is studied by determining the excess and net flux of each vanadium ion in an operating VFB assembled with a cation exchange membrane (CEM), Nafion® NR212, an anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumatech FAP-450, and an amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) synthesized in-house. It is shown that the net vanadium flux, accompanied by water transport, is directed towards the positive side for the CEM and towards the negative side for the AEM. The content of cation and anion exchange groups in the AIEM is adjusted via radiation grafting to balance the vanadium flux between the two electrolyte sides. With the AIEM the net vanadium flux is significantly reduced and capacity fading due to electrolyte imbalances can be largely eliminated. The membrane's influence on electrolyte imbalance effects is characterized and quantified in one single charge-discharge cycle by analyzing the content of the four different vanadium species in the two electrolytes. The experimental data recorded herewith conclusively explains the electrolyte composition after 80 cycles.

  13. Direct modification of hydrogen/deuterium-terminated diamond particles with polymers to form reversed and strong cation exchange solid phase extraction sorbents. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jensen, David S; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R


    We describe direct polymer attachment to hydrogen and deuterium-terminated diamond (HTD and DTD) surfaces using a radical initiator (di-tert-amyl peroxide, DTAP), a reactive monomer (styrene) and a crosslinking agent (divinylbenzene, DVB) to create polystyrene encapsulated diamond. Chemisorbed polystyrene is sulfonated with sulfuric acid in acetic acid. Surface changes were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, both polystyrene-modified DTD and sulfonated styrene-modified DTD were used in solid phase extraction (SPE). Percent recovery and column capacity were investigated for both phenyl (polystyrene) and sulfonic acid treated polystyrene SPE columns. These diamond-based SPE supports are stable under basic conditions, which is not the case for silica-based SPE supports. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ion-exchange resin for removing hexavalent chromium from ground water at treatment facility C: Data on removal capacity, regeneration efficiency, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahowick, S.; Dobie, D.; Kumamoto, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by the University of California. In July 1987, LLNL was placed on the National Priorities List based on the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water. The July 1992 Record of Decision stipulates air stripping for treatment of VOCs and ion-exchange to treat chromium in the ground water for Treatment Facility C (TFC). TFC, which was activated in October 1993, was designed to treat influent ground water at 60 gpm with concentrations of hexavalent chromium averaging 30 ppb. The ion exchange system removes the hexavalent chromium to below its limit of detection (2 ppb). The resin used is a strongly basic Type I quaternary ammonium anion exchange resin with a styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer gel matrix. The total hexavalent chromium removed from the ground water as of October 8, 1995 was 660 grams. An initial operating capacity was achieved of 6.4 grams CrO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} removal per ft{sup 3} of resin, but this was observed to vary over the next two years. Variation was observed in the rate of breakthrough. The regeneration process was optimized to minimize waste produced and maximize regeneration of the resin. Elevated levels of chloride, sulfate, nitrate, potassium 40 and uranium have been observed in the regeneration waste. Because of the potassium and uranium content, the regenerated waste had to be disposed of as mixed waste.

  15. Polycation-Exchanged Clays as Sorbents for Organic Pollutants: Influence of Layer Charge on Pollutant Sorption Capacity. (United States)

    Breen; Watson


    The uptake curves for the adsorption of a polycation ([CH2CH(OH)CH2N(CH3)2]n+n(Cl)n-n) onto a low iron Texas bentonite, WL, have been determined and compared with those onto two source smectites, SWy-1 and SAz-1. The polycation exhibited a marked affinity for all the smectite surfaces but polycation uptake was maximized on the fine fractions of Na+-WL. Variable temperature X-ray diffraction of the clay polycation complexes showed that the polycation was segregated into different interlayers at loadings below 30% of the CEC. The adsorption of benzene onto TMA+-exchanged SWy-1, SAz-1, and WL showed that, despite having a comparable layer charge to SWy-1, WL was as poor a sorbent for benzene as SAz-1, which has a much higher layer charge. The adsorption of p-nitrophenol (PNP) from aqueous solution onto the TMA+-exchanged sorbents exhibited the same trends, although a smaller amount was adsorbed due to the greater size of PNP. The amount of PNP adsorbed by polycation-treated SWy-1 depended upon the polycation loading, and PNP uptake maximized at loadings of 28 and 46 mg (g clay)-1. At higher loadings (80, 102, and 147 mg (g clay)-1) the uptake curves became linear and the PNP uptake decreased with increased polycation loading. No polycation-treated clay was as effective as TMA+-exchanged SWy-1 for the removal of PNP from water. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  16. Investigation of the resistance of some naturally occurring and synthetic inorganic ion exchangers against gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilchi, A.; Khanchi, A.; Ghanadi Maragheh, M.; Bagheri, A.


    The effect of various doses of gamma radiation on the ion-exchange capacity, distribution coefficient values, elution behaviour, physical effect, pH titration and infrared spectra of some synthetic inorganic ion exchangers, namely the cerium substituted phosphates; and naturally occurring inorganic ion exchangers, zeolites from different parts of Iran, have been studied systematically. No significant change has been observed in the ion-exchange capacity (with the exception of CeP(Na), CeP(Di·Na) and zeolite 5 (deposits of arababad talas)), elution behaviour, physical effect, chemical stability and the infrared spectra of the synthetic ion exchangers irradiated up to a total dose of 200 kGy, while a change has been observed in the pH-titration and distribution behaviour. The increase in pH is sharper for irradiated samples with divalent cations than for the normal samples. Furthermore, the K d values, and hence the selectivity towards certain cations increase with the total dose absorbed, reaching its optimum selectivity with the dose of 50-100 kGy. The natural zeolites chosen for these studies, show, similar pattern to those of synthetic ion exchangers, and in some cases an extremely high selectivity toward certain cations, like Be II . These make, zeolites, which are naturally occurring ion exchangers more viable economically, and extremely useful alternative in this industry

  17. The use of cation exchange matrix separation coupled with ICP-MS to directly determine platinum group element (PGE) and other trace element emissions from passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Warren R.L.; Cozzi, Giulio [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); De Boni, Antonella; Gabrieli, Jacopo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Asti, Massimo; Merlone Borla, Edoardo; Parussa, Flavio [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano (Italy); Moretto, Ezio [FIAT Powertrain Technologies S.p.A, Turin (Italy); Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, B.P. 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)


    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with cation exchange matrix separation has been optimised for the direct determination of platinum group element (PGE) and trace element emissions from a diesel engine car. After matrix separation method detection limits of 1.6 ng g{sup -1} for Pd, 0.4 ng g{sup -1} for Rh and 4.3 ng g{sup -1} for Pt were achieved, the method was validated against the certified reference material BCR 723, urban road dust. The test vehicle was fitted with new and aged catalytic converters with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Samples were collected after three consecutive New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) of the particulate and ''soluble'' phases using a home-made sampler optimised for trace element analysis. Emission factors for the PGEs ranged from 0.021 ng km{sup -1} for Rh to 70.5 ng km{sup -1} for Pt; when a DPF was fitted, the emission factors for the PGEs actually used in the catalysts dropped by up to 97% (for Pt). Trace element emission factors were found to drop by a maximum of 92% for Ni to a minimum of 18% for Y when a DPF was fitted; a new DPF was also found to cause a reduction of up to 86% in the emission of particulate matter. (orig.)

  18. Nearly 1000 Protein Identifications from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis Zygote Homogenate Using Online Sample Preparation on a Strong Cation Exchange Monolith Based Microreactor Coupled with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Cox, Olivia F; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J


    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation exchange monolith microreactor was synthesized and coupled to a linear polyacrylamide coated capillary for online sample preparation and capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) bottom-up proteomic analysis. The protein sample was loaded onto the microreactor in an acidic buffer. After online reduction, alkylation, and digestion with trypsin, the digests were eluted with 200 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 8.2 for CZE-MS/MS analysis using 1 M acetic acid as the background electrolyte. This combination of basic elution and acidic background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction. 369 protein groups and 1274 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis zygote homogenate, which is comparable with an offline sample preparation method, but the time required for sample preparation was decreased from over 24 h to less than 40 min. Dramatically improved performance was produced by coupling the reactor to a longer separation capillary (∼100 cm) and a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. 975 protein groups and 3749 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus protein using the online sample preparation method.

  19. Fully automated multidimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem anion/cation exchange columns for simultaneous global endogenous tyrosine nitration detection, integral membrane protein characterization, and quantitative proteomics mapping in cerebral infarcts. (United States)

    Quan, Quan; Szeto, Samuel S W; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Chu, Ivan K


    Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a signature hallmark of radical-induced nitrative stress in a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, with naturally occurring abundances at substoichiometric levels. In this present study, a fully automated four-dimensional platform, consisting of high-/low-pH reversed-phase dimensions with two additional complementary, strong anion (SAX) and cation exchange (SCX), chromatographic separation stages inserted in tandem, was implemented for the simultaneous mapping of endogenous nitrated tyrosine-containing peptides within the global proteomic context of a Macaca fascicularis cerebral ischemic stroke model. This integrated RP-SA(C)X-RP platform was initially benchmarked through proteomic analyses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing extended proteome and protein coverage. A total of 27 144 unique peptides from 3684 nonredundant proteins [1% global false discovery rate (FDR)] were identified from M. fascicularis cerebral cortex tissue. The inclusion of the S(A/C)X columns contributed to the increased detection of acidic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic peptide populations; these separation features enabled the concomitant identification of 127 endogenous nitrated peptides and 137 transmembrane domain-containing peptides corresponding to integral membrane proteins, without the need for specific targeted enrichment strategies. The enhanced diversity of the peptide inventory obtained from the RP-SA(C)X-RP platform also improved analytical confidence in isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses.

  20. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi


    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  1. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others


    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  2. Solidification of spent ion exchange resin using new cementitious material, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Chino, Koichi; Kikuchi, Makoto


    Cement solidification is a conventional technique to solidify spent ion exchange resin. Swelling property of the ion exchange resin was investigated theoretically and experimentally, as the first step to improve resin content in a cement package. Swelling pressure of the resin was first formulated based on Gregor's swelling model. It was shown that the pressure depended on such factors as ion exchange capacity, type of functional group, crosslinkage and water content. Subsequently, swelling pressures for over forty properties of cation exchange resin (DIAION SK-series) with different exchange capacities, water contents and others were experimentally evaluated using an originally developed method. The pressure changed over a range of 0 ∼ 60 MPa, depending on properties of the ion exchange resin. These results were in close agreement with values calculated by Gregor's model, indicating that the swelling pressure could be evaluated without resorting to experiments. (author)

  3. Bandgap and Structure Engineering via Cation Exchange: From Binary Ag2S to Ternary AgInS2, Quaternary AgZnInS alloy and AgZnInS/ZnS Core/Shell Fluorescent Nanocrystals for Bioimaging. (United States)

    Song, Jiangluqi; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Wenzhe; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenting; Wu, Rongbo; Cheng, Xiangcan; Ali, Asad; Yang, Mingya; Zhu, Lixin; Xia, Ruixiang; Xu, Xiaoliang


    Attention on semiconductor nanocrystals have been largely focused because of their unique optical and electrical properties, which can be applied as light absorber and luminophore. However, the band gap and structure engineering of nanomaterials is not so easy because of their finite size. Here we demonstrate an approach for preparing ternary AgInS2 (AIS), quaternary AgZnInS (AZIS), AgInS2/ZnS and AgZnInS/ZnS nanocompounds based on cation exchange. First, pristine Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were synthesized in one-pot, followed by the partial cation exchange between In(3+) and Ag(+). Changing the initial ratio of In(3+) to Ag(+), reaction time and temperature can control the components of the obtained AIS QDs. Under the optimized conditions, AIS QDs were obtained for the first time with a cation disordered cubic phase and high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) up to 32% in aqueous solution, demonstrating the great potential of cation exchange in the synthesis for nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. Sequentially, Zn(2+) ions were incorporated in situ through a second exchange of Zn(2+) to Ag(+)/In(3+), leading to distinct results under different reaction temperature. Addition of Zn(2+) precursor at room temperature produced AIS/ZnS core/shell NCs with successively enhancement of QY, while subsequent heating could obtain AZIS homogeneous alloy QDs with a successively blue-shift of PL emission. This allow us to tune the PL emission of the products from 483 to 675 nm and fabricate the chemically stable QDs core/ZnS shell structure. Based on the above results, a mechanism about the cation exchange for the ternary nanocrystals of different structures was proposed that the balance between cation exchange and diffusion is the key factor of controlling the band gap and structure of the final products. Furthermore, photostability and in vitro experiment demonstrated quite low cytotoxicity and remarkably promising applications in the

  4. Optimal dynamic capacity allocation of HVDC interconnections for cross-border exchange of balancing services in presence of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre; Eriksson, Robert


    markets. Against this benchmark we compare two deterministic market designs with varying degrees of coordination between the reserve capacity and energy services, both followed by a real-time mechanism. Our study reveals the inefficiency of deterministic approaches as the shares of wind power increase....... Nevertheless, enforcing a tighter coordination between the reserves and energy trading floors may improve considerably the expected system cost compared to a sequential market design. Aiming to provide some insights for improvement of the sequential market-clearing, we analyse the effect of explicit...

  5. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Xia, Xinli [Beijing Forestry University, China; Yin, Weilun [Beijing Forestry University, China


    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant specieswas reported.We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240members are separated into three families, i.e., Na+/H+ exchangers, K+ efflux antiporters, and cation/H+ exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H+ exchangers in the examined angiospermspecies. Sliding windowanalysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and foundmostmotifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants.

  6. Ion exchange characteristics of cerium (IV) and Tin(IV) antimonates and their use in rad waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, I.M.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.; Elabsy, M.A.; Aly, H.F.


    Cerium (IV) and Tin(IV) antimonates cation exchangers have been synthesized. The products were characterized by powdered X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and infrared spectrometry. The data of the distribution coefficients showed that the selectivity decreased in the order Eu 3+ >Co 2+ >Sr 2+ >Cs + for both materials. Besides, the drying temperature of the matrices have a profound effect on their ion exchange capacities. Moreover, the obtained results of the effect of gamma radiation on the ion exchange behaviour of the samples showed that a slight decrease of the capacity and the distribution coefficient values with increasing the absorbed dose. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Excision and crosslink repair of DNA and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human fibroblasts with different repair capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshisada; Kano, Yoshio; Paul, P.; Goto, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Kazuo


    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) groups A to G lacked the initial stage of ultraviolet (UV) excision repair in the order of A = G > C > D > E asymptotically equals F, while the XP variant was weakly defective in the later repair steps. Killing sensitivities were in the orders of A >= G > D > C > E asymptotically equals F asymptotically equals variant > normal to UV, A = G > D > F > C = E > variant > normal to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), and A > C > D = E = F = variant > G = normal to decarbamoyl mitomycin-C(DCMC). The induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was unrelated to the extent of repair deficiency. The SCE induction rate was consistently 3 - 6 fold higher by these UV-like mutagens in XP group A cells than in normal cells. However, repair-proficient Cockayne's syndrome (CS) cells showed a higher SCE induction by UV, which was normalized by NAD + , suggesting that chromatin lesions as well as DNA damage contribute to SCE. Two-step crosslink repair involves a first rapid half-excision and a second slow nucleotide-excision repair. Fanconi's anemia (FA) cells had an impaired first half-excision and were supersensitive to MC, but not to UV and DCMC. The SCE frequency induced by MC (1 hr) was higher in FA cells than in normal cells despite their normal response to DCMC, and vice versa in XP cells. FA cells lacked the first rapid decline and showed higher remaining SCEs. Thus, part of the crosslink seems to lead to SCE formation. Caffeine synergistically elevated UV-induced SCEs, but not UV induced mutations in V79 cells, implying that SCE may not necessarily involve mutation. (J.P.N.)

  8. Combined cation-exchange and solid phase extraction for the selective separation and preconcentration of zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury and cobalt among others using azo-dye functionalized resin. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Mousumi; Srivastava, Bhavya; Barman, Milan K; Mandal, Bhabatosh


    A facile synthesis of an ion exchange material (FSG-PAN) has been achieved by functionalizing silica gel with an azo-dye. Its composition and structure are well assessed by systematic analysis. Extractor possesses high BET surface area (617.794m(2)g(-1)), exchange capacity and break-through capacity (BTC) (Q0 Zn(II): 225; Cd(II): 918; Hg(II): 384, Cu(II): 269 and Co(II): 388μMg(-1)). The sorption process was endothermic (+ΔH), entropy-gaining (+ΔS) and spontaneous (-ΔG) in nature. Preconcentration factor has been optimized at 172(Zn(II)); 157.2(Cd(II)); 193.6(Hg(II)); 176(Cu(II)); 172.4(Co(II)). Density functional theory calculation has been performed to analyze the sorption pathway. BTC (μMg(-1)) of FSG-PAN was found to be the product of its frontier orbitals and state of sorbed metal ion species, x (at x=1, mononuclear and x>1, a polynuclear species; i.e., BTC=[amount of HOMO]×x). FSG-PAN is used for the selective separation and preconcentration of Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cu(II),Co(II) from large volume sample (800mL) of low concentration (0.017-0.40mML(-1)) in presence of foreign ions (50-300mML(-1)) at optimum conditions (pH: 7.0±1.5, flow rate: 2.5mLmin(-1), temperature: 27°C, equilibration-time: 5min). The method was found to be effective for real samples also. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion exchangers as adsorbents for removing metals from aquatic media. (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A; Bushra, Rani; Ahmad, Anees; Nabi, Syed A; Khan, Dilwar A; Akhtar, Arshia


    A polyaniline-based composite cation-exchange material was synthesized by way of sol-gel method and studied to explore its analytical and environmental applications. It was characterized by using instrumental analyses [Fourier transform infrared (spectrometer), X-ray, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis, standard electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy]. Physicochemical studies, such as ion-exchange capacity, pH titrations, and chemical stability, along with effect of eluent concentration and elution, were also performed to exploit the ion-exchange capabilities. pH titration studies showed that the material presents monofunctional strong cation-exchange behavior. This nanocomposite material is semicrystalline in nature and exhibits improved thermal and chemical stability. The partition coefficient studies of different metal ions in the material were performed in demineralised water and different surfactant media, and it was found to be selective for Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions. To exploit the usefulness of the material as an adsorbent, some important quantitative binary separations of metal ions were performed on polyaniline Zr(IV) molybdophosphate columns. This composite cation exchanger can be applied for the treatment of polluted water to remove heavy metals.

  10. Impact of spreading olive mill waste water on agricultural soils for leaching of metal micronutrients and cations. (United States)

    Aharonov-Nadborny, R; Tsechansky, L; Raviv, M; Graber, E R


    Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is an acidic (pH 4-5), saline (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm -1 ), blackish-red aqueous byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process, with a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 220,000 mg L -1 . OMWW is conventionally disposed of by uncontrolled dumping into the environment or by semi-controlled spreading on agricultural soils. It was hypothesized that spreading such liquids on agricultural soils could result in the release and mobilization of indigenous soil metals. The effect of OMWW spreading on leaching of metal cations (Na, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) was tested in four non-contaminated agricultural soils having different textures (sand, clay loam, clay, and loam) and chemical properties. While the OMWW contributed metals to the soil solution, it also mobilized indigenous soil metals as a function of soil clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil pH-buffer capacity. Leaching of soil-originated metals from the sandy soil was substantially greater than from the loam and clay soils, while the clay loam was enriched with metals derived from the OMWW. These trends were attributed to cation exchange and organic-metal complex formation. The organic matter fraction of OMWW forms complexes with metal cations; these complexes may be mobile or precipitate, depending on the soil chemical and physical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Serial mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange solid-phase extraction for separation of basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater and analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Lavén, Martin; Alsberg, Tomas; Yu, Yong; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Sun, Hongwen


    A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) method is presented whereby 15 basic, neutral and acidic pharmaceuticals in wastewater were simultaneously extracted and subsequently separated into different fractions. This was achieved using mixed-mode cation- and anion-exchange SPE (Oasis MCX and MAX) in series. Analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/QTOF-MS). A fast separation was achieved, with all compounds eluting within 6min, narrow chromatographic peaks, with a peak base width of 6s on average, and a high mass accuracy of quantified wastewater sample ions, with average mass errors in absolute value of 0.7mDa or 2.7ppm. The recovery of the SPE method in the analysis of sewage treatment plant (STP) influent and effluent wastewater was on average 80% and the ion suppression 30%. For less demanding samples Oasis MCX used alone may be an alternative method, although for STP influent waters containing high loads of organic compounds the clean-up achieved using only Oasis MCX was insufficient, leading to unreliable quantitation. Furthermore, serial SPE separation according to molecular charge added an additional degree of analyte confirmation. For quantitation, an approach combining external standard calibration curves, isotopically labelled surrogate standards and single-point standard addition was used. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in the analysis of influent and effluent wastewater from an STP, using small sample volumes (25-50mL). The effluent wastewater had been subjected to three different treatments; activated sludge, activated sludge followed by ozonation, and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). Ozone treatment proved superior in removal of the analysed pharmaceuticals, while the MBR provided higher removal efficiencies than the activated sludge process.

  12. Multiple, simultaneous, independent gradients for a versatile multidimensional liquid chromatography. Part II: Application 2: Computer controlled pH gradients in the presence of urea provide improved separation of proteins: Stability influenced anion and cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Hirsh, Allen G; Tsonev, Latchezar I


    This paper details the use of a method of creating controlled pH gradients (pISep) to improve the separation of protein isoforms on ion exchange (IEX) stationary phases in the presence of various isocratic levels of urea. The pISep technology enables the development of computer controlled pH gradients on both cationic (CEX) and anionic (AEX) IEX stationary phases over the very wide pH range from 2 to 12. In pISep, titration curves generated by proportional mixing of the acidic and basic pISep working buffers alone, or in the presence of non-buffering solutes such as the neutral salt NaCl (0-1M), polar organics such as urea (0-8M) or acetonitrile (0-80 Vol%), can be fitted with high fidelity using high order polynomials which, in turn allows construction of a mathematical manifold %A (% acidic pISep buffer) vs. pH vs. [non-buffering solute], permitting precise computer control of pH and the non-buffering solute concentration allowing formation of dual uncoupled liquid chromatographic (LC) gradients of arbitrary shape (Hirsh and Tsonev, 2012 [1]). The separation of protein isoforms examined in this paper by use of such pH gradients in the presence of urea demonstrates the fractionation power of a true single step two dimensional liquid chromatography which we denote as Stability-Influenced Ion Exchange Chromatography (SIIEX). We present evidence that SIIEX is capable of increasing the resolution of protein isoforms difficult to separate by ordinary pH gradient IEX, and potentially simplifying the development of laboratory and production purification strategies involving on-column simultaneous pH and urea unfolding or refolding of targeted proteins. We model some of the physics implied by the dynamics of the observed protein fractionations as a function of both urea concentration and pH assuming that urea-induced native state unfolding competes with native state electrostatic interaction binding to an IEX stationary phase. Implications for in vivo protein

  13. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation. (United States)

    Aspinwall, Michael J; King, John S; McKeand, Steven E; Domec, Jean-Christophe


    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis (A(sat)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and intrinsic water-use efficiency (A(sat)/g(s) or δ) among nine loblolly pine genotypes (selected individuals): three clones, three full-sib families and three half-sib families, during the early years of stand development (first 3 years), with each genetic group possessing varying amounts of inherent genetic variation. We also compared light- and CO(2)-response parameters between genotypes and examined the relationship between genotype productivity, gas exchange and photosynthetic capacity. Within full-sib, half-sib and clonal genotypes, the coefficient of variation (CV) for gas exchange showed no consistent pattern; the CV for g(s) and δ was similar within clonal (44.3-46.9 and 35.5-38.6%) and half-sib (41.0-49.3 and 36.8-40.9%) genotypes, while full-sibs showed somewhat higher CVs (46.9-56.0 and 40.1-45.4%). In contrast, the CVs for A(sat) were generally higher within clones. With the exception of δ, differences in gas exchange among genotypes were generally insignificant. Tree volume showed a significant positive correlation with A(sat) and δ, but the relationship varied by season. Individual-tree volume and genotype volume were positively correlated with needle dark respiration (R(d)). Our results suggest that uniformity in leaf-level physiological rates is not consistently related to the amount of genetic variation within a given genotype, and δ, A(sat) and R(d) were the leaf-level physiological parameters that were most consistently related to individual-tree and genotype productivity. An enhanced understanding of molecular and environmental factors

  14. Isomerization of propargyl cation to cyclopropenyl cation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    step) for isomerization of the linear propargyl cation to the aromatic cyclopropenyl cation, also probing the phenomenon of solvation of this reaction by simple lone pair donors (NH3, H2O, H2S and HF) which bind to the substrate at two sites.

  15. The effect of alkaline cations on the Intercalation of Carbon Dioxide in Sepiolite Minerals: a Molecular Dynamics Investigation. (United States)

    Tavanti, Francesco; Muniz-Miranda, Francesco; Pedone, Alfonso


    The ability of the sepiolite mineral to intercalate CO2 molecules inside its channels in the presence of different alkaline cations (K+, Na+ and Li+) has been studied by classical Molecular Dynamics simulations. Starting from an alkaline-free sepiolite crystalline model we built three models with stoichiometry Mg320Si440Al40O1200(OH)160X+40•480H2O. On these models, we gradually replaced the water molecules present in the channels with carbon dioxide and determined the energy of this exchange reaction as well as the structural organization and dynamics of carbon dioxide in the channels. The adsorption energy shows that the Li-containing sepiolite mineral retains more carbon dioxide with respect to those with sodium and potassium cations in the channels. Moreover, the ordered patterns of CO2 molecules observed in the alkaline-free sepiolite mineral are in part destabilized by the presence of cations decreasing the adsorption capacity of this clay mineral.

  16. High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metals with conductivity detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, A.R.


    High-performance ion-exchange chromatography of alkali metal and ammonium ions was studied using a conductivity meter as detector. Elution with 0.003 N mitric acid gave excellent resolution. Sensitivity levels, for a 200 micro litre injection, vary from 5 ppm for potassium to 0.1 ppm for lithium. A method to decrease retention times by reducing the exchange capacity of the cation exchange column used by loading it with calciumions, without affecting the resolation, has been described. Application of the method to water, soil and uranium dioxide samples has been demonstrated. (author)

  17. Self-Assembly of Alkylammonium Chains on Montmorillonite: Effect of Interlayer Cations, CEC, and Chain Length (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Yingjun; Zhou, Yuanlin; Wang, Shanqiang; Zheng, Jian; He, Jiacai


    Recently, polymeric materials have been filled with synthetic or natural inorganic compounds in order to improve their properties. Especially, polymer clay nanocomposites have attracted both academic and industrial attention. Currently, the structure and physical phenomena of organoclays at molecular level are difficultly explained by existing experimental techniques. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was executed using the CLAYFF and CHARMM force fields to evaluate the structural properties of organoclay such as basal spacing, interlayer density, energy and the arrangement of alkyl chains in the interlayer spacing. Our results are in good agreement with available experimental or other simulation data. The effects of interlayer cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), the cation exchange capacity, and the alkyl chain length on the basal spacing and the structural properties are estimated. These simulations are expected to presage the microstructure of organo-montmorillonite and lead relevant engineering applications.

  18. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. Hidrólise parcial da superfície do polyethylene terephthalate (PET: transformando um rejeito em um material de troca catiônica para aplicação ambiental Partial hydrolysis of pet surface: transforming a plastic waste into a material with cationic exchange properties for environmental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Rosmaninho


    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a simple and versatile undergraduate chemical experiment in polymer and environmental technology based on the process of polyethylene terephthalate (PET hydrolysis. Polyethylene terephthalate from post-consume bottles is submitted to a controlled partial hydrolysis which allows the students to follow the reaction by a simple procedure. The students can explore the reaction kinetics, the effect of catalysts and the exposed polyethylene terephthalate surface area on the hydrolysis reaction. The second and innovative part of this experiment is the technological and environmental application of the hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate as a material with cation exchange properties. The surface hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate can be used as adsorbent for cationic contaminants.

  20. Formation of Zirconium Hydrophosphate Nanoparticles and Their Effect on Sorption of Uranyl Cations (United States)

    Perlova, Nataliya; Dzyazko, Yuliya; Perlova, Olga; Palchik, Alexey; Sazonova, Valentina


    Organic-inorganic ion-exchangers were obtained by incorporation of zirconium hydrophosphate into gel-like strongly acidic polymer matrix by means of precipitation from the solution of zirconium oxychloride with phosphoric acid. The approach for purposeful control of a size of the incorporated particles has been developed based on Ostwald-Freundich equation. This equation has been adapted for precipitation in ion exchange materials. Both single nanoparticles (2-20 nm) and their aggregates were found in the polymer. Regulation of salt or acid concentration allows us to decrease size of the aggregates approximately in 10 times. Smaller particles are formed in the resin, which possess lower exchange capacity. Sorption of U(VI) cations from the solution containing also hydrochloride acid was studied. Exchange capacity of the composites is ≈2 times higher in comparison with the pristine resin. The organic-inorganic sorbents show higher sorption rate despite chemical interaction of sorbed ions with functional groups of the inorganic constituent: the models of reaction of pseudo-first or pseudo-second order can be applied. In general, decreasing in size of incorporated particles provides acceleration of ion exchange. The composites can be regenerated completely, this gives a possibility of their multiple use.

  1. Impact of managed moorland burning on peat nutrient and base cation status (United States)

    Palmer, Sheila; Gilpin, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Holden, Joseph; Brown, Lee


    Controlled 'patch' burning of moorland vegetation has been used for decades in the UK to stimulate growth of heather (Calluna vulgaris) for game bird habitat and livestock grazing. Typically small patches (300-900 m2) are burned in rotations of 8-25 years. However, our understanding of the short-to-medium term environmental impacts of the practice on these sensitive upland areas has so far been limited by a lack of scientific data. In particular the effect of burning on concentrations of base cations and acid-base status of these highly organic soils has implications both for ecosystem nutrient status and for buffering of acidic waters. As part of the EMBER project peat chemistry data were collected in ten upland blanket peat catchments in the UK. Five catchments were subject to a history of prescribed rotational patch burning. The other five catchments acted as controls which were not subject to burning, nor confounded by other detrimental activities such as drainage or forestry. Soil solution chemistry was also monitored at two intensively studied sites (one regularly burned and one control). Fifty-centimetre soil cores, sectioned into 5-cm intervals, were collected from triplicate patches of four burn ages at each burned site, and from twelve locations at similar hillslope positions at each control site. At the two intensively monitored sites, soil solution chemistry was monitored at four depths in each patch. Across all sites, burned plots had significantly smaller cation exchange capacities, lower concentrations of exchangeable base cations and increased concentrations of exchangeable H+ and Al3+ in near-surface soil. C/N ratios were also lower in burned compared to unburned surface soils. There was no consistent trend between burn age and peat chemistry across all burned sites, possibly reflecting local controls on post-burn recovery rates or external influences on burn management decisions. At the intensively monitored site, plots burned less than two years

  2. [Ion-exchange properties of cell walls of red seaweed Phyllophora crispa]. (United States)

    Meĭchik, N R; Popova, N I; Nikolaeva, Iu I; Ermakov, I P; Kamnev, A N


    Research into ion-exchange properties of cell walls isolated from thallus of red seaweed Phyllophora crispa was carried out. Ion-exchange capacity and the swelling coefficient of the red alga cell walls were estimated at various pH values (from 2 to 12) and at constant ionic strength of a solution (10 mM). It was established that behavior of cell walls as ion-exchangers is caused by the presence in their matrix of two types of cation-exchange groups and amino groups. The amount of the functional group of each type was estimated, and the corresponding values of pK(a) were calculated. It can be assumed that ionogenic groups with pK(a) -5 are carboxyl groups of uronic acids, and ionogenic groups with pK(a) -7.5 are carboxyl groups of the proteins. Intervals of pH in which cation-exchange groups are ionized and can take part in exchange reactions with cations in the environment are defined. It was found that protein was a major component of cell wall polymeric matrix because its content was 36%.

  3. Analyzing Solutions High in Total Dissolved Solids for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Using Cation Exchange and Online Pre-Concentration with the seaFAST2 Unit; NETL-TRS-7-2017; NETL Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2017; p 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Torres, M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Verba, C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hakala, A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    The accurate quantification of the rare earth element (REE) dissolved concentrations in natural waters are often inhibited by their low abundances in relation to other dissolved constituents such as alkali, alkaline earth elements, and dissolved solids. The high abundance of these constituents can suppress the overall analytical signal as well as create isobaric interferences on the REEs during analysis. Waters associated with natural gas operations on black shale plays are characterized by high salinities and high total dissolved solids (TDS) contents >150,000 mg/L. Methods used to isolate and quantify dissolved REEs in seawater were adapted in order to develop the capability of analyzing REEs in waters that are high in TDS. First, a synthetic fluid based on geochemical modelling of natural brine formation fluids was created within the Marcellus black shale with a TDS loading of 153,000 mg/L. To this solution, 1,000 ng/mL of REE standards was added based on preliminary analyses of experimental fluids reacted at high pressure and temperature with Marcellus black shale. These synthetic fluids were then run at three different dilution levels of 10, 100, and 1,000–fold dilutions through cation exchange columns using AG50-X8 exchange resin from Eichrom Industries. The eluent from the cation columns were then sent through a seaFAST2 unit directly connected to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to analyze the REEs. Percent recoveries of the REEs ranged from 80–110% and fell within error for the external reference standard used and no signal suppression or isobaric interferences on the REEs were observed. These results demonstrate that a combined use of cation exchange columns and seaFAST2 instrumentation are effective in accurately quantifying the dissolved REEs in fluids that are >150,000 mg/L in TDS and have Ba:Eu ratios in excess of 380,000.

  4. Removal of cesium ions from clays by cationic surfactant intercalation. (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Moon, Jei-Kwon; Lee, Kune-Woo


    We propose a new approach to remediate cesium-contaminated clays based on intercalation of the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) into clay interlayers. Intercalation of DTAB was found to occur very rapidly and involved exchanging interlayer cations. The reaction yielded efficient cesium desorption (∼97%), including of a large amount of otherwise non-desorbable cesium ions by cation exchange with ammonium ions. In addition, the intercalation of DTAB afforded an expansion of the interlayers, and an enhanced desorption of Cs by cation exchange with ammonium ions even at low concentrations of DTAB. Finally, the residual intercalated surfactants were easily removed by a decomposition reaction with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Cu 2+ /Fe 2+ catalysts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural and Modified Zeolite—Alginate Composites. Application for Removal of Heavy Metal Cations from Contaminated Water Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Kragović


    Full Text Available In present paper, the influence of the initial pH and concentration of Pb2+ on its adsorption by the natural (NZA and Fe(III-modified zeolite-alginate beads (FeA was studied. Results showed that modification of the starting materials have a positive effect on their adsorption capacities (102 and 136 mg/g for the NZA and FeA, respectively. After encapsulation, the mechanism of lead adsorption by both adsorbents was changed and ion exchange dominates. The best adsorption was achieved for initial pH > 3.8. Cation exchange capacity, structural properties, and hydrophobicity of samples were also determined, and the presence of the alginate has no significant influence on investigated properties of samples. Experiments on wastewater from tailings of lead and zinc mine Grot, Serbia, showed that after treatment with both adsorbents, the content of the most abundant heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Hg, and Mn significantly decreased.

  6. Characterization of CPs/Ca-exchanged FAU- and LTA-type zeolite nanocomposites and their selectivity for CO2 and N2 adsorption (United States)

    Salehi, Samira; Anbia, Mansoor


    The objective of this study was to investigate the adsorption capacity and selectivity of CPs/Ca-exchanged FAU- and LTA-type zeolite composites for carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2). The adsorption isotherms of CO2 and N2 on the adsorbents were measured at 298, 323, and 348 K and with a pressure range of 0-5 bar by means of the volumetric adsorption method. Modification of zeolite using cation exchange technique was used to determine the effect of different cation on gas adsorption characteristics. Sodium cations originally present in NaX, NaY and NaA are exchanged with calcium cations. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms were used to characterize the structure of the prepared zeolites. The addition of conducting polymers (CPs), polythiophene (PTh) and polypyrrole (PPy), to Ca-exchanged zeolites can improve the adsorption capacities of the material and at the same time increase the selectivity of the composite. CPs/Ca-zeolite nanocomposites were prepared by adding CPs to the CaX, CaY and CaA with different weight percentages p% (p = 5, 10 and 15%). CaX/PTh-15 can be used to separate CO2 from N2 due to its high adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2.

  7. Synthesis and chemical modification of polymeric resins for the treatment of cations and aromatic hydrocarbons in produced oily water; Sintese de modificacao quimica de resina polimerica e aplicacao na remocao de cations e hidrocarbonetos aromaticos presentes em agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, Thiago M.; Rodrigues, Monique F.; Vieira, Helida V.P.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Macromoleculas, Lab. de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria do Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The use of chemically modified resins in oily water treatment process is not very developed yet. Because of this, this work suggests to study the styrene and divinylbenzene sulfonation effect on oil and grease, aniline and calcium removal from the water. The aniline, oils and greases belong to a class of toxic organic compounds, with the Brazilian maximum limits established for disposal in CONAMA 393/2007, while the calcium ions belong to the group of cations of alkaline earth metals which improve hardness to the water, may cause fouling as carbonates and sulfates form. By using sulfonated resins in oily water treatment it is possible to remove not only oils and greases but also calcium and aniline. These kinds of polar compounds are removed because of the cation exchange capacity of resin. (author)

  8. Cation-cation interaction in neptunyl(V) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, N.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Federation); Saeki, Masakatsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The original manuscript was prepared by Professor N.N. Krot of Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1997. Saeki tried to translate that into Japanese and to add some new data since 1997. The contents include the whole picture of cation-cation interactions mainly in 5-valence neptunium compounds. Firstly, characteristic structures of neptunium are summarized of the cation-cation bonding in compounds. Secondly, it is mentioned how the cation-cation bonding affects physical and chemical properties of the compounds. Then, characterization-methods for the cation-cation bonding in the compounds are discussed. Finally, the cation-cation interactions in compounds of other actinide-ions are shortly reviewed. (author)

  9. Evaluating ion exchange for removing radium from ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramonian, S.; Clifford, D.; Vijjeswarapu, W.


    The article focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. Exhaustion-regeneration studies with a variety of resins showed that a standard gel-type strong-acid cation exchanger is most suitable for radium removal in cyclic operation. Because the ion exchange softening process, operating to hardness breakthrough (300-360 bed volumes (BV)), removes radium but does not fully utilize the resin capacity, cyclic runs were made with resins exhausted to radium breakthrough (2,500-3,000 BV) and regenerated with sodium and calcium salts. But because of poor radium regenerability of the exhausted resins, simultaneous breakthrough of radium and hardness occurred during the subsequent exhaustion run on the sodium cycle, and high radium leakage was observed on the calcium cycle. The sodium ion exchange softening process (operated to hardness breakthrough without regenerant reuse) continues to be an appropriate technology for the removal of radium


    Kennedy, J.


    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  11. Effects of humic acid-based buffer + cation on chemical characteristics of saline soils and maize growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mindari


    Full Text Available Humic acid is believed to maintain the stability of the soil reaction, adsorption / fixation / chelate of cation, thereby increasing the availability of water and plant nutrients. On the other hand, the dynamics of saline soil cation is strongly influenced by the change of seasons that disrupt water and plant nutrients uptake. This experiment was aimed to examine the characteristics of the humic acid from compost, coal, and peat and its function in the adsorption of K+ and NH4+ cations, thus increasing the availability of nutrients and of maize growth. Eighteen treatments consisted of three humic acid sources (compost, peat and coal, two cation additives (K+ and NH4+, and three doses of humic acid-based buffer (10, 20, and 30 g / 3kg, were arranged in a factorial completely randomized with three replicates. The treatments were evaluated against changes in pH, electric conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, chlorophyll content, plant dry weight and plant height. The results showed that the addition of K+ and NH4+ affected pH, CEC, K+, NH4+, and water content of the buffer. Application of humic acid-based buffer significantly decreased soil pH from > 7 to about 6.3, decreased soil EC to 0.9 mS / cm, and increased exchangeable Na from 0.40 to 0.56 me / 100g soil, Ca from 15.57 to 20.21 me/100 g soil, Mg from 1.76 to 6.52 me/100 g soil, and K from 0.05-0.51 me / 100g soil. Plant growth (plant height, chlorophyll content, leaf area, and stem weight at 35 days after planting increased with increasing dose of humic acid. The dose of 2.0g peat humic acid + NH4+ / 3 kg of soil or 30g peat humic acid + K+ / 3 kg of oil gave the best results of maize growth.

  12. [Decolorization and purification of total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng with ion exchange resins]. (United States)

    Fan, Yun-Ge; Shi, Rong-Fu


    The total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng decoloring by adsorption with exchange resins was studied and the decoloring capacity of six anions resins as adsorbent material was evaluated. The decoloring capacity of the selected resins (D296 and Dt) was compared by the dynamic adsorption decolorization experiments. Removel of coloured compounds in rew solution takes place in two serially coupled different ionic exchange columns, one packed column was D72 cation resin, another anion resin. The results showed that macroporous anion exchange resin Dt was the best resin to decolorization of the total leaves saponins of panax notoginseng. The total saponin products with higher purity and quality were obtained. The results of this work shows that the method proposed is convenient, high efficcient and steady one.

  13. Leaf-level gas-exchange uniformity and photosynthetic capacity among loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes of contrasting inherent genetic variation (United States)

    Michael J. Aspinwall; John S. King; Steven E. McKeand; Jean-Christophe Domec


    Variation in leaf-level gas exchange among widely planted genetically improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genotypes could impact stand-level water use, carbon assimilation, biomass production, C allocation, ecosystem sustainability and biogeochemical cycling under changing environmental conditions. We examined uniformity in leaf-level light-saturated photosynthesis...

  14. Drivers of Tree Species Effects on Phosphorus and Cation Cycling in Plantations at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica (United States)

    Russell, A. E.


    Fast-growing trees in secondary forests and plantations in the humid tropics play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance owing to their high rates of carbon sequestration. Because plants require nutrients to sustain high CO2 uptake, differences among tree species in traits related to nutrient uptake, retention and recycling could influence ecosystem-scale carbon cycling. A better understanding of the relationships among plant traits, nutrient and carbon cycling will thus improve ecosystem- to global scale modeling of effects of vegetation change on carbon cycling. In an experimental setting in which state factors were similar among four species of tropical trees situated on an Oxisol in replicated, 25-yr-old, mono-dominant plantations, I evaluated various drivers of aboveground storage of phosphorus (P) and cations, measuring nutrient fluxes in litterfall and fine-root growth and storage in biomass and soil to 1-m depth. Because fine roots increase the capacity to scavenge nutrients already on exchange sites within the soil environment, I hypothesized that P and cation uptake would be correlated directly with fine-root growth. The four tree species in this experiment, Hieronyma alchorneoides, Pentaclethra macroloba, Virola koschnyi, and Vochysia guatemalensis differed significantly in net cation uptake over the first 25 years of growth (P = 0.013, Ca; P >0.0001, Mg, Mn, K, Al, Fe, and Sr). For all cations, aboveground tree biomass was highly correlated with fine-root ingrowth length, with P values >0.0001 for all cations except Ca (P = 0.013). In contrast for P, differences among species were only marginally significant (P = 0.062). Similarly, P in aboveground tree biomass was marginally correlated with fine-root ingrowth (P = 0.068). Neither cation nor P uptake was correlated with measures of available P and cations, organic or total P in surface soil. For P, the less significant correlation with fine-root growth suggests that some other mechanism, such

  15. Immobilization of large, aliovalent cations in the small-pore zeolite K-natrolite by means of pressure. (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae; Lee, Yongmoon; Seoung, Donghoon; Im, Jun-Hyuk; Hwang, Hee-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Zhenxian; Lee, Seung Yeop; Kao, Chi-Chang; Vogt, Thomas


    High-pressure ion exchange of small-pore zeolite K-natrolite allows immobilization of nominally non-exchangeable aliovalent cations such as trivalent europium. A sample exchanged at 3.0(1) GPa and 250 °C contains about 4.7 Eu(III) ions per unit cell, which is equivalent to over 90 % of the K(+) cations being exchanged. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Separation behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) on a cation exchange column using 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid as a complexing agent and its application for the rapid separation and determination of U and Th by ion chromatography. (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Mishra, Vivekchandra Guruprasad; Das, Mrinal Kanti; Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Sawant, Ramesh Mahadev; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana


    The retention behavior of U and Th as their 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) complexes on a cation exchange column was investigated under low pH conditions. Based on the observed retention characteristics, an ion chromatographic method for the rapid separation of uranium and thorium in isocratic elution mode using 0.08 mM PDCA and 0.24 M KNO(3) in 0.22 M HNO(3) as the eluent was developed. Both uranium and thorium were eluted as their PDCA complexes within 2 min, whereas the transition and lanthanide metal cations were eluted as an unresolved broad peak after thorium. Under the optimized conditions both U and Th have no interference either from alkali and alkaline earth elements up to a concentration ratio of 1:500 or from other elements up to 1:100. The detection limits (LOD) of U and Th were calculated as 0.04 and 0.06 ppm, respectively (S/N=3). The precision in the measurement of peak area of 0.5 ppm of both U and Th was better than 5% and a linear calibration in the concentration range of 0.25-25 ppm of U and Th was obtained. The method was successfully applied to determine U and Th in effluent water samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Trace adsorption of positively charged proteins onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers. (United States)

    Yu, Lin-Ling; Sun, Yan


    Agarose-based matrices have been widely used in ion exchange chromatography (IEC). We have herein observed that positively charged proteins (lysozyme and cytochrome c) are adsorbed on the agarose-based anion-exchangers (Q and DEAE Sepharose FF gels) in a capacity of 10-40 μg/mL. In contrast, negatively charged protein (bovine serum albumin) is not adsorbed to Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF gels. Elemental analysis of the gel indicated that the residual anionic sulfate groups in agarose would have worked as the cation exchange groups for the positively charged proteins. The trace adsorption behavior of lysozyme onto Sepharose FF and Sepharose FF-based anion exchangers was studied and the effects of NaCl concentration and cation group density on the adsorption were examined for better understanding of the trace adsorption in chromatographic processes. At NaCl concentrations less than 0.05 mol/L, which is the normal adsorption condition in IEC, the trace adsorption kept at a high level, so this trace adsorption cannot be avoided in the ionic strength range of routine IEC operations. Grafting poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) chain of 60 kDa to a cation group density of 700 mmol/L could reduce the adsorption capacity to about 20 μg/mL, but further reduction was not possible by increasing the cation group density to 1200 mmol/L. Therefore, attentions need to be paid to the phenomenon in protein purification practice using agarose-based matrices. The research is expected to call attentions to the trace adsorption on agarose-based matrices and to the importance in the selection of the suitable solid matrices in the production of high-purity protein products in large-scale bioprocesses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on the lanthanum arsenate ion-exchanger: preparation, physicochemical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.K.; Mandal, S.K.


    The cation-exchange behaviour of lanthanum arsenate has been studied. This paper reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of the exchanger. Its analytical utility is compared with that of other arsenate exchangers. Some practical analytical applications are described. (author)

  19. Identifi cation of Sectarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinovich Vladimir


    Full Text Available «New religious movements and society» is traditionally one of the most sophisticated topics in the area of new religions studies. Its problem field is so huge that up to now by far not all important research themes where even touched by scientists from all over the world. The problem of the process of the identification of sectarianism by diff erent societal institutions is one of such untouched themes that is taken as the main subject of this article. This process by itself is an inseparable part of the every societal deliberate reaction to the very existence of unconventional religiosity, its unstructured and mainly structured types. The focal point of the article is step-by-step analysis of the general structure elements of the process of the identification of sectarianism without any reference to the specific time and place of its flow. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the subjects of the identification of sectarianism, to the criteria for religious groups to be qualified as new religious movements, and to the specific features of the process of documents filtration. The causes of selective perception of sectarianism are disclosed. Some main consequences and unpredictable outcomes of the process of the identification of sectarianism are described.

  20. Parameter estimation for simulating binary homovalent cation transport in aggregated soils at variable ionic strength (United States)

    Schulin, R.; Papritz, A.; Flühler, H.; Selim, H. M.


    Miscible displacement of calcium by magnesium in column experiments with aggregate packings was fairly well described by the classical convection-dispersion transport model combined with an equilibrium ion-exchange isotherm (one-region model) when the model was fitted to the experimental breakthrough curves. Goodness of fit was not significantly better when a two-region model with first-order mass-transfer kinetics between mobile and immobile regions was used instead of the one-region model. However, the best-fit model parameter values for the cation-exchange capacity and the selectivity coefficient did not agree satisfactory with values determined independently from batch experiments of the two soils studied. Model calculations using independently determined ion-exchange as well as transport parameter values resulted in good predictions of the early phases of experimental breakthrough curves but did not adequately account for the tailing behaviour during later phases. In another approach parameters were calibrated by fitting the models to the first of two subsequent break-through steps of the experimental effluent curves. Extrapolation of the calibrated models to the second breakthrough step then resulted in improved predictions of the second breaktrough step, as compared to independent parameter estimation. However, neither of the two models did fully account for the immediate reaction of the effluent concentrations upon the second input step. It is suggested that, additional to classical ion-exchange processes, other cation retention and release mechanisms may have been involved in the observed transport behaviour. These processes, which have not been identified yet, appear to be effective on larger time scales than those of batch experiments and upon changes in the total ionic strength.

  1. Acid-base treated vermiculite as high performance adsorbent: Insights into the mechanism of cationic dyes adsorption, regeneration, recyclability and stability studies. (United States)

    Stawiński, Wojciech; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Dańko, Tomasz; Freitas, Olga; Figueiredo, Sónia; Chmielarz, Lucjan


    Additional treatment with NaOH of acid activated vermiculite results in even higher increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison to samples modified only in acidic solution (first step of activation) with respect to raw material. Optimization of treatment conditions and adsorption capacity for two cationic dyes (methylene blue (MB) and astrazon red (AR)), also as binary mixture, was evaluated. The capacity, based on column studies, increased from 48 ± 2 to 203 ± 4 mg g -1 in the case of methylene blue and from 51 ± 1 to 127 ± 2 mg g -1 in the case of astrazon red on starting and acid-base treated material, respectively. It was shown that adsorption mechanism changes for both cationic dyes after NaOH treatment and it results in decrease of adsorption rate. In binary mixtures methylene blue is bound stronger by adsorbent and astrazon red may be removed in initial stage of adsorption. Extensive studies on desorption/regeneration process proved high efficiency in recyclable use of all materials. Although cation exchange capacity decreases due to acid treatment, after base treatment exchange properties are used more efficiently. On the other hand, increased specific surface area has less significant contribution into the adsorption potential of studied materials. Obtained adsorbents worked efficiently in 7 adsorption-regeneration cycles and loss of adsorption capacity was observed only in two first cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surfactant modified zeolite as amphiphilic and dual-electronic adsorbent for removal of cationic and oxyanionic metal ions and organic compounds. (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; Viet, Pham Van; Chao, Huan-Ping


    A hydrophilic Y zeolite was primarily treated with sodium hydroxide to enhance its cation exchange capacity (Na-zeolite). The organo-zeolite (Na-H-zeolite) was prepared by a modification process of the external surface of Na-zeolite with a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium; HDTMA). Three adsorbents (i.e., pristine zeolite, Na-zeolite, and Na-H-zeolite) were characterized with nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cation exchange capacities, and zeta potential. Results demonstrated that HDTMA can be adsorbed on the surface of Na-zeolite to form patchy bilayers. The adsorption capacity of several hazardous pollutants (i.e., Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 2 O 7 2- , propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, and phenol) onto Na-H-zeolite was investigated in a single system and multiple-components. Adsorption isotherm was measured to further understand the effects of the modification process on the adsorption behaviors of Na-H-zeolite. Adsorption performances indicated that Na-H-zeolite can simultaneously adsorb the metal cations (on the surface not covered by HDTMA), oxyanions (on the surface covered by HDTMA). Na-H-zeolite also exhibited both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces to uptake organic compounds with various water solubilities (from 55 to 75,000mg/L). It was experimentally concluded that Na-H-zeolite is a potential dual-electronic and amphiphilic adsorbent for efficiently removing a wide range of potentially toxic pollutants from aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New Horizons in Cationic Photopolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Sangermano


    Full Text Available In this review, we report some recent advances and new horizons in UV-induced cationic photopolymerization. In particular, after a brief introduction on the discovery and affirmation of the cationic photopolymerization process, new efforts in the synthesis of cationic photoinitiators are reported. Subsequently, an interesting and absolutely new application is reported, related to the combination of Radical-Induced Cationic Photopolymerization with Frontal Polymerization, achieving the cross-linking of epoxy composites.

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2010 (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.


    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2012 (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.


    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2011 (United States)

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.


    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape…

  7. Ion exchange and luminescence of Eu3+ in Nafion membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushkov, A.A.; Shilov, S.M.; Pak, V.N.


    Dehydration of Nafion perfluorosulphonic membranes at 110 deg C results in a significant reduction of their void space volume, the accessibility of sulphonic groups and the total exchange capacity towards Eu 3+ cations. Nevertheless, the ion exchange sorption of Eu 3+ takes place in accordance with stoichiometric ratio [-SO 3 H]/[Eu 3+ ]=3. The membranes thermal pretreatment also affects noticeably the spectroscopic features of the fastened Eu 3+ ions, such as the relationship between the intensities of the hypersensitive 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and magnetic dipolar 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 transitions, the excited state life time, as well as the luminescence quenching in the course of water adsorption

  8. Complexation ion-exchange chromatography of some metal ions on papers impregnated with Ti(IV)-based inorganic ion exchangers. (United States)

    Sharma, S D; Gupta, R


    The chromatographic behavior of 40 metal ions is studied on titanium (IV) arsenate, titanium (IV) phosphate-, titanium (IV) molybdate-, titanium(IV) tungstate-, and titanium(IV) selenite-impregnated papers in 0.1M oxalic, citric, and tartaric acid as mobile phases. Similar studies are carried out on Whatman No. 1 papers for comparison. The ion-exchange capacity of these papers is determined, and their selectivity for different cations is discussed. The mechanism of migration is explained in terms of ion-exchange, precipitation, and adsorption. The prediction of elution sequence from RF values is also checked. The average Ri is found to be almost linearly dependent on the charge of the metal ions. The effect of the pKa of complexing acids on average RF values of 3d series metal ions is explained. A number of binary and ternary separations are achieved.

  9. Increasing Base Cations in Streams: Another Legacy of Deicing Salts? (United States)

    Helton, A. M.; Barclay, J. R.; Bellucci, C.; Rittenhouse, C.


    Elevated use of deicing salts directly increases sodium chloride inputs to watersheds. Sodium can accumulate in soils over time and has the potential to leach other cations (e.g., calcium, magnesium, and potassium) from the soil through cation exchange. We hypothesize that increased use of deicing salts results in a legacy of soils depleted in non-sodium base cations with loss of cations to receiving waters. The goal of this project is to quantify temporal trends in base cations and chloride in streams and rivers across the United States. We used Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) to analyze trends in base cations. Our preliminary analysis of 10 rivers in Connecticut with chemical periods of record ranging from 24 - 64 years (median = 55 years), shows that the flux of base cations is increasing in all sites (25 - 366 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), driven largely by increases in sodium (23 - 222 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), the dominant cation in 7 of the sites. Chloride is also increasing at all sites (26 - 261 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), which, in combination with salt use trends, suggests a road salt source for the increased sodium. Non-sodium cations are also increasing in 9 of the sites (8 - 54 103 meq ha-1 yr-1 yr-1), though they are not directly added with most deicing salts. We will compare these trends to other long-term sites across the United States, and quantify relationships between cation trends and land cover, road density, and snowfall.

  10. Railway capacity


    Lavrič, Tadeja


    In the first part of the thesis, the concepts of railway capacity and capacity consumption are defined. Experts have in the past defined railway capacity in many different ways. This thesis outlines some definitions of railway capacity and capacity consumption, including the definition of railway capacity in accordance with the UIC code 406 (2004), given by the International Union of Railways in order to standardize the definition of railway capacity. Capacity and capacity consumption are dir...

  11. Two different cationic positions in Cu-SSZ-13?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Zhu, Haiyang; Lee, Jong H.; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos


    H2-TPR and FTIR were used to characterize the Cu ions present in Cu-SSZ-13 zeolite at different ion exchange levels. The results obtained are consistent with the presence of Cu ions in two distinct cationic positions of the SSZ-13 framework.

  12. Development of a Waste Water Regenerative System - Using Sphagnum Moss Ion-exchange (United States)

    McKeon, M.; Wheeler, R.; Leahy, Jj

    The use of inexpensive, light weight and regenerative systems in an enclosed environment is of great importance to sustained existence in such habitats as the International Space Station, Moon or even Mars. Many systems exist which utilise various synthetic ion exchangers to complete the process of waste water clean-up. These systems do have a very good exchange rate for cations but a very low exchange rate for anions. They also have a maximum capacity before they need regeneration. This research proposes a natural alternative to these synthetic ion-exchangers that utilises one of natures greatest ion-exchangers, that of Sphagnum Moss. Sphagna can be predominantly found in the nutrient poor environment of Raised Bogs, a type of isolated wetland with characteristic low pH and little interaction with the surrounding water table. All nutrients come from precipitation. The sphagna have developed as the bog's sponges, soaking up all available nutrients (both cation & anion) from the precipitation and eventually distributing them to the surrounding flora and fauna, through the water. The goal of this research is to use this ability in the processing of waste water from systems similar to isolated microgravity environments, to produce clean water for reuse in these environments. The nutrients taken up by the sphagna will also be utilised as a growth medium for cultivar growth, such as those selected for hydroponics' systems.

  13. Progress in liquid ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Genkichi


    Review is made on the extraction with anion exchangers and the extraction with liquid cation exchangers. On the former, explanation is made on the extraction of acids, the relation between anion exchange and the extraction of metals, the composition of the metallic complexes that are extracted, and the application of the extraction with anion exchangers to analytical chemistry. On the latter, explanation is made on the extraction of metals and its application to analytical chemistry. The extraction with liquid ion exchangers is suitable for the operation in chromatography, because the distribution of extracting agents into aqueous phase is small, and extraction equilibrium is quickly reached, usually within 1 to several minutes. The separation by means of anion exchangers is usually made from hydrochloric acid solution. For example, Brinkman et al. determined Rf values for more than 50 elements by thin layer chromatography. Tables are given for showing the structure of the liquid ion exchangers and the polymerized state of various amines. (Mori, K.)

  14. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe


    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  15. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)


    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  16. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA


    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  17. A study on equilibrium and kinetics of ion exchange of alkaline earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    These materi- als possess structural hydroxyl groups, the H of the. –OH being the exchangeable sites. A number of cations can be exchanged with H+ due to which the material possesses cation-exchange properties. De- pending on the stoichiometry of the reagents used, temperature at which they are mixed, rate of addi-.

  18. Exchange of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, M.N.; Mayankutty, P.C.; Pillai, N.S.; Shinde, S.S.


    Absorption of Th, U and Pu on macroporous ion exchangers, Amberlyst 15 (cationic) and Amberlyst A-26 (anionic) were studied in nitric acid solutions and the results were found comparable with those on their microreticular counter parts, Dowex 50x8 and Dowex IX4. With a view to evalute the efficiency of Amberlyst A-26 for the final purification of plutonium from the purex process stream, detailed studies conducted to determine the breakthrough capacity of Pu(IV) from 7.2 M nitric acid, elution by 0.5 M nitric acid and the decontamination factors for uranium and zirconium-95. Because of its faster kinetics, Amberlyst A-26 exhibited a much more efficient elution of Pu(IV) by 0.5 M nitric acid than Dowex IX4. (author)

  19. Illitization of Potassium, Cesium, and Ammonium Exchanged Smectite (United States)

    Mills, M. M.; Wang, Y.; Payne, C.; Sanchez, A. C.; Boisvert, L.; Matteo, E. N.


    Bentonite clay is a primary choice for engineered barrier systems within geologic repositories for disposal of radioactive wastes due to its low permeability at saturated states, warranting diffusion as the dominant transport mechanism, and large swelling pressures that promote sealing. In order to predict how well the barrier will function over time at repository relevant temperatures, it is important to understand thermal alteration effects on montmorillonite, better known as smectite, a main constituent of bentonite. One type of thermal alteration is the conversion to illite, when exposed to elevated temperatures and a sufficient amount of potassium ions, thereby weakening barrier functions. To facilitate the conversion of smectite to illite and examine the influence of interlayer cations, illitization experiments on cation exchanged smectite were performed within hydrothermal reaction vessels over one week timescales. The exchanged with 1M Cs, K, and NH4 salt solutions and further exposed to hydrous pyrolysis using a 1M KCl solution with various solid to liquid ratios at 200°C. Multiple analysis techniques were used to characterize the altered clay and identify extent of conversion, such as XRD, cation exchange capacity, and morphology changes by SEM. The pore-water chemistry was also analyzed by ICP-OES to detect any dissolved products and silica content. Results suggest the conversion rate is relatively fast, occurring within days, and is dependent on not only the amount of K, but also dissolved silica concentration related to total solid in solution. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525. SAND2017-7856A

  20. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 2: Determination of Cesium Exchange Capacity and Effective Mass Transfer Coefficient from a 500-cm3 Column Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd


    A semi-scale column test was performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution, which represents liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtmIE-911 (UOP, Mt. Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in a 500-cm3 column to obtain a cesium breakthrough curve. The cesium exchange capacity of this column matched that obtained from previous testing with a 15-mc3 column. A numerical algorithm using implicit finite difference approximations was developed to solve the governing mass transport equations for the CST columns. An effective mass transfer coefficient was derived from solving these equations for previously reported 15 cm3 tests. The effective mass transfer coefficient was then used to predict the cesium breakthrough curve for the 500-cm3 column and compared to the experimental data reported in this paper. The calculated breakthrough curve showed excellent agreement with the data from the 500-cm3 column even though the interstitial velocity was a factor of two greater. Thus, this approach should provide a reasonable method for scale up to larger columns for treating actual tank waste

  1. Research of thermal stability of ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuchlik, S.; Srnkova, J.


    Prior to the fixation of radioactive ion exchangers into bitumen these exchangers have to be dried. The resulting gaseous products may generate explosive mixtures. An analysis was made of the thermal stability of two types of ion exchangers, the cation exchanger KU-2-8 cS and the anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS which are used in the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The thermal stability of the anion exchangers was monitored using gas chromatography at temperatures of 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC and by measuring weight loss by kiln-drying at temperatures of 120, 140, 160 and 180 degC. The ion exchanger was heated for 6 hours and samples were taken continuously at one hour intervals. The thermal stability of the cation exchanger was monitored by measuring the weight loss. Gas chromatography showed the release of trimethylamine from the anion exchanger in direct dependence on temperature. The measurement of weight losses, however, only showed higher losses of released products which are explained by the release of other thermally unstable products. The analysis of the thermal stability of the cation exchanger showed the release of SO 2 and the weight loss (following correction for water content) was found only after the fourth hour of decomposition. The experiment showed that the drying of anion exchanger AV-17-8 cS may cause the formation of explosive mixtures. (J.P.)

  2. Selective sodium removal from lithium chloride brine with novel inorganic ion exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sun


    Full Text Available Natrium superionic conductor (NASICON ceramics present interesting sensitive and selective properties against alkaline cations due to their structure. The powder of Li1.4La0.4Zr1.6(PO43 has been synthesized by a solid phase reaction. The removal of sodium was studied in an extensive series of tests involving different ionic exchange process variables such as time and temperature. The results indicated that its exchange capacity is very high, even reach 41.3 mg/g. The Na/Li ion exchange reaction rate increased obviously with increasing temperature, and the kinetic data fitted well to the equation of Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov with a regression coefficient value of above 0.99.

  3. Electrochemical solid-phase microextraction of anions and cations using polypyrrole coatings and an integrated three-electrode device. (United States)

    Liljegren, Gustav; Pettersson, Jean; Markides, Karin E; Nyholm, Leif


    A method for the extraction, transfer and desorption of anions and cations under controlled potential conditions employing a new integrated three-electrode device is described. The device, containing working, reference and counter electrodes, was prepared from tubes that could be moved vertically with respect to each other. In this way, a small amount of solvent, held by capillary force, remained between the electrodes when the device was lifted out of a solution after an extraction. This design allowed the potential control to be maintained at all times. With the new integrated device, it was possible to perform potential controlled desorption into vials containing as little as 200 microl of solution. The required ion exchange capacity was obtained by electrodeposition of a polypyrrole coating on the surface of the glassy carbon working electrode. Solid-phase microextractions of several cations or anions were performed simultaneously under potentiostatic control by doping the polypyrrole coating with different anions such as perchlorate and p-toluenesulfonate. The efficiency of the extractions, which could be altered by varying the potential of the working electrode, could be increased by 150 to 200% compared to extractions using normal solid-phase microextraction conditions under open circuit conditions. A constant potential of +1.0 V and -0.5 V with respect to the silver pseudo reference electrode, was found to be well-suited for the extraction of samples containing ppm concentrations of anions (chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate) and cations (cadmium, cobalt and zinc), respectively.

  4. Characterisation of a re-cast composite Nafion® 1100 series of proton exchange membranes incorporating inert inorganic oxide particles


    Slade, S.; Smith, James; Campbell, S.; Ralph, T.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Walsh, F.


    A series of cation exchange membranes was produced by impregnating and coating both sides of a quartz web with a Nafion® solution (1100 EW, 10%wt in water). Inert filler particles (SiO2, ZrO2 or TiO2; 5–20%wt) were incorporated into the aqueous Nafion® solution to produce robust, composite membranes. Ion-exchange capacity/equivalent weight, water take-up, thickness change on hydration and ionic and electrical conductivity were measured in 1 mol dm−3 sulfuric acid at 298 K. The TiO2 filler sig...

  5. Sorption of organic cations to phyllosilicate clay minerals: CEC-normalization, salt dependency, and the role of electrostatic and hydrophobic effects. (United States)

    Droge, Steven T J; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    Sorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals Illite, kaolinite, and bentonite has been studied for a wide variety of organic cations using a flow-through method with fully aqueous medium as the eluent. Linear isotherms were observed at concentrations below 10% of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) for Illite and kaolinite and below 1 mmol/kg (<1% CEC) for bentonite. Sorption to clays was strongly influenced by the electrolyte composition of the eluent but with a consistent trend for a diverse set of compounds on all clays, thus allowing for empirical correction factors. When sorption affinities for a given compound to a given clay are normalized to the CEC of the clay, the differences in sorption affinities between clays are reduced to less than 0.5 log units for most compounds. Although CEC-normalized sorption of quaternary ammonium compounds to clay was up to 10-fold higher than CEC-normalized sorption to soil organic matter, CEC-normalized sorption for most compounds was comparable between clays and soil organic matter. The clay fraction is thus a potentially relevant sorption phase for organic cations in many soils. The sorption data for organic cations to clay showed several regular trends with molecular structure but also showed quite a few systematic effects that we cannot explain. A model on the basis of the molecular size and charge density at the ionized nitrogen is used here as a tool to obtain benchmark values that elucidate the effect of specific polar moieties on the sorption affinity.

  6. New trends in sample preparation: on-line microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) for LC and GC applications Part III: Determination and validation of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using a cation-exchange sorbent, and MEPS-LC-MS-MS. (United States)

    Altun, Zeki; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Blomberg, Lars G


    The need for on-line sample preparation for high-throughput applications in bioanalysis has increased during the past decade. In this paper a robust and on-line sample preparation technique, micro extraction in packed syringe (MEPS) has been developed and validated. The method is a miniaturized, fully automated, solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that can be connected on-line to GC or LC without any modification of the chromatographs. The performance of MEPS as sample preparation method is illustrated by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples on-line with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry. The sampling sorbent was 1mg silica based benzenesulphonic acid cation exchanger that was inserted in a 250 microl syringe. Ropicavine and two of its metabolites (PPX and 3-OH-ropivacine), lidocaine and bupivacine were used as model substances. The accuracy values of quality control samples (QC) were between 95% and 109%, and precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) had a maximum deviation of 9% for the analytes.

  7. Multicomponent ion exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D.; Byers, C.H.


    The optimization of ion-exchange column design becomes increasingly important in applications where high efficiency is required to remove trace components in wastewater to very low discharge requirements and for treating hazardous wastewaters where the disposal costs for secondary waste is extremely high. A predictive mathematical model is being developed for improved design of ion-exchange columns for treatment of wastewaters which are contaminated with trace quantities of Sr-90 and Cs-137. Equilibria isotherms and mass transfer mechanisms are being experimentally determined for isothermal multicomponent ion exchange of Ca, Mg, Na, Ca, and Sr with Ionsive IE-95 chabazite zeolite. These equations are being included in a mathematical model to determine the cation breakthrough curves for different column configurations and operating conditions

  8. Tunable High-Pressure Field Operating on a Cationic Biphenyl Derivative Intercalated in Clay Minerals. (United States)

    Tominaga, Makoto; Nishioka, Yukihiro; Tani, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun


    We propose a methodology for applying a pseudo uniaxial pressure to an organic molecule under ordinary temperature and pressure, namely by intercalation into smectites. The pseudo pressure on a biphenyl derivative (BP) was estimated from the averaged dihedral angle around the central bond of BP. In a high hydrostatic pressure field, biphenyl takes a planar conformation. In the interlayer space of synthetic saponite (SSA), the averaged dihedral angle of BP at a loading level of 27% versus the cation exchange capacity was ~26.3°, which indicates that the pseudo pressure applied to BP in the SSA interlayer space corresponds to 0.99 GPa. The high pseudo-pressure field in the interlayer space of SSA was also confirmed by absorption measurements. The dihedral angle around the central bond of the biphenyl moiety decreased to enhance the planarity of the molecule, mainly in response to the electrostatic force that operates between the negatively charged SSA layer and the interlayer cation. The pseudo pressure operating on BP in the smectite interlayer space could be controlled by varying the smectite layer charge density and/or the BP loading level. By using this methodology, controllable pseudo high-pressure properties of organic molecules can be obtained at ordinary temperatures and pressures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena


    Full Text Available All classes of clay minerals absorb water, but the smectite absorb much larger volumes than the other classes because of its expanded network. During the drilling of oil wells it is common for the detection of layers consisting of clay minerals high grade of hydration arranged in laminar packages. When in contact with water, the packets are separated clay as the water enters the basal spacing. This phenomenon is known as expansion or swelling. Given this, this paper aims to characterize shales in two regions of the country to explain the susceptibility of hydration of each of these formations. The characterization was done by making use of Exchange cation capacity (ECC, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, diferential thermal analysis (DTA, Thermogravimetry (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results obtained showed that among the shales studied, those with the greatest degree of clay fractions (smectite in its composition showed higher swelling index according to the methodology of Foster.

  10. Exchange transfusion (United States)

    ... count in a newborn (neonatal polycythemia) Rh-induced hemolytic disease of the newborn Severe disturbances in body chemistry Severe newborn jaundice ... exchange transfusion was performed to treat. Alternative Names Hemolytic disease - exchange transfusion Patient ... Exchange transfusion - series References Costa ...

  11. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate]. (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A


    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pisolate has an antioxidant

  12. Disposal of heavy metal cations in aqueous media by adsorption on coal to Ghazni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.М. Заславський


    Full Text Available  Adsorption of Pb and Cu cations and their mixture on the surface of modified and non-modified anti-gas coal trough different time intervals have been studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of coal relative to each cations have been determined. Absence  of concurrence between cations of Pb and Cu during adsorption from mixture is explained by difference of  types of their interaction with coal surface. The high effectiveness and perspectivities of application of anti-gas coal for neutralization of heavy metal cations in aqueous solution was shown.

  13. The effect of metal ion exchange and alkali metal doping on the electrical conductivity of the Faujasite-type zeolite 13X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swart, S.


    Zeolite 13X was synthesized in the sodium form. Some transition metal cations were introduced into the zeolite framework by ion exchange reactions. These different cationic zeolite forms were doped or impregnated with sodium metal, utilizing the adsorptive properties of the zeolite. An A.C. technique was used to determine the electrical conductivity of the dehydrated ion exchanged zeolites and the sodium impregnated zeolite samples as a function of temperature. The conductivity value obtained was used to determine some thermodynamic parameters relating to the conduction process. For the dehydrated ion exchanged zeolites the electrical conductivity showed a general decrease with a decreasing ion exchange capacity. The sodium impregnated zeolites showed an increase in conductivity with respect to the dehydrated unimpregnated samples. This was attributed to the presence of Na 6 5 + centres in the impregnated zeolites. The reduction of some of the metal cations by the sodium on impregnation did not appear to have any significant effect on the overall ionic conductivity of the samples. The conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure for the dehydrated sodium form of zeolite 13X and its impregnated counterpart was determined. The conductivity was found to increase with increasing pressure and temperature

  14. Mercury release from deforested soils triggered by base cation enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farella, N.; Lucotte, M.; Davidson, R.; Daigle, S.


    The Brazilian Amazon has experienced considerable colonization in the last few decades. Family agriculture based on slash-and-burn enables millions of people to live in that region. However, the poor nutrient content of most Amazonian soils requires cation-rich ashes from the burning of the vegetation biomass for cultivation to be successful, which leads to forest ecosystem degradation, soil erosion and mercury contamination. While recent studies have suggested that mercury present in soils was transferred towards rivers upon deforestation, little is known about the dynamics between agricultural land-use and mercury leaching. In this context, the present study proposes an explanation that illustrates how agricultural land-use triggers mercury loss from soils. This explanation lies in the competition between base cations and mercury in soils which are characterized by a low adsorption capacity. Since these soils are naturally very poor in base cations, the burning of the forest biomass suddenly brings high quantities of base cations to soils, destabilizing the previous equilibrium amongst cations. Base cation enrichment triggers mobility in soil cations, rapidly dislocating mercury atoms. This conclusion comes from principal component analyses illustrating that agricultural land-use was associated with base cation enrichment and mercury depletion. The overall conclusions highlight a pernicious cycle: while soil nutrient enrichment actually occurs through biomass burning, although on a temporary basis, there is a loss in Hg content, which is leached to rivers, entering the aquatic chain, and posing a potential health threat to local populations. Data presented here reflects three decades of deforestation activities, but little is known about the long-term impact of such a disequilibrium. These findings may have repercussions on our understanding of the complex dynamics of deforestation and agriculture worldwide

  15. Cationic polymers and porous materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    According to one or more embodiments, cationic polymers may be produced which include one or more monomers containing cations. Such cationic polymers may be utilized as structure directing agents to form mesoporous zeolites. The mesoporous zeolites may include micropores as well as mesopores, and may have a surface area of greater than 350 m2/g and a pore volume of greater than 0.3 cm3/g. Also described are core/shell zeolites, where at least the shell portion includes a mesoporous zeolite material.

  16. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.


    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  17. Ion-exchange properties of natural mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelishchev, N.F.; Volodin, V.F.


    Ion exchange properties are studied of natural mordenite Si(Al=4.75) exhibiting adequate mechanical characteristics and sufficient resistance to high temperature acids. Consideration is given to the pattern of exchange ions distribution among mordenite and chloride solutions of K, Cs, Rb, Sr. Mordenite shows sharp selectivity towards large alkali metal cations, particularly Cs + . In these processes the exchange isotherms are characterized by the constant selectivity towards a counterion. For the Sr 2+ -2Na + exchange the isotherm shows a change of selectivity after a definite counterion concentration has been reached in the solution. Correlation between the exchange thermodynamic constants makes it possible to propose the following range of mordenite selectivity towards the cations under study: Cs>Rb>K>Na>Sr

  18. Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Maria Teresa; Lee, Jiwoong


    solvents, thus increasing their applicability in synthesis. The expansion of this concept to chiral polyethers led to the emergence of asymmetric cation-binding catalysis, where chiral counter anions are generated from metal salts, particularly using BINOL-based polyethers. Alkali metal salts, namely KF...... and KCN, are selectively bound to the catalyst, providing exceptionally high enantioselectivities for kinetic resolutions, elimination reactions (fluoride base), and Strecker synthesis (cyanide nucleophile). Asymmetric cation-binding catalysis was recently expanded to silicon-based reagents, enabling...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Khoma


    Full Text Available The literature data on the thermodynamics of ethanolamines onium cations dissociation have been systematized and generalized. The correlation between these cations dissociation thermodynamic functions (DH and DS and physicochemical properties (Tmp., Tbp, Pp, lgPow et al. has been revealed. There was a correlation between lipophilicity determined experimentally and calculated by QSAR. For monoethanolammonium, diethanolammonium, and their N-methyl and N-ethyl derivatives it was found dissociation thermodynamic functions to depend on bases lgPow. Acid-base dissociation of TRIS and triethanolamine onium cations does not correspond to said relationship because TRIS (primary amine, TEA (tertiary amine act differently on aqueous solutions of SO2. TEA, unlike MEA, DEA and MMEA, has a salting out effect towards sulfur dioxide because of competing hydration that promotes sulfite «onium» salts hydrolysis. TRIS promotes S(IV → S(VI sulphooxidation, in contrast to another ethanolamines. Enthalpy–enthropy compensation with isothermodynamic temperature 303 K has been recorded. The revealed correlations may be useful in developing of procedures for air sanitary cleaning from acidic gases; chemisorbents immobilized for gas and ion exchange chromatography; potentiometric methods for fluorocomplex acids determinations. The use of monoethanolamine is most promising to obtain chemisorbents because the thermodynamic functions of its onium cation acid-base dissociation are least dependent on temperature compared to other etanolammonium cations.

  20. Barter exchanges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    Although barter is often perceived as something that proceeded money, barter is still used. The focus of the paper is on barter exchanges. Barter exchanges are used both in developing countries as well as in developed countries (including the U.S.). They are used by both organizations...... and individuals. They usually allow to exchange good but some include also services. Some exchanges allow only for bi-directional barter, i.e. when only two parties are involved in the exchange. But probably most of the barter exchanges use barter money; this makes it easier to exchange goods and services...

  1. Exploring Alkaline Stable Organic Cations for Polymer Hydroxide Exchange Membranes (United States)


    reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl ether three times, the combined ether extract washed with brine and then DI water, and dried over anhydrous...Martinent, D. Marsacq, Desalination 2006, 199, 286-288. [156] K.-D. Kreuer, Chemistry of Materials 2014, 26, 361-380. [157] M. A. Hickner, A. M...B. Bauer, H. Strathmann, F. Effenberger, Desalination 1990, 79, 125-144. [175] O. I. Deavin, S. Murphy, A. L. Ong, S. D. Poynton, R. Zeng, H


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    stimulating properties, resulting from the presence of the phenylpropylamino alkaloids. The determination of these alkaloids is important in pharmacological, phytochemical, forensic and law enforcement environments. In this study, the use of ...

  3. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The nanofibers were prepared from 15% w/v polystyrene solution in dimethylacetamide (DMAc) containing 0.025 %w/v tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) using electrospinning technique, followed by crosslinking with sulfuric acid/formaldehyde in a ratio ranging from 100/0 to 50/50 v/v and sulfonation in sulfuric ...

  4. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    :// ... Various parameters deciding the conversion of reaction such as mole ratio, catalyst loading, molecular sieves, speed of agitation and effect of temperature were optimized for the ...

  5. Leaching of 60 Co and 137 Cs from spent ion exchange resins in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cement; radioactive waste; composite; waste management. Abstract. The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or ...

  6. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.


    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl - , NO 3 - , C 2 O 4 2- ) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Th 4+ ) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author) [fr

  7. Electrochemical ion exchange of LOMI decontamination solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, D.; Elder, G.R.


    The objective of the LOMI Electrochemical Ion Exchange (ELOMIX) process is to reduce the volume of waste arising from LOMI decontamination operations. This is achieved by using the conventional ion exchange resin as an intermediate, rather than a final waste form. Radioactive and metal ion constitutents removed during the decontamination are converted by the process to a metallic form. In its simplest form the ELOMIX cell consists of three compartments, (anode, cathode and resin) separated by cation permeable membranes. In the resin compartment, radioactive and chemical components are removed from the flowing solution by the resin. These components are then migrated under the influence of an electric field into the cathode compartment where metallic elements are deposited. After successful laboratory testing a pilot scale ELOMIX unit was constructed and shipped to Commonwealth Edison's Dresden Unit 2 LOMI decontamination in October 1990. The pilot-scale cell was tied in to the decontamination equipment. The cell operated successfully during three LOMI steps, processing a total of 165 resin bed volumes of solution, far exceeding the normal capacity of the ion exchange resin. Removal efficiencies for iron and radioactivity were good throughout the test. The ELOMIX unit was successfully operated in the time, operational and safety constraints of a reactor decontamination. The main benefits of the process are reduced waste volume, and greater chemical and radiation stability of the waste, which is particularly relevant to full system decontamination. Although the testing to date has focused on the LOMI process, the ELOMIX technique could in principle be applied to be other decontamination processes. 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Organic solvation of intercalated cations in V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ xerogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemordant, D.; Bouhaouss, A.; Aldbert, P.; Baffier, N.


    V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ xerogels (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, 1.6H/sub 2/O) undergo a topotactic reversible exchange reaction at room temperature in organic solvents containing monovalent alkali or divalent (Mn/sup 2+/) cations. Basal spacing are dependent on solvent type and charge-to-radius ratio of guest cations. From the interlayer distances, two solvation stages have been inferred, depending on the nature of the solvent and of the cation, except with Cs/sup +/ for which no intracrystalline swelling by organic solvents is observed

  9. EXAFS investigations of the interaction of humic acids and model compounds with uranyl cations in solid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, M.A.; Reich, T.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K.H.; Nitsche, H.; Allen, P.G.; Bucher, J.J.; Edelstein, N.M.; Shuh, D.K.; Czerwinski, K.R.


    Natural humic acids, HA's, having varying amounts of their proton exchange capacities, PEC's, loaded with uranyl ions and synthetic HA loaded with 14% PEC were prepared either from solution or from suspension. The interaction of uranium with the humates was studied using U L III -edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure, EXAFS, and infrared, IR, spectroscopy. IR results indicate a direct complexation of the uranyl ions onto the HA's. The spectral positions of the asymmetric and symmetric IR stretching frequencies for COO - in the complex suggest monodentate coordination of HA carboxylate groups onto the uranyl cation. In all samples studied, the EXAFS analysis yielded axial uranium-oxygen distances of 1.77-1.78 A and five oxygen atoms in the plane equatorial to the uranyl unit at distances of 2.37-2.39 A. The bond distances determined from the EXAFS are the same, within the experimental error, for both synthetic and two different natural uranyl humates, for samples with large loadings and samples with relatively low uranyl loadings, as well as for dry and wet paste samples. Comparison of the EXAFS from the uranyl humates with that observed for two crystalline uranyl carboxylate complexes indicates that the HA carboxylate groups act predominantly as monodentate ligands when bound to the uranyl unit. Additional, neutral ligands must also be coordinated to the uranyl ion in order to satisfy the uranyl cation coordination number determined as 5 ± 0.7. (orig.)

  10. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dostatni, A.W.; Dostatni, Michel.


    In the main patent, a description was given of a heat exchanger with an exchange surface in preformed sheet metal designed for the high pressure and temperature service particularly encountered in nuclear pressurized water reactors and which is characterised by the fact that it is composed of at least one exchanger bundle sealed in a containment, the said bundle or bundles being composed of numerous juxtaposed individual compartments whose exchange faces are built of preformed sheet metal. The present addendun certificate concerns shapes of bundles and their positioning methods in the exchanger containment enabling its compactness to be increased [fr

  11. Test procedure for anion exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.


    Plutonium from stored nitrate solutions will be sorbed onto anion exchange resins and converted to storable plutonium dioxide. Useful information will be simultaneously gained on the thermal stability and ion exchange capacity of four commercially available anion exchange resins over several years and under severe degradative conditions. This information will prove useful in predicting the safe and efficient lifetimes of these resins

  12. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin (United States)

    Dynys, Fred


    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  13. Compact heat exchanger for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.


    Vahterus Oy, located at Kalanti, has manufactured heat exchangers since the beginning of 1990s. About 90% of the equipment produced are exported. In the PSHE (Plate and Shell) solution of the Vahterus heat exchanger the heat is transferred by round plated welded to form a compact package, which is assembled into a cylindrical steel casing. The heat exchanger contains no gaskets or soldered joints, which eliminates the leak risks. Traditional heat exchanges are usually operated at higher temperatures and pressures, but the heat transfer capacities of them are lower. Plate heat exchangers, on the other hand, are efficient, but the application range of them is narrow. Additionally, the rubber gasket of the heat exchange plates, sealing the joints of the heat exchanging plates, does not stand high pressures or temperatures, or corroding fluids. The new welded plate heat exchanger combine the pressure and temperature resistance of tube heat exchangers and the high heat exchange capacity of plate heat exchangers. The new corrosion resisting heat exchanger can be applied for especially hard conditions. The operating temperature range of the PSHE heat exchanger is - 200 - 900 deg C. The pressure resistance is as high as 100 bar. The space requirement of PSHE is only one tenth of the space requirement of traditional tube heat exchangers. Adjusting the number of heat exchanging plates can change the capacity of the heat exchanger. Power range of the heat exchanger can be as high as 80 MW. Due to the corrosion preventive construction and the small dimension the PSHE heat exchanger can be applied for refrigerators using ammonia as refrigerant. These kinds of new Vahterus heat exchangers are in use in 60 countries in more than 2000 refrigerators

  14. Fixation by ion exchange of toxic materials in a glass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.J.; Simmons, J.H.; Macedo, P.B.; Litovitz, T.A.


    A process is reported for reacting a porous silicate or borosilicate glass or silica gel with alkali metal cations, Group lb cations and/or ammonium cations bonded to the silicon through divalent oxygen linkages on the internal surfaces of the pores. Ion exchange of the cations with toxic or radioactive cations was possible resulting in a distribution of internal silicon-bonded toxic cation oxide groups within the pores of the glass or silica gel. The ion exchange reaction may be done successfully with acidic, neutral or alkaline pH solutions. The aim of the immobilization is for permanent storage of hazardous materials such as Hg 2+ , Hg + , Cd 2+ , Tl + , Pb 2+ and radioactive cations

  15. Development of a stable cation modified graphene oxide membrane for water treatment (United States)

    Yu, Wenzheng; (Yet Yu, Tong; Graham, Nigel


    Membranes prepared from layers of graphene oxide (GO) offer substantial advantages over conventional materials for water treatment (e.g. greater flux), but the stability of GO membranes in water has not been achieved until now. In this study the behavior of GO membranes prepared with different quantities and species of cations has been investigated to establish the feasibility of their application in water treatment. A range of cation-modified GO membranes were prepared and exposed to aqueous solutions containing specific chemical constituents. In pure water, unmodified and Na-modified GO membranes were highly unstable, while GO membranes modified with multivalent cations were stable provided there were sufficient quantities of cations present; their relative capability to achieve GO stability was as follows: Al3+  >  Ca2+  >  Mg2+  >  Na+. It is believed that the mechanism of cross-linking, and membrane stability, is via metal-carboxylate chelates and cation-graphite surface interactions (cation-π interaction), and that the latter appears to increase with increasing cation valency. The instability of cation (Ca or Al)-modified GO membranes by NaCl solutions during permeation occurred as Na+ exchanged with the incorporated multivalent cations, but a high content of Al3+ in the GO membrane impeded Al3+/Na+ exchange and thus retained membrane stability. In solutions containing biopolymers representative of surface waters or seawater (protein and polysaccharide solutions), Ca-GO membranes (even with high Ca2+ content) were not stable, while Al-GO membranes were stable if the Al3+ content was sufficiently high; Al-formed membranes also had a greater flux than Ca-GO membranes.


    Natural clinoptilolite from Castle Creek, Idaho, and its cation-exchanged variants (Na-Cpt, NaK-Cpt, K-Cpt, and Ca-Cpt) were studied by high-temperature calorimetry. The hydration enthalpy for all clinoptilolites is about -30 kJ/mol H2O (liquid water reference state) at 25 C. T...

  17. Phosphate removal and recovery from water using nanocomposite of immobilized magnetite nanoparticles on cationic polymer. (United States)

    Abo Markeb, Ahmad; Alonso, Amanda; Dorado, Antonio David; Sánchez, Antoni; Font, Xavier


    A novel nanocomposite (NC) based on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) immobilized on the surface of a cationic exchange polymer, C100, using a modification of the co-precipitation method was developed to obtain magnetic NCs for phosphate removal and recovery from water. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy , X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry were used to characterize the NCs. Continuous adsorption process by the so-called breakthrough curves was used to determine the adsorption capacity of the Fe3O4-based NC. The adsorption capacity conditions were studied under different conditions (pH, phosphate concentration, and concentration of nanoparticles). The optimum concentration of iron in the NC for phosphate removal was 23.59 mgFe/gNC. The sorption isotherms of this material were performed at pH 5 and 7. Taking into account the real application of this novel material in real water, the experiments were performed at pH 7, achieving an adsorption capacity higher than 4.9 mgPO4-P/gNC. Moreover, Freundlich, Langmuir, and a combination of them fit the experimental data and were used for interpreting the influence of pH on the sorption and the adsorption mechanism for this novel material. Furthermore, regeneration and reusability of the NC were tested, obtaining 97.5% recovery of phosphate for the first cycle, and at least seven cycles of adsorption-desorption were carried out with more than 40% of recovery. Thus, this work described a novel magnetic nanoadsorbent with properties for phosphate recovery in wastewater.

  18. Effects of Copper Exchange Levels on Complexation of Ammonia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    At low copper exchange levels (<5 copper atoms per unit cell), the major complex is [Cu(Ozeo)2(NH3)2]2+ and ... amount of ammonia. KEYWORDS. Cation exchange, catalysis, copper, complexation, copper ammines. 1. .... at a 4 kHz MAS spinning rate on a Bruker AC 300 NMR spectro- meter (Fitchburg, MA, USA) at 7.05 ...

  19. Micronutrient Fortification of Foods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient Fortification of Foods: Developing A Program. Mahshid Lotti, M.G. Venkatesh Manar, Richard J. H. M. .... Develop the fortification technology. 11. Perform studies on interactions, potency, stability, ... Fortification with vitamin A is a long-term strategy capable of maintaining adequate vitamin A status over time.

  20. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin (United States)

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter


    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  1. Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by ion-exchange using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ammonium removal from aqueous solution by a natural ion-exchange resin was investigated by considering the factors affecting the ammonium-exchange capacity including the zeolites' particle size, the loading flow rates and the impact of a number of regenerations upon the ion-exchange capacity. The resin column was ...

  2. Fly ash adsorbents for multi-cation wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visa, Maria, E-mail: [Transilvania University of Brasov, Dept. Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Isac, Luminita; Duta, Anca [Transilvania University of Brasov, Dept. Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036 Brasov (Romania)


    Class 'F' fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} over 2.4 proved good adsorbent properties, and was further used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for heavy metals from multi-cation wastewater treatment. Firstly, the new adsorbent was characterized by AFM, XRD, DSC, FTIR and the surface energy was evaluated by contact angle measurements. The experimental data suggested that the new type of substrate is predominant crystalline with highly polar surface. The substrate was used for removing the Pb{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} cations from mixed solutions. The results show high efficiency and selective adsorption the Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} cations. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the processes. The pseudo-second order kinetics could well model all the processes, indicating a surface concentration of the adsorption sites with the same order of magnitude as the cation concentrations.

  3. Hibernation and gas exchange. (United States)

    Milsom, William K; Jackson, Donald C


    Hibernation in endotherms and ectotherms is characterized by an energy-conserving metabolic depression due to low body temperatures and poorly understood temperature-independent mechanisms. Rates of gas exchange are correspondly reduced. In hibernating mammals, ventilation falls even more than metabolic rate leading to a relative respiratory acidosis that may contribute to metabolic depression. Breathing in some mammals becomes episodic and in some small mammals significant apneic gas exchange may occur by passive diffusion via airways or skin. In ectothermic vertebrates, extrapulmonary gas exchange predominates and in reptiles and amphibians hibernating underwater accounts for all gas exchange. In aerated water diffusive exchange permits amphibians and many species of turtles to remain fully aerobic, but hypoxic conditions can challenge many of these animals. Oxygen uptake into blood in both endotherms and ectotherms is enhanced by increased affinity of hemoglobin for O₂ at low temperature. Regulation of gas exchange in hibernating mammals is predominately linked to CO₂/pH, and in episodic breathers, control is principally directed at the duration of the apneic period. Control in submerged hibernating ectotherms is poorly understood, although skin-diffusing capacity may increase under hypoxic conditions. In aerated water blood pH of frogs and turtles either adheres to alphastat regulation (pH ∼8.0) or may even exhibit respiratory alkalosis. Arousal in hibernating mammals leads to restoration of euthermic temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange and occurs periodically even as ambient temperatures remain low, whereas body temperature, metabolic rate, and gas exchange of hibernating ectotherms are tightly linked to ambient temperature. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  4. The structure of actinide ions exchanged into native and modified zeolites and clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, S. R.; Soderholm, L.; Giaquinta, D. M.


    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to investigate the structure and valence of thorium (Th 4+ ) and uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) cations exchanged into two classes of microporous aluminosilicate minerals: zeolites and smectite clays. XAS is also employed to examine the fate of the exchanged cations after modification of the mineral surface using self-assembled organic films and/or exposure to hydrothermal conditions. These treatments serve as models for the forces that ultimately determine the chemical fate of the actinide cations in the environment. The speciation of the cations depends on the pore size of the aluminosilicate, which is fixed for the zeolites and variable for the smectites

  5. Enthalpy-entropy compensation for n-hexane adsorption on Y zeolite containing transition metal cations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercigonja R.


    Full Text Available In this work, the values of entropy changes related to n-hexane adsorption onto cation exchanged Y zeolite were calculated from differential heats. Various transition metal cations (Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were introduced into the lattice of the parent NaY, and the existence of enthalpy-entropy compensation effect related to n-hexane adsorption, id. est, the linearity of -ΔH vs. -ΔS plots was examined. The compensation effect was confirmed for all investigated zeolites. The compensation effect can be comprehended as governed by ion-induced dipole interaction between highly polarizing cationic centers in zeolite and nonopolar n-hexane molecules. Finally, the compensation effect and so the compensation temperature were found to depend on the type of charge-balancing cation (charge, size and electronic configuration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172018

  6. Onboard determination of submicromolar nitrate in seawater by anion-exchange chromatography with lithium chloride eluent. (United States)

    Maruo, Masahiro; Doi, Takashi; Obata, Hajime


    Ion-exchange chromatography using a high-capacity anion exchanger with UV detection was applied to the determination of nitrate in seawater. Major ions in seawater samples did not affect the peak shape and the retention time of the nitrate when an alkaline metal cation-chloride solution was used as an eluent at high concentrations (0.5-2 mol/l). At a wavelength of 220 nm, the peak of bromide was very small because of low absorption, while its separation from the nitrate peak was good at high concentrations. Among the eluents tested, lithium chloride gave the best separation of nitrate from bromide. It was estimated that the lithium ion had the least potential for ion-pair formation with nitrate, and its retention time was prolonged compared with the retention times when using other cations; with bromide and nitrite, such an effect was not observed. The results of shipboard seawater nitrate determination by our method in the South Pacific Ocean and Antarctic Sea showed good agreement with those by the conventional photometric method using continuous flow.

  7. Incorporation of Monovalent Cations in Sulfate Green Rust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Dideriksen, K.; Katz, A.


    with water showed that Na+ and K+ were structurally fixed in the interlayer, whereas Rb+ and Cs+ could be removed, resulting in a decrease in the basal layer spacing. The incorporation of cations in the interlayer opens up new possibilities for the use of sulfate green rust for exchange reactions with both......Green rust is a naturally occurring layered mixed-valent ferrous-ferric hydroxide, which can react with a range of redox-active compounds. Sulfate-bearing green rust is generally thought to have interlayers composed of sulfate and water. Here, we provide evidence that the interlayers also contain...

  8. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)


    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  9. Chromium(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto Moroccan Al-pillared and cationic surfactant stevensite. (United States)

    Benhammou, Abdelaziz; Yaacoubi, Abdelrani; Nibou, Lahbib; Tanouti, Boumediane


    Batch adsorption of the chromium(VI) onto Moroccan stevensite pillared by Keggin aluminium hydroxypolycation (Al-stevensite) and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide (CTA-stevensite) was investigated. The results showed that the CTA-stevensite has a higher affinity than that of Al-stevensite for chromium(VI) adsorption. The adsorption capacities for natural stevensite, Al-stevensite and CTA-stevensite calculated according to the Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich isotherm (DKR) are 13.7, 75.4 and 195.6mmolkg(-1), respectively. The study of the pH effect showed that the optimal range corresponding to the Cr(VI) maximum adsorption on Al-stevensite is pH 3.5-6 and that on CTA-stevensite is pH 2-6. The adsorption rates evaluated according to the pseudo-second-order model are 7.2, 207.2 and 178.5mmolkg(-1)min(-1) for the natural stevensite, Al-stevensite and CTA-stevensite, respectively. The low values of the adsorption energy calculated by (DKR) suggest that anion exchange is the main mechanism that governs the chromate adsorption.

  10. Contribution des argiles et des matières organiques à la rétention de l'eau dans les sols. Signification et rôle fondamental de la capacité d'échange en cations (United States)

    Bigorre, François; Tessier, Daniel; Pédro, Georges


    Water retention properties of soils and clays extracted from soil profile horizons were analyzed as a function of their cation exchange capacity (CEC) and EGME surface area. The water retention at -1.6 MPa matric potential correlated well with the CEC. At this water potential, organic matter and clay have their own and additive water retention properties. At -107 MPa, clays still retained adsorbed water, whereas organic matter was completely dehydrated. Consequently, the EGME surface area and water adsorption isotherms at -107 MPa provide information on clay surface properties, while those of organic matter are not assessed by the methods.

  11. Quantitative imaging of the 3-D distribution of cation adsorption sites in undisturbed soil (United States)

    Keck, Hannes; Strobel, Bjarne W.; Petter Gustafsson, Jon; Koestel, John


    Several studies have shown that the distribution of cation adsorption sites (CASs) is patchy at a millimetre to centimetre scale. Often, larger concentrations of CASs in biopores or aggregate coatings have been reported in the literature. This heterogeneity has implications on the accessibility of CASs and may influence the performance of soil system models that assume a spatially homogeneous distribution of CASs. In this study, we present a new method to quantify the abundance and 3-D distribution of CASs in undisturbed soil that allows for investigating CAS densities with distance to the soil macropores. We used X-ray imaging with Ba2+ as a contrast agent. Ba2+ has a high adsorption affinity to CASs and is widely used as an index cation to measure the cation exchange capacity (CEC). Eight soil cores (approx. 10 cm3) were sampled from three locations with contrasting texture and organic matter contents. The CASs of our samples were saturated with Ba2+ in the laboratory using BaCl2 (0.3 mol L-1). Afterwards, KCl (0.1 mol L-1) was used to rinse out Ba2+ ions that were not bound to CASs. Before and after this process the samples were scanned using an industrial X-ray scanner. Ba2+ bound to CASs was then visualized in 3-D by the difference image technique. The resulting difference images were interpreted as depicting the Ba2+ bound to CASs only. The X-ray image-derived CEC correlated significantly with results of the commonly used ammonium acetate method to determine CEC in well-mixed samples. The CEC of organic-matter-rich samples seemed to be systematically overestimated and in the case of the clay-rich samples with less organic matter the CEC seemed to be systematically underestimated. The results showed that the distribution of the CASs varied spatially within most of our samples down to a millimetre scale. There was no systematic relation between the location of CASs and the soil macropore structure. We are convinced that the approach proposed here will strongly

  12. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.


    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  13. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente


    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  14. Exchange rate policy and external debt in emerging economies: an empirical analysis


    Cebir, Bilgen


    In this thesis, we empirically analyze the e ects of exchange rate policy on external debt accumulation in emerging market economies with a sample of 15 countries over the period 1998-2010. The exchange rate policy is captured by the de facto exchange rate classi cation of Ilzetzki, Reinhart, and Rogo (2008). This classification is based on the actual exchange rate behavior rather than the officially declared regimes. Therefore, it is expected to better reflect the exchange rate policies act...

  15. Exchangeable hydrogen explains the pH of spodosol Oa horizons (United States)

    Ross, D.S.; David, M.B.; Lawrence, G.B.; Bartlett, R.J.


    The chemistry of extremely acid Oa horizons does not conform to traditional pH, Al, and base saturation relationships. Results from two separate studies of northeastern U.S. forested soils were used to investigate relationships between pH in water or dilute salt solutions and other soil characteristics. In Oa horizons with pH below 4, soil pH in dilute CaCl2 solution was correlated with exchangeable H+ measured either by titration (r = -0.88, P = 0.0001, n = 142) or by electrode (r = -0.89, P = 0.0001, n = 45). Exchangeable H+ expressed as a percentage of the cation-exchange capacity (CEC) was linear with pH and showed similar slopes for data from both studies. For all samples, pHw = 4.21 - 1.80 x H+/CEC (R2 = 0.69, n = 194). The reciprocal of the H+/CEC ratio is base saturation with Al added to the bases. Because of the low pH, exchangeable Al does not appear to behave as an acid. Exchangeable H+ remains an operationally defined quantity because of the difficulty in separating exchange and hydrolysis reactions. In a variety of neutral-salt extractants, concentration of H+ were correlated with 0.1 M BaCl2-exchangeable H+ (r > 0.91, P = 0.0001, n = 26) regardless of the strength of the extract. Nine successive extractions with 0.33 mM CaCl2 removed more H+ than was removed by single batch extractions with either 1 M KCl or 0.1 M BaCl2 (average H+ of 70, 43, and 49 mmol kg-1, respectively for 26 samples). The data showed little difference in the chemical behavior of Oa horizons from a variety of geographical sites and vegetation types.

  16. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, D.G.


    The arrangement described relates particularly to heat exchangers for use in fast reactor power plants, in which heat is extracted from the reactor core by primary liquid metal coolant and is then transferred to secondary liquid metal coolant by means of intermediate heat exchangers. One of the main requirements of such a system, if used in a pool type fast reactor, is that the pressure drop on the primary coolant side must be kept to a minimum consistent with the maintenance of a limited dynamic head in the pool vessel. The intermediate heat exchanger must also be compact enough to be accommodated in the reactor vessel, and the heat exchanger tubes must be available for inspection and the detection and plugging of leaks. If, however, the heat exchanger is located outside the reactor vessel, as in the case of a loop system reactor, a higher pressure drop on the primary coolant side is acceptable, and space restriction is less severe. An object of the arrangement described is to provide a method of heat exchange and a heat exchanger to meet these problems. A further object is to provide a method that ensures that excessive temperature variations are not imposed on welded tube joints by sudden changes in the primary coolant flow path. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  17. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties (United States)

    Yee, Rebecca S. L.; Zhang, Kaisong; Ladewig, Bradley P.


    A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:24956945

  18. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee


    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  19. Thermodynamics of the first and second proton dissociations from aqueous L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid at temperatures from (278.15 to 393.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa: Apparent molar heat capacities and apparent molar volumes of zwitterionic, protonated cationic, and deprotonated anionic forms at molalities from (0.002 to 1.0) mol . kg{sup -1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, S.P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States); Woolley, E.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602-5700 (United States)]. E-mail:


    We have measured the densities of aqueous solutions of L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, and equimolal solutions of these two amino acids with HCl and with NaOH at temperatures 278.15 {<=} T/K {<=} 368.15, at molalities 0.002 {<=} m/mol . kg{sup -1} {<=} 1.0 as solubity of the solutes allowed, and at p = 0.35 MPa using a vibrating tube densimeter. We have also measured the heat capacities of these solutions at 278.15 {<=} T/K {<=} 393.15 and at the same m and p using a twin fixed-cell differential temperature-scanning calorimeter. We used the densities to calculate apparent molar volumes V {sub {phi}} and the heat capacities to calculate apparent molar heat capacities C {sub p,{phi}} for these solutions. We used our results and values from the literature for V {sub {phi}}(T, m) and C {sub p,{phi}}(T, m) for HCl(aq), NaOH(aq), and NaCl(aq) and the molar heat capacity change {delta}{sub r} C {sub p,m}(T, m) for ionization of water to calculate parameters for {delta}{sub r} C {sub p,m}(T, m) for the first two proton dissociations from each of the protonated aqueous cationic amino acids. We used Young's Rule and integrated these results iteratively to account for the effects of equilibrium speciation and chemical relaxation on V {sub {phi}}(T, m) and C {sub p,{phi}}(T, m). This procedure gave parameters for V {sub {phi}}(T, m) and C {sub p,{phi}}(T, m) for L-aspartinium and L-glutaminium chlorides and for monosodium L-aspartate and L-glutamate which modeled our observed results within experimental uncertainties. We report values for {delta}{sub r} C {sub p,m}, {delta}{sub r} H {sub m}, pQ {sub a}, {delta}{sub r} S {sub m}, and {delta}{sub r} V {sub m} for the first and second proton dissociations from protonated aqueous L-aspartic acid and L-glutamic acid as functions of T and m.

  20. Single-stage separation and esterification of cation salt carboxylates using electrodeionization (United States)

    Lin, YuPo J.; Henry, Michael; Hestekin, Jamie; Snyder, Seth W.; St. Martin, Edward J.


    A method of and apparatus for continuously making an organic ester from a lower alcohol and an organic acid is disclosed. An organic acid or salt is introduced or produced in an electrode ionization (EDI) stack with a plurality of reaction chambers each formed from a porous solid ion exchange resin wafer interleaved between anion exchange membranes or an anion exchange membrane and a cation exchange membrane or an anion exchange membrane and a bipolar exchange membranes. At least some reaction chambers are esterification chambers and/or bioreactor chambers and/or chambers containing an organic acid or salt. A lower alcohol in the esterification chamber reacts with an anion to form an organic ester and water with at least some of the water splitting with the ions leaving the chamber to drive the reaction.

  1. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex


    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  2. Divergent responses of soil buffering capacity to long-term N deposition in three typical tropical forests with different land-use history. (United States)

    Lu, Xiankai; Mao, Qinggong; Mo, Jiangming; Gilliam, Frank S; Zhou, Guoyi; Luo, Yiqi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Juan


    Elevated anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has become an important driver of soil acidification at both regional and global scales. It remains unclear, however, how long-term N deposition affects soil buffering capacity in tropical forest ecosystems and in ecosystems of contrasting land-use history. Here, we expand on a long-term N deposition experiment in three tropical forests that vary in land-use history (primary, secondary, and planted forests) in Southern China, with N addition as NH4NO3 of 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Results showed that all three forests were acid-sensitive ecosystems with poor soil buffering capacity, while the primary forest had higher base saturation and cation exchange capacity than others. However, long-term N addition significantly accelerated soil acidification and decreased soil buffering capacity in the primary forest, but not in the degraded secondary and planted forests. We suggest that ecosystem N status, influenced by different land-use history, is primarily responsible for these divergent responses. N-rich primary forests may be more sensitive to external N inputs than others with low N status, and should be given more attention under global changes in the future, because lack of nutrient cations is irreversible.

  3. Endomembrane Cation Transporters and Membrane Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, Heven [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Cell Biology & Molecular Genetics


    Multicellular, as well as unicellular, organisms have evolved mechanisms to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental cues and to a changing environment. The working hypothesis is that the balance of fluxes mediated by diverse transporters at the plasma membrane and in subcellular organelles determines ionic cellular distribution, which is critical for maintenance of membrane potential, pH control, osmolality, transport of nutrients, and protein activity. An emerging theme in plant cell biology is that cells respond and adapt to diverse cues through changes of the dynamic endomembrane system. Yet we know very little about the transporters that might influence the operation of the secretory system in plants. Here we focus on transporters that influence alkali cation and pH homeostasis, mainly in the endomembrane/ secretory system. The endomembrane system of eukaryote cells serves several major functions: i) sort cargo (e.g. enzymes, transporters or receptors) to specific destinations, ii) modulate the protein and lipid composition of membrane domains through remodeling, and iii) determine and alter the properties of the cell wall through synthesis and remodeling. We had uncovered a novel family of predicted cation/H+ exchangers (CHX) and K+ efflux antiporters (KEA) that are prevalent in higher plants, but rare in metazoans. We combined phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses with molecular genetic, cell biological and biochemical studies, and have published the first reports on functions of plant CHXs and KEAs. CHX studied to date act at the endomembrane system where their actions are distinct from the better-studied NHX (Na/K-H+ exchangers). Arabidopsis thaliana CHX20 in guard cells modulate stomatal opening, and thus is significant for vegetative survival. Other CHXs ensure reproductive success on dry land, as they participate in organizing pollen walls, targeting of pollen tubes to the ovule or promoting

  4. Exchangers man the pumps: Functional interplay between proton pumps and proton-coupled Ca(2+) exchangers (United States)

    Tonoplast-localised proton-coupled Ca(2+) transporters encoded by cation/H(+) exchanger (CAX) genes play a critical role in sequestering Ca(2+) into the vacuole. These transporters may function in coordination with Ca(2+) release channels, to shape stimulus-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Recen...

  5. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters


    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung


    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 ...

  6. The Free Tricoordinated Silyl Cation Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičak, H.


    Full Text Available As the importance and abundance of silicon in our environment is large, it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds and silicon-based life. However, until today there is no experimental evidence for such a hypothesis and carbon is still unique among the elements in the vast number and variety of compounds it can form. Also, the corresponding derivatives of the two elements show considerable differences in their chemical properties.The essential debate concerning organosilicon chemistry relates to the existence of the free planar tricoordinated silyl cations in condensed phase (R3Si+, in analogy to carbocations (R3C+ which have been known and characterized as free species. Although silyl cations are thermodynamically more stable than their carbon analogs, they are very reactive due to their high inherent electrophilicity and the ability of hypervalent coordination. On the other hand, stabilization by inductive and hyperconjugative effects and larger steric effects of carbocations make them less sensitive to solvation or other environmental effects than silyl cations. Hence, observation of free silyl cations in the condensed phase proved extremely difficult and the actual problem is the question of the degree of the (remaining silyl cation character.The first free silyl cation, trimesitylsilyl cation, and in analogy with it tridurylsilyl cation, were synthesized by Lambert et al. Free silyl cations based on analogy to aromatic ions (homocyclopropenylium and tropylium have also been prepared. However, in these silyl cations the cationic character is reduced by internal π -conjugation. Čičak et al. prepared some silyl-cationic intermediates (Me3Si--CH≡CR+in solid state. With the help of quantum-mechanical calculations it was concluded that these adducts have much more silyl cation than carbocation character.

  7. HEAT EXCHANGER (United States)

    Fox, T.H. III; Richey, T. Jr.; Winders, G.R.


    A heat exchanger is designed for use in the transfer of heat between a radioactive fiuid and a non-radioactive fiuid. The exchanger employs a removable section containing the non-hazardous fluid extending into the section designed to contain the radioactive fluid. The removable section is provided with a construction to cancel out thermal stresses. The stationary section is pressurized to prevent leakage of the radioactive fiuid and to maintain a safe, desirable level for this fiuid. (AEC)

  8. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Ichiro.


    An inner cylinder is disposed coaxially in a vertical vessel, and a plurality of heat transfer pipes are wound spirally on the outer circumference of the inner cylinder. High temperature sodium descends on the outer side of the inner cylinder while exchanging heat with water in the heat transfer pipes and becomes low temperature sodium. The low temperature sodium turns at the lower portion of the vessel, rises in a sodium exit pipe inserted to the inner cylinder and is discharged from the top of the vessel to the outside of the vessel. A portion of a cover gas (an inert gas such as argon) filled to the upper portion of the vessel intrudes into the space between the outer circumference of the sodium exit pipe and the inner circumference of the inner cylinder to form a heat insulation layer of the inert gas. This prevents heat exchange between the high temperature sodium before heat exchange and low temperature sodium after heat exchange. The heat exchanger is used as a secondary heat exchanger for coolants (sodium) of an FBR type reactor. (I.N.)

  9. Exerting Capacity. (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A


    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  10. Preparation of crosslinked chitosan magnetic membrane for cations sorption from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Khan, Adnan; Begum, Samina; Ali, Nauman; Khan, Sabir; Hussain, Sajjad; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada


    A chitosan magnetic membrane was prepared in order to confer magnetic properties to the membrane, which could be used for the removal of cations from aqueous solution. The crosslinked magnetic membrane was compared with pristine chitosan membrane in term of stability, morphology and cation adsorption capacity. The fabricated magnetic materials are thermally stable as shown by thermogravimetric curves. The membrane containing nickel magnetic particles (CHNiF-G) shows high thermal stability compared to the other membranes. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed successful preparation of chitosan magnetic membrane. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed the rough surface of the membrane with increased porosity. The prepared chitosan membranes were applied to cations of copper, nickel and lead in dilute aqueous solution. The chitosan membrane showed the following adsorption order for metallic cations: Cu 2+ > Ni 2+ > Pb 2+ , while CHNiF-G showed higher capacity, 3.51 mmol g -1 for copper, reflecting the improvement in adsorption capacity, since the amount of copper on pristine chitosan gave 1.40 mmol g -1 . The time required for adsorption to reach to the equilibrium was 6 h for the selected cations using different chitosan membranes. The kinetic study showed that adsorption followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The most commonly used isotherm models, Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin, were applied to experimental data using linear regression technique. However, The Temkin model fits better to experimental data.

  11. When Ligand Exchange Leads to Ion Exchange: Nanocrystal Facets Dictate the Outcome. (United States)

    Hewavitharana, Indika K; Brock, Stephanie L


    This study demonstrates that ligand exchange of nanocrystals (NCs) is not always an innocuous process, but can lead to facile (room temperature) ion exchange, depending on the surface crystal faceting. Rock salt PbTe NCs prepared as cubes with neutral facets undergo room-temperature ligand exchange with sulfide ions, whereas cuboctahedron-shaped particles with neutral {100} and polar {111} facets are transformed to PbS, driven by ion exchange along the ⟨111⟩ direction. Likewise, cation exchange (with Ag + ) occurs rapidly for cuboctahedra, whereas cubes remain inert. This dramatic difference is attributed to the relative surface area of {111} facets that promote rapid ion exchange and shows how facet engineering is a powerful knob for the control of reaction pathways in nanoparticles.

  12. Ion exchange purification of scandium (United States)

    Herchenroeder, L.A.; Burkholder, H.R.


    An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in the column while minimizing dilution of the scandium band. Recovery of scandium is improved by pumping dilute scandium over the column prior to stripping the scandium and precipitation. This eliminates the HEDTA ion and other monovalent cations contaminating the scandium band. This method maximizes recovery of scandium while maintaining purity. 2 figs.

  13. Noncovalent interactions of metal cations and arenes probed with thallium(I) complexes. (United States)

    Jurca, Titel; Korobkov, Ilia; Gorelsky, Serge I; Richeson, Darrin S


    The synthesis, characterization, and computational analysis of Tl(I) complexes bearing the bis(imino)pyridine scaffold, [{ArN═CPh}2(NC5H3)]Tl(+)(OTf)(-) (Ar = 2,6-Et2C6H33, 2,5-(t)Bu2C6H3, 4), are reported. The cations of these species showed long Tl-N and Tl-OTf distances indicating only weak or no ligand coordination. Computational analysis of the interactions between the Tl cation and the ligands (orbital populations, bond order, and energy decomposition analysis) point to only minimal covalent interactions of the cation with the ligands. The weak ligand-to-metal donation allows for additional interactions between the Tl cation and arene rings that are either intramolecular, in the case of 3, or intermolecular. From benzene or toluene, 4 crystallizes with inverted sandwich structures having two [{(2,5-(t)Bu2C6H3)N═CPh}2(NC5H3)]Tl(+) cations bridged by either benzene or toluene. A density functional computational description of these Tl-arene contacts required exchange-correlation functionals with long-range exchange corrections (e.g., CAM-B3LYP or LC-PBE) and show that Tl-arene contacts are stabilized by noncovalent interactions.

  14. Radioanalytical determination of plutonium and americium using ion exchange and extraction chromatography technique in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanakrishnan, V.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Ravi, P.M.


    The use of anion exchange chromatography for the separation of Pu and extraction chromatography technique for the separation of Am from urine samples was studied. In the earlier method, Pu separation was carried out by anion exchange chromatography followed by Am separation by cation exchange chromatography. The chemical recovery of Am obtained by cation exchange separation method was inconsistent and low in the range 30-70%. In this study, the average Pu recovery obtained using anion exchange chromatography was 89.2 with standard deviation of 10.4 and the average Am recovery obtained using extraction chromatography with TRU resin was 77.4 with standard deviation of 14.8. Moreover, Am separation could be completed within three hours using the TRU column compared to two days that were required for the cation exchange chromatography. (author)

  15. Removal of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution on Amberlite IRC 748 synthetic resin by ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhihui; Qi Tao; Qu Jingkui; Wang Lina; Chu Jinglong


    Experimental measurements have been made on the batch ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution using cation exchanger of Amberlite IRC 748 as K + form. The ion exchange behavior of two alkaline-earth metals on the resin, depending on contact time, pH, temperature and resin dosage was studied. The adsorption isotherms were described by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. For Ca(II) ion, the Langmuir model represented the adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. The maximum ion exchange capacity was found to be 47.21 mg g -1 for Ca(II) and 27.70 mg g -1 for Mg(II). The kinetic data were tested using Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Kinetic data correlated well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Various thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (ΔG o ), enthalpy (ΔH o ) and entropy (ΔS o ) were also calculated. These parameters showed that the ion exchange of Ca(II) and Mg(II) from potassium chromate solution was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic process in nature. The activation energy of ion-exchange (E a ) was determined as 12.34 kJ mol -1 for Ca(II) and 9.865 kJ mol -1 for Mg(II) according to the Arrhenius equation.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and ion exchange properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –1 dry exchanger, respectively. The material ... been found to have better properties than the simple salts of metals. The selectivity may be enhanced ... capacity and higher stability at elevated temperature. This paper deals with the synthesis, ...

  17. Progress of research on the influence of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on bentonite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weimin; Zheng Zhenji; Chen Bao; Chen Yonggui


    Based on the previous laboratory studies and numerical simulation on bentonite in alkaline environments, the effects of alkaline cation and alkaline solution on mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite are emphasized in this paper, temperature, pH values and concentration are discussed as main affecting factors. When bentonite is exposed to alkaline cation or alkaline solution, microstructure of bentonite will be changed due to the dissolution of montmorillonite and the formation of secondary minerals, which results in the decrease of swelling pressure. The amount of the reduction of swelling pressure depends on the concentration of alkaline solution. Temperature, polyvalent cation, salinity and concentration are the main factors affecting hydraulic properties of bentonite under alkaline conditions. Therefore, future research should focus on the mechanism of coupling effects of weak alkaline solutions on the mineral composition, microstructure, swelling capacity and hydraulic properties of bentonite under different temperatures and different pH values. (authors)

  18. Titanium-Oxide Host Clusters with Exchangeable Guests. (United States)

    Zhang, Guanyun; Li, Wenyun; Liu, Caiyun; Jia, Jiong; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng


    A novel family of water-soluble, polyoxocationic titanium-oxide host-guest clusters are reported herein. They exhibit an unprecedented hexagonal prismatic core structure for hosting univalent cationic guests like K + , Rb + , Cs + and H 3 O + . Guest exchange has been studied using 133 Cs NMR, showing the flexible pore of a host permits passage of a comparatively larger cation and giving an equilibrium constant of ca. 13 for displacing Rb + by Cs + . Attractive ion-dipole interaction, depending on host-guest size complementarity, plays a dominant role for the preferential encapsulation of larger alkali-metal cationic guests.

  19. Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanim, Siti Aishah Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik, E-mail:; Ibrahim, Zaharah


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane APTES (ZSA) as antibacterial agent. • Antibacterial assay of ZSA was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with APTES significantly increased the antibacterial agent. • Different mechanisms of bacterial death were suggested for each bacteria type by the functionalized Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY. - Abstract: Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZSA) were prepared with three different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (0.01, 0.20 and 0.40 M) and four different concentrations of silver ions (25%, 50%, 100% and 200% from zeolite cation exchange capacity (CEC)). The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis. The FTIR results indicated that the zeolite was functionalized by APTES and that the intensity of the peaks corresponding to APTES increased as the concentration of APTES used was increased. The antibacterial activities of the silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZS) and ZSA were studied against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity of ZSA increased with the increase in APTES on ZS, and E. coli was more susceptible towards the sample compared to S. aureus. The FESEM micrographs of the bacteria after contact with the ZSA suggested different mechanisms of bacterial death for these two bacteria due to exposure to the studied sample. The functionalization of ZS with APTES improved the antibacterial activity of the silver-zeolite, depending on the concentration of silver

  20. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  1. Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Mixtures Using Ion-Exchanged Silicoaluminophosphates (United States)

    Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J (Inventor); Rivera-Ramos, Milton E (Inventor); Arevalo-Hidalgo, Ana G (Inventor)


    Na+-SAPO-34 sorbents were ion-exchanged with several individual metal cations for CO2 absorption at different temperatures (273-348 K) and pressures (removal from CH4 mixtures, especially at low concentrations.

  2. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid


    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  3. Modeling retardation effects by barium and strontium solid solutions on radium cations in the near field of radioactive waste repository (United States)

    Shao, H.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.; Kolditz, O.


    In the near field of a radioactive waste repository, bentonite is often used as a buffer material to prevent the migration of hazardous radionuclides into the biosphere. Traditionally the retardation mechanisms are simplified into a linear isotherm concept. The corresponding KD value is thereafter used for safety assessment purposes. Often, due to the lack of experimental data, the retardation based on the formation of solid solutions is ignored and only cation exchange and surface complexation processes are considered in evaluating KDs. In this contribution, we use the newly coupled code GeoSys-GEM to simulate the reactive transport of radium in a bentonite column. In a first step, a chemical model was set up which contained non-ideal radium, barium, and strontium sulfate and carbonate solid solutions. Our reactive transport simulations suggest that the formation of such solid solutions strongly contributes to the retardation of radium. The aqueous Ra2+ concentration will be lower by 3 ~ 4 orders of magnitudes in the presence of sulfate solid solutions. However, its fixation capacity is highly influenced by the sulfate inventory available in the medium. In a second step, the chemical model was further extended to include ion exchange effects, with the clay mineral montmorillonite acting as an ion-exchanger. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the mechanisms and compounds influence the retardation of radium. With this model, we are able to predict the transport of radionuclides in a more realistic way and reduce the conservatism of the simplified models (linear isotherms) used for performance assessment.

  4. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazole and clay composites for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Siu, Ana; Li, Qingfeng


    dispersion of modified laponite clay was achieved in polybenzimidazole (PBI) solutions which, when cast and allowed to dry, resulted in homogeneous and transparent composite membranes containing up to 20 wt% clay in the polymer. The clay was organically modified using a series of ammonium...... and pyridinium salts with varying polarity and hydrogen-bonding capacity. Clay modification by ion-exchange reactions involving replacement of interlayer inorganic cations was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The cast PBI membranes were characterized by their water uptake......-doped pristine PBI membranes. In accordance with the hydrogen permeability measurements, fuel cell tests exhibited high open circuit voltages (i.e., 1.02 V) at room temperature as well as high I–V performance compared with normal PBI membranes....

  5. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) antimonate and study of its ion-exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Halim, S.H.; El-Shahat, M.F.


    Tin(IV) antimonate with different Sb/Sn molar ratios has been prepared. The characterization of the product materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and infrared spectra. The saturation capacities of sodium and cesium were found to increase with Sb/Sn molar ratios. The K d values on thermal treatment of tin(IV) antimonate, as a cation exchanger, have been measured for some heavy metal ions in the temperature range of 50-400 deg C. The maximum adsorption of 10 -4 M of the metal ions studied was obtained at 400 deg C. The selectivity sequence was Eu 3+ > Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Cs + for the sample heated up to 400 deg C. No adsorption was observed on the sample heated at 700 deg C because of the formation of SnO 2 and Sb 6 O 13 . (author) 9 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  6. Sorption and fixation of large cations by shale formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brindley, G.W.


    Large cations such as Cs + are preferentially sorbed and partially fixed by fine-grained 2 : 1 type layer silicates such as micas, vermiculites, smectites and various mixed-layer minerals. Since these minerals are common constituents of many shale formations, these formations may provide suitable location for the burial of radioactive waste containers. However, the usual investigations of cation sorption and fixation must be extended to the conditions likely to develop in the vicinity of buried radioactive waste. Prior to possible leakage from buried containers, elevated temperatures around the burial site will develop leading to hydrothermal modification of the surrounding mineralogy. A range of temperature and of mineralogy must be envisaged. If and when leakage occurs, an outward diffusion of radioactive ions will occur by solvation in the fluids in the shale. The ratio of radioactive ions/normal ions will diminish outwards from the source. At near distances from the source high temperature modifications of the clay minerals and high concentrations of radioactive cations may lead to saturation of the fixation capacity. At greater distances, little or no thermal modification of the clay minerals and lower concentrations of ions will permit maximum sorption and fixation

  7. Afrikaans Syllabification Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilla Fick


    Full Text Available In contrast to English, automatic hyphenation by computer of Afrikaans words is a problem that still needs to be addressed, since errors are still often encountered in printed text. An initial step in this task is the ability to automatically syllabify words. Since new words are created continuously by joining words, it is necessary to develop an “intelligent” technique for syllabification. As a first phase of the research, we consider only the orthographic information of words, and disregard both syntactic and morphological information. This approach allows us to use machine-learning techniques such as artificial neural networks and decision trees that are known for their pattern recognition abilities. Both these techniques are trained with isolated patterns consisting of input patterns and corresponding outputs (or targets that indicate whether the input pattern should be split at a certain position, or not. In the process of compiling a list of syllabified words from which to generate training data for the  syllabification problem, irregular patterns were identified. The same letter patterns are split differently in different words and complete words that are spelled identically are split differently due to meaning. We also identified irregularities in and between  the different dictionaries that we used. We examined the influence range of letters that are involved in irregularities. For example, for their in agter-ente and vaste-rente we have to consider three letters to the left of r to be certain where the hyphen should be inserted. The influence range of the k in verstek-waarde and kleinste-kwadrate is four to the left and three to the right. In an analysis of letter patterns in Afrikaans words we found that the letter e has the highest frequency overall (16,2% of all letters in the word list. The frequency of words starting with s is the highest, while the frequency of words ending with e is the highest. It is important to

  8. A New Alkali-Stable Phosphonium Cation Based on Fundamental Understanding of Degradation Mechanisms. (United States)

    Zhang, Bingzi; Kaspar, Robert B; Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Yan, Yushan


    Highly alkali-stable cationic groups are a critical component of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). To search for such cations, we studied the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of a series of quaternary phosphonium (QP) cations. Benzyl tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium [BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO)] was determined to have higher alkaline stability than the benchmark cation, benzyl trimethylammonium (BTMA). A multi-step methoxy-triggered degradation mechanism for BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO) was proposed and verified. By replacing methoxy substituents with methyl groups, a superior QP cation, methyl tris(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phosphonium [MTPP-(2,4,6-Me)] was developed. MTPP-(2,4,6-Me) is one of the most stable cations reported to date, with <20 % degradation after 5000 h at 80 °C in a 1 m KOD in CD3 OD/D2 O (5:1 v/v) solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Bioavailability and detoxification of cationics: II. Relationship between toxicity and CEC of cationic surfactants on Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda) in artificial and natural substrates. (United States)

    Thomas, Paul C; Velthoven, Kirsten; Geurts, Marc; van Wijk, Dolf


    The toxicity of the dialkyl quat, didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), was used as a typical quaternary ammonium compound in studies investigating the role of sorption in reducing DDAB bioavailability in sediment and soil for natural and artificial substrates. Fatty acid derivatives are known to interact ionically with negative charged particles such as clays, humic and fulvic acids, dramatically reducing their bioavailability. Sorption potential was measured using cationic exchange capacities (CEC). The CEC of the substrates was correlated with toxicity of DDAB to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans considered to be representative of soil and sediment dwelling, free-living nematodes in terms of its sensitivity, size and feeding strategy. Decreased toxicity was found with increasing CEC for both laboratory and field substrates when tested under both soil and sediment conditions and QSARs developed. Testing under soil or sediment conditions had less impact on the toxicity than the CEC of the soil/sediment or whether the substrate was artificial or natural. Habitat preferences were observed during a test in which nematodes were placed into substrates with different CECs. The worms favoured mid-range CECs. Similar preference behaviour may be expected in the environment and a threshold CEC for likely presence of nematodes in a substrate is proposed. Coupled with the substrate toxicity QSAR, threshold CEC preference can be used to provide a no observed effect concentration for DDAB. Expressed as a molar fraction of the CEC, the QSAR obtained for DDAB may be extrapolable to other fatty amine derivatives. If supported by further experimentation and complemented with data from other sediment and soil dwellers the QSAR and threshold CEC value can be validated for use in future regulatory risk assessments of fatty amine derivatives.

  10. Test procedure for anion exchange testing with Argonne 10-L solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, J.A.


    Four anion exchange resins will be tested to confirm that they will sorb and release plutonium from/to the appropriate solutions in the presence of other cations. Certain cations need to be removed from the test solutions to minimize adverse behavior in other processing equipment. The ion exchange resins will be tested using old laboratory solutions from Argonne National Laboratory; results will be compared to results from other similar processes for application to all plutonium solutions stored in the Plutonium Finishing Plant

  11. Anion and cation diffusion in barium titanate and strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, Markus Franz


    Perovskite oxides show various interesting properties providing several technical applications. In many cases the defect chemistry is the key to understand and influence the material's properties. In this work the defect chemistry of barium titanate and strontium titanate is analysed by anion and cation diffusion experiments and subsequent time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The reoxidation equation for barium titanate used in multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) is found out by a combination of different isotope exchange experiments and the analysis of the resulting tracer diffusion profiles. It is shown that the incorporation of oxygen from water vapour is faster by orders of magnitude than from molecular oxygen. Chemical analysis shows the samples contain various dopants leading to a complex defect chemistry. Dysprosium is the most important dopant, acting partially as a donor and partially as an acceptor in this effectively acceptor-doped material. TEM and EELS analysis show the inhomogeneous distribution of Dy in a core-shell microstructure. The oxygen partial pressure and temperature dependence of the oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients is analysed and explained by the complex defect chemistry of Dy-doped barium titanate. Additional fast diffusion profiles are attributed to fast diffusion along grain boundaries. In addition to the barium titanate ceramics from an important technical application, oxygen diffusion in cubic, nominally undoped BaTiO 3 single crystals has been studied by means of 18 O 2 / 16 O 2 isotope exchange annealing and subsequent determination of the isotope profiles in the solid by ToF-SIMS. It is shown that a correct description of the diffusion profiles requires the analysis of the diffusion through the surface space-charge into the material's bulk. Surface exchange coefficients, space-charge potentials and bulk diffusion coefficients are analysed as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. The

  12. Selective ion exchange recovery of rare earth elements from uranium mining solutions (United States)

    Rychkov, Vladimir N.; Kirillov, Evgeny V.; Kirillov, Sergey V.; Bunkov, Grigory M.; Mashkovtsev, Maxim A.; Botalov, Maxim S.; Semenishchev, Vladimir S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.


    A comparative study of rare earth, ferric and aluminum ions ion exchange behavior on gel sulfonated p;olystyrene cation exchange resins depending on the degree of the matrix cross-linking and pH of the solution is presented. Selective ion exchange of REEs is possible at the pH range of 1.5-2.0 using strongly acidic cation exchange resins containing more than 8 % of DVB. The preliminary results of testing the efficiency of REEs recovery from the industrial uranium underground leaching solutions are also presented.

  13. Optimization of divalent cation in Saccharomyces pastorianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava starch fermentations were conducted in batch cultures to optimize the effect of divalent cations on ethanol production with Saccharomyces pastorianus using the central composite rotatable response surface design. Divalent cations used were magnesium (Mg2+), zinc (Zn2+) and calcium (Ca2+). Maximum ethanol ...

  14. Capacity and Capacity Utilization in Fishing Industries


    Kirkley, James E; Squires, Dale


    Excess capacity of fishing fleets is one of the most pressing problems facing the world's fisheries and the sustainable harvesting of resource stocks. Considerable confusion persists over the definition and measurement of capacity and capacity utilization in fishing. Fishing capacity and capacity utilization, rather than capital (or effort) utilization, provide the appropriate framework. This paper provides both technological-economic and economic definitions of capacity and excess capacity i...

  15. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris


    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  16. Heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The tubes of a heat exchanger tube bank have a portion thereof formed in the shape of a helix, of effective radius equal to the tube radius and the space between two adjacent tubes, to tangentially contact the straight sections of the tubes immediately adjacent thereto and thereby provide support, maintain the spacing and account for differential thermal expansion thereof

  17. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowodiuk, W.


    A heat exchanger of the straight tube type is described in which different rates of thermal expansion between the straight tubes and the supply pipes furnishing fluid to those tubes do not result in tube failures. The supply pipes each contain a section which is of helical configuration

  18. Exchange Options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidian, F.


    The contract is described and market examples given. Essential theoretical developments are introduced and cited chronologically. The principles and techniques of hedging and unique pricing are illustrated for the two simplest nontrivial examples: the classical Black-Scholes/Merton/Margrabe exchange

  19. Retention behavior of nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solutions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate used as inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.


    Silico-titanate (SiTi) and silico-antimonate (SiSb) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared and thermal analysis techniques. Divalent cations such as Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in the pH range 2 to 8 have been exchanged with the exchangeable active sites of the exchangers using a batch technique. From the results obtained, the equilibrium capacities and distribution coefficient values were calculated indicating high selectivity values for Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate compared to other titanates and antimonates. Also SiTi and SiSb show high chemical stability in H 2 O, nitric and hydrochloric acids. All these results support the suitability of the prepared materials for the removal of the toxic metals concerned from waste waters. Based on the results obtained, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on SiTi and SiSb columns from aqueous waste solutions were carried out. (author)

  20. Biochar soil amendment for waste-stream diversion, nutrient holding capacity, and carbon sequestration in two contrasting soils (United States)

    Deem, L. M.; Crow, S. E.; Deenik, J. L.; Penton, C. R.; Yanagida, J.


    Biochar is organic matter that has been pyrolized under low oxygen conditions for use as a soil amendment. Currently biochar is viewed as a way to improve soil quality (e.g., increased nutrient and water holding capacity) and increase in soil carbon (C) sequestration. The use of biochar in soil is not new, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that control the interactions between biochar and soil following amendment. In the past, the effects of biochar addition on crop yields, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in both in-situ and controlled experiments have produced inconsistent results. These discrepancies may be uncovered in part by chemical and physical characterization of the biochar prior to amendment and identification of soil- and biochar-specific interactions. Furthermore, a more holistic consideration of the system may demonstrate the virtues of