In various forms of Catholicism sacrifice holds a central position. The centrality of the divine sacrifice literally embodied in the sacrament of the Eucharist works in a wider sense as a model for action and thought outside the Church as a place for worship. Sacrifice here places the individual ...
Soane, A. (Andrew)
After the First World War there was a changed, more positive, attitude in England towards Catholicism in England. It was perceived to have risen to the test of the War where other forms of religion had failed. The newly acquired optimism of Catholics found expression in the apologetics of the era. New doubts about Protestantism – tainted by imaginary association with Germany - gave Catholic apologists the opportunity to mount a largely successful polemic against the hitherto accepted biased ...
Rosado Nunes, M J
This article presents the analyses of the author on the difficulty that Roman Catholicism has in accepting the concept of human rights, particularly with respect to women. According to Emile Poulat, the rights of man are based on three suppositions underlying the liberal theory of rights, which explains the conflict between Catholicism and liberalism. In addition, the invention of the principle of individuality, in consequence to the transformation in the legal realm, opposes both the Catholic social order and the religious order subsequently developing a conflict of rights. Moreover, Catholicism propagates a traditional conception of women and identifies their essence in maternity, which is incompatible with the affirmation of individual rights for women. Furthermore, this article presents the fundamentalist aspect of Catholicism in Brazil. It presents case examples, which illustrates the two-sided nature of the religion and allows the evaluation of the difficulty confronted by Catholic women in fighting for their rights. It concludes that the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil is one of the most powerful adversaries of the development of women's reproductive health and rights. However, it is characterized by a fundamentalism, which is opposed to the expansion of the scope of autonomy of thought and action for some women.
Thelma Camacho Morfín
Full Text Available In this paper we argue that Ernesto Pugibet, founder of the cigarette factory “El Buen Tono”, established that industry in Mexico in 1885 inspired by Social Catholicism. He was trying to combine the most recent technology with the improvement of his worker’s quality of life. He also upholded that they should had access to a healthy amusement. Although he never wrote about his beliefs, the photographs he chose to promote his business show visually the social project of its creator.
Full Text Available Whereas the Italian state constituted in 1861 was long considered to be a nation without antisemitism, recent studies have shown that the Catholic Church had in fact vigorously advocated antisemitic positions in liberal Italy and actively spread new accusations against Jews. In no other Italian city however did a more vehemently antisemitic political Catholicism develop than in Mantua. Following a brief recapitulation on how the Catholic Church in Italy had responded to the political, cultural and socio-economic challenges, the second section of this essay presents the news coverage of the Catholic paper “Il Cittadino di Mantova.” Founded in 1896, the first year’s issues will examine how the Catholic journalists in the city picked up and propagated the language of antisemitism. The third section moves the attention from language to politics analysing the antisemitic election campaign of the political catholicism in Mantua for the local elections of 1903. Attention is focused on identifying to what extent antisemitism had ‘arrived’ as a political movement in Italy.
Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.
Phelan, Helen Frances
peer-reviewed This work proposes the sourcing of a theology of music with particular reference to liturgical music developments in the Irish Catholic church since the Second Vatican Council. In doing so, it is confronted by two primary challenges: the complex relationship between music and liturgy and the equally complex historical relationship of Catholicism with Ireland. In order to address these challenges, the thesis adopts an interdisciplinary stance drawing on the disciplines of l...
Full Text Available Resumen: A partir de un trabajo de campo antropológico en las provincias de Huelva y Sevilla (España, el artículo reflexiona sobre la situación, la participación y las aspiraciones de la mujer andaluza en la religión católica. Las actividades femeninas en lo religioso se manifiestan, a menudo, como una prolongación de las tareas domésticas y por tanto menos visibles y a veces menos valoradas, mientras que las actividades masculinas son más perceptibles, en cuanto se producen en lo público, un espacio reservado a la masculinidad. Por otra parte, el artículo se acerca a las asociaciones voluntarias más importantes de Andalucía -las hermandades- y a los rituales más relevantes que desde éstas se organizan. En este sentido, se analizan las procesiones, las romerías, las visitas a los santuarios o el sistema de promesas para poner de manifiesto como a pesar de que la presencia y participación femenina en los rituales religioso populares es muy importante, el papel predominante y protagonista es sin embargo masculino. = Abstract: Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Seville (Spain, this article reflects on the current situation, participation and aspirations of Andalusian women in Catholicism. Female activity in the religious sphere is shown to often manifest as an extension of domestic tasks and, as such, is seen as less visible and often less valued. The activities carried out by men, however, are more perceptible in that they are enacted in public, a space traditionally reserved for men. The article also considers Andalusia´s most important voluntary associations -the Brotherhoods- and the rituals most relevant to them. As such, the processions, religious pilgrimages, visits to sanctuaries as well as the system of asking for religious favours are analysed. The outcome of such analysis is that, despite the importance of both the presence and participation of women in religious rites, the
Tausch, Arno; Christian GHYMERS
This empirical study about global Catholicism, based on the data of the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey, starts with a philosophical introduction by Christian Ghymers (Brussels) on the Roman Catholic Church and Enlightenment. The essence of Ghymers’ proposal to democratize the Roman Catholic Church – the ultima ratio of this book - , is based on the ideas of the precursor of the emancipation of Latin America, Francisco de Miranda. According to figures from the World Values ...
Yeoh Seng Guan
Full Text Available Let me begin with a confession—I am a novice to Philippines Studies.However, long before stepping foot in the Philippines (in 2006, I have beenintrigued by the seemingly pervasive presence of Roman Catholicism in party politics, popular culture and the everyday religiosity of Philippine society as gleaned through my sporadic forays into Filipino scholarly literature (and movies from afar.
Full Text Available The debate about “politics and religion” has already rejected essentialist claims of fundamental differences in the impact of religion on politics in different cultures. This article will argue that political Islam in Turkey and political Catholicism in Italy and Germany adopted remarkably similar patterns of cross-class coalitions and policies for a “reconciliation of capitalism and democracy”. First, religious parties developed as mass integration parties which already encompassed cross-class coalitions. Second, in the aftermath of political and economic crises these parties transformed into catch-all parties with a pronounced neo-liberal agenda which was given a religious justification. Third, at the same time these parties continued to sponsor policies and organizations which cushioned and supplemented an uneven economic development. Fourth, the parties kept traditional family policies which helped attracting a significant female electorate. “Organized religion” provided religious parties with a potential electorate, ancillary organizations and ideological concepts; however, their role in this political evolution changed. The conclusion will discuss whether these findings can be generalized.
As a particular phenomenon in human society, religion exerts a far-reaching influence on individual's ideology, behavior and life style, by means of a specific religious belief. It functions as stabilizer for social order by accepting people's social relationship, social status and social role. The causes for Jinzhou City residents' belief in Christianity and Catholicism are as follows:personal rational thinking, attraction by the religious belief, utilitarianism in real life, loneliness in life, soul comfort, family tradition, etc.%宗教是人类社会特有的现象，它能通过特定的宗教信念，对个体的观念、行为以及生活方式产生深远影响。宗教通过使人们对现存社会关系、社会秩序以及个人在社会中的地位、角色的接受和认同，而具有维护与稳定社会现状的功能。锦州市基督教和天主教的信仰者信教的原因，主要包括个人理性思考及教义吸引；现实生活中的功利主义；生活孤独寂寞，心灵寄托；来自家庭传统等等，具有鲜明的特点。
Péricles Morais de Andrade Júnior
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as distinções sociais constituídas no catolicismo na Província de Sergipe Del Rey durante o século XIX. A análise está centrada nos critérios de admissão de duas irmandades religiosas atuantes na cidade de Estância. A pesquisa demonstra que havia uma população dividida entre as irmandades do Santíssimo Sacramento e de Nossa Senhora do Rosário, reflexos de uma hierarquia social mais diversificada, que diziam respeito a critérios de cor, riqueza e prestígio social. O espaço apresentava significados, na medida em que a cidade reproduzia simbolicamente a sociedade e sua organização em estratos sociais. Em outras palavras, observamos que o campo religioso católico na povoação de Estância seguia aos mecanismos de expressão da segregação e apresentava-se como representativo das oposições significativas entre os segmentos sociais, caracterizados a partir destas associações que definiam a posição social e os gostos dos seus integrantes.This article aims to analyze the social distinctions incorporated in the Catholicism in the province of Sergipe Del Rey during the nineteenth century. The analysis will be centered in the criteria of admission of two active religious brotherhoods in the city of Estancia in Sergipe, Brazil. The research shows that there was a population divided between the brotherhoods of the Blessed Sacrament and Our Lady of the Rosary, reflections of a more diversified social hierarchy about the criteria of race, wealth and social prestige. The space presented meanings in so far as the city reproduced, symbolically, the society and its organization in social strata. In other words, we notice that the Catholic religious field in the population of Estancia followed the mechanisms of expression of the segregation and presented itself as representative of the oppositions between the social groups, which were characterized by associations which defined the social position
Twenty-first century cultural and religious diversification of modernity: the example of the shamanic indigenisation of Roman Catholicism among Native American peoples in the Northwest of the United States
Full Text Available La modernité, tout comme l’anxiété croissante qu’elle génère, semble avoir encouragé et parfois provoqué une atomisation des phénomènes religieux loin du contrôle de la rationalité et des grandes religions classiques. Un exemple nous est donné par l’indigénisation chamanique des pratiques missionnaires de l’Eglise catholique parmi les Amérindiens du Nord-Ouest des Etats-Unis. Eléments indigènes locaux et éléments urbains indigénisés y sont associés dans la persistance et une invention culturelles et spirituelles caractérisées par l’innovation permanente. L’efficacité symbolique du chamanisme, intégrant plus que jamais les divers éléments de la modernité n’est pas à considérer comme une survivance pittoresque mais plutôt comme un outil d’avenir.Modernity and the growing global anxiety it has generated have fostered numbers of ancient and new worships liberated from the control of both rationality and the mainstream religions. An example is the growing shamanic indigenization of missionary Roman Catholicism by Native American communities in the Northwest of the United States. Indigenous and indigenised exogenous urban elements are locally associated in producing spiritual and cultural invention and persistence of tradition through change and innovation. The symbolic efficiency of shamanism integrating more than ever the different elements in modernity, should not be seen as a relic of the past, but as a powerful healing tool for the future.La modernidad y la ansiedad creciente que ésta genera, parecen haber animado y a veces provocado una atomización de los fenómenos religiosos lejos del control de la racionalidad y de las grandes religiones clásicas. Un ejemplo nos es dado por la « indigenización » chamánica de las prácticas misioneras de la Iglesia católica entre los Amerindios del Noroeste de los Estados Unidos. Elementos indígenas locales y elementos urbanos « indigenizados » son
Marcelo Ayres Camurça
Full Text Available A tendência de uma sociologia do catolicismo contemporâneo no país nestes últimos anos foi de reduzi-lo a uma instituição política e social movida por interesses de poder no campo religioso e no espaço público, dispensando a mediação de sua cosmologia como pano de fundo de sua atuação. A partir do livro pioneiro de Roberto Romano (1976 que resgata o papel da cosmologia católica na sua intervenção pública, e seguindo os estudos de Sanchis (1994 e Steil (1996 que chamam a atenção para o seu perfil de “estrutura de longa duração” que se (recombina com os estilos das épocas que atravessa, a intenção deste texto é detectar numa hermenêutica de aspectos cruciais da Teologia católica e em dimensões estruturais de sua configuração, condutas e comportamentos pelo qual o catolicismo se faz presente na modernidade. Neste particular, a cosmologia não vai engendrar um comportamento holista-tradicional mas vai expressar-se traduzida para os códigos contemporâneos seja do individualismo, da subjetividade, da cultura psi, da auto-ajuda e da expresividade emocional e corporal. Palavras chave: Catolicismo. Cosmologia. Modernidade. Abstract: The trend in contemporary sociology of Catholicism in Brazil has been to reduce Catholicism to a political and social institution moved by the interests of power in religious as well as public spheres, ignoring the intervening role of its cosmology as a background for its actions and postures. The article takes as a starting point Roberto Romano’s (1976 pioneer work in the field, where the author reinstates the role of catholic cosmology in processes of institutional public intervention. It has equally drawn inspiration from Sanchis (1994 and Steil’s (1996 studies stressing on Catholicism’s institutional profile as a ‘structure of long duration’ that interacts with the various ways of living of different times and spaces. Accordingly, the main goal of the article is to identify in
Pertença/Desafeição religiosa: recuperando antigo conceito para entender o catolicismo hoje (Religious belonging /disaffection: recover the old concept in order to understand Catholicism today - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1230
Pedro Assis Ribeiro de Oliveira
Full Text Available O artigo recupera o par conceitual pertença/desafeição religiosa, usado nas pesquisas de “sociologia religiosa” nas décadas de 1950 e 1960, para analisar os fatores da perda de fiéis pela igreja católica, como demonstra o Censo IBGE de 2010. Toma como referência dados de uma pesquisa realizada na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte em 2012. Com base nessa pesquisa, demonstra que a diminuição de fiéis não se deve a conversão mas a simples trânsito do catolicismo a outra religião. A raiz da desafeição religiosa está na perda de fé na necessidade da mediação sacramental da Igreja para a salvação eterna e no caráter sacrificial da missa. Ela pode ser contrabalançada pelos laços familiares de pertença, mas também estes apresentam sinais de enfraquecimento. O artigo conclui afirmando que, no caso do catolicismo, a pertença religiosa supõe laços afetivos, de fé e de compromisso pessoal do fiel com a igreja. Quando os três se enfraquecem, ocorre a desafeição religiosa propriamente dita. Palavras-chave: Pertença religiosa. Desafeição religiosa. Censo IBGE 2010. Belo Horizonte. Sociologia religiosa Abstract The article revisits the religious conceptual pair belonging / disaffection, used by the "sociology of religion" in the 1950s and 1960s, to analyze the factors of loss of faithful by Catholic Church, as shown in the 2010 census. The text is based on data from a survey conducted in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in 2012. Based on this research, the article shows that the decrease of the faithful is not due to conversion but due to the mere transit of Catholicism to another religion. The root of religious disaffection is the loss of faith in the necessity of sacramental mediation of the Church for eternal salvation and in the sacrificial character of the mass. It can be counterbalanced by the family religious belonging, but data signs that they also are weakening. The article concludes that, in the
Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia
Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Martínez, Anne M.
In 1905 Rev. Francis Clement Kelley founded the Catholic Church Extension Society of the United States of America. Drawing attention to the common link of religion, Kelley proclaimed the Extension Society’s duty to be that of preventing American Protestant missionaries, public school teachers, and o
Anderson José MACHADO DE OLIVEIRA
Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of devotion to so-called saints of color as an element of the construction of hierarchies in the slave society that was built in Portuguese America. Analyzing the discourse contained in hagiographies, we try to think about the role of catechesis for blacks and understand how the rhetoric of conversion sought to promote the subordinate position of Africans and their descendants in colonial Christendom, while they had to adapt to the limits imposed by the action of those individuals in the face of rereading it came to promoting the Catholic symbols.
The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians.
Full Text Available Esbozando tanto la investigación académica actual sobre las “religiones políticas” como la “politización” de la religión, este artículo presenta un estudio del periódico jesuita La Civiltà Cattolica, el cual analiza los años 1922-1943. El foco específico está en el discurso católico sobre la antigüedad romana: como el régimen fascista hizo un amplio de una supuesta herencia “espiritual” de la antigüedad- una idea que fue resumida en la noción de romanità (romanizad, la prensa católica reaccionó definiendo su posición en este debate, especialmente con referencia a la relación entre los paganos y los cristianos, los fascistas y la Roma católica. Este estudio se une al ya amplio cuerpo de investigaciones concernientes al mito fascista de la romanità._________________ABSTRACT:Drawing on current scholarly research on “political religions,” as well as on the “politicisation” of religion, this article presents a study of the Jesuitical periodical La Civiltà Cattolica, of which it analyses the years 1922-1943. The specific focus is on the Catholic discourse on Roman antiquity: as the fascist regime made ample use of a supposed “spiritual” heritage from antiquity –an idea which was summarised in the notion of romanità (“Romanness”-, the Catholic press reacted by defining its position in this debate, especially with regard to the relationship between pagan and Christian, fascist and Catholic Rome. This study joins the already extensive body of research concerning the fascist myth of romanità.
The discourse on twentieth-century urban planning has hidden from view the way religion (re)shaped the urban landscape. By analysing the interaction between urban development and Catholic politics in the southern Dutch provincial cities of Eindhoven and Roermond, this article argues that religious t
Between 1000 and 1500 catholic Europe witnessed many crises in matters of faith,which varied in their nature,scale,and impact,and in their significance.＇Faith＇ and ＇crisis＇ can be linked in this period;but the faith was not seriously under threat.Most of the crises were local or regional,and usually did not last long.These crises never reached a truly critical point and never changed Catholicism＇s hold on medieval Western Europe as a whole.They were always manageable,and managed,one way or another,until the Reformation changed everything.%在1000-1500年间,天主教欧洲见证了信仰事务上的多次危机,它们的性质、规模、影响以及重要性各不相同。在此期间,＂信仰＂伴随着＂危机＂;但信仰没有受到严重的威胁。大多数危机是地方性或区域性的,持续时间也不长,从未达到真正的临界点。它们是可以用这种或那种方法来化解的,并总是能够得到化解,天主教对中世纪整个西欧的掌控因而从未受到严重的威胁,直到宗教改革改变一切。
In its specific moral conclusions ecclesiastical Anglican theology shares much with traditional Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, and Eastern Orthodoxy. In its understanding of the method and purpose of moral theology classical Anglicanism sometimes diverges from earlier Roman Catholicism -- and anticipates the most positive developments in contemporary Roman Catholic moral theology -- while sharing a common theological heritage with Rome in its understanding of natural law, the moral agent, and the moral act. Anglicans situate moral reasoning within the Church of the patristic Tradition, which distinguishes them from Protestants, yet do not accept the Roman magisterium's self-understanding. Consequently, the Anglican mode of moral reasoning has strong affinities with the Orthodox churches.
The author examines the development of the popularity of religious healing in the Netherlands since 1850 and the factors that contribute to its continuation. He focuses upon three traditions: devotional healing in Roman Catholicism, charismatic healing in Pentecostalism and paranormal healing in wes
David Lodge is one of the most renowned modern English writers.He is known for the binary structure in his novels.In this paper,the writer will try to the binary structure in some of his novels to show his reflections on Catholicism and culture conflicts.
Which were the cultural borders of the Dutch-speaking Catholicism between 1830 and the end of the nineteenth century? To what extent were the Netherlands situated within the ‘mental space’ of the Flemish Catholics and, vice versa, how much was Flanders a part of the cultural horizons of the Dutch Ca
Which were the cultural borders of the Dutch-speaking Catholicism between 1830 and the end of the nineteenth century? To what extent were the Netherlands situated within the ‘mental space’ of the Flemish Catholics and, vice versa, how much was Flanders a part of the cultural horizons of the Dutch Ca
Caligiuri, Michael J.
Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.
Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario
This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...
Dosen, Anthony J.
By the mid-19th century, liberal protestant universities had allowed their religious identity to slip away. During the same period, Catholic institutions had maintained their religious identity. Catholicism's stance against modernist thought had held the day. In the 1960s, the Aristotelian-Thomistic hegemony was broken, allowing for a pluralistic…
Dosen, Anthony J.
St. Vincent de Paul is a popular saint in the contemporary practice of Catholicism. This article explains why, providing a historical overview of the many influences in Vincent's life and demonstrating how central Vincentian themes can be incarnated in educational institutions. Vincent's passion--love of the poor--remains a compelling challenge…
Hedrick, B. C.
This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…
fees nonexistent for service members. 38 Fritjof Capra , The Web of Life (New York: Anchor Books, 1996...article/2413/. Capra , Fritjof. The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books, 1996. Catholicism.org. “Patron Saint for the Internet, Isidore of Seville
Creagh, Kevin G.
The purpose of the 1990 apostolic constitution on Catholic higher education entitled "Ex Corde Ecclesiae" (From the Heart of the Church) is to emphasize the dual relationship Catholic institutions have to the academic community as well as the Church. The concepts of Catholicism and university are not to be experienced as polarizing…
Gelb, Richard G.
Santeria is a religion which originated in West Africa and evolved from the syncretism of the culture of the Yoruba people with Catholicism in Cuba. Juanita, who was born in Puerto Rico and taught herself how to read and write, owns a "botanica," a retail shop specializing in Santeria paraphernalia. Juanita is a santera (priestess) in…
One of the outstanding characteristics of Nujiang is the harmony among four major religious beliefs,all signifi cantly present.The historical freedom of religion in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture means that Christianity,Catholicism,Buddhism and Taoism are here.For historical and practical reasons as well as the policy on equality of nationality,the religions peacefully coexist.
Explores the relationship of political and religious belief by tracing religious criticism and political crises since the Age of Enlightenment. Predicts changes in ideological bases of religion in future societies and suggests that civilization will place organized religion (particularly, Catholicism) in a less central role. (Author/DB)
Doan, Dung Hue
Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…
committing to a full- scale security integration that will subordinate it to the U.S. or EU. It favors arrangements among great powers that enable...assaults by Catholicism and Islam. As a consequence the Russian Church became increasingly intolerant. Russia felt lonelier than even before; after...we exclude the crises in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Georgia, no high-level confrontation has unfolded between NATO and Russia on a scale of the Cold War
the American reader will have a starting point for improving the United States - Mexican relationship. Mexican poet and essayist, Octavio Paz once...In describing the Mexican culture, Octavio Paz states, "The Christianity brought to Mexico by the Spaniards was the syncretic Catholicism of Rome...United Statesan Minjgo New York: Alfred A. Knopf 10. Paz , Octavio (1985). The Labyrint of Solitude: Mexico and the United State. New York: Grove Pres
Tausch, Arno; Christian GHYMERS
This empirical study about global Catholicism, based on the data of the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey, starts with a philosophical introduction by Christian Ghymers (Brussels) on the Roman Catholic Church and Enlightenment. The essence of Ghymers’ proposal to democratize the Roman Catholic Church – the ultima ratio of this book - , is based on the ideas of the precursor of the emancipation of Latin America, Francisco de Miranda. According to figures from the World Va...
Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ii Approved for public release; distribution unlimited THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION...11 II . HISTORICAL, POLITICAL, AND GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT ............... 13 A. CATHOLICISM IN VIETNAM THROUGH 1975 ............................... 13...Evolution," in Vietnamese Foreign Policy in Transition, eds. Ramses Amer and Carlyle A. Thayer (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999), 13-16. 21 Charles
In the first half of the nineteenth century in the schools in France, moral education was based on Catholicism.In February 1848 the Revolutionary government decided to make a Republican government and thesystem of universal suffrage. Hyppolyte Carnot（ Minister of Public Education and Religious Affairs） introducednew education law plans and orderd Charles Renouvier to make a new textbook for civic education（Manuel républicain de l’homme et du citoyen）. The new textbook emphasized on“ liberty, ...
The Da Vinci Code gets tills ringing and arouses the curiosity of the Chinese toward Catholicism When China dropped the curtain on The Da Vinci Code, June 9, the blockbuster had already raked in over 104 million yuan, 40 million yuan more than what was anticipated, according to the movie's distributor Huaxia Films. The take was streets ahead of other recent Hollywood films shown on Chinese screens, which average out at around 40
Full Text Available In contrast to traditional portraits of Balmes and Donoso Cortés as the most relevant figures of nineteenth-century Spanish Catholicism, which suppose them in pursuit of the same goals, this article highlights crucial differences between them, focusing upon three aspects: the relationship between catholicism and liberalism, the Church-State relations during the década moderada (1843-1854 and the situation of the Church in Europe in the context of the 1848 Revolutions. Their political projects show how contemporary Catholicism oscillated between intransigence and ideological openness.En contraste con el retrato tradicional de Balmes y Donoso Cortés como las figuras más importantes del catolicismo español en el siglo XIX, que da por sentado que persiguieron los mismos objetivos, este artículo señala diferencias cruciales entre ellos, centrándose en tres aspectos: el nexo entre catolicismo y liberalismo, la relación entre Iglesia y Estado durante la década moderada (1843-1854, y la situación de la Iglesia en Europa en el contexto de las revoluciones de 1848. Sus proyectos políticos muestran cómo el catolicismo de su época osciló entre la intransigencia y la apertura ideológica.
A.-L. Van Bruaene
Full Text Available L. Bogaers, Aards, betrokken en zelfbewust. De verwevenheid van cultuur en religie in katholiek Utrecht, 1300-1600Ch.H., Parker, Faith on the Margins. Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age Pious Deeds and Thoughts. A Revisionist View of the Netherlands’ Catholic PastThis contribution comments upon the renewed interest in the Catholic past of the Netherlands. It discusses two recent books by Llewellyn Bogaers and Charles H. Parker on late medieval and early modern Catholicism, respectively. Both authors reject a teleological conception of history and propose studying the devotion of laymen, laywomen and the clergy from within. Both studies can be considered as part of a wider international – partly anthropologically inspired – trend to reassess the history of Catholicism. The author of this contribution applauds these developments but advocates a stronger integration of the study of religious practices on the one hand, and the study of religious experiences and ideas on the other hand.
Lucília de Almeida Neves
Full Text Available Os anos 1964-1985 se caracterizam pela mobilização popular e pela emergência de uma poderosa vontade de mudança social. Queria-se uma libertação das opressões históricas que a maioria do povo vinha sofrendo. Paradoxalmente, foi um tempo de autoritarismo e desrespeito aos direitos sociais e humanos. Este trabalho pretende analisar o movimento do catolicismo brasileiro, especialmente sua luta por esses direitos. Diversos aspectos atuam e influenciam no contexto político-religioso desse período. A reconstrução do significado desse movimento valeu-se de ampla documentação. Apesar dos entraves e das limitações, o catolicismo fez seu percurso e assinalou um passo importante na trajetória histórica desse período. Na compreensão e análise desse caminho, está a proposta deste estudo.Palabras clave: Catolicismo; Direitos sociais e humanos.ABSTRACTThe years 1964-1985 were characterised by popular mobilisation and the emergence of a powerful wish for social change, in the sence of a liberation from historical oppressions suffered by most people. Paradoxically, it was a time of authoritarianism and disregard for social and human rights. This paper aims at analysing the movemnt of Brazilian Catholicism, especially its fight for those rights. Various aspects play a part in and influence the political and religious context of that period. A wide range of documents was used for reconstructing the meaning of that movement. Despite hindrances and constraints, Catholicism made its way and pointed out an important step in the historical development of the period. This paper aims at understanding and analysing that way.Key words: Catholicism; Social and human rights.
Tackney, Charles T.
Authenticity / الصحة (as-sehah) serves as a criterion or predictor variable in a comparative theological investigation of employment relations parameters in light of social teachings from Sunni Islam and Roman Catholicism. Authenticity finds initial, shared significance in both religious traditions...... because of its critically important role in judgments concerning the legitimacy of source documents. It also stands in both traditions as an inspirational goal for human life. Particular issues of theological method for cross-cultural analysis are addressed by use of insight-based critical realism......, with criterion variable content now available to support research in management spirituality, corporate social responsibility and enterprise sustainability....
Lagman, Regina A; Yoo, Grace J; Levine, Ellen G; Donnell, Kira A; Lim, Holly R
Many Filipinos have a powerful adherence to Catholicism. However, little is known about spirituality and religious involvement of Filipina Americans who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. Ten (n = 10) in-depth qualitative interviews with Filipina immigrant breast cancer survivors identified prayer to be the most common religious practice, followed by prayers by others and spiritual support from the Catholic Church. These findings can help clinicians and researchers understand the role of spirituality and religion in providing comfort and support for Filipina immigrant breast cancer patient as they face the stress of diagnosis and treatment.
Candi K. Cann
Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.
Straipsnyje nagrinėjamos Jėzui Kristui skirtos liaudies pamaldumo praktikos, jų atsiradimo Lietuvoje aplinkybės ir raiška. Tyrimas pagrindė darbo pradžioje išsikeltą prielaidą, kad Jėzui Kristui skirtos liaudies pamaldumo praktikos Lietuvoje atliekamos per gavėnią, birželines pamaldas, šermenis ir mirusiųjų minėjimus. Today the dominant religion in Lithuania is Catholicism. Communities of Orthodox, Evangelical Lutherans and Evangelical Reformats are also present in the country. Since the m...
Full Text Available The essay addresses and examines the approach of Catholic historians to the Shoah between the 1950s and the beginning of the 21st century in Germany. The relationship between German historiography and the Catholic perception of the Shoah is crucial to understanding the relationship between the post-World War II cultural landscape in Germany and what this German Catholic culture gave to contemporary Catholicism. This legacy is even more important since the Catholic Church elected a German pope in 2005, after the long pontificate of John Paul II, which was decisive in reshaping the historical and theological understanding of the Shoah.
social doctrines of Catholicism. “ Historia de los Partidos Políticos Tradicionales de Colombia,” Biblioteca Virtual, Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango, http...from other countries. 80Cesar Augusto Ayala Diago, “La Explosión de Cali: Agosto 7 de 1956,” Revista Credencial Historia , September 1999, http...10986/7091 (accessed 3 April 2014). Ayala Diago, Cesar Augusto. “La Explosión de Cali: Agosto 7 de 1956.” Revista Credencial Historia , September 1999
Avilés, Mauricio González
It applies a mathematical model of solid formation, the model of Avrami-Kolgomorov [Ausloos & Petroni, 2007] to model the time evolution of percentage of adherents of the major religions practiced in Mexico, adjusting the corresponding parameters with available records in the period from 1950 to 2000 [Molina-Hernandez, 2003; INEGI, 2005]. A comparison is made with the application of the model to global trends and concludes that Catholicism is in a marked disaggregation and trends of Christianity in Mexico are similar to global.
Kristiansen, Mette Svart
Fish played an important role in medieval Europe. It formed the basis of a food culture influenced by Catholicism and was a central commodity in the national and international network of trade. Fish of all sorts held a prominent position on the dining tables of peasants as well as kings. Household...... commodity at the international market. The cheap herring from the local markets in the Limfjord supplied the national as well as the international market in the spring in a period with poor food supply generally. Also substantial was the North Sea fishing on herring, whiting and flatfish off the west coast...
Full Text Available This text is a reply to E.A.J. Honigmann and presents another point of view on Shakespeare’s Catholicism. H. Hammerschmidt-Hummel defends her thesis and tries to convince that her book is based on reliable studies and historical sources. She proves that a secret Catholic code in his plays is the most important key to understanding his whole output. Her arguments are based on two evidences: the known or presumed “Catholic sympathies” of the dramatist’s family, friends and patrons and the “Catholic attitudes” embedded in the plays.
Van Poppel Fwa
The factors affecting the modern decline in fertility in the Netherlands are explored using data from censuses from 1930 to 1971 and additional unpublished sources. Particular attention is paid to the influence of religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The author concludes that "a theory formulated by Lesthaeghe and Wilson on the relation between modes of production and secularization and the pace of fertility decline in Western Europe offers--in combination with van Heek's views on the special position of Dutch Roman Catholicism--a starting point for an explanation of why the fertility decline of Roman Catholics, self-employed and agricultural labourers lagged behind." (summary in FRE)
CHINA is a nation of many religions, the main five ones being Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Roman Catholicism and Christianity (Protestantism). There are also some special religions of some minority nationalities or regional beliefs. Buddhism was introduced into China from India around the First Century, and gradually developed into several sects including the Han-language-family Buddhism, the Tibetan-language-family Buddhism (or Lamaism) and Pali-language-family Buddhism. For all of these sects, recent data reveals there are more than 9,500 Buddhist temples and 170,000 monks
Antônio Flávio Pierucci
and lively – is the decline of Catholicism, nothwistanding a number of 123 millions declared Catholics in a population of 190 millions. The religious freedom is accompanied by the “secularization”, and consequently the separation between the State and the Church. The disestablishment is the core of the Brazilian religious modernity. The secularization of the state juridical asset is associated with an extraordinary socio-cultural vitality, and, because of the large number of religious operators, missionaries of the new churches, prophets, gurus and magicians, it is extremely difficult to say whether thee Brazialian population is more or less religious now than a century ago.
Full Text Available This study focuses on the manipulation strategies used in the ‘construction’ of the tourist destination, emphasizing the evolution of some myths indicated by Barthes (catholicism, the imperial past, the concept of ‘Spanish nation’. Actually, some recent guides hint at the rising of a fresh mythology in which local particularism and the century-old desire for self-governance plays an essential role. After outlining the ‘scenography’ or representation model, the suggested analysis aims to prove that both the image of the place and the discursive memory are refl ected in the text through implicit meaning,such as presupposition and irony.
Full Text Available From the 1960s to the 1980s, a time of “tension management” between “the old hegemony of Catholicism and nationalism and the emergence of liberalism and materialism” (Fogarty 1984: 102, Ireland’s self-image as a moral community came under the influence of secularisation. The country’s secularisation process speeded up when it decided to embrace new technologies – and consequently met with huge economic success – in the early 1990s, the results of which for Catholicism in Ireland were the visible and apparently irreversible undermining of the institution. However, I believe that Ireland’s secularisation through economic and psychological transformation affected the Irish Catholic Church as a whole, that is to say, its people as well as the institution. My argument in this article is that, whereas in an Ireland which many viewed as a traditional, well-integrated religious nation, it was possible for Irish Catholics to live their faith in an institutionalised manner through the idealised moral community desirable both to Church and State, economic success and increased internationalisation made this idea of community less sustainable. Indeed, in what has now become a “network society” (Castells 1996: 469, there has emerged a new breed of Catholics who no longer live their religion as a transcendent inheritance but as an immanent choice, and who, therefore, seem to “connect” to their religion more than they “commune” with it.
Full Text Available Pallady Rogovsky was the fi rst Russian doctor of theology and philosophy. While a student of the Slavyano-Greek-Latin Academy directed by the Brothers Lichudes, he left his homeland for the West in order to obtain a full university education. The years which he spent in Europe and particularly in Italy have attracted little notice on the part of Church historians. The study of unpublished materials in Italian archives together with those already published by the Russian researcher E. Shmurlo from the archive of the Propaganda de Fide and the Greek College, which however, remain unnoticed for the great majority of academics, permit us to have an idea of what occupied Rogovsky during this time, as well as to draw a more precise portrait of his personality. Most remarkable is the fact of his priestly ordination in the Roman Catholic Church and the correspondence relating to Rome’s acceptance of his Russian Orthodox diaconal ordination. One of the most informative documents found among those relating to his ordination and addressed to the Roman Curia is the letter of a Russian Catholic, the deacon (later defrocked Petr Artem’ev, in which Artem’ev revealed that Rogovsky already had converted to Roman Catholicism before he left Russia. Equally noteworthy is Rogovsky’s own letter which he composed while in Venice and in which he formulated his plans for the propagation of Roman Catholicism in Russia.
Full Text Available Resumen: En el contexto de la crisis de la cultura europea del siglo XVI con el desplazamiento de sus evidencias culturales en dirección a la Modernidad y su cuestionamiento a la autoridad, se analiza el Concilio de Trento, que ha marcado de manera profunda el perfil del catolicismo romano. La complejidad de los problemas planteados, y su radicalización por la Reforma Protestante, permiten comprender el sentido de las decisiones tomadas y su significado en la conflictiva relación entre Catolicismo y Modernidad en torno al problema de la libertad de conciencia.Abstract: In the context of the crisis of the European culture of the XVI century with the displacement of its cultural evidence towards modernity and its questioning of authority, the Conciliate of Trento, that has profoundly marked the profile of roman Catholicism is nalyzed. The complexity of the proposed problems and their adicalization by the Protestant Reform, allow us to understand the sense of the decisions that were taken, as well as their meaning in the conflictive relation between Catholicism and Modernity regarding the problem of freedom of conscience.
William Elvis Plata Quezada
Full Text Available This article aims to study the religious and political role played by the press to Colombian Catholicism in the nineteenth century. It exposes several hypotheses. The first: in the nineteenth century, the press went from being a marginal instrument for Colombian Catholicism, to become, at the end of the century, a bastion for the Church Romanization, political and religious struggle, catechetical activity and still, social control. Derived from the first hypothesis, it suggests that, despite being permeated by currents mostly traditionalists, the Catholic Church, to decide to use the press for public debate, adopted modern positions, joining a fundamental aspect of modernity: public discussion between proposed different world, society and politics, discussion involving external and internal debate on the definition of “identity” Catholic, which involved several positions and currents. Methodologically was used a hermeneutic - historical analysis of Colombian religious press, the statistical interpretation of the religious press in the archives and libraries of the country and the corresponding application of the critic of sources.
Perrini, Paolo; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Parenti, Giuliano Francesco
Niels Stensen (1638-1686) was a prominent Danish scientist who laid the foundations of paleontology, geology, and crystallography. He undertook a personal search for the truth, rejecting many assumptions of his time, and he struggled to acquire a firm foundation of knowledge based on close observation and rigorous experimentation. Niels Stensen is known eponymously for the discovery of the duct of the parotid gland (ductus stenonianus) but most clinicians are not familiar with his contributions to anatomy beyond his studies on the glands. In 1665, he delivered a lecture in Paris on the anatomy of the brain, the Discours sur l'anatomie du cerveau ("A Dissertation on the Anatomy of the Brain"), which is a seminal investigation on methods in neuroscience. His scientific letter on a hydrocephalic calf represents an early pathophysiological investigation on hydrocephalus. In 1667 Stensen converted to Catholicism and in 1677 he was consecrated titular bishop of Titiopolis. He spent the last years of his life in poverty and traveled continuously trying to bring back northern Europe to Catholicism. This essay highlights the life and the scientific contributions of Niels Stensen, with emphasis on his contributions to neuroscience.
Full Text Available Nowadays we can observe complex interactions between the religious and secular spheres. Several different processes take place simultaneously: the traditionally religious elements function in the secular sphere as if they were part of secular culture; elements of the secular sphere build a specific kind of post-secular religiosity; finally, this post-secular religiosity influences traditional religions. This article focuses on the last stage of these changes. The author's purpose is to describe and interpret the practices we can observe. Because of the complexity of this issue, the analyses are limited to examples taken from the Catholic Church in Germany, where this process seems to be as popular as it is paradoxical. Catholicism realises that the post-secular forms of religiosity are very popular and that many people choose them instead of the traditional Church. It could offer them spirituality based on ages of experience. But instead of making its own spiritual tradition competitive on the spiritual market, Catholicism seems to offer Christianised post-secular goods, or its own traditional elements represented in a secularised form. It seems difficult to predict how it will all end. However, we observe an interesting encounter and interaction between an ‘old’ religion and a new religiosity, which will certainly have impact on further presence of the Church in the society.
Feliciano MONTERO GARCÍA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este trabajo se trata de ofrecer una breve panorámica general de la posición política del catolicismo español en torno a la crisis del 98. Para ello, partiendo de un recordatorio de las directrices generales vaticanas, la "política de León XIII", en su aplicación específica al catolicismo español, atravesado por una profunda división política, el análisis se centra concretamente en el Congreso Católiico Nacional de Burgos (septiembre 1899, en el que se manifiestan de manera especialmente clara, los objetivos políticos y sociales, con todas sus limitaciones y contradicciones, del Movimiento católico español, precisamente un año después del "desastre". En el Congreso de Burgos se reproduce la interpretación católica del "desastre", como punto de partida de una movilización católica renovada, paralela a otros llamamientos y movilizaciones regeneracionistas. Pero una vez más, ese intento movilizador, ahora con un perfil político más definido y ambicioso, choca con el obstáculo de la división política de los católicos. Palabras Clave: Crisis del 98, catolicismo español, Congreso Católico Nacional, política, movilización. ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to offer a brief general parorama of the political position of Spanish Catholicism with reference to the crisis of 1898. Starting with a reminder of the general directives of the Vatican, or the "policy of Pope Leon XIII" in its specific application to Spanish Catholicism, our analysis centers specifically on the National Catholic Congress of Burgos (Sept. 1899. At this Congres the political and social objectives of the Spanish Catholic Movement, with all their limitations and contradictions, were manifested exactly one year after the "disaster". In the Burgos Congress, the Catholic interpretation of the "disaster" was repeated as a starting point for a renovated Catholic mobilization parallel to other calls and mobilizations for regeneration. But once
利玛窦撰著中文版的《交友论》，是西方文化与中国本土文化相融通的尝试，亦即西方文化植根化的行为表现。论著借以文本实践的方式，首次涵盖以耶释儒、以耶超儒的内容，界定了上层路线的传教方式。再者，《交友论》以其文化植根化的精神要义，影响耶稣会士卫匡国的撰著《逑友篇》。二者表面上作“交友原则”的理解，实际上采用自然神学的教义论证方法，行诉诸古儒、传播天主教义之实。总而言之，《交友论》奠定教义上入教的基础，以此彰显论著的历史地位。%Matteo Ricci issued a Chinese edition of writing on Making Friends, which was both trying to make converge western culture with Chinese native culture, and was the manifestation that western culture was rooted in the thought of Chinese Confucians. Besides, the book, with the method of textual practice, firstly dealt with some matters, such as seeking the shared characters between Catholicism and Confucianism, also what the doctrines of Catholicism went beyond Confucianism, later defining the missionary way in the upper class in China. Moreover, the book made a significant influence on the following literature named Article of Seeking Friends from Martino Martini. It seems that both books had an understanding in friendships principles, however, they made use of argumentation from Natural Theology derived from Thomas Aquinas, consequently resorting to the ethical practice of Confucianism and spreading the Catholic faith. In a word, both writings laid the foundation for Chinese initiation based on acknowledging the doctrines of Catholicism, which demonstrated what place the book, On making friends, occupies in history.
Full Text Available En este ensayo queremos proponer una mirada diferente a lo que se ha entendido de la relación entre catolicismo social y los grupos que lo han sustentado. En la década de 1930, por diversos motivos, surgieron desde una especial generación de jóvenes católicos chilenos vinculados al conservadurismo, diferentes grupos que interpretaron a su manera cómo llevar a la práctica las doctrinas sociales dictadas desde Roma. Esas diferentes interpretaciones generaron una división profunda en el catolicismo chileno, que trascendió hasta el mundo de la política y generaron profundos resentimientos que subsistieron por varias décadas. Se propone aquí un recorrido sobre esas posiciones que nos servirá para entender parte del proceso que ha vivido el catolicismo nacional en el siglo XX, y para comprender el origen de algunas posturas que continúan vigentes en aquel espectro católico vinculado a posturas más tradicionales y conservadoras.In this essay, the author proposes a different perspective on what has been understood up to now regarding the relationship between Social Catholicism and the groups that have sustained it. In the decade of the 1930s, for diverse motives, different groups emerged from a special generation of young Chilean Catholics linked to a hard-line conservatism. These groups interpreted in their own ways how to put into practice the social doctrines dictated by Rome. Those different interpretations generated a deep división within Chilean Catholicism which transcended into the world of politics and generated deep resentments that subsisted for several decades. A review of those positions is proposed here, serving to help us understand part of the process that national Catholicism lived out in the 20th century, and comprehend the origin of some positions that are still current in that Catholic spectrum linked to more traditional and conservative postures.
Dalín Miranda Salcedo.
Full Text Available The following article explores the rhetoric of the Catholic Church in Barranquilla during a period of political and juridical instability. The struggle between Liberals and Conservatives in their attempt to build a nation according to their own ideological interests led the Church to adhere to the political project of the Conservative party since it supported and vindicated the principles of Roman Catholicism principles. Therefore, those who rejected the authority of the Church, i.e., the Liberals, were persecuted. In order to counteract social transgressions in this particular context, the Catholic Church in Barranquilla designed a new rhetorical strategy in Barranquilla. Civil marriage, Templar structures, women and the Holy Family archetype were key issues within this particular discourse. In this way, the clergy tried to regulate the daily practices of a society characterized by high levels of illegitimacy and civil marriage.
Clovis Carvalho Britto
Full Text Available This paper is the result of preliminary reflections on the transformation of women's participation in festivities of Brazilian popular Catholicism and it had as research object the Procession of “Fogaréu” in the city of Goiás-GO. Its goal is to understand the place occupied by women in the fabric of religious-symbolic economy and the implications of this strangled voice. / O presente texto é fruto de reflexões preliminares sobre as transformações da participação das mulheres nas festividades do catolicismo popular brasileiro tendo como objeto de pesquisa a Procissão do Fogaréu na cidade de Goiás-GO. Seu objetivo é compreender o lugar ocupado pelas mulheres na trama de economia simbólico-religiosa e as implicações dessa voz embargada.
Patrick Chatelion Counet
Full Text Available This article identifies four “patterns of religion” (E P Sanders in the pseudepigraphic letters of Peter and Jude in order to support the hypothesis of a “Petrine school” (J H Elliott. The first pattern that connects the letters is a Geisttradition (K Aland, guaranteeing continuity of tradition. The second is the interrelationship between faith and ethics (fides quae and fides qua. The combination of sanctification and eschatology is a third pattern connecting the three documents. Finally, two florilegia can be identified (one from the Old Testament and apocrypha, and one from the chokmatic tradition, suggesting a fourth pattern: a warning against ungodliness and infidelity. The existence of a Petrine group could represent a preliminary stage of subsequent Early Catholicism.
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se trata de un estudio histórico y sociológico de las múltiples relaciones entre religión y política en Argentina mostrando un catolicismo que se presenta con propuestas a nivel social, simbólico y generador de identidad nacional. Se profundiza en las nuevas tensiones entre el actual gobierno peronista de Kirchner y la institución católica por el control de las creencias, los cuerpos y la memoria.ABSTRACT: The historical and sociological study of the relations between religion and politics in Argentina reveals a Catholicism that presents itself with a project at the social and symbolic level, and as provider of national identity. This is accentuated in the new tensions between the current Peronist government of Kirchner and the institutional Catholic church over control of beliefs, bodies and memory.
Martin J. Burke
Full Text Available This essay examines arguments made by American Catholics that “Catholicity” promoted progress and that Catholic morality was essential to capitalist societies. These arguments developed in two contexts: as responses to charges that “popery” caused poverty; and in debates over relationships between Catholicism and capitalism. Articulate Catholics compared the social and economic conditions of Catholic and Protestant nations, and argued that the former were preferable. Only the Church, they insisted, could provide the morality necessary for the state and marketplace. While dissenting from the faith of the American majority, these intellectuals did not reject the political and economic ideologies of American culture. Rather, they assimilated them, and adapted them to Catholic ends.
Peter Iver Kaufman
Full Text Available On November 11 and 12, 2011, a symposium held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill honored John M. Headley, Emeritus Professor of History. The organizers, Professor Melissa Bullard—Headley’s colleague in the department of history at that university—along with Professors Paul Grendler (University of Toronto and James Weiss (Boston College, as well as Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, coordinator of the Program in Medieval and Early Modern Studies—assembled presenters, respondents, and dozens of other participants from Western Europe and North America to celebrate the career of their prolific, versatile, and influential colleague whose publications challenged and often changed the ways scholars think about Martin Luther, Thomas More, the Habsburg empire, early modern Catholicism, globalization, and multiculturalism. [...
Full Text Available In the wake of the Enlightenment and heavily influenced by serious challenges in Biblical scholarship to conventional doctrines, various kinds of liberal theology emerged in European Protestantism of both the Reformed and Lutheran traditions. Within the Calvinist-Zwinglian churches of Switzerland, this came to expression in, inter alia, progressive religion which stood in marked contrast to confessional orthodoxy. The novelist Gottfried Keller had been influenced by the German atheistic philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach in the 1840s and shortly thereafter gained prominence as one of the most gifted Swiss writers of his era. In his novella “Das verlorene Lachen”, Keller systematically rejected confessional Reformed orthodoxy, liberal currents in the Reformed churches, Roman Catholicism and Protestant nonconformity as intellectually archaic and out of harmony with the democratic and egalitarian spirit of the times, either products of supporters or a stratified social system which he found unacceptable.
Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed
Full Text Available Rabindranath Tagore, the first Nobel- Laureate in the Indian sub-continent journeyed all spheres of the domain of Bangla Literature in 19th century. His works are viewed in the West as spiritual and mercurial. On the other hand, Born in Victorian England and being influenced by the Oxford Movement, Hopkins decided to convert into restricted form of Catholicism, Jesuit life that made him culturally isolated. Despite having different religious and socio-cultural background their central philosophical concern is in most cases similar. Shading light on their views about nature, devotion to God, spiritual agony, this article goes deep into their values and beliefs and makes an analogy between them. Keywords: Agnosticism, God, Nature, devotee, religion
Alberto Zazo Esteban
Full Text Available Was José Joaquín de Mora a Protestant? Perhaps due to the similarities with Blanco White’s situation, those who believe in Mora’s conversion maintain that Mora abandoned Catholicism during his first exile inLondon. With Mora’s own texts as backing evidence, this article states that Mora’s conversion did not take place till the 1850’s, when Mora was already 70 years old. It is only then that enough signs, such as his likely authorship of an anti-Catholic tract published anonymously in 1855 or his presence in Protestant hymnals, lead us to consider Mora’s conversion as a reality.
Petersen, Nils Holger
The subject of this article is a discussion of Emilio de' Cavalieri's early Baroque music drama, Rappresentatione di anima, et di corpo (The Play of Soul and Body), performed in Rome in 1600 with a particular focus on the ambivalence apparent in this work between the text's explicit pious plea...... for renouncing worldly pleasures on the one hand and, on the other hand, the theatrical, musical, and even textual means in the play intended to delight the audience, but also through this delight to bring about its religious message to the audience. This ambivalence may shed light on broader issues of cultural...... history connected to continuities and changes in Reform Catholicism in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Although seemingly influenced by a general pessimism of the time, the Catholic world could draw on a devotional, aesthetically resourceful, tradition providing ambiguous relief in contemporary...
Guadalupe Cecilia Gómez-Aguado de Alba
Full Text Available This paper analyses the background of the Independence War in New Spain viceroyalty, the political ideology that support the movement, the criollo patriotism and the enlightened Catholicism elements that were influential in the insurgency and in two writers of the early XIX century in Mexico. It studies the catholic influence in some participants of the insurgent struggle, in the political trenches as well in the battle field, their ideas about the catholic religion as an indispensable element to forge the new nation, also the influence of the Guadalupe Virgin cult in the Mexico of nineteen century. Finally, is analyzed the inner contradictions of the insurgent ideologists, they that defended some enlightened values but never considered it as detrimental to catholic religion
Hill, Nicholas J; Siwatu, Mxolisi; Robinson, Alexander K
This research investigates the influence of religious preference and practice on the use of contraception. Much of earlier research examines the level of religiosity on sexual activity. This research extends this reasoning by suggesting that peer group effects create a willingness to mask the level of sexuality through the use of contraception. While it is understood that certain religions, that is, Catholicism does not condone the use of contraceptives, this research finds that Catholics are more likely to use certain methods of contraception than other religious groups. With data on contraceptive use from the Center for Disease Control's Family Growth Survey, a likelihood probability model is employed to investigate the impact religious affiliation on contraception use. Findings suggest a preference for methods that ensure non-pregnancy while preventing feelings of shame and condemnation in their religious communities.
Sergio Rosas Salas
Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the clergy in Puebla (Mexico in defense of the city during the war with the United States, and their ability to reach agreements with civil authorities in order to protect the civilian population, maintain order despite the military occupation, and maintain religious services as a factor of public tranquility. It argues that, thanks to negotiation and agreement between both powers, devotional practice became a fundamental factor in maintaining order. The research was based on local files and a group of published sources dealing with the relations between the U.S. army and the clergy in Puebla, leading to the conclusion that Catholicism was a factor of cohesion in defending the city.
Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the flow of tourism on a national and international scale, emphasizing the role that entertainment tourism and theme parks play globally. Following these preliminary remarks, the second part of the paper presents the positive and negative economic effects of leisure tourism opportunities at the European and regional level. The third part of the paper analyses the environmental aspects of tourism and entertainment tourism. It shows that sustainable tourism development can be an essential condition for the protection of natural and cultural resources. Finally, the fourth part summarizes some of the most important social issues arising from tourism activities, among them the conflict between residents and tourists on the exploitation of resources and the demonstration effect deriving from the consumption of resources. To avoid this spoliation and destruction of the destination (land and local community, the paper suggests a new Humanism based on Catholicism as a way to realize a sustainability utopia.
Afonso Tadeu Murad
Full Text Available This article develops a reflection on the relationship between evangelization, media and marketing, especially in Catholic circles. In the first part, we present the six dimensions of Christian religious experience that are part of evangelization: mystical, ritual, ethics, Cognitive (intellectual, communal and missionary. The article also shows that these dimensions come in different concentration on multiple agents acting in religious media. In the second part, serving up the contribution of science of media and marketing, the article outlines the basic concepts of Media, market and marketing, revealing the relationship of autonomy and interdependence between them. Finally, the text reflects on the possibilities and risks of evangelization in the mainstream media as well as social media. It denounces the misconceptions of "media Catholicism," the reduction of evangelization to the sale of a religious product and a brand. It justifies the use of the media to spread the gospel, founded on values and on dialogue with the great human questions.
Rafael Egidio Leal e Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Catholicism and Afro-Brazilian religions in the colonization of Brazil. We question the way the Portuguese colonists, imbued with the pursuit of profit and adventure, and also of faith and evangelization, dealt with the black slave and his beliefs. This discussion is important to understand the ways of religion and faith in Brazil, and also a form of sociability that was established from the social relations in the colonizing process. By reference to authors like Gilberto Freyre, Darcy Ribeiro, Roger Bastide and Luiz Mott we'll discuss the encounter of European and African culture during colonization and slavery and how this impacted on the formation of the Brazilian people.
西班牙传统上以天主教为国教，与梵蒂冈关系紧密，政教关系与意大利相当一致。文艺复兴以后，西班牙逐步世俗化，走上了政教分离的道路，他教也不断融入。但即便今天，在西班牙仍是天主教一教独大，法律上虽然有诸教平等的原则，却不难看出天主教在该国中的特殊地位和待遇。如何处理各教之间的关系，它显然有自己的一套作法，值得关注。德国也是传统的天主教国家，但是德国是宗教改革的发源地，还是新教的发祥地。它对政教分离原则的信仰较之其他历史上同为政教合一的国家更坚定、更彻底。仅通过一个案例的详析，即可看出其中奥妙。新加坡则是一个新立小国，一开国即实行严格的政教分离原则，把宗教严格限定为私人事务，人人信仰自由，对一些小宗教还给以适当照顾。因此，各种宗教在此都可以找到自己的位置，宗教与世俗相安无事。其经验耐人品味。选此三国为代表，分析当代各国处理政教问题的立场与方法，以便我们借鉴。%In the history, Spain held Catholicism as its national religion and had a close connection with Vatican, so its state-religion relation was similar to that in Italy. After the Renaissance, Spain was secularized gradually. State and Catholicism began to separate and other reli- gions were integrated in Spain constantly. However, Catholicism still holds an outstanding position even in Spain today. Although there is a legal principle of equality among different religions, it is clear that Catholicism is enjoying a special position and treatment. Obviously, Spain has its own way to deal with the relation among different religions and this deserves notice. Germany was also a catholic country in history, but it was the place where Protestant Reformation broke out firstly and the Protestants originated. Its belief in the principle of separation between
Leonardo Tovar Bernal
Full Text Available This article tries to clarify, based on the analysis of some representative texts from the time, the way that the evolution´s notions were materialized on classroom during the conservative dominance of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, before liberalism took power again in 1930. It is not a definitive study; much less, intended to exhaust the topic. It describes a scene about the reaction, not infrequently acrimonious, that evolution and those explanations did not contemplate the divine idea faced within education profoundly affected by Catholic dogma. It also tries to explain the convoluted situation of this case, therefore, although the dominance of notions influenced by Catholicism, there was a small space for those lessons solved to the evolution, as well as others that conjugated elements of both, which is to show a problematic situation, in which the religious feud was not absolute.
Jhon Janer Vega Rincón
Full Text Available The article reflects on the priestly ethos implementing a semiotic analysis of discourse and exploring in depth the Actas y Decretos del primer Concilio Provincial Neogranadino 1868, in its provisions concerning the life and honesty of the clergy, particularly as regards the external appearance the priest. It focuses on aspects such as the ecclesiastical tonsure and habit, examining the relationship between the sensible forms and their ideological content. To understand its historical sense analytical findings, interpretations proposes a line-length, in dialogue with the early days of Christianity, the provisions of the Council of Trent and suffered break the regime of visibility to the realization of Vatican II in the twentieth century. It raises thus the proposed traditionalist Catholicism, founded a clerical regime visual rhetoric in which the expressive elements are placed as symbols of transcendent values, thus expressing certain ethical model for the priest, where the external appearance plays a fundamental role.
Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.
Mir, Tariq Ahmad
Benford's law states that occurence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but follows a logrithimic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Bhah'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits conform to the Benford's law. We found that the adherent data on all the religions, except Christianity, excellently conform to the Benford's law. Further, unlike data on Christainity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obey the law. The study indicates that Benford's law can be used as a statistical tool to test the integrity of the available world religion adherent data which is bound to be suspicious due to infancy of religious demography research.
Mir, T. A.
Benford's law states that the occurrence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but tends to follow a logarithmic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate here numerical data on the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Baha'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits occurring in the distribution conforms to Benford's law. We find that the adherent data of all the religions, except Christianity, excellently does conform to Benford's law. Furthermore, unlike the adherent data on Christianity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations i.e. Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obeys the law. Thus in spite of their complexity general laws can be established for the evolution of religious groups.
In this article, David Bittner explodes the myth, restated in Brideshead Revisited (1945), that Polynesians are "happy and harmless." He does so for the same reason that Evelyn Waugh does: "the grim invasion of trader, administrator, missionary, and tourist" has changed all that (p. 174). Touring Hawaii in July of '09, Bittner was interested to discover some unusual bits of American heritage, but saddened to see how "civilization" and "Americanization" actually seem to have eroded the Hawaiian people's rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Bittner's dual religious heritage-Judaism by birth and upbringing and Catholicism by choice in mid-life-has given him the perspective to apply the lessons of Hawaiian history to his own personal issues, particularly forgiveness.
Full Text Available Protean Shakespeare thrives not only in the theatre, but also through what Bolter and Grusin call remediation. This article analyses the religious stances in the play and then shows how opera, symphony and musical have been adapting the veteran Elizabethan drama since the 18th century. Its main approach is comparative and relies on the history of mentalities. Adaptation is dictated by cultural context, the conventions of the lyrical theatre, social and political factors, and reception. The confusing religious configuration of Shakespeare’s England is reinterpreted kaleidoscopically. The article demonstrates, for instance, that Berlioz and Gounod reread it according to staunch Catholicism in 19th century France, while Bernstein’s West Side Story moves the action to New York in the mid- 50’s, the Capulets and Montagues are replaced with rival Polish and Puerto Rican gangs and religion with cultural identity.
Hispanic lesbian mothers face bicultural tensions that stigmatize their roles as mothers. Religion could produce heightened conflict given their potential incompatibility with the role of a "good mother." In particular, there is a potential for conflict between the definition of a "good mother" set forth in Catholicism and the sexual orientation of Hispanic lesbians. I conducted semistructured in-depth interviews to examine how Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate their Catholic religious identity with aspects of their sexual identity. More specifically, I examined the strategies that Hispanic lesbian mothers use to reconcile or navigate perceived conflict between their roles as a Catholic and as a lesbian. The research questions to be answered were: How do Hispanic lesbian mothers negotiate a Catholic religious and a sexual identity? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers create and maintain a religious narrative? How do Hispanic lesbian mothers redefine religion and spirituality?
Juan Diego Demera Vargas
Full Text Available In the middle of the transformations of religious modernity, Latin American ethnic groups have not remained static to the attacks on the reconstructions of identity, the new ways to fi nd a sense in life, and the recent processes of conversion and evangelization. In the Colombian Andes, the Guambiano ethnic group has received the Protestant missionary’s infl uence, but also it has looked for diverse cultural, symbolic and religious contacts with them. A Pentecostal church from Brazil, with multiple mystical and magical resources, attracts the Guambiano’s interests, and through old Protestant believers it permits the religious manipulation of Catholicism, Protestantism and the indigenous religious practices with dialogue, superposition, and synthesis processes. This religious hybridation appears in an authentic ritual that remakes the concepts and the practices associated to the tradition, the transformation and the cultural memory of this ethnic group
Héctor Fernando López Acero
Full Text Available Lutero se distancia del catolicismo y aglutina a los creyentes alrededor de la fe. Su interpretación de la verdad presiona, sin embargo, en dirección de la autonomía y de la libertad. Ello introduce a la humanidad en la búsqueda incesante de sí misma trasformando la estabilidad religiosa en un naufragio metafísico.Palabras Clave: Naufragio; estabilidad; fe; autonomía; pensar. Stability and Shipwreck Becoming of Modern SocietyAbstractLutero moves away from Catholicism and agglomerate the believers around faith. His interpretation of the truth pressed, however, in the direction of autonomy and freedom. This introduces humanity in the relentless pursuit of itself that transforms the religious stability in a metaphysical shipwreck.Keywords: Shipwreck; stability; faith; autonomy; to think.
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca explorar el impacto que tuvo el Concilio Vaticano II en la Iglesia Católica Argentina, haciendo especial hincapié en el campo de los obispos, desde una perspectiva socio-religiosa que pretende dar cuenta de la complejidad del campo católico. Para ello nos parece adecuado utilizar la noción de "campo" en términos bourdianos. Consideramos que hablar de "campo religioso" nos permite concebir el catolicismo como un espacio social dinámico y atravesado por constantes conflictos y luchas llevadas a cabo por grupos de agentes que intentan dominar dicho campo. Esto nos permitirá caracterizar las diversas posturas que el Concilio acentuará en el catolicismo argentino, actuando de este modo como un propulsor y legitimador de reflexiones y conflictos que existían previamente.This article examines the impact that Second Vatican Council had on argentinian Catholic Church, with special emphasis on the Bishops field, from a socio-religious perspective that seeks to explain the complexity of Catholic field. Therefore, it seems appropriate to use the Pierre Bourdieu's notion of "field". We believe that talk about "religious field" allows us to conceive Catholicism as a dynamic social space spanned by constant conflicts and struggles carried out by groups of agents who tried to dominate the field. Again, this allows us to characterize the positions that the Council emphasized in the Argentine Catholicism, acting as a propellant and legitimizing ideas and conflicts that existed previously.
Sandra Jacqueline Stoll
Full Text Available A BIOGRAFIA de dois médiuns brasileiros - Chico Xavier e Luiz Antonio Gasparetto -, constitui o objeto de reflexão deste artigo, que tem como propósito rever as relações construídas pelo espiritismo no campo religioso brasileiro, salientando, em especial, os diálogos estabelecidos com a religião hegemônica no país, o catolicismo e, mais recentemente, com o universo da chamada "Nova Era". Na trajetória dos personagens em questão, o catolicismo ocupa lugar central: no caso de Chico Xavier como matriz de reinterpretação da doutrina espírita; no caso de Luiz Antonio Gasparetto, como alvo de crítica. Essas duas biografias caracterizam, portanto, momentos distintos da história do espiritismo no Brasil. Ao mesmo tempo, a convivência desses dois modelos evidencia modos concorrentes de sua expressão contemporânea no país.THE BIOGRAPHY of two Brazilian psychics - Spiritist channelers Chico Xavier and Luiz Antonio Gasparetto - is this essay's object of thought, a review of the relationships created by Spiritism in the Brazilian religious milieu, stressing in particular the dialogue with the country's hegemonic religion, Catholicism, and, more recently, with the universe of the so-called New Age. In the life history of the two mediums, Catholicism plays a central role: for Chico Xavier as a matrix to reinterpret the Spiritist doctrine; for Luiz Antonio Gasparetto, as an object of criticism. The two biographies, therefore, characterize distinct moments in the history of Spiritism in Brazil. At the same time, the simultaneous existence of both models evinces competing modes of their contemporary expression in Brazil.
Zanca, José A.
Full Text Available From the decline of Pius XII’s papacy to the end of the Vatican Council II, Catholicism faced an actual internal revolution. This paper seeks to analyse the development of discourse in Argentinian catholic thinkers in the 1950s and 1960s; and the conditions under which this change has been possible. The conciliary period was capable of transforming the inner relational system in catholicism and modifying the ways of sanction and legitimacy of discourse in the field: what can and what cannot be said underwent a radical transformation. Issues such as the role of laymen, pluralism, ecumenical dialogue, the relationship Church-State, etc., set up the coordinates of this intense debate.
Desde el atardecer del papado de Pío XII a la finalización del Concilio Vaticano II, el catolicismo vivió una autentica revolución interna. El trabajo propone analizar la trayectoria de los discursos de la intelectualidad católica argentina en las décadas del cincuenta y sesenta, y las condiciones que hicieron posible ese cambio. El período conciliar fue capaz de modificar el sistema de relaciones al interior del catolicismo y las formas de sanción y legitimidad de los discursos en el campo: lo decible y no decible sufrió una transformación radical. Temas como el rol de los laicos, el pluralismo, el diálogo ecuménico, la relación Iglesia - Estado, etc., formaron las coordenadas de ese intenso debate.
Sumanto Al Qurtuby
Full Text Available This article discusses the role of Catholics, Muslims, and civic associations in the global politics of the Philippines and Indonesia. The two countries have shared in common with regard to the geographical feature (both are archipelagic countries, the diversity of societies and cultures, and the history of colonialism, dictatorship, ethno-religious violence, and political movement, to name but a few. In addition to their similarities, both countries also have significant differences in particular pertaining to religious dominance (the Philippines dominated by Catholicism, while Indonesia by Islam and the structure of their societies: while the Philippines is a class-stratified society, Indonesia has long been ideologized by colonial and post-colonial religious and political powers. Apart from their parallels and distinctions, religion—both Catholicism and Islam—has marvellous role, negatively or positively, in global politics and public cultures, indicating its vigor and survival in global political domains. This comparative paper, more specifically, examines the historical dynamics of the interplay between religion, civil society, and political activism by using the Philippines and Indonesia as a case study and point of analysis.[Artikel ini mendiskusikan peran Katolik, Muslim dan asosiasi warga dalam politik global di dua negara; Indonesia dan Filipina. Kedua negara tersebut memiliki kesamaan, baik dalam hal ciri geografis sebagai negara kepulauan, keragaman masyarakat dan budayanya, sejarah kolonialisme, pemerintahan diktator, kekerasan etnik-agama, serta gerakan keagamaan. Terlepas dari kesamaan tersebut, keduanya memiliki perbedaan, utamanya menyangkut agama dominan (di Filipina didominasi oleh Katolik, sementara di Indonesia oleh Islam dan struktur masyarakatnya (Filipina ditandai dengan stratifikasi masyarakat berdasarkan klas sosial, sementara di Indonesia ditandai dengan ideologi agama kolonial, paska-kolonial, politik. Terlepas
Full Text Available Como cierre prospectivo de un coloquio dedicado al catolicismo social, este artículo reconoce, en su primera parte, la crisis del discurso social de la Iglesia. Crisis no solo actual, sino también en el origen e historia de una tradición que se estima es uno de los antecedentes de la renovación conciliar, que en su diálogo con el mundo invita a la entrada del tiempo en la teología y en la ética. El porvenir de esta tradición en crisis requiere del recurso a la razón filosófica y a la realidad histórica. Por ello en la segunda parte se recogen los aportes de la filosofía política de Paúl Ricoeury de Charles Taylor en tres asuntos claves: lo bueno respecto de lo justo, el holismo frente al atomismo, los derechos colectivos frente a la exclusividad de los derechos individuales. Finalmente, en la tercera parte recogiendo su legado y estos debates filosóficos se reflexiona sobre el aporte del catolicismo social latinoamericano a un continente en el que los procesos de mercantilización, despolitización e individualismo, que acompañan esta modernidad tardía globalizada, amenazan con la disolución de nuestras comunidades históricas en sociedades sin atributos y sin identidad cultural. Las tradiciones vivas del continente, seculares y religiosas, y entre ellas el catolicismo, son el mayor recurso para enfrentar este desafío que suma a la cuestión social el de la cuestión liberal.As a closing perspective at a colloquium dedicated to Social Catholicism, this article recognizes, in the first section, the crisis in the social discourse of the Church. This crisis is not exclusively a present reality, but is also found in the origins and history of a tradition that is considered to be one of the precedents to conciliar renewal, which in its dialogue with the world invites modern times into theology and ethics. The future of this tradition in crisis demands recourse to philosophical reason and historical reality. So, in the second part
Flávio Munhoz Sofiati
Full Text Available O texto analisa as diferentes vertentes da Igreja Católica no Brasil, apresentando-as a partir de teóricos da própria Igreja das ciências sociais. Em seguida, discute-se a tendência ligada à Teologia da Libertação, chamada de Cristianismo da Libertação. Afirma-se que o conceito de “Tendências Internas do Catolicismo” é mais apropriado para compreender os processos internos do catolicismo e que, atualmente, a Teologia da Libertação vem perdendo espaço no cenário religioso. Isso ocorre em virtude de questões internas – como o fortalecimento do movimento carismático – e externas – como o advento do neoliberalismo. Diante dessa situação, esse segmento assume uma nova postura de atuação, que tem como idéia central a construção de mudanças “de baixo para cima” e em longo prazo. Conclui-se que houve um recuo programático dessa tendência que passa a priorizar sua ação no interior da Igreja e a valorizar temas como espiritualidade, ecologia e cultura em detrimento da dimensão política. Palavras-chaves: Sociologia da Religião. Catolicismo. Tendências católicas. Teologia da libertação. The text analyzes different aspects of the Catholic Church in Brazil, presenting them through theories of the church, from social sciences. After that there is a discussion about the tendency connected to the Theory of Freedom, so called “Freedom Cristianism”. It is said that the concept of “Inner Theories of Catholicism” is more appropriate to understand the inner processes of the Catholicism and that, nowadays, the Freedom Theory has been loosing space inside the religious scenery. This occurs due to inner reasons – such as the growing strength of the charismatic movement – and also due to external reasons – as the ascending of Neoliberalism. With that, this segment gets to a new posture of action which has as central idea the“from down to up” changes, during long terms. After all, there is the
Ю. В. Хитровська
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.
英格兰早期由于信仰天主教而禁止离婚。16世纪亨利八世的离婚风波最终导致了英格兰宗教改革，建立了英国国教，同时也深深地冲击了婚姻立法领域。自此，英格兰开始踏上离婚改革之路，本文通过对史料的梳理，从而揭示英格兰世俗和宗教在婚姻家庭领域的力量对比以及最终确立过错离婚的历程，并对此改革进行分析。%Early England forbad divorce because of the conviction of Catholicism. Since Henry Ⅷ＇s divorce crisis in 16th century caused religious reform and the establishment of Anglicanism, so as to impact the field of marriage legislation. Since then, England began to embark on the road of divorce reform. This paper makes a comparison of secular and religious force in the field of marriage and family, the course of the fault-based divorce, and an analysis of this reform.
Full Text Available Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism. We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1, American Jews (study 2, and American Catholics (study 3. The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated.
Full Text Available The 1912 poem "A Dance of Death" by Michael Field (pen name of Katherine Bradley and her niece Edith Cooper depicts Salome in an alternate version of the biblical story: this Salome dances on a frozen river, falls through the ice, and is decapitated on a jagged edge. Nonetheless, her beautiful head continues dancing over the frozen river. This poem is highly unusual, especially in the context of the other poems in the postconversion volume Poems of Adoration, because it questions, rather than submits to, authority. In re-writing a familiar Christian tale, as well as a familiar decadent theme, Field uses the poem to assert the supremacy of their artistic vision, which (despite their ardent Catholicism cannot be subject to any law outside themselves. Like the continually dancing head of Salome, which continues to create beauty even after nature (and perhaps God has struck it down, the poet is subjugate only to her own law and creates without boundaries or restrictions on her art. Bradley and Cooper were acutely aware of their authorial persona (actively taking not only a masculine but also a singular poetic identity, and their mode of reconciling the apparent contradictions of this identity are mirrored in their presentation of Salome in a "Dance of Death."
This essay tries to show that, in the Berlin of the Weimar Republic, Protestant hospitals were built not only to relieve the suffering of the population, but also out of a sense of inferiority to a reinvigorated Catholicism. Hospitals were consequently not only places of care and healing but also of denominational self-assertion. Based on Olaf Blaschke's thesis of a "second denominational age," this contribution tries to demonstrate that the responsible Protestant agents did not make anti-Catholic proclamations at every occasion and in all the media. The founders of the "Protestant Hospital Building Association," which this essay investigates, made deliberate use of anti-Catholic resentment, expressing it boldly when approaching the Protestant elites, while playing it down deliberately when addressing the people of Berlin. With a view to the severe economic crisis and mass unemployment prevailing from 1930, they justified the building of new hospitals with the need to create work places, without making recourse to the denomination argument. The political situation, the addressees and the hope for economic success seem to have informed the representation of denominational resentments decisively. Confessionalism therefore seemed to have been not as much a question of ideology as one of strategy.
Full Text Available The presence of the Catholic framework in J.R.R. Tolkien’s legendarium has long been the subject of debate. Various Tolkien scholars and literary critics have already written different critical interpretations to consider whether to assign The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion to Christian Mythology or not; numerous attempts have been made to clarify this statement. Therefore, the reasons, why it should be included in this category are many and various. There are several examples in Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings that can be studied in relation to Christian themes and motives. Consequently, the aims of this paper are to study the possible similarities of Varda, Queen of the Stars, and Galadriel, the Lady of Light, to the Blessed Virgin Mary in Christian contexts. Moreover, to study the influence of Tolkien’s strong faith, which shaped his Catholic imagination, all through his legendarium, and subsequently leads us to observe Tolkien’s complete obedience to Catholicism, and especially, his profound devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Keywords: Mythology, Christian literature, Catholic imagination, Tolkien’s legendarium,
Full Text Available Since the middle of the 60’s, Catholicism experimented in Argentina a deep internal crisis: vast secular and ecclesiastic groups radicalized and their criticisms were growing in the following years. By the second middle of the 70’s the ecclesiastical hierarchy fixed on to reorganize the Church on Conservative grounds and to discipline the more radical groups inside the Catholic ground. I attempt to analyze the theological, liturgical, and pastoral characteristics of this process during the first years of the latter Military Dictatorship.
Desde mediados de la década de 1960, el catolicismo argentino sufrió una aguda crisis interna, caracterizada por la radicalización de vastos sectores, tanto clericales como laicos, cuyos cuestionamientos fueron creciendo con el correr de los años. Desde los años setenta, la jerarquía eclesiástica estableció como objetivo central la reorganización de la Iglesia sobre bases conservadoras, lo que implicaba disciplinar a los sectores más radicalizados del campo católico. En este trabajo se analizan las características que adoptó dicho proceso en la teología, la liturgia y la pastoral durante los primeros años de la última dictadura militar.
Full Text Available The study takes the contact hypothesis of social psychology as its starting point and examines a Swabian-Hungarian ethnic village as an example.The contact hypothesis suggests that contact or interaction between members of different groups under the right circumstances diminishes prejudice and hostility between those groups and mitigates stereotyping and discrimination. However, for this effect to occur, certain conditions must be met: the parties should be of equal status, have a common goal, cooperate, receive the support of authorities and maintain a personal relationship, since this is the only way long- term success can be achieved. Pursuit of mutual assimilation, physical proximity and time can also help people to accept each other and adopt coexistence. These conditions have been met in the case of the Swabian and Hungarian ethnic groups living in the village of Dunabogdány. Social and political processes, Catholicism and the fact that the German language has been added to the local school curriculum have also contributed to the successful outcome.
Haas, A M
The priest as physician of the soul and the doctor as physician of the body, this ancient model of christian mentality was adapted by Johannes Scheffler-better known under his pseudonym Angelus Silesius-both in his biography and his literary works. Born 1624 in Breslau, he graduated to a Doctor philosophiae et medicinae and became physician in ordinary to an orthodox-Lutheran earl. Contacts to the esoteric Christianity, which was based on theosophy, mysticism and the physics of Johann Böhme, let Scheffler quit his profession. He converted to Catholicism in 1653 and was ordained as a catholic priest in 1661. His two main manuscripts, the Cherubinische Wandersmann and the Heilige Seelenlust, a poetical dyptichon, show the two possibilities of reaching the mystical recognition of god, either the capability of reason or the ability of emotion. The centre of all is the unio mystica, the union with god. Its a mysticism of the spontaneity of salvation, which occurs in a variety of prospects, metaphors and paradoxical language.
Carbajal López, David
Full Text Available In New Spain in the late xviiith century, the cult of the Blessed Sacrament is renewed with the creation of the congregations of coachmen for the viaticum, and of the alumbrado of the Blessed Sacrament. Founded in the middle of the reform of the confraternities in the Hispanic world, they show us the contradictions of the projects of the ilustrados, who recognize the value of this fundamental devotion to Catholicism. They also let us realize the growing importance of the visibility of social hierarchies for both, cofrades and reformers.En la Nueva España de finales del siglo xviii, el culto del Santísimo Sacramento se renueva con la creación de las congregaciones de cocheros del viático y del alumbrado y vela del Santísimo. Fundadas en el marco de la reforma de las cofradías en el mundo hispánico, nos muestran las contradicciones de los proyectos de los “ilustrados”, quienes reconocen la utilidad de una devoción fundamental para la catolicidad. Asimismo, dan cuenta de la importancia creciente de la visibilidad de las jerarquías sociales tanto para los cofrades como para los reformadores.
Carla Simone Rodeghero
Full Text Available O artigo analisa e compara o anticomunismo católico no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos no período da Guerra Fria. Depois de situar o campo de estudos constituído no Brasil sobre o tema, discute as relações entre americanismo e anticomunismo, procurando situar o catolicismo norte-americano neste meio. Utiliza-se de uma produção recente sobre cultura da Guerra Fria nos Estados Unidos. Levanta, finalmente, uma série de elementos de comparação sobre a forma que o anticomunismo católico assumiu nos dois países.This article analyses and compares the Catholic anticommunism in the Brazil and in United States during the Cold War years. After showing the recent studies produced in Brazil about the fight against communism, it discusses the relationship between Americanism, anticommunism and Catholicism. This step is based on recent historical research about the Cold War culture in the United States. Finally, it makes comparisons between the forms that anticommunism assumed in each country.
As a branch of Christianity, the Russian Orthodox Eastern Church has some distinctions different from Protestants and Catholicism,. These features show its anaclisis of the secular regime, spissated mysticism color and thinking highly of God humanity principle, spirit cultivation and religious rites, etc. The Orthodox had a far - reaching influence upon Russian culture and history. It was a parent culture of the Silver Age and it lead and moulded the basic spirit of religion philosophy in the Silver Age.%作为基督教的分支,俄罗斯东正教具有区别于新教与天主教的特征,这些特征表现在对世俗政权的依附性、浓重的神秘主义色彩、重视神人性原则、重视灵修、重宗教仪式等。东正教对于俄罗斯文化与历史产生了极其深远的影响,它是俄罗斯白银时代宗教哲学逃脱不掉的＂母体文化＂,引导和塑造了俄罗斯白银时代宗教哲学的基本精神取向。
Full Text Available From the 1930s through the 1960s, Dublin’s development occurred at its periphery: wheels of narrow roadways punctuated by green spaces provided the low-density frameworks for terraced residential boxes surmounted by pitched roofs and fronted by pocket gardens. Vast structures of ecclesiastic authority, Catholic (determinedly revivalist church building and the suite of Catholic (tentatively modernist schools were presented as support structures for mass housing, thereby completing the image and experience of Dublin’s new mid-twentieth-century suburbs.Taking the 1950s genesis of one vast north Dublin neighbourhood, Raheny/Coolock, as a case study, this paper sets previously unexamined archive material from the local Catholic bishopric and Dublin Corporation alongside critical thinking about Irish Catholicism and postwar suburbia generally. Startling hand-drawn maps by local priests reveal how John Charles McQuaid, archbishop of Dublin from 1940–71, influenced Dublin’s planning processes and controlled the architectural flavour of swathes of developing parishes. This paper seeks to unpick the variously silent and active roles of the architect, the planning office, the patron and the user, in the making of the more recent, everyday built environment that is Irish suburbia.
Full Text Available After the Holy Virgin had appeared eighteen times to Bernadette Soubirous in 1858, Lourdes in the south of France grew into the most popular and most visited place of pilgrimage in the western Christian world. Today millions of pilgrims come to Lourdes each year for various religious reasons. Quite a few of them suffer from a physical or mental illness. One of the reasons why they come to Lourdes is the possibility of a miraculous healing, for instance by drinking the healing water of Lourdes, or even bathing in it. Recently, two directors created works of art about and at the holy place of Lourdes, which reflect their convictions concerning miracles and healings. In 2009 the young female Austrian director Jessica Hausner shot her French movie Lourdes, in 2011 the renowned French male director Robert Hossein presented his spectacle Une femme nommée Marie. Jessica Hausner was raised in a Catholic family, but lost her faith and became an atheist, whereas Robert Hossein grew up in an atheist family and converted to Catholicism later in life. Their works offer rather opposite interpretations of (Christian conceptions such as supernatural healings and salvation.
John L. Murphy
Full Text Available The limited critical attention given J.F. Powers (1917-99 has concentrated on his engagement with Catholicism. Powers also applies Irish American motifs to his fiction. This article analyzes the depiction that Powers and his wife Betty Wahl (1924-88, who left postwar America to live on and off in Ireland, made of the Irish in both their homeland and in America. Powers only once directly addressed his own experience as a sporadic Irish resident, in the final story, “Tinkers,” anthologized in his third and last collection in 1975. Wahl’s writing career proved limited. Her only novel, Rafferty and Co. (1969, semi-fictionalizes the Powers family’s decision to move to Ireland, for a series of extended stays in the 1950s and early 1960s. This article examines these writers’ dramatization of postwar Ireland as expatriate Americans. Powers’ story and Wahl’s novel depict the stresses of living in suburbs south of Dublin while struggling to sustain a countercultural yet conservative idealism. That combination drove the family away from the Midwest, in both fiction and fact, to settle in an economically destitute and patriotically insecure Ireland.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Full Text Available »Ljubezen skozi želodec« is the first Slovenian lifestyle cooking show hosted by spouses, publishers and foodies Valentina Smej Novak and Luka Novak. The aim of the article is to determine what gender, class and national representations are reproduced by the show. The analysis of four seasons of the cooking show demonstrates that, in regard to social class and gender, »Ljubezen skozi želodec« can be compared to similar shows abroad, such as those hosted by Jamie Oliver and Nigella. Masculinity and femininity are constructed through traditional roles where the ideology of family and care for the children is vital. All this corresponds to the Slovenian socio-cultural environment characterized by Catholicism. Class identities are the reflection of Bourdieu’s taste of luxury and a contemporary omnivorous taste of an environmentally conscious consumer. As for the national angle, the Central-European and partially also the French and Italian identity are stressed rather than the Slovenian one, which puts Slovenia on the socio-cultural map of the Central Europe and at the same time negates the culinary influence of the former Yugoslav republics.
Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.
El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.
Fernández Juárez, Gerardo
Full Text Available There are cults in Andean societies that are alien to the Catholic orthodoxy, yet assimilated as popular manifestations of Catholicism under the tutelage of the Church. The case of "Niño compadrito", venerated in Tambo del Montero, near Plaza de Armas in Cuzco, Perú, illustrates the personality and attributes with which devotees endow holy images in the country. This cult has the characteristic features of the indigenous and Mestizo context in Cuzco to which it belongs.Las sociedades andinas presentan formas de culto peculiares que no encajan con la ortodoxia católica, a pesar de ser tutelarmente asimiladas por aquella como manifestaciones populares de catolicismo. El caso del "niño compadrito", figura venerada en la zona de Tambo del Montero, cerca de la Plaza de Armas del Cuzco (Perú, es un ejemplo más de la personalidad y atribuciones que a las imágenes sagradas otorgan sus devotos. El "niño compadrito" esgrime cualidades propias del dominio mestizo e indígena en que se contextualiza su culto en la ciudad de Cuzco.
Arbeteta Mira, Letizia
Full Text Available The custom of offering jewels to representations of the sacred beings of Roman Catholicism, specially to statues of Mary, has resulted in the accumulation of truly artistic treasures in Spain's churches and shrines. The author examines the way these offerings begin, grow, wane, and die out by taking as instances those found at the shrines of Our Lady of Guadalupe (Cáceres and Our Lady of the Pillar (Saragossa. Besides calling attention to a body of first rate material for the study of Spanish jewelry —material which comes from Spain's colonies as well as from the mainland—, the paper shows, like many others, how an anthropological approach can come up with insights that art historians can only ignore at their peril.La costumbre de ofrecer joyas como exvoto, especialmente a las imágenes marianas, ha dado origen a la acumulación de auténticos tesoros en los santuarios. Se analiza aquí cómo nacen, se acrecientan, menguan y mueren estos conjuntos, tomando como ejemplos los santuarios de Guadalupe (Cáceres y el Pilar de Zaragoza. Se demuestra cómo, una vez más, la Antropología aporta elementos que no debe desdeñar la Historia del Arte, además de constituir un material de primer orden para el estudio de la joyería hispánica, al incluir piezas tanto peninsulares como coloniales.
田俊武; 儒帅哲师; 廿一行
The early 20th century saw two great events:The First World War and the October Revolution. Influenced by the two events, the religious outlooks of the western writers underwent great changes and they took various forms such as religious nihilism, Eastern Orthodox Catholicism and oriental Taoism etc., which are expressed in their works in either an obvious or a hidden way. These different schools of religious thoughts promoted western literature to the era of modernism.%第一次世界大战和"十月革命",是20世纪初叶的世界所经历的两件惊天动地的大事.在这两个大事件的影响下,西方作家的宗教观发生了深刻的变化,纷纷转向宗教虚无主义、存在主义宗教、东正教、东方道教等.这些多元的宗教观或隐或显地在西方作家的作品中呈现出来,促使西方文学走向非理性的现代主义.
Full Text Available Resumen: El trabajo que presentamos pretende acercarse al tema del miedo, y concretamente el miedo al diablo entre los neocatecumenales. Para llevar a cabo este estudio nos hemos basado en los discursos ofrecidos por un grupo de informantes pertenecientes a las comunidades neocatecumenales de Huelva y Sevilla (España. Estos, a través de su discurso religioso, dejan entrever una faceta que, hoy en el siglo XXI, podría estar casi olvidada o relegada a la consideración únicamente de unos pocos. Nos referimos al miedo al diablo -al "maligno"- y a todo lo que él representa dentro del catolicismo: no poder encontrarse con Dios, negar al Creador, en definitiva quedar excluido de la salvación eterna si uno cae atrapado en sus redes. Abstract: The present paper aims to approach the subject of fear, specifically fear of the devil among the Neocatechumenal Way. To carry out this study we have based on the speeches given by a group of respondents belonging to the Neocatechumenal communities of Huelva and Seville (Spain. These, through their religious discourse, a facet that glimpse, now in the XXI century, could be almost forgotten or relegated to the consideration only of a few. We refer to the fear of the devil -the "evil"- and all that he represents within Catholicism: could not we meet God, deny the Creator ultimately be excluded from eternal salvation if one falls caught in their nets.
Full Text Available Looks at how Western law was interpreted and applied to perceived cannibals and corsairs in the Spanish Caribbean in the 16th and 17th c., by Spanish jurists in the period, and at the development of the cannibal and corsair image in Spanish culture. Author outlines the convergence of terms suggesting a growing semantic linkage between certain indigenous peoples, specially the famed "Carib cannibals", and foreign, mostly Western European, corsairs poaching on Spanish wealth. He describes how of the Caribs, said to be cannibals, involved in piracy, an image was constructed of not only cannibals, but also greedy criminals, or rebelers against Catholicism, in order to (legally justify punishments or wars against them, and thus Spanish rule. He then discusses how of French, British, and other corsairs in the Caribbean involved in piracy against the Spanish, an in some ways similar image was painted of fanatical canine types ruled by appetites, and also of anti-Catholic heretics and criminals, in order to justify punishments as well as the Spanish claim on rule of the Caribbean.
El derecho al aborto en discusión: la intervención de grupos católicos en la comisión de salud de la legislatura de la ciudad de Buenos Aires The debate on abortion rights: the involvement of catholic groups in the health committee of the Buenos Aires legislature
Full Text Available El presente trabajo da cuenta de la participación de grupos católicos especializados en bioética y "bioderecho" en los debates parlamentarios sobre aborto no punible en la Comisión de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a fines de 2008. Teniendo en cuenta las múltiples transferencias e influencias entre los campos político y religioso en Argentina, se intentará abordar la estrategia política que ciertos actores del catolicismo utilizan para consolidar la hegemonía simbólica de la Iglesia Católica en la regulación de la vida de los individuos, especialmente de las mujeres y la utilización de estas estrategias como apuestas de estos grupos para mantener su lugar hegemónico al interior de la Iglesia Católica.This paper discusses the participation of Catholic groups, specialized in bioethics and biolaw, in parliamentary debates on non-punishable abortion, in the Health Committee of the City of Buenos Aires, in late 2008. Taking into account the multiple transfers and influences between the political and the religious spheres in Argentina, the article examines the political strategy that certain actors of Catholicism use to consolidate the symbolic hegemony of the Catholic Church by regulating the life of individuals, especially women; and the use of these strategies as a way to maintain their hegemonic position within the Catholic Church.
Alberto Zazo Esteban
Full Text Available ¿Fue protestante José Joaquín de Mora? Quienes lo afirman asumen, quizá por semejanza con el caso de Blanco White, que Mora abandonó el catolicismo durante su primer exilio londinense. Apoyándose en sus propios textos, este artículo sostiene que la conversión no se produjo hasta la década de los cincuenta, cuando el autor contaba ya setenta años. Solo entonces se acumulan indicios como su presencia en los himnarios protestantes o la publicación anónima de un tratado anti-católico en 1855, cuya más que probable autoría desaconseja seguir dudando del reformismo de Mora. / Was José Joaquín de Mora a Protestant? Perhaps due to the similarities with Blanco White’s situation, those who believe in Mora’s conversion maintain that Mora abandoned Catholicism during his first exile inLondon. With Mora’s own texts as backing evidence, this article states that Mora’s conversion did not take place till the 1850’s, when Mora was already 70 years old. It is only then that enough signs, such as his likely authorship of an anti-Catholic tract published anonymously in 1855 or his presence in Protestant hymnals, lead us to consider Mora’s conversion as a reality.
Jordi Roca i Girona
Full Text Available El artículo pretende llevar a cabo un análisis de la escuela, incidiendo en el valor de la educación y los contenidos de ésta con relación a chicas y chicos, bajo el franquismo, la etapa de la historia de España comprendida entre 1939 y 1975. Se hace especial hincapié en las bases ideológicas características del período, de corte católico tradicional, fundamentalmente en sus inicios, así como en algunas de las consecuencias de todo ello en la presente conceptualización y relaciones de género en la educación de la España actual.This article intends to analyze school under Franquism, the period of the History of Spain between 1939 and 1975. The analysis focuses on the value of education and its contents in relation to boys and girls. The ideological bases that characterize this period –deeply involved with traditional Catholicism, particularly during its outset– and some of the consequences this brings to present conceptualization and to gender relationships in Spain’s education, are given especial emphasis.
Braga, Isabel M. R. Mendes Drumond
Full Text Available The present paper deals with a number of Jewish and new Christian people, descendants of Peninsular Jews, who arrived in Portugal in the 16th century and consequently converted to Catholicism. The source material used in this study are the Books of Converted Jews that belonged to the Holy Office of Inquisition. These books provide information on the nature of the people (age, status, birthplace, place of residence, the way they experienced their religion in different parts of Europe, and the true or apparently true reasons for their conversion.
Este artículo aborda el tema de algunos judíos y cristianos nuevos descendientes de judíos peninsulares que, en el siglo XVII, llegaron a Portugal y se convirtieron al catolicismo. Las fuentes para este estudio son los libros de convertidos del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Éstos nos proporcionan datos acerca de las personas (edad, estado civil, lugar de nacimiento y de residencia y, especialmente, sobre la vivencia del judaísmo en diferentes partes de Europa, así como sobre las motivaciones, reales o aparentes, para la conversión.
Murphy, Timothy F
Some commentators argue that conception constitutes the onset of human personhood in a metaphysical sense. This threshold is usually invoked as the basis both for protecting zygotes and embryos from exposure to risks of death in clinical research and fertility medicine and for objecting to abortion, but it also has consequences for certain religious perspectives, including Catholicism whose doctrines directly engage questions of personhood and its meanings. Since more human zygotes and embryos are lost than survive to birth, conferral of personhood on them would mean - for those believing in personal immortality - that these persons constitute the majority of people living immortally despite having had only the shortest of earthly lives. For those believing in resurrection, zygotes and embryos would also be restored to physical lives. These outcomes do not mean that conception cannot function as a metaphysical threshold of personhood, but this interpretation carries costs that others do not. For example, treating conception as a moral threshold of respect for human life in general, rather than as a metaphysical threshold of personhood, would obviate the prospect of the afterlife being populated in the main by persons who have never lived more than a few hours or days.
Leandro Garcia Rodrigues
Full Text Available This paper aims to show a little bit of Alceu Amoroso Lima’s (1893-1983 spiritual trajectory, the mainly catholic leadership in Brazil throughout XX century. Amoroso Lima was a victim of the Agnosticism lived in the beginning of that century, exactly when he rediscovered religion as a source of life and turned into Catholicism. All these changes happened during his strong friendship with two important intellectuals of that time: the writer Jackson de Figueiredo and the theologian Father Leonel Franca. Amoroso Lima kept a non-stopping Correspondence with them, and then faced a kind of “spiritual battle” through six years, giving another significance to the Epistolography as a literary gender. This research follows the “desertic paths” faced by Amoroso Lima up to his final meeting with God, the doubts and certainties, faults and lucky hits, specially in the peculiar difficulties of those who believe in God.Keywords: theology; literature; spirituality; conversion.
de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre Ávila, Raúl
Niels Stensen (1638-1686) was born in Copenhagen. He took courses in medicine at the local university under the guidance of Professor Thomas Bartholin and later at Leiden under the tutelage of Franz de la Boë (Sylvius). While in Holland, he discovered the existence of the parotid duct, which was named Stensen's duct or stenonian duct (after his Latinized name Nicolaus Stenon). He also described the structural and functional characteristics of peripheral muscles and myocardium. He demonstrated that muscular contraction could be elicited by appropriate nerve stimulation and by direct stimulation of the muscle itself and that during contraction the latter does not increase in volume. Toward the end of 1664, the Academic Senate of the University of Leiden awarded him the doctor in medicine title. Later, in Florence, he was admitted as a corresponding member in the Academia del Cimento (Experimental Academy) and collaborated with the Tuscan physician Francesco Redi in studies relating to viviparous development. In the Tuscan capital, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and was shortly afterwards ordained in the clergy. After a few years, he was appointed apostolic vicar in northern Germany and died in the small town of Schwerin, capital of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on November 25, 1686. He was beatified on October 23rd, 1988.
Full Text Available The passage of the 1929 Censorship of Publications Act marked a significant development for the inclusion of Irish Catholic teaching into the Free State’s legal system. Notwithstanding this, many on the fundamentalist wing of Irish Catholicism felt let down by the scope of the Act. Censorship, under the Act, was limited to issues of sex, sexual morality, contraception and abortion and excluded attacks on the Catholic faith and the denial of God, all of which were viewed as blasphemy, and therefore the legitimate focus of censorship, by many of those who had lobbied for the extension of censorship. The Catholic Truth Society of Ireland (CTSI was in the vanguard of lobbying for the introduction of the 1929 Act and played the leading role in its policing. The CTSI was unstinting in its efforts to officially and surreptitiously extend censorship. This article traces the correspondence of the CTSI with politicians, the Catholic hierarchy and a leading print distributor, in order to demonstrate how the organization sought to extend literary censorship to encompass blasphemy, through the application of moral, economic and political pressure. A campaign that had at its heart the desire to control the actions and thoughts of the Irish people.
Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H
Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.
Díaz-Marcos, Ana María
Full Text Available Rosario de Acuña’s articles and essays in the freethinking press illustrate her radical and heterodox writing and criticism of Catholicism. The writer supported the free-thinking cause and stressed that women should actively participate in the debate. The gender perspective connects the two main intellectual concerns of this writer who believed that the emancipation of women and religious liberty were the two burning issues of the age. Acuña wrote numerous essays and articles that actively defended the need to remove barriers between sexes in order to aspire to an ideal of equality and fraternity.La colaboración de Rosario de Acuña en la prensa librepensadora define su escritura radical, heterodoxa y crítica con el catolicismo. La autora apoyó la causa del librepensamiento recalcando que la mujer debía ser participar activamente en el debate. Este matiz de género permite unir dos de las preocupaciones básicas de una escritora que consideraba que la emancipación de la mujer y la libertad religiosa eran las dos cuestiones palpitantes de ese contexto histórico. Acuña escribió numerosos ensayos y artículos apoyando activamente la necesidad de anular las barreras entre los sexos para aspirar a ideales de igualdad y fraternidad universal.
左媛媛; 陈普; 郑进
聚居于我国滇西北怒江大峡谷的傈僳族,主要信仰两种宗教,一是本民族固有的原始宗教；二是西方传教士于18世纪传入的基督教和天主教.宗教信仰渗透于傈僳族生产、生活的方方面面,对其传统文化的各个部分影响深刻,从宗教信仰的特征入手,分析其对傈僳族传统医药形成过程中的影响,以对这一古老民族的医药文化进行发掘整理.%The Lisu People inhabiting in Nujiang Gorge in northwest of Yunnan Province of China have two religious beliefs. One is their own primitive religion, believing in animism in nature, the other is Christianity and Catholicism introduced by western churchmen in 18th century. The faith in religion penetrates in every aspect of Lisu People's productive life, which has a great impact upon its traditional cultures in various parts. Therefore, we are trying to analyze its influence on the formation of traditional medicine of Lisu People by researching the characteristics of religions so as to have a better excavation and rearrangement for the ancient people's medical culture.
Pokines, James T
Santería and Palo Mayombe are West African-derived religions/sects with components of Catholicism, and both involve the ritual use of nonhuman skeletal remains which make them an increasing object of forensic interest. Palo Mayombe specifically involves also the use of human skeletal remains placed within ritual cauldrons or ngangas along with multiple ritual artifacts. A case of a nganga recovered from a periodically drained canal in Western Massachusetts, U.S.A. is presented. This nganga contained multiple items indicating its origin, including railroad spikes, coins, other metal objects, a stone, a glass bead, and multiple labeled and unlabeled sticks and was associated with a knife. It also contained skeletal remains of a bird and a snake as well as a nearly intact human skull of an adult male. The origin of the human remains is likely from a cemetery or as a former anatomical specimen. The find of this nganga is atypical in that it is away from the usual urban centers of Palo Mayombe in the U.S.A., and forensic practitioners should be aware that such sources of human remains may occur in their jurisdictions.
Valencia-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available Resumen: El imaginario o modelo religioso barroco representaba un universo mental capaz de ofrecer una concepción global del mundo y de la sociedad, de contornos bien definidos. Entre sus elementos recurrentes figuran los tres aquí estudiados: primero, la importancia concedida al ceremonial, en favor de una religiosidad externa y ritualizada que reafirmaba el papel indispensable de los sacerdotes; segundo, la visión negativa que el catolicismo emite sobre la mujer, conceptuada como un ser inferior; finalmente, la relación entre el discurso eclesiástico y el sistema jerárquico de la sociedad, al que el modelo religioso contribuye a legitimar. Tales mensajes se analizan a través de cinco obras de la época. = Abstract: The imaginary or Baroque religious model represented a mental universe capable to offer a global conception of the world and the society with well-defined outlines. Among its recurrent elements are the three treated here; first: the importance given to the ceremonial in favour of an external and ritualized religiosity that reaffirmed the essential role of priests; second: the negative view of Catholicism about the woman, seen as a lower human being; finally, the relationship between the ecclesiastical speech and the hierarchical system of the society, that the religious model contributes to legitimize. Such messages are analyzed through five works of the period.
Full Text Available ‘Other Catholics’: A New VisionThe title of my response to De Rooy’s text sums up the crux of our discussion. Andere katholieken, a volume of essays published in the year 2000, offers ‘a new vision’ of the history of Dutch Catholicism in the twentieth century. Contrary to the prevailing idea of an unshakable unity and a closed front, recent studies demonstrate more and more clearly variation and differentiation in mentality and behaviour, above all under the influence of a progressive modernization of state and society. It is the so-called pillarization theory, in particular, which was put forward by a group of politicologists (notably A. Lijphart, that seems to influence the view of my opponent. According to that theory, passivity and docility of, among others, Catholic people is unjustly assumed. Last but not least, my response aims to correct some inaccuracies and clear up some misunderstandings in my opponent’s critique.
Full Text Available Située dans le quatorzième arrondissement parisien, l’église Notre-Dame-du-Travail réunit plusieurs caractéristiques des rares églises construites au tournant des XIXe et XXe siècles : une architecture innovante déployant une vaste charpente métallique apparente et un décor conçu en rapport étroit avec celle-ci. L’inventaire réalisé entre octobre et décembre 2007 permet de s’interroger sur le champ de l’inventaire dans de tels édifices, mais éclaire surtout un pan méconnu du catholicisme social.Notre-Dame-du-Travail’s church (Our Lady of Labour is located in the XIVth district of Paris. It epitomizes many characteristics of the few churches built at the turn of the XXth century: its innovative architecture reveals a vast visible iron frame, and a décor closely bound with the architecture. Between October and December 2007 the church was surveyed. It provided the opportunity to explore the limits of survey and clarified a page of the history of social Catholicism.
Pedro Salmerón Sanginés
Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra una de las fuentes de la Revolución Mexicana más defectuosamente conocidas -el catolicismo social- y su concatenación con el movimiento encabezado por Francisco Villa, sus demandas obreras y políticas y sus modelos de gobierno, mediante la figura de varios dirigentes entre los que destaca Silvestre Terrazas Enríquez. Asimismo destaca el trabajo de organización de las sociedades mutualistas obreras y de la prensa de posición católica, durante el Porfiriato, con la revolución en Chihuahua.This article shows one of the most misunderstood sources of the Mexican Revolution, social catholicism and its link with the movement led by Francisco Villa, its workers' and political demands and models of government, through the figure of various leaders, particularly Silvestre Terrazas Enríquez, and the organizational work of workers' mutual societies and the catholic press during the Porfiriato with the revolution in Chihuahua.
Farmanyan, S. V.
Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.
Full Text Available O texto discute o lugar do conceito de representação na obra jurídico-política de Carl Schmitt, tomando como referência o livro Catolicismo Romano e Forma Política, de 1923. Para tanto, busca-se analisar a oposição que o autor estabelece entre a racionalidade técnica moderna e a racionalidade jurídica, cuja expressão mais acabada encontra-se na idéia de representação. Por último, procura-se relacionar as questões associadas ao problema da representação política em Carl Schmitt com alguns dos principais temas do seu pensamento, como é o caso da soberania, da decisão e do "político".The article discusses the concept of representation in Carl Schmitt's political-juridical work, with special reference to Roman Catholicism and Political Form, published in 1923. It focuses Schmitt's opposition between the modern technical rationality and the juridical rationality (whose most finished expression is found in the idea of representation. Then it relates the issues connected to the problem of political representation with some of Schmitt's main subjects, such as sovereingty, decision and "the political".
Vaughn A. Booker
Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.
Pak Nung Wong
Full Text Available Through an ethnographic depiction of cultural creolization, this paper will detail the ways in which traditional Filipino values have been successfully mixing with and eventually lodging into the intersubjective landscape of Cagayan Valley, where the Chinese, Ibanag, Ilocano, and Itawes ethnic groups dwell. This cultural creolization process informs the ways in which the imagined social reciprocity between the self and others has been governed by a historically constituted power/knowledge system: the padrino system. This system is mainly composed of the symbiotic codes and social practices of (1 Catholicized ritual kinship and (2 the Tagalog ethics of “debt of gratitude” (utang na loób. In light of Foucault’s (1988 governmentality, the uncertain contact zone between the art of governing the self and the selves of others, I will detail the creative ways in which the padrino (power/knowledge system is used in the Philippine frontier life-world to build local communities, resolve conflicts, and restrain self-aggrandizement.
Full Text Available O objectivo principal deste artigo consiste em redesenhar as fronteiras e as sobreposições entre as esferas seculares e as esferas religiosas dentro da modernidade portuguesa. Metodologicamente, pretendo uma aproximação histórico-sociológica, comparando sobretudo as reconfigurações do catolicismo português em quatro épocas marcadas por diferentes condições socioculturais. Assim, proponho uma releitura dos processos da secularização em Portugal.This article seeks to redesign the borders and the overlaps between the secular and religious spheres of Portuguese society. In methodological terms, I propose an historical-sociological approach, comparing especially the reconfigurations of Portuguese Catholicism under different socio-cultural conditions during the 19th and 20th centuries. On the basis of this analysis, I revisit the dual perspective of being either religious or secular, and try to recognize the simultaneous existence and the link between the religious and secular spheres in a modern European society.
Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria
This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.
Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T
Women's autonomy has frequently been linked with women's opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women's autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition-Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women's religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women's empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings.
Shirley V. Guevarra
Full Text Available This essay proposes cosmopolitan entanglement as a conceptual framework for the understanding of the Philippine pista (fiesta. The pista is a cosmopolitan phenomenon because communities engage in a disposition of cultural openness with the strange and the stranger. It is a performance of entanglement because it is a complex cultural phenomenon projected to be solemn yet secular, a festivity that neither the State nor the Church is in an ultimate position of authority, a parade of divinity, and a procession of spectacle. In arguing for cosmopolitan entanglement in the pista, the essay explores the 2007 Agawan festivity in Sariaya, Quezon, some 120 km south of Manila, as a case study. The first part is a conceptualization of cosmopolitanism as related to the pista using the Catholic dogma as lens. The analysis of Catholic dogma is necessary because in the Philippines the pista has its origin in Catholicism, its celebrations often coinciding with the feast day of a community’s patron saint. The second part examines the pista as a performance of entanglement. The final section describes the Sariaya pista via the Agawan festival as a case of cosmopolitan entanglement. The pista in Sariaya is an exemplar of cosmopolitan entanglement because community members perform cultural openness, which is also a mixing and matching of different performance activities, a strategy of combining the secular and the sacred, and a welcoming gesture to both the familiar and the stranger.
Full Text Available This essay has the purpose of collecting and exposing in synthetic form the main issues which Sombart treats in his book Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben, 1911. Sombart defends the view that the Jews have founded modern capitalism, inventing financial practices (such as credit instruments and security interests, thus easing the movement of money and investments (financial intermediation. In this they have been supported by texts (the Bible and its interpretative commentaries and customary practices between people belonging to Jewish communities and strangers. The resulting form of capitalism is of a financial and commercial type, which Weber distinguishes from and opposes to the ‘modern’ form of capitalism, based on industry and rational production of goods, and determined by the typical character of Protestant ethics. The juxtaposition between Sombart and Weber sees the former arguing for a historical and conceptual articulation of capitalism that is more complex and articulated than the one posited by the latter. Weber believes that the ‘bloc’ formed by Jews, strangers and heretics (as opposed to Catholicism, that is, the Protestants has founded capitalism in its original version, the Jewish form of capitalism, later supported by the English translation of the Bible, urged and authorized by James I, whose influence has powerfully affected the ideological construction of a ‘historic’ object.
Sergio Francisco Rosas Salas
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la conformación y los primeros años del Círculo Católico de Puebla, una organización confesional formada por laicos por iniciativa clerical. Destaca la forma en que algunos católicos de la ciudad de Puebla actuaron bajo la política de conciliación del Porfiriato entre 1887 y 1900, y cómo la aprovecharon a su favor, pasando de la práctica pública del catolicismo al apostolado laico.This article analyzes the formation and the early years of Puebla's Catholic Circle, a confessional organization composed of secular persons on a clerical initiative. It draws attention to the actions of a number of Catholics in the city of Puebla under the Porfiriato's conciliation policy between 1887 and 1900, and the ways in which they used it to their advantage, shifting from the public practice of Catholicism to a lay ministry.
Maria Cristina Navarrete.
Full Text Available A large number of Portuguese “New Christians” (Jewish converts to Catholicism constituted one of the most important components of the white population of the Indies during the 16th and 17th centuries. They settled in various cities within the jurisdiction of the High Court of Justice of the New Kingdom of Granada, especially in Cartagena, where they occupied themselves in the slave trade and commerce in general. They extended their trade networks to and from the Viceroyalty of Peru and other provinces to the south of the New Kingdom. The Inquisition used its power to persecute them and to confiscate their property as a way to protect the purity of the faith and to sustain the institution economically. The New Christians were accused of secretly practicing the Jewish religion and of not being true Christians. Many of them were crypto-Jews who observed the Sabbath and Queen Esther’s feast day, observed Jewish fasting and dietary practices, and attended synagogue meetings. The most respected men among them acted as rabbis and orally transmitted their prayers and the few traditions remaining extant among them. As a result of both persecution by the Inquisition and the independence of Portugal in 1640, some of them returned to that country, while others scattered throughout the Caribbean and still others blended into the traditional Christian population.
Felix, Fred W
Some new information, based on many unedited documents is presented, in order to complete the biography of Moyse Charas, as published in this revue by Dorveaux (1929) and Bouvet (1949). The origin of the protestant family Charas lies in Pont-Saint-Espirt, from where the parents of Moyse Charas, passing Uzés, moved to Orange, where he took up the profession of apothecary and was declared Master by Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. Later, in Paris, he had contacts with the Dutch diplomat Constantijn Huygens and his son, the scientist Christiaan Huygens, and with the English physician and philosopher John Locke. After shorter visits to London and the Royal Society he lived there for a certain time, being called to contribute to cure King Charles II. He revisited Orange to get his promotion as a doctor of medicine. After having practised for some time in Holland he went to Spain for five years, as a physician of the embassy of the States General in Madrid and later in Galice. The last six months he suffered imprisonment by the Inquisition. Liberated after his conversion to Catholicism, he could finally return to Paris.
Palermo, Tia; Infante Erazo, Mariela; Hurtado Pinochet, Victoria
Chile is one of only four countries in the world where there is no explicit legal exception to prohibitions on abortion, and where the criminalisation of abortion endangers women's health and may be misaligned with public opinion. In this study we explored attitudes towards the legalisation of abortion and differences in levels of support across time. Among Chilean women in 2009 and 2013, we examined: (1) an additive index indicating support for legalisation of abortion in several situations and (2) support for each situation separately. We investigated the demographic characteristics associated with support for legalisation using multivariate regression. Over 70% of women supported the legalisation of abortion in cases of risk to the woman's life, rape and foetal malformation, and support was higher in 2013 compared to 2009 (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44). Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (β = - 0.32; 95% CI: - 0.48, - 0.16) were less likely to do so. Our study is the first to examine public opinions on abortion in Chile and differences in levels of support across time periods. Results indicate that current policies may not reflect trends in public opinion.
Castro, Jorge; Lafuente, Enrique; Jiménez, Belén
The aim of this article is to provide an approach to the study of the relations between psychology and Roman Catholic Scholasticism in the making of Spain as a modern nation-state. The crucial period in this process-extending from the beginning of King Alfonso XII's reign in 1875 to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931-is considered. Attention is focused on Ethics textbooks published by Spanish Scholastic authors throughout the period. Through these school manuals, young students were trained in the ideas of citizenship and social coexistence held by the Catholic Church. An analysis of these didactic, programmatic works shows the central role played by the theory of faculties and modern psychological technologies (psychopedagogy, psychopathology, psychotechnics) in the Scholastic outlook. Thus, an attempt is made to show that psychology was used by Spanish Scholasticism as a way of legitimating a reactionary view of Spain, which eventually led to the emergence of National-Catholicism as the official ideology of the Franco regime (1939-1975).
Calavia Sáez, Óscar
Full Text Available This study focuses on the natural elements in the religious lore of La Rioja, in northern Spain: mainly trees, bulls and bees in myth and ritual. It stresses their sociological and cosmological meanings: patterns of kinship, marriage and group identity, ideas about gender, body and ultimately «nature». Furthermore, it this study proposes on implicit «rustic mind», contemporary wilt but apart from Christian taught (not a mere survival of the past and discusses the role of this «mind» in the history of Spanish Catholicism.Los elementos naturales presentes en el folklore religioso de La Rioja, en el norte de España, árboles, toros y abejas, en primer plano, son analizados en este estudio en sus componentes sociológicos (las ideas que reflejan sobre consanguinidad, alianza e identidad de grupo y organizados en una sucinta cosmología, que incluye nociones sobre el cuerpo, los géneros y la propia «naturaleza». Se explora la virtualidad de un «pensamiento rústico», diferente del cristianismo pero contemporáneo suyo (no una mera supervivencia del pasado y el lugar que ocupa en la historia del catolicismo español.
Vyacheslav Olegovich Puchkov
Full Text Available Russian and French phraseological units with an animal name are considered with a special focus on their anthropomorphous semantics (external qualities of the person. The relevance of this research is caused by the urgent need of comparative studies of ethnocultural maps of the world that are encoded in phraseological corpus of any ethnos. Universal and ethno-specific features of animalistic phraseology are revealed in the article. The author states that the main function of animalistic phraseological units is not only pointing to some physical qualities of a person but assessing them. In the French map of the world the aesthetic criterion (beauty / ugliness dominates, whereas in the Russian map it is a physiological and social criteria (mainly, health and wellbeing. Superiority of the esthetic criterion in French is hidden in the mentality and is called the hedonism; opposing to it is Russian animalistic phraseology which is said to be originated from country folk traditions and is focused on physiological and social details in assessing the man's appearance. It is stated in the article that the lack of attention to esthetic criterion in the Russian phraseology may be explained by the influence of Orthodoxy on the content of the world map, the corporal beauty is opposed to internal, spiritual beauty. Contrary to it, under the influence of Catholicism an esthetic attitude to church rituals and corporal beauty was forwarded in the French culture. Finally, the author offers anthropological mechanism and an assessment function to be universal features of phraseology.
Jorge A. Núñez
Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende indagar, a partir del estudio de la figura del economista Alejandro Bunge, en la problemática de la vivienda obrera en la República Argentina en las primeras décadas de la pasada centuria. Aquí se argumentará que los estudios realizados por Alejandro Bunge como director de la División Estadísticas del Departamento Nacional de Trabajo en el período 1910-1915 contribuyeron de manera notable a la elaboración del proyecto y posterior sanción de la Ley de Casas Baratas para Obreros (n°9677. Palabras claves: Vivienda obrera, Catolicismo Social, Estadísticas _________________ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to carry out a research on the workers housing in Argentina during the first decades of the past century, based on the research done by the economist Alejandro Bunge. The studies carried out by Alejandro Bunge, Director of Statistics Division of the National Labour Department during 1910-1915, highly contributed to the project and further sanction of the "Cheap Houses for Workers Law" (Nbr. 9677. KeyWords: Workers Housing, Social Catholicism, Statistics
Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH
Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349
Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane
The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.
Antonio Cañellas Mas
Full Text Available El Instituto de Cultura Hispánica respondió al interés por retomar el diálogo con los países iberoamericanos desde una óptica cultural aparentemente desideologizada, pero que por su interpretación esencialista de la historia hispánica generaría una teología política propia, ligada a las pautas del tradicionalismo católico. Con ello se definiría el contenido y actividad del Instituto en todos los ámbitos posibles, para inaugurar –dentro del bloque occidental– una auténtica Comunidad Hispánica de Naciones, fundada en esos principios que aspiraba a liderar España en su objetivo por superar el bloqueo diplomático.Palabras clave: hispanidad, tradicionalismo, cultura, diplomacia.________________________Abstract:The Instituto de Cultura Hispánica responded to the interest in reinitiating a dialogue with the Iberoamerican Countries. This dialogue will be engaged from a cultural perspective that is apparently ideologized, but still, due to its essentialist interpretation of hispanic history, it will generate a political theology related to traditional Catholicism. This will define the Institute’s content and activity in all possible areas, with the aim of opening an authentic Hispanic Community of Nations within the Western bloc, a community founded on those principles that Spain once aspired to overcome the diplomatic blockade.Keywords: Spanishness, traditionalism, culture, diplomacy.
Goldzband, M G
Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.
Full Text Available In 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán took a trip to Belgium in order to familiarize herself with Belgian social Catholicism; the result was an essay, Por la Europa católica. In this article we will try to answer the following questions: did the author interview relevant personalities, did she document herself with trustworthy sources and did she provide a faithful image of the Belgian socio-political reality to her Spanish readers? First we will offer data about the publication of the texts, second we will sketch the context of the social role of the Church in Belgium and Spain at the turn of the century, and then we will analyse the chapters on social policy in the essay. We may conclude that Pardo Bazán interviewed Catholic figures of the highest level and visited important social works supervised by the Church, but she made no contact with the early Christian democracy. Her main source of information on the socialist movement is Le socialisme en Belgique, still a historical reference work. Although she knew about the tensions in the Catholic party and the huge social antagonisms, in her book she tends to present a too idyllic image of Belgium, probably in order to be able to present the country’s social Catholicism as an example for Spain.En 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán realizó un viaje a Bélgica para conocer desde dentro el catolicismo social belga. Nos preguntamos en este artículo si la autora entrevistó las figuras realmente relevantes, si se documentó en las fuentes importantes y si da una imagen fiable de la situación sociopolítica belga al lector español. En primer lugar ofrecemos datos sobre la publicación de los textos, luego esbozamos el contexto del papel social de la Iglesia en Bélgica y en España y analizamos los capítulos sobre política social de Por la Europa católica. Podemos concluir que la autora entrevistó figuras intelectuales de pro entre el clero y visitó obras sociales enmarcadas por la Iglesia, pero no contact
Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse au cheminement politique et spirituel de Douglas Hyde (1911-1996, du méthodisme au catholicisme en passant par le communisme, cheminement qui fait l’objet de son autobiographie, I Believed, publiée en 1950. Membre important du Parti communiste britannique entre 1928 et 1948, Hyde occupe une position dans l’histoire du communisme qui est à la fois typique et atypique. Son adhésion au Parti en 1928 représente une forme de « conversion » partagée par nombre de ses contemporains. Dans son propre cas, une telle démarche impliquait d’abord un rejet des valeurs non-conformistes de son milieu de naissance, à l’origine de sa décision initiale de devenir prêcheur. Malgré son implication active dans toutes les campagnes officielles, Hyde s’est cependant trouvé en décalage grandissant avec la ligne officielle du Parti. L’annonce de sa démission en 1948, consécutive à sa conversion au catholicisme, lui valut naturellement la haine de ses anciens camarades. Le triomphalisme quelque peu irritant des derniers chapitres de I Believed peut être interprété comme l’enthousiasme d’un converti tout à la joie de sa Révélation, mais aussi comme le signe que l’entreprise autobiographique de l’auteur n’était rien d’autre qu’un règlement de comptes avec le communisme.This article explores the political and spiritual journey of Douglas Hyde (1911-1996, from Methodism through communism to Roman Catholicism, as described in I Believed, his autobiography published in 1950. Hyde, a prominent member of the British Communist Party (CPGB from 1928 to 1948, occupies a position in the history of twentieth-century communism that is at once typical and unusual. His becoming a member of the Communist Party in 1928 represented a form of “going-over” shared by many young men and women of his generation. In his particular case, this meant turning his back on the middle-class nonconformist milieu he had
Lísias Nogueira Negrão
through the positions adopted by ecclesiastical or group leaders. Instead, I focus on the individual religious agents and their attitudes in response to a growing religious pluralism and diversification. The work therefore looks at individuals who are 'religious mutants:' people who have changed their religious affiliation at least once during their lives, or who are religious duplicates or multiplicates, participants of two or more symbolic-religious universes simultaneously. By studying people's religious trajectories, we can analyze their beliefs and religious practices irrespective of their affiliation to specific organized groups. With the single exception of the Protestants, still anchored in the conception of a transcendent God and a strong ecclesiality (though the Pentecostals diverge slightly through their incorporation of magic, we can perceive a trend towards a kind of religiosity that Troeltsch called mystic - and which Campbell identifies as its orientalization. The followers of other religions, or the duplicates/multiplicates, tend towards mystical religious ideas and magical practices lived out in private, accept frequenting a variety of religious groups and repudiate clerical authoritarianism. The old conflicts of traditional religious duplicities (Catholicism/Spiritism; Catholicism/Afro-Brazilian Religions have been amplified with new forms (Catholic/Protestant; Catholic/Other Religions and with the emergence of multiplicity, reproducing in Brazilian style the same transformations experienced throughout the West for a long time.
Vida e medo: concepções de corpo e sexualidade na tradição cristã-católica (Life and fear: conceptions of the body and sexuality in Christian tradition-Catholic - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n21p284
Carolina Teles Lemos
search to verify how fear of death, recognized as a characteristic of human nature, is expressed in the conceptions of body and sexuality shown by Christian-catholic tradition; also how this fear is perceived today and how it reflects upon the conceptions of body and sexuality nowadays. The research pointed to the conclusion that one of the possible reasons why Christianity-Catholicism invests so much energy in the control of sexuality and the body is that this represents an area of confrontation of fear of death. Such design is echoed in the wider culture, leading people to join, albeit partially, for so long, the ideal Christian-Catholic control of sexuality and the body. Key words: body; sexuality; fear; Catholicism.
Filipe Pinto Monteiro
throughout the research - around the manifestation of catholic saints in the Bahia´s hinterland in the 30s of the twentieth century. The movement of Pau de Colher, through the preaching of their leaders, established a dialogue with a tradition dating back to the origins of christianity; did believe in the resurrection of characters as St. Joseph the Carpenter and St. Mary, the Immaculate - privileged figures in our study -; and re-updated a set of beliefs and values transmitted by the hands of itinerant missionaries and blessed wandering during Brazil's history, revealing an intense hybridization between popular and ecclesiastical catholicism. Key words: Pau de Colher; saints; hinterland; catholicism; popular religiousness.
Lísias Nogueira Negrão
Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma visão panorâmica sobre a formação do campo religioso brasileiro desde os tempos coloniais até os dias correntes. Parte de uma visão histórica dos tipos de catolicismo que vicejaram no Brasil colonial e imperial e das suas características que influenciam a religiosidade brasileira até o presente. Passa pelas transformações advindas com a proclamação da República: a separação constitucional da Igreja Católica do Estado e a instituição da liberdade religiosa por este garantida. Acompanha as transformações ocorridas ao longo do século XX, com o estabelecimento de um campo religioso pluralista em que o catolicismo vai, gradualmente, perdendo adeptos para outros grupos religiosos, especialmente, os protestantes pentecostais, sem, contudo, perder a hegemonia. Chega à atualidade, em que essas tendências persistem, mas, além disso, altera-se substancialmente a dinâmica do campo religioso, com a perda de influência das instituições religiosas em conseqüência da subjetivização das crenças e práticas. Desse ponto de vista, o artigo analisa as trajetórias religiosas individuais possibilitadas pelo crescente pluralismo e pela progressiva adesão a duplicidades e mesmo multiplicidades religiosas, que acrescentam novas formas de expressão às tradicionais. Tais processos atingem a quase totalidade dos mutantes religiosos - a exceção é apenas o grupo protestante -, inclusive os católicos retornados após outras experiências de vida religiosa, e envolvem crenças e práticas provindas de fontes religiosas orientais tradicionais e recentes, bem como o esoterismo.This article presents a panoramic view of the formation of the Brazilian religious field from the colonial times to the current days. It begins with a historic view of the Catholicism types that thrived in the colonial and imperial times in Brazil and of their characteristics influencing Brazilian religiosity to the present. It goes through
José A. Zanca
Full Text Available Les études consacrées à l'histoire du catholicisme argentin pendant le XXe siècle reposent sur l’idée selon laquelle il existerait une continuité «structurelle» allant de la Première Guerre mondiale aux années quatre-vingt. Cette continuité renverrait, d’une part, à la formation d'une identité profonde et intransigeante qui aurait catégoriquement rejeté la modernité et, d’autre part, à la diffusion dès les années trente du «mythe de la nation catholique». Dans ces études, Vatican II est considéré comme un «réarrangement» plutôt que comme un changement radical. Cet article revient donc sur ces théories, en y incorporant la tradition de l'humanisme chrétien afin de relier les évolutions du catholicisme avec le processus plus large de sécularisation sociale qui touche les sociétés contemporaines. En ce sens, cette étude interprète l'humanisme chrétien comme un «agent interne» de sécularisation, dans la mesure où ses pratiques et son discours ont progressivement diminué le pouvoir de l'autorité dans la culture religieuse.Studies on the history of the Catholicism in Argentina in the 20th century claim there were very few changes between the first postwar period and the1980s. Many of these studies state that, in spite of the change of discourse, there was an intransigent matrix that openly rejected modernity. In the 1930’s, that rejection was expressed by the «myth of the Catholic nation». Furthermore, these interpretations consider Council Vatican II as a «rearrangement» rather than as a radical change. This article tries to debate these ideas, through the analysis of the tradition of Christian Humanism. Our goal is to link the changes within Catholicism with the process of social secularization. In this sense, this work considers Christian humanism as «an internal agent of secularization», as its practices and discourse allowed the decrease of the importance of authority in the religious
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to explain the phenomenon of the mobilizations of immigrant communities in Luján, based on a consideration of the bigger picture in which they took place, including the general context of Argentine Catholicism near the time of the Centennial. As such, it must be noted that Italians were not the only group, nor the first one, that organized processions in Luján that attracted increasingly greater numbers of participants. Our focus is on the decade of 1910, years in which Catholic processions and demonstrations were becoming every more numerous. Usually historigraphic studies tend to date the appearance of Catholicism of the masses from the decade of the 1930s, the most telling expression of which can be found in the celebration of the 1934 International Eucharistic Congress. Nevertheless, it is often forgotten that the first event of these characteristics was celebrated in Buenos Aires as early as 1916, with the first National Eucharistic Congress. This echoed the nascent wave of Catholic mass mobilizations that began at the time of the Centennial. Among others, the Italians were active in this wave.
El objetivo de este trabajo es explicar el fenómeno de las movilizaciones de las comunidades de inmigrantes a Luján a partir de una consideración del cuadro general en el que se inscribían. Este cuadro ha de incluir el contexto general del catolicismo argentino hacia el Centenario, a fin de llamar la atención sobre el hecho de que los italianos no fueron los únicos ni los primeros que se movilizaron a Luján en procesiones cada vez más multitudinarias. Nos interesa focalizar, pues, la década de 1910, años en los cuales las procesiones y manifestaciones católicas se vuelven cada vez más numerosas. Usualmente, la historiografía suele ubicar la aparición del catolicismo de masas en la década de 1930, cuya expresión más elocuente se habría encontrado en la celebración del Congreso Eucar
Renée de la Torre
-protestant; a proportional augment of those who are not members of any religion; a reinstating of native, neo-indigenous or ethnic religious streams that tend to break away from popular Catholic practice; and, finally, a marked tendency to de-institutionalization and subjectivization of beliefs and values. This tendency traverses and diversifies cult practices and ways of acting and believing inside Catholicism. We hereby analyze several sources that deliver empirical data on a national scale, with the purpose of informing on these tendencies towards religious change, namely, INEGI's 1950-2000 census results on the plurality of religious confessions; the results of a study on Catholics in Mexico, which was carried out to contemplate diversity inside Catholicism; an analysis of compared results provided by 1990-2000 World Values Survey data; and, finally, information extracted from a longitudinal study in Guadalajara city. All of these data will help us assess current tendencies towards de-institutionalization and subjectivization of Mexicans.
Nieto Ibáñez, Jesús M.ª
Full Text Available The work of the humanist Pedro de Valencia belongs to “biblical humanism”. Religion and politics are inseparable in the work of this author. In the sixteenth century, a part of the population in Spain still subscribed to Jewish or Islamic thought. The Spanish church was making a huge effort at the time to integrate within the traditional Catholicism converts from these two communities. In this conflict the justifications of religious identity in various writings of Pedro de Valencia can be located. The common denominator of the writings discussed is summarized in the idea of religious unity of Conversos and Moriscos under the authority of the king in response to the conflicts in the Spain of the time.La obra del humanista Pedro de Valencia pertenece al «humanismo biblista». Religión y política son inseparables en este autor. En la España del siglo XVI existía todavía una parte de la población que pensaba en clave judía o bien en clave islámica. La iglesia española del momento estaba haciendo un esfuerzo enorme por integrar dentro del catolicismo tradicional a los conversos de estas dos comunidades. En este conflicto se enmarcan las justificaciones de la identidad religiosa en varios escritos de Pedro de Valencia. El común denominador de los escritos comentados se resume en la idea de la unidad religiosa de judeoconversos y moriscos bajo la autoridad del rey como respuesta a los conflictos de la España de la época.
Rodrigo Coppe Caldeira
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo visualizar a formação de um grupo católico brasileiro, o grupo que se forma em torno de Plínio Corrêa de Oliveira e sua suposta identidade “antimoderna”. Além de buscar rapidamente circunscrever o conceito de modernidade e historicizar sobre a gênese do grupo e de suas principais idéias, aponta algumas possibilidades teóricas para a leitura do aspecto identitário. O texto reflete pesquisa de mestrado intitulada “Entre a verdade e a sedução: um estudo sobre a inflexão católica ‘antimoderna’ no Brasil”, que está sendo realizado junto ao Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciência da Religião da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora.Palavras-chave: Modernidade; Catolicismo; Identidade.ABSTRACTThis article aims at visualising the formation of a Brazilian catholic group, that around Plínio Corrêa de Oliveira and his alleged ‘anti-modern’ identity. After a brief consideration of the concept of modernity and a short background of the group formation and its main ideas, it also points out some theoretical possibilities of reading the identity feature. The text results from a Master’s Degree research work entitled ‘Between truth and seduction: a study of the “anti-modern” catholic inflection in Brazil’, developed in the Programme of Postgraduate Studies of Religion Science in the Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Federal University of Juiz de Fora, State of Minas Gerais.Key words: Modernity; Catholicism; Identity.
Full Text Available The remoteness of the Mentawai Islands has contributed to an almost autonomous development, unaided by mainland Sumatra. As a result of a well endowed environment and supported by staple local foods such as sago, taro and bananas, as well as an abundance of wildlife including wild boars, a finely tuned self-sufficiency was realised. In this space the management and distribution of food, including animal protein, is an important aspect of the culture of Arat Sabulungan. As the result of the compulsory state sanctioned religions program introduced in 1954, some Mentawaians have converted to Islam or Catholicism as their formal religious identity. However, a remarkable adaptation occured in which the layers of Mentawai identity were not lost in the adaption to the Islamic faith. Islam with its teachings, and other formal religions, are considered as the sasareu (outsiders. The prohibition of consuming boar as part of islamic rules is a sasareu rules that contradict to Mentawaian Arat .[Kepulauan Mentawai yang terisolasi telah berkembang secara mandiri tanpa bantuan dari pulau induknya, Sumatra. Lingkungan yang subur dan mendukung ketersediaan sumber makanan pokok lokal seperti sagu, talas, dan pisang serta berlimpahnya satwa liar, termasuk babi hutan, telah mendorong terciptanya swasembada pangan. Manajemen dan distribusi makanan merupakan aspek penting dalam jalinan budaya dan sistem kepercayaan local, Arat Sabulungan. Sebagai hasil dari kebijakan pemerintah untuk menerapkan agama resmi bagi orang Mentawai pada tahun 1954, orang Mentawai kemudian masuk Islam atau Katolik. Namun demikian, adaptasi yang luar biasa juga terjadi, sehingga lapisan-lapisan identitas Mentawai tidak hilang dalam adaptasinya dengan keyakinan Islam. Islam dengan ajaran-ajarannya, juga agama-agama dunia lainnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing. Larangan mengkonsumsi daging babi sebagai bagian dari ajaran Islam, misalnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing yang bertentangan
José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.
Inês Pires Nogueiro
Full Text Available The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages’ was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population.
Ness, G D
A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."
Full Text Available The sociology of professions has traditionally attempted to increase our understanding of categorisations of different occupations by reference to taxonomic hierarchies, as well as the identification and exploration of characteristics that warrant 'professional status'. In may cases, this explorations take the forms of historical accounts of professional activity. Rarely, however, has the literature on professions explored processes of professionalization in devoliping, post-colonial contexts. This article contributes to this body of literature in the study of professions in a number of ways. Firstly, it 'maps' the growth of social work in the Filippines, placing this account within a broader discussions of social work as an internationality activity (Harrison & Melville, 2010; Lyons, 2006 and identifying some of the key forms and features of social work in the Filippines. Consideration is given to the degree of professionalisation of social work within the country by exploring professional organisation, regulation and education. In doing this, the article offers a critical overview of the nature and preoccupations of social work in the Filippines and celebrates the invaluable contributions it makes to the country and its people. The article argue that the forms social work takes and the settings in wich it happens reflect both contemporay societal and environmental factors as well as the global development of social work. In this sense, the article considers the impact of Roman Catholicism as well as the orientation of social work in relation to some enduring tensions and debates around the profession's purpose and potential. Key to the professional forms that social work takes in the Filippines is the contribution of 'indigenous' social work knowledge base wich is explored, alongside a comentary on social work education and training in the country.
In Quebec, the relationship between instruction of women and their fertility almost always conforms to hypotheses and traditional theoretical reasonings. The history of education in Quebec contradicts certain sub-vacant theories of explicative models. Until recently, the Quebecois school was not a bearer of new and progressive ideas as the theoretical demographic frameworks demographers thought. On the contrary, due to the strong influence of Catholicism, it tried to maintain the woman in her traditional roles of mother and housewife. Inversely, it is not clear that it allowed girls to acquire the means of their freedom. The Quebecois school did promote birth limitations by the act of educating if not by the contents of its teaching. The school's pronatalist position shaped the collective conscience to respect tradition. The cultural and ideological conservatism of yesterday's school is certainly not an unknown reality of researchers. It is surprising that one must note its persistent absence in demographic studies. The demographers conducting this historical survey of women's schools and fertility do not claim that an approach of the relationship between fertility and education taking in account the cultural and political finality of school would change profoundly the statistical evidence. The evidence shows that the school's emancipatory characteristics did influence the reproductive behavior of Quebec women, but its conservative characteristics probably kept the school from fully contributing to progress. This approach makes us better understand this phenomenon of Quebec history and a little less in terms of some models which are a little too conventional. In conclusion, education in Quebec probably did not have as much impact on fertility decline as fertility decline theories claim.
Full Text Available La cattedrale di Spalato, ovvero l’ex mausoleo di Diocleziano, rimane tutt’oggi uno dei più significativi episodi del riuso dell’architettura antica. All’inizio del Settecento l’arcivescovo Stefano Cupilli si adoperò per ampliare la cattedrale e alcuni disegni dell’Archivio di San Girolamo dei Croati a Roma sono riconducibili a questo episodio, rimasto irrealizzato. L’analisi delle circostanze della progettazione per la cattedrale spalatina nell’ambito della comunità nazionale “illirica” (croata a Roma porta all’individuazione dei protagonisti della vicenda, determinando come autore dei disegni l’architetto romano Giacomo Antonio Canevari. La microstoria presa in considerazione si presenta quindi come un gioco di riflessi: dopo il dialogo tra Roma e la costa orientale dell’Adriatico nel IV secolo voluto da Diocleziano, un millennio e mezzo dopo le modifiche per la cattedrale del confine orientale del cattolicesimo furono di nuovo proposte dalla Città Eterna. The cathedral of Split, ex mausoleum of Roman emperor Diocletian, remains one of the most significant cases of reuse of antique architecture. At the beginning of the 18th century, the archbishop Stefano Cupilli envisioned an enlargement of the cathedral, a project also developed in eight drawings at the Archive of S. Jerome of the Croatians in Rome. The analysis of circumstances in which these drawings for the new Split cathedral were elaborated within Illirian (now Croatian national community in Rome reveals the name of their author, the Roman architect Giacomo Antonio Canevari. This microhistory presents itself as an interplay of reflections: after a dialogue between Rome and the oriental coast of the Adriatic in the 4th century promoted by Diocletian, a millenium and a half later the projects for the cathedral on the oriental border of the Catholicism were again elaborated in Rome.
近代中法高等教育交流是在双方内在利益驱动和外部环境许可下而产生的行为,主要有三条交流渠道,即政府、法国天主教和中法民间人士分别组织的教育交流,三者相互补充和促进。中法合作高校在管理体制上,基本为平等管理模式;在资金投入上,前期中法合资,中方经费困难,后期靠庚款;在教育模式上,以法国为样板。中法高等教育交流对中国的高等教育发展起到了重要的作用。%Modern Sino-French higher education exchange was driven by both sides of interest and permitted by external environment.There were three main channels of communication.The first one was mainly organized by governments of China and France.The second channel was organized by French Catholicism.The third one was organized by Chinese non-governmental personages and elites of education circles.They supported and urged each other.The management personnel of France and China were basic equal on management system.In the early years,those Sino-French Cooperative Universities and Colleges were run by Sino-French joint venture,but Chinese had financial difficulties;later by Boxer Indemnity.The educational pattern took France as a model.Sino-French higher education exchange had played an important role on the development of China＇s higher education.
Full Text Available Charles Peter Wagner is a well-known missiologist and ecclesiologist of the latest era. He is the author, trainer and prayer warrior who founded the New Apostolic Reformation (NAR that seeks to establish a fourth house. The NAR is a heterodox movement in Protestant Christianity sometimes known as the apostolic-prophetic movement, commonly associated with both the Pentecostal and Charismatic churches worldwide since the beginnings of the 1990s. Central to their theology is their locus of dogma that the task of the church, under the leadership of the apostles and prophets, is to take dominion of the earth within Christendom (distinct from Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodox Christianity. The ekklesia is the people of God, whether they are gathered in their congregations on Sunday as the nuclear Church, or scattered in the workplace Monday through Saturday as the extended Church. The extended Church, just like the nuclear Church, is founded on apostles and prophets, but in the extended Church these are the different people who operate differently under a different rule book. It is these extended church leaders who will be most effective in transforming society. Workplace apostles are called to take dominion in business, government, arts and entertainment, media, family and education. Panoramically, Wagner’s ecclesiology, like mainstream evangelical ecclesiology, is trinitarian, communal, missiological and eschatological in nature and character. The weaknesses on his ecclesiology include the notions of polity based on fivefold ministries, balance of power and authority on church leadership, phenomenological approach to texts, exegetical shortcomings, and secular models in ecclesiastical governance.
Full Text Available National megalomania in Polish reflection in the early 20th century In the early 20th century, a number of Polish thinkers betrayed a mentality in which was deeply rooted the notion of the Polish nation’s unique character. These thinkers also expressed a conviction that Poles had a special mission both in Europe in general and towards other European nations. The signs of the intellectual elite’s national megalomania were reflected in Polish journalistic writings in the final period of World War I and the initial period of regained independence shortly after it. The article analyzes the views of selected thinkers: the philosopher W. Lutosławski, the journalist and literary critic A. Górski, the publicist A. Chołoniewski, and the historian J.K. Kochanowski. All of them believed in an optimistic picture of Polish history and emphasized the significance of the Polish mission in an ethical dimension understood as a desire to establish European order based both on respect towards the individual and at the same time on national diversity. This attitude was clearly based on Romantic thought – a historiosophy tinted with mesianism. All these authors dealt with the same themes from Polish history, treating them as a justification of their attitudes (such as: the Republic of Nobility as an embodiment of the ideal of freedom, Poland as an intermediary between the East and the West, as well as the propagator of Christian civilization in the East; the prominent role of Poles among the Slavic peoples, the importance of Catholicism. All in all, they created a mythologized vision of the Polish Republic in order to integrate the Polish society and mobilize it to act. This stream of glorification of the Polish statehood met with severe criticism after Poland regained its independence. S. Zakrzewski, F. Bujak, J.S. Bystroń, Bocheński brothers and others protested against falsifying the history of Poland.
During the first half of the 20th century, along with the arrival of the Mexican Revolution, anticlerical movement broke out once again and continued to expand and intensify. During this period, the conflict between church and state reached three phased climaxes. This anticlerical movement played an important role in the national reconstruction process in Mexico: it promoted the formation of modern nation-state, facilitated social transformation and cultural innovation, and accelerated the creation of Mexican “new man". Despite such great achievements, there was a lot of aggressive behavior during the movement; and because of the deep-rooted Catholicism in Mexico, this movement eventually did not achieve its original goal.%20世纪前半期，伴随着墨西哥革命的到来，反教权主义运动再次爆发并不断扩展和激化。这一时期，墨西哥国家与教会之间的斗争出现了三次阶段性高潮。这场反教权主义运动在墨西哥的国家重建进程中发挥了重要作用，它推动了墨西哥现代民族国家的形成，促进了墨西哥的社会变革和文化革新运动，并加速了墨西哥“新人”的塑造。但是，这场反教权主义运动在取得巨大成就的同时，也存在不少过激行为，由于天主教势力根深蒂固，反教权主义最终没有被贯彻到底。
Yulia A. Bortnikova
Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.
Full Text Available This survey refutes Carl Schmitt’s thesis that hold catholicism, and jesuitism in particular, as a great complexio oppositorum which joins both conservatism and leftism under a same absolute unity represented by the papal forms. The “ethos” of obedience postulated by the Society of Jesus decisively contributed to the formation of an Administration that surpasses the ecclesiastic burocracy’s framework. It replaced the Renaissance education for an education with a Thomist stamp, decisive in the fashioning of the disciplined “ethos” of the official who acts sine ira et studio. But it failed for its attempt to replace the vitality, the naturalism and the confrontation of opinions of Liberalism under the aforementioned complexio oppositorum.
Este estudio rebate las tesis de Carl Schmitt que conciben al catolicismo, y al jesuitismo en particular, como una gran complexio oppositorum que reúne tanto al conservadurismo como al izquierdismo bajo una misma unidad absoluta representada por las formas del Papa. El “ethos” de obediencia postulado por la Compañía de Jesús contribuyó decisivamente a la formación de una Administración que rebasa el marco de la burocracia eclesiástica. Sustituyó la educación renacentista por una educación de cuño tomista, decisiva en la formación del “ethos” disciplinado del funcionario que actúa sine ira et studio. Pero fracasó en la pretensión de remplazar la vitalidad, el naturalismo y la confrontación de opiniones del liberalismo bajo la mencionada complexio oppositorum.
ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon
Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.
Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel
Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.
Joseba Louzao Villar
Full Text Available Cet article analyse l'image de Jésus de Nazareth que produit le socialisme espagnol entre la fin du XIXe et le début du XXe siècles, dans des journaux tels que El Socialista et La Lucha de Clases et différents ouvrages de référence. Jusque dans les années trente, le socialisme a présenté la figure de Jésus comme un antécédent du socialisme. C’est pour cette raison qu’elle est devenue un élément central dans le conflit normatif entre le catholicisme et la laïcité.This article will explore the image of Jesus of Nazareth in Spanish socialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, through its publications (El Socialista or La Lucha de Clases and books. Until the thirties, socialism discussed this religious figure as an antecedent of socialism. For this reason, the image of Jesus became a central element of the anticlericals complaints within the normative conflict between catholicism and laicism.Este artículo analiza la imagen de Jesús de Nazaret en el socialismo español entre finales de siglo XIX e inicios del XX, a través de sus publicaciones (El Socialista o La Lucha de Clases y libros. Hasta la década de los treinta, el socialismo debatió sobre este personaje religioso como antecedente del socialismo. Por eso mismo, la imagen de Jesús se convirtió en un elemento central de las denuncias anticlericales dentro del conflicto normativo entre catolicismo y laicismo.
By means of the creative techniques of Magical Realism, the Cuban Writer Alejo Carpentier, in his novel The Kingdom of This World, tells vividly the stories of the black slave＇ s spreading of African superstition, the slave＇ s awakening and resisting, the Aboriginal and Black＇ s converting to Catholicism, the racial hatred, the Spanish church＇ s witchery and the European colonizer＇ s keen on Latin American＇ s scenery. This paper profoundly reflects the social issues of declining, awakening, resisting, and adap- ting in Latin America by analyzing the Latin American culture＇ s hybridization and its social malformation, and puts forward the viewpoint that the typical Latin American historical culture originates the mixture of mutual adaptability of colonial suzerain culture, Indian and African culture.%古巴作家阿莱霍·卡彭铁尔运用“神奇现实主义”的创作手法，在小说《人间王国》中，以描写黑奴传播非洲迷信故事、奴隶的民族觉醒和反抗、土著和黑人皈依天主教、种族仇恨、西班牙教堂里的巫术气息、欧洲殖民者醉心于拉美风光等现象，深刻反思了拉丁美洲社会的落魄、觉醒、反抗到适应的现实问题，提出拉美历史文化特色源于殖民宗主国文化同印第安及非洲黑人文化的相互融合性观点，并通过神话原型的显现展示了拉丁美洲文化的混杂和社会的畸形。
Rita Unfer Lukoschik
Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.Contemporary reports on the forced conversion of Jewish girls and woman to Catholicism, not a rare occurrence in papal Rome from the 16th to the 19th centuries, can be found in the files of the official papal archive and the Roman Jewish community. One of the most valuable documents of this conversion practice has now been published in a new annotation edition: The diary of 18-year-old Anna del Monte, who was able to successfully resist the attempted forced conversion in 1749. In her introduction the editor Marina Caffiero places this extraordinary individual fate within the concurrent and parallel processes of assimilation and emancipation. These emerge in 18th century Rome’s Jewish upper class, which was “infected” with Enlightenment ideas.
艾儒略为明末来华之著名耶稣会士，中文著作达20余种，其中大部分为天主教类著作。这些著作按内容可分为五类，其主要版本多收藏于梵蒂冈图书馆、耶稣会罗马档案馆、法国国家图书馆、中国国家图书馆、台湾辅仁大学图书馆等处。通过对以上机构藏本的调查，结合中外目录的著录，可以对艾儒略所著16种天主教著作的版本作出全面考察，明确版本关系，揭示异同优劣。%Jules Aleni is a famous Jesuit who came to China in late Ming Dynasty. He wrote more than 20 kinds of written works in Chinese, most of which are related to Catholicism. Those works can be divided into five types based on their contents. The ma⁃jor versions are mainly collected in Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Roman Jesuitic Archives, Bibliothèque nationale de France, National Library of China and Fujen University Library. According to examining those collections mentioned above and combin⁃ing catalogue records both in China and other foreign countries, the version system of 16 kinds of Catholic works written by Jules Aleni can be overall investigated, the relationship among all versions can be clarified, and their similarities&differences, advan⁃tages&disadvantages can be also revealed.
Casas Rabasa, Santiago
Full Text Available Spain remained neutral during the Second World War, but its territory became the battleground for the propaganda of the different warring countries. One French response to the German propaganda in Spain (and, by extension, other neutral countries consisted in the creation of the French Catholic Committee of Propaganda. This Committee was characterized by its employment of traditional Spanish Catholicism as a vehicle for nationalistic propaganda. The collaboration between some ecclesiastics and the French government in favour of France was the work of Alfred Baudrillart, rector of the Catholic Institute of Paris. Baudrillart made two propaganda trips to Spain, meeting with political, intellectual and ecclesiastical personalities, and initiating diverse propaganda initiatives.Durante la Primera Guerra Mundial España permaneció neutral. No obstante, su territorio fue campo de batalla de las diferentes propagandas de los países en conflicto. Una respuesta francesa a la propaganda alemana en España y, por extensión, en los demás países neutrales, fue la creación del Comité Católico de Propaganda Francesa. Este Comité tuvo la característica de utilizar la tradicional catolicidad española para vehicular una propaganda de tipo nacionalista. Esta colaboración entre algunos eclesiásticos y el gobierno francés en pro de Francia fue obra de Alfred Baudrillart, rector del Instituto Católico de Paris. Baudrillart realizó dos viajes de propaganda a España donde se entrevistó con personalidades políticas, intelectuales y eclesiásticas, poniendo en marcha diversas iniciativas propagandísticas.
Godfrey Naanlang Danaan
Full Text Available Christianity has heralded a phase of religion that thrives on mission – the mandate to ‘evangelize’ or reach out to people who do not know Jesus Christ, his divinity and work of salvation. By the twentieth century when the global community began to grapple with the realities of modernity – part of which was a corresponding rise of immorality and loss of religious identity, even among traditionally Christian societies – the strategy of ‘mission’ changed to accommodate new ways of transmitting the word of God that would pierce the hearts of humans. In this information regime which offers the print, broadcast and social media platforms the impact of these on the new evangelisation is visible. The Pentecostal churches which are offshoots of the Catholic and Protestant churches have swiftly embraced this mass communication – aided technique for achieving mission thereby attracting unprecedented followership. The Catholic Church - although it imposes a strong, virile and seemingly unshaken image – is losing a huge number of its estimated one billion population, and if its media culture on mission does not change it would be a drawback. Drawing on the growing body of work which compares Catholic approach with Pentecostal mission strategy, the paper examines this distinction, and analyses the approach to the use of the media as a strategy of ‘mission’ in the Catholic Archdiocese of Jos – where Catholicism started in Northern Nigeria. Based on the analysis of mass media use in the Archdiocese, this paper argues that its communication strategy is, undoubtedly, driving the new evangelisation but needs to expand its media infrastructure for optimum results. The paper suggests that ‘mission’ can be strengthened through a robust and media-centred strategy.
Full Text Available Seit ihrer Kanonisation 1998 und Ernennung zur Mit-Patronin Europas 1999 steht die 1942 in Auschwitz ermordete Phänomenologin Edith Stein, 1922 vom jüdischen zum christlichen Glauben konvertiert und 1933 als Benedicta vom Kreuz in den Kölner Karmel eingetreten, mehr denn je im Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit. Die Bedeutung ihrer wissenschaftlichen Arbeit u. a. als Assistentin von Edmund Husserl in Freiburg und als Dozentin am Deutschen Institut für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik in Münster, aber auch in privaten Studien wurden im Juli 2000 im Rahmen eines Symposiums des Internationalen Edith Stein Instituts in Würzburg diskutiert. Die Beiträge der vorliegenden Publikation beleuchten breit gefächert Aspekte des Werks und seiner Interpretation mit dem Ziel, die Philosophin neu zu entdecken und die bisherige Forschung zu intensivieren.Since her canonisation and her appointment as Martyr and Co-Patroness of Europe in 1999, Edith Stein has, more than ever, been in the public eye. Murdered in Auschwitz in 1942, the phenomenologist converted from Judaism to Catholicism in 1922 and entered the Carmel of Cologne in 1933 as Teresa Benedicta of the Cross. In July 2000, at a symposium of the International Edith Stein Institute in Wurzburg, the significance of her academic work (among other things as an assistant to Edmund Husserl in Freiburg and as a lecturer at the German Institute for Pedagogy in Munster was discussed. The wide-ranging contributions in this publication highlight aspects of this work and its interpretation with the aim of rediscovering the philosopher and of intensifying research conducted to date.
Full Text Available This article examines the thought of Bulgakov as regards the dogmatic formulation of the council of Chalcedon as well as his thoughts on the Holy Eucharist. The author wishes to describe the difficult path which Bulgakov followed to arrive at his understanding of the most fundamental points of Christian doctrine and during the course of which he was initially fascinated and later disenchanted by Roman Catholicism. This rather short period, usually known by the name of the Crimean Philosophy of Bulgakov, is one of the key moments in the whole of his activity and provided the final impetus for his turn to Sophiology. The author of this article describes how the return of Bulgakov to Russian Orthodoxy was accompanied by the philosopher’s rediscovery of Sophiology. Sophiology was interpreted by Bulgakov as relieving the existing antinomy between two opposing principles in both the mystery of the Eucharist and the mystery of the Incarnation, between the divine and the mortal. The problem of the consecration of the holy gifts was met and resolved by Bulgakov in the domain of Christology and more precisely in the doctrine of the body of Christ: the earthly or material body and the glorifi ed body, the reality of Christ’s body up until the Resurrection and after the Resurrection. This teaching about the relationship between the two realities of the corporality of Christ was little studied in Orthodoxy Theology before Bulgakov. It was interpreted by Bulgakov in the light of his Sophiology: the Incarnation as the absolute realization in human form of the divine sophiological prototype. The author of this article concludes that Bulgakov’s use of Sophiology provided him with a way to oppose and overcome Kant’s transcendentalism. Thus, it became one of the major facets of Russian Philosophy
Germany is an interesting case with respect to the governance of reprogenetics. It has a strong profile in the technosciences and high aims regarding the global bioeconomy, yet her regulation of human genetics, reproductive medicine and embryo research has for a long time been rather restrictive. German biopolitical exceptionalism has often been explained by reference to Catholicism and the legacy of the Nazi past. The Germans, so goes the common story, have learnt the lessons of history and translated them into unconditional respect for human dignity, which in turn translates into unconditional protection of human life, including the human embryo, and the firm repudiation of any eugenic distinction between 'life worth to live' and 'life not worth to live'. This, however, is not the whole story. Alongside deontological strictness we find another strand of governing body politics and reprogenetics in Germany, the rule-and-exception model, running from the mid-1970s abortion law via the 2002 Stem Cell Act to the 2011 regulation of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In contrast to the former, that strongly draws on Kant and his concept of human dignity, the latter bears resemblances to Carl Schmitt's concept of state of exception. The article will show that the rule-and-exception model builds the exception into the rule and transforms the meaning and mandate of ethics, namely from safeguarding ethical standards to deciding about the exception. Given that the exception has now tended to become the rule, the question is whether the lessons of history will govern German reprogenetics for much longer.
Full Text Available This paper explores how, from a series of editorial initiatives, Social Catholics of Rosario (Argentina reproduced and disseminated traditional conceptions of “Catholic woman”, presented as opposed to the “Modern woman” – in the context of processes forming a mass society in Argentina. Specifically, we focus on the description and analysis of the resources used to reproduce female stereotypes Catholics in the mold of mass culture, increasingly widespread, and the culture industry. Thus expected to contribute to the understanding of the processes of “religious change” that crossed the Argentine Catholicism during the interwar period.El presente trabajo indaga cómo, a partir de una serie de iniciativas editoriales, los católicos sociales de Rosario (Argentina reprodujeron y difundieron las concepciones tradicionales de “mujer católica” —presentadas en contraposición a la llamada “mujer moderna”— en el marco de los procesos de conformación de una sociedad de masas en la Argentina. Concretamente, nos centraremos en la descripción y el análisis de los recursos empleados para reproducir los estereotipos femeninos católicos en los moldes de la cultura de masas, cada vez más difundidos, y en la industria cultural. Espera contribuir de este modo a la comprensión de los procesos de “cambio religioso” que atravesaron al catolicismo argentino durante el período de entreguerras.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.
Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz
Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz
Müller-Jahncke, W D
The doctrine of 'transplantatio morborum' may be considered a branch of the 'magia naturalis'-philosophy which was widespread in the sixteenth century. According to this doctrine, ailments and remedies can be transferred from one body to another. A further example of this field of medicine is gun salve, which we find mentioned particularly in the works of the Paracelsists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even though salve of various types had already been used for some time in the treatment of stab wounds, gun salve was imputed to have magnetic properties which gave rise to 'actio in distans', whereby the smearing of gun salve onto the weapon caused the wound to be healed. An early example of a description of its formula can be found in the first book of the 'Archidoxis magica': one of the works which have been wrongly attributed to Paracelsus. Early in the seventeenth century, this formula for gun salve--frequently with modifications--found its way into the writings of the followers of Paracelsian doctrine: of Oswald Croll, for example, or Rudolph Goclenius. When the concept of 'actio in distans' was propounded, an argument soon developed as to whether gun salve should be classified under 'magia naturalis' or 'magia daemoniaca'. Determined opposition to Goclenius was proferred in the person of Jean Roberti, a Belgian Jesuit who accused the Protestant Goclenius of consorting with demons. A number of treatises appeared in close succession, with Johann Baptist van Helmont emerging as the mediator in the argument. Yet he too came under attack at the hand of the Jesuit Roberti, with the result that, at least by the time Athanasius Kircher had also become embroiled in the debate, the dispute was pursued principally between orthodox Trentino Catholicism and heterodox Protestantism. An analysis of the writings on the subject of gun salve demonstrates how easily a discussion which was originally of a purely medical, scientific nature could lead to a religious
González Sáez, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available In 1976 the archbishop Marcel Lefebvre was suspended a divinis by the ordination of priests without the permission of Pope Paul VI. The public repercussion of this act of disobedience converted the french prelate into a symbol of catholic traditionalism and of the resistance to the post-conciliar evolution of the Church. This article examines the impact of the “Lefebvre affair" in our country during the period 1976-1978, especially in the field of the traditional catholicism. The aim is to contribute to the explanation of several reasons for which the "lefebvrism" failed in Spain unlike other nations such as France or Germany.En 1976 el arzobispo Marcel Lefebvre fue suspendido a divinis por la ordenación de sacerdotes sin la autorización del Papa Pablo VI. La repercusión pública de este acto de desobediencia convirtió al prelado francés en símbolo de la resistencia a la evolución posconciliar de la Iglesia. En este artículo se explica el impacto del “caso Lefebvre” en España durante el periodo 1976-1978, especialmente en el ámbito del catolicismo tradicional español representado por la Hermandad Sacerdotal Española, el movimiento Fuerza Nueva o las revistas religiosas Iglesia-Mundo, Roca Viva o ¿Qué pasa?. El objetivo es contribuir a la explicación de algunas razones por las que el lefebvrismo fracasó en España a diferencia de lo ocurrido en Francia o Alemania.
ANA MARÍA STUVEN
Full Text Available Este trabajo surge del interés por situar la discusión sobre el catolicismo social y la cuestión social en Chile en una nueva perspectiva historiográfica que relacione la historia social, la llamada nueva historia política y la historia de las ideas. Su intención es comprender esta discusión como parte del proceso de construcción nacional. Postula que la visibilización del proletariado y sus condiciones de trabajo, al provocar un cuestionamiento por parte de la clase dirigente y de los católicos que la integraban, indujo una reflexión sobre los integrantes de la nación chilena, es decir, sobre la soberanía nacional, en un contexto de democratización de la república.This work arises out of an interest in situating the discussion on Social Catholicism and the social question in Chile within a new historiographic perspective that puts social history, so-called new political history and the history of ideas into relationship with each other. The author's intention is to understand this discussion as part of the process of national construction. The author proposes that the act of making visible the proletariat and its working conditions, provoking questioning by the leadership class and of the Catholics that composed it, induced a reflection about membership in the Chilean nation-that is, about national sovereignty, within the context of the democratization of the republic.
Full Text Available La relación entre espacio público y espacio religioso desde la perspectiva de la historia política requieren dos enfoques complementarios: el primero es que la política moderna, al separar el espacio público del privado, tiende a privatizar la religión y hacerla parte del dominio de la conciencia y de la práctica privada. El segundo es que la laicización del Estado en el XIX transforma el rol de la religión que se inserta de distinta forma en el espacio público moderno. En este breve artículo quisiérarnos ejemplificar estos dos enfoques en el caso chileno luego de una crítica a las visiones clásicas sobre el tema. Estudia el establecimiento de la libertad de culto; la nueva inserción del catolicismo en la sociedad civil a través de asociaciones modernas y finalmente las transformaciones en las formas de piedad religiosaFrom the perspective of political history, the relation between the public sphere and religion need requires a complementary approach. The first one is modern politics, which attempts to separate the public space from the private one reducing religion to the domain of one's own conscience and private practice. The second approach is the process towards a more lay state in the XIX c. which changes the role of religion, involving it in the public space in quite a different way. This brief article shows these two approaches in the case of the Chilean society, and then provides a critical view on the issue. It deals with the freedom of cult, the new insertion of Catholicism in the civil society through modern associations and finally the transformations in the forms of religious piety
Full Text Available My paper will examine figure of the Jesuit in nineteenth-century literature, a theme which evolves from my thesis on the image of Catholicism. The nineteenth century is of special interest in conjunction with the study of Russian attitudes to religion since it was a crucial time in the formation of Russian national identity. My paper will begin by outlining who the Jesuits are and what role they play in world history. Then I will briefly summarise the influence of the Jesuits on Russian history and how this may have affected how they were viewed in literature. I will then use some examples from some well-known texts and analyse how the Jesuit appears as a character in Russian plays and novels of this period. Starting with Pushkin’s drama about the Time of Troubles Boris Godunov and comparing this with Khomiakov’s drama, Dmitriii Samozvanets, I will outline how the Jesuit appears as Machiavellian schemer. Next I will discuss the 1840s and 1850s and the Jesuit polemics with Slavophile thinkers. Lastly, I will look at some examples from Dostoevskii’s Idiot and Tolstoi’s Voina i Mir and discuss the portrayal of Jesuits as eloquent speakers who were attempting to convert Russians. I will argue that although Jesuits are often neglected as minor characters in Russian literature, examining this theme can inform us about how Russian national identity was being formulated, and Russian writer’s response to how they felt Russian religious identity was being challenged.
Rezida I. Kantimirova
Full Text Available The article studied the activity of zemsky district heads in Ufa province in the late XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, in the context of the analysis of their social composition, economic status, confession and other characteristics. Although the different aspects of local government institutions activity throughout the Russian Empire are widely studied in the Russian historiography, the research studies on the review of regional experience in such activities in the territory of the Russian province are scarce. Special works devoted to the study of the activities of the zemstvo district heads in the territory of Ufa province, aren’t represented. The authors, basing on attracting a wide range of unpublished sources, among which employees formulary lists have particular importance, attempted to present the basic socio-cultural characteristics of this category of officials in the local government system on materials Ufa province. The authors concluded that the average shape of the province zemstvo district heads had the following characteristics. The composition of the zemstvo heads in Ufa province, was completed mostly from the local nobility, which was 78 % of the total. The property status of zemstvo district heads in Ufa province was characterized by the fact that 44 % of zemstvo heads had land ownership, 10% had houses in different cities of Ufa province and 46 % did not have the real estate. By confession the vast majority of zemstvo district heads were Orthodox, and only 7 % of the number of professed Islam, Catholicism and Lutheranism. A feature of the educational level of district heads in Ufa province was the fact that half of their number was represented by persons with military education.
Ana Lúcia Eduardo Farah Valente
Full Text Available A Igreja Católica legitimou prática e teoricamente o sistema colonial brasileiro e teve um caráter predominantemente leigo, por força da instituição do padroado. Pouco foi escrito sobre as irmandades de negros. As análises têm se restringido a observar que desempenharam um importante papel na manutenção das crenças religiosas africanas. Com a República, o processo de romanização empreendido pela Igreja teve por objetivo a desvalorização do catolicismo laico, com o desmantelamento das antigas irmandades e sua substituição por novas organizações leigas. Impõe-se caracterizar o papel desempenhado pela resistência, sem o quê seria difícil entender a existência atual da Irmandade Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, fundada em 1711, na região central da cidade. Sua história se confunde com a história das irmandades de negros em geral, mas oferece exemplo de como continuou a ser repositório da tradição popular, calcada em prática religiosa católica 'branca' e prática religiosa 'negra', pensada a partir do patamar da escravidão.Palavras-chave: religião; poder; laicidade. AbstractThe Catholic Church legitimized practical and theoretically the Brazilian colonial system and had a predominantly lay character by virtue of the institution of patronage. Little has been written about the brotherhoods among black people. The analysis have been restricted to noting that they have played an important role in maintaining the religious African beliefs. With the Republic, the romanization process undertaken by the Church has aimed the devaluation of the laic Catholicism, with the dismantling of old brotherhoods and their replacement by new lay organizations. It is necessary to characterize the role played by resistance, without which it would be difficult to understand the actual existence of the Irmandade Nossa Senhora dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, founded in 1711, in the central region of the city
《灰色星期三》作为艾略特皈依英国国教后发表的第一首诗歌，反映了诗人的信仰追求和精神挣扎，在艾略特的诗歌创作历程中占有比较重要的位置。但是，国内学术界对这首诗的重视程度仍然不够，关于这首诗的深度论文不多。本文将分析但丁《神曲•神曲篇》与《新生》中类比手法在这首诗中的运用。本文认为，艾略特在《灰色星期三》中除了从天主教仪式和安德鲁斯布道文寻找最佳的诗歌结构和语言表达方式，还借用了但丁的《神曲•炼狱篇》和《新生》中的类比手法，将宗教体验和诗歌融为一体，创造出一种崭新的诗歌表达方式。%Ash Wednesday, which was published after T. S. Eliot converted to Anglicanism and reflected Eliot’s pursuit of belief and his spirit process, had a relatively important position in Eliot’s poetic creative career. Domestic academia, however, has not paid enough attention to this poem. This paper wil analyze the significance of the analogical technique in Dante’s Divine Comedy: Purgatory and The New Life. This paper thinks in this poem Eliot uses the analogical technique in in Dante’s Divine Comedy: Purgatory and The New Life to combining poetic experience and religious experience to create a new poetic expression mode in addition to Lent liturgy of Catholicism and Andrewes’s sermon.
Closa Salinas, Francesc
Full Text Available At the beginning of 1851, when the Concordat between the Spanish Government and the Holy See was signed, Úriz was advocated Bishop of Lleida. He had to face a very difficult task: to modernize a bishopric harshly punished by wars and the absence –for many years– of a pastor. Úriz was presented as an energic prelate who was the architect of the reordination, modernization, and updating of the bishopric according to Concordat precepts. This thorough work would be accompanied with an arduous task of reflection about the Church’s role when facing the huge changes which were taking place in our country. In his sermons, he accused the liberals of being the cause of the Spanish Church’s great tragedy. He suggested turning Catholicism into an official religion so that it could enjoy some of its traditional privileges in exchange for the acceptance of the Isabelline monarchy, the moderate government and modernity in the social, technological and even cultural fields.En los albores de 1851, fecha de aprobación del Concordato entre el gobierno español y la Santa Sede, Úriz es preconizado como obispo de Lleida. Tiene ante sí una difícil tarea, modernizar un obispado duramente castigado por las guerras y la ausencia –durante varios años– de un pastor eclesiástico. Úriz se nos presenta como un enérgico prelado artífice de la reordenación, modernización y actualización del obispado según los preceptos concordatorios. Este minucioso trabajo irá acompañado de una reflexión sobre el papel de la iglesia ante los enormes cambios que tomaba el país. En sus pastorales imputa a los liberales la causa de la gran tragedia de la iglesia en España. Ante ello propone que el catolicismo se convierta en una verdadera religión oficial y que volviera a disfrutar de algunos de sus tradicionales privilegios, perdidos durante la primera parte del siglo XIX. A cambio aceptarían la monarquía isabelina, el gobierno moderado así como la
Eva Alterman Blay
Full Text Available A construção da cultura passa por múltiplas influências culturais. A dinâmica cultural desmente pretensas posições etnocêntricas. Ao longo do tempo a história brasileira se viu vinculada a vários sistemas socioculturais e, nos dois últimos séculos, às influências ibérica, africana e indígena houve intensa incorporação da cultura francesa e anglo-saxônica que somadas, moldaram, em grande parte, nossos corações e mentes. Neste trabalho se focaliza a influência da cultura e do catolicismo conservador francês na formação do anti-semitismo brasileiro. A partir da análise da iconografia religiosa se observará uma das fontes da construção da diabolização do judeu no imaginário popular e culto. A construção da exclusão social dos judeus franceses e sua deportação para campos de concentração será observada através de um roteiro pelo Marais, o bairro judaico de Paris. A arquitetura concentracionista de Corbusier completa o quadro da exclusão social. Todos estes elementos, reunidos, permitem entender, em parte, como foi sendo construída a imagem do judeu imigrante no Brasil expressa por vários autores.The construction of culture undergoes a number of cultural influences. Cultural dynamics disavows alleged ethnocentric positions. From the beginning, Brazilian history has been linked to various socio-cultural systems. In the last two centuries, an intense incorporation of French and Anglo-Saxon cultures has been added to the Iberian, African and Native influences. Together, these have molded, to a large extent, our hearts and minds. This paper focuses on the influence of French culture and French conservative Catholicism in the constitution of Brazilian anti-semitism. The analisys of religious iconography reveals one of the sources of the satanization of the Jews in popular and elite imagination. The development of the social exclusion of the French Jews and their deportation to the concentration camps is analysed
Marisete Teresinha Hoffmann-Horochovski
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo discute as mudanças e permanências que caracterizam o universo simbólico da morte, especialmente no tocante aos rituais fúnebres. O intuito principal é perceber como esses rituais foram se modificando significativamente na sociedade brasileira das últimas décadas do século XX, principalmente nos centros urbanos. Para tanto, investigamos memórias de idosos com sessenta e cinco anos ou mais, socializados no catolicismo e residentes em Curitiba/PR, colhidas por meio da história oral. Sobreviventes, os velhos pesquisados testemunharam muitas mortes e participaram de inúmeros rituais ao longo de sua existência e, por isso mesmo, podem lembra-los e transmiti-los com propriedade. Por meio de suas vozes, abre-se a possibilidade de entender uma época na qual a morte representava verdadeiro acontecimento social que promovia interação e reforçava os laços de solidariedade. Época que contrasta com a atual, caracterizada pela crescente dessocialização da morte e pela aceleração e simplificação das práticas rituais. Palavras-chave: Morte. Rituais fúnebres. Memórias de velhos. Abstract This article aims to discuss the changes and continuities that characterize the symbolic universe of death, particularly with regard to funeral rites. This research also aims to comprehend how these rituals have been modified significantly in Brazilian society over the last decades of the twentieth century, especially in urban centers. In this sense, this paper investigates the memories of people older than 65 years of age, who were socialized in Catholicism and resides in Curitiba – Paraná –Brazil. These memories were collected through oral history. The surveyed people witnessed many deaths and participated in various rituals throughout its existence and, for this reason they can recall these rituals and transmit them properly. Through these elderly people
Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human
Full Text Available At the Humboldt University of Berlin, German historian Alexander Korb defended, with the highest grade (summa cum laude, his doctoral thesis in historical studies „In the Shadow of the World War II. Mass violence by the Ustaša against Serbs, Jews and Roma“. His radically new thesis are as follows: 1 in the State of Croatia (1941-1945 „there was no genocide against the Serbs“; 2 clerical component (Croatian Catholic clergy and the Vatican „played no significant role“ in the mass violence against the Serbs in the State of Croatia (1941-1945, so the forced catholicization of the Serbs was „purely secular in character“. Korb, therefore, enters into absolute conflict with the vast majority of previous research papers and their conclusions. Korb’s theses are challenged from three aspects in this analysis: a scientific and historical, b linguistic and philosophical (definitionism theory and c political. Regarding scientific and historical aspects, Korb approached this problem one-sidedly, in a selective way, and from the very beginning drastically reduced i.e. excluded an enormous part of primary historical sources and scientific literature. He excluded all Serbian sources, including testimonies of Serbian survivors and victims, on the grounds that they were either „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, then all testimonies of eye-witnesses from the opressors side - German Nazis and Italian Fascists - with justification that they are manipulated by „Serbian nationalists“ or „Serbian communists“, as well as all primary historical sources and scientific literature which testify of the role of Croatian Roman Catholic clergy and the Vatican, on the basis that they are „anti-clerical“. From linguistic and philosophical aspect, Korb‘s argumentations clearly belong to the principle of „usurpation of power over definitions and psychagogy“ recognized by classical theory of concepts as a convenient
Full Text Available Manuel Larraín Errázuriz, obispo de Talca, Chile, entre 1938 y 1966, es una de las principales figuras de la Iglesia latinoamericana del siglo XX y uno de los más importantes precursores del Concilio Vaticano II en este continente, sobre todo por su actitud de apertura a los desafíos y complejidades del mundo moderno desde una profunda fidelidad al Evangelio. El artículo busca destacar su aporte, en ese horizonte, a la conformación de una conciencia eclesial auténticamente latinoamericana. La primera parte es una presentación del catolicismo chileno tradicional en que él se formó y que más tarde se abriría a perspectivas más amplias por diversos influjos históricos. La segunda parte se refiere a cuatro grandes temas y circunstancias en los que Manuel Larraín jugó un destacado rol como pastor, forjando así esa conciencia eclesial que ha quedado como su principal legado. El texto concluye con una breve reflexión sobre este legado y sobre los desafíos que él plantea hasta hoy a la Iglesia del continente.Manuel Larraín Errázuriz, bishop of Talca, Chile, between 1938 and 1966, is one of the principal figures of the Latin American Church in the 20th century, and one of the most important forerunners of Vatican Council II on this continent, above all for the openness of his attitude while facing the challenges and complexities of the modern world from a position of deep faithfulness to the Gospel. This article seeks to emphasize his contribution, on that horizon, to the conformation of an authentically Latin American ecclesial consciousness. The first part of this article is a presentation of the traditional Chilean Catholicism in which he was brought up and which, later on, would open itself to wider perspectives thanks to different historical influences. The second part refers to four great themes and the circumstances in which Manuel Larraín played an important role as pastor, thus forging that ecclesial consciousness which
Full Text Available El presente artículo se ocupa de la tematización que Heidegger hace de la religión en su época de docente en Friburgo. Heidegger se encuentra en búsqueda de la fenomenología como ciencia originaria, y en ese contexto destaca tres dimensiones humanas de peculiar importancia: autobiografía, arte y religión. En ese contexto se muestra que lo que aquí interesa es la manera en que la vida táctica se expresa a sí misma. En el caso concreto de la religión, la vida religiosa y su expresión no operan como contenido y continente ajenos el uno del otro. A su vez, la ocupación heideggeriana con la filosofía de la religión tiene, ante todo, que ver con una descripción de las tendencias filosóficas imperantes en su tiempo. El artículo concluye con una somera referencia biográfica a la crisis personal del filósofo que lo lleva a abandonar el catolicismo.The present article is concerned with the themes that Heidegger addresses regarding religión during his time as a teacher in Freiburg. Here Heidegger is found searching for phenomenology as an original science, and in this context he highlights three human dimensions of singular importance: autobiography, art and religión. In this setting, it is shown that what is of interest is the way in which real life expresses itself. As for the concrete case of religión, religious life and its expression do not opérate as contained and container, distant from each other. At the same time, the heideggerian concern with philosophy of religión has to do with a description of the philosophical tendencies dominating in his day, before all else. The article concludes with a brief biographical reference to the personal crisis of the philosopher which leads him to abandon catholicism.onar el catolicismo.
expression. It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and patriotism had been effectively fused in Polish national conscience. In this charged political context a Polish author revisiting Church dogma or tradition was at risk of being perceived not only as a religious outcast but also as a traitor to the cause of Polish independence. To test my hypothesis I propose to examine Igrzysko (Game, a forgotten play by Leopold Staff. Admired today chiefly as a poet, the young Staff wrote Igrzysko in Poland after a long sojourn in Paris where he had lived among the international crowd of fin de siècle writers and artists. The play was first produced in Lemberg in 1909 and after a few performances vanished forever from Polish theatrical repertoire. Leopold Staff's play is set in ancient Rome and depicts tribulations of an actor who, while impersonating a Christian awaiting crucifixion, converts to Christianity. In his play, Staff revives the legend of Saint Genesius, an actor in Arles who died a martyr's death in 286 under Diocletian. In Spain, Saint Genesius's legend inspired Lope de Vega who wrote Acting is Believing (Lo fingido verdadero, 1607. In France, it was the source for Jean Rotrou's Saint Genest (1646. All told, the legend of Genesius is a popular theme for artists who wish to explore the distinction between art and life. An important addition to this old tradition, Staff's play contains, however, a decadent and potentially scandalous twist. Unlike in Acting is Believing and Saint Genest, the protagonist's conversion is very short
VALIDACIÓN DE LA UNIDAD DIDÁCTICA LA IGLESIA CATÓLICA DE COSTA RICA EN LA HISTORIA NACIONAL: DESAFÍOS Y RESPUESTAS (VALIDITY OF COSTA RICA’S CATHOLIC CHURCH DIDACTIC UNIT THROUGH THE NATIONAL HISTORY: CHALLENGES AND ANSWERS
Gómez Figueroa Patricia
Full Text Available Resumen:Presento la validación de la unidad didáctica: Historia de la Iglesia Católica en Costa Rica: desafíos y respuestas de Miguel Picado Gatjens realizada con el alumnado del Centro Universitario Metropolitano de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED y un equipo interdisciplinario. La unidad se validó mediante un cuestionario escrito, diseñado por la Oficina del Programa de Materiales Impresos (PROMADE de la UNED y aplicado a estudiantes y profesionales. Se determinó cómo y qué enseñar acerca de la historia del catolicismo para promover la reflexión y la formación en el estudiante universitario a distancia. Con el diseño y la elaboración del texto didáctico se regularon los contenidos y se seleccionaron los objetivos básicos de aprendizaje, las pautas metodológicas y las experiencias del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje necesarios para perfeccionar, en un futuro, el proceso de elaboración de textos didácticos para la educación a distancia.Abstract:I present the validation of the book History of the Catholic Church of Costa Rica: Challenges and Answers (Historia de la Iglesia Católica de Costa Rica: desafíos y respuestas by Miguel Picado Gatjens made with the help of the students of the Metropolitan University Center of the State Distance University (Centro Universitario Metropolitano de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia, UNED and a team from different fields of study.This book was validated through a written survey designed by the Office of Program of Written Materials (La Oficina de Programa de Materiales Didácticos, PROMADE of UNED and it was given to the alumni and the faculty. It was concluded from the results of the survey, how and what to teach about the history of Catholicism in order to promote thought and good development in the students of the State University of Distance Learning (UNED. With the design and creation of this text, the contents, the learning objectives and activities and the methodology
Full Text Available Luther as protestant catechist Luther’s catechetical activity is based on the catechetic tradition already extant in the Early Church. He reverts to this tradition, and more especially to the catechetical instruction of the Middle Ages. Luther observed great negligence and deficiency with regard to the catechesis in the Roman Catholicism of his time. In Luther’s view, a catechism is a short summary of Holy Scrip-ture; it is a condensed and succinct expression of the teachings of the Christian faith. Along with his study on the unfree will (“De servo arbitrio” Luther considered his two catechisms, which developed out of his preaching activity, as his most im-portant written work. His “Small catechism”, which was very well received, was reissued more than 60 times – and translated into a variety of languages – up until the time of his death. According to Luther, catechesis (catechetical instruction is the means by which the catechism is to be learned. A vital part of this process is that the catechism must take root in the heart. The catechism is not a vehicle for objective, scientific faith, but rather defines a living, personal faith as trust in God. All Christians, including adults, must therefore know the catechism in such a way that it is engraved on their consciousness. This necessitates the attendance of catechetical sermons. There is much pneumatological profit to be had in the reading and discussion of the catechism, and in meditating on it, because the Holy Spirit is present in all these activities. All that is necessary for the Christian to know about his salvation is richly and thoroughly present in the catechism. In the light of this, the catechism is profoundly trinitarian and eschatological in orientation. The catechism teaches that the fulfilment of the Ten Commandments, the realisation of the good, is born out of true faith. Those who do not know the catechism are not allowed to partake in the sacrament of the
Full Text Available En este artículo analizo dilemas y paradojas que plantea la modernidad en el caso de los Takshek Qom o tobas del oriente de Formosa (Argentina. Para ello me centro en la experiencia del lkillakte o corazón como uno de los núcleos vitales y existenciales de la persona. Allí se alojan las distintas clases de poder shamánico y también es sede de los pensamientos y las emociones. Me interesa explorar qué le pasa en términos simbólicos al corazón shamánico frente al contacto con el catolicismo y el evangelismo, y sus definiciones de lo sagrado y el poder numinoso, la enfermedad y la terapia. De este modo es posible observar al corazón como un lugar-proceso que ha transformado sus fronteras, redefiniendo su anatomía y fisiología ontológicas. Así, como un operador metonímico sensible, los azares del corazón shamánico condensan eventos, símbolos y metáforas significativas de la historia qom.In this paper I analyze certain dilemmas and paradoxes of modernity in the case of the Takshek Qom or Eastern Toba (Formosa province, Argentina. To do so I focus on the experience of the heart or lkillakte, defined as the person's key vital and existential center. Within it thoughts and emotions occur, and it also houses different kinds of shamanic power. From a symbolic approach, I explore what happens with the shamanic heart under the influence of Catholicism and Evangelism, stressing their definitions of the sacred and numinous power, illness and therapy. In this sense, I suggest to regard the heart as a place-process that has widened its boundaries, redefining its anatomy and ontological physiology. Thus, as a sensible, metonymic operator, I argue that the contingencias of shamanic hearts condense events, symbols and meaningful metaphors of Qom history.
16至20世纪,菲律宾先后遭受西班牙和美国的殖民统治,根基薄弱的自身文化受到西方语言帝国主义的强烈冲击和影响。西班牙殖民者采用分化语言政策,通过把菲律宾当地语言拉丁字母化来传播天主教,并禁止、限制菲律宾人使用西班牙语;美国取代西班牙占领菲律宾后采取殖民同化语言政策,通过新教传播而大力推广普及英语,使菲律宾至今仍是亚洲使用英语人口最多的国家之一。本文从社会语言学的视角共时对比研究西、美殖民菲律宾时期语言政策的异同,旨在揭示语言政策的语言学层面意义和社会学层面意义,以期探索其对新时期中国语言政策的启示。%The Philippines suffered from the colonial rules by Spain and the US from the 16th to the 20th century.Western linguistic imperialism extended its great impacts on the Philippines＇ weak cultural foundation then.Spain propagated Catholicism in the Philippines via the Romanization of local languages,adopted the colonial polarization language policy of forbidding the Philippines from speaking Spanish;US conquered the Philippines and took the assimilation language policy via the Protestantism to popularize English,which makes the Philippines one of the Asian countries where English is frequently used.In the light of sociolinguistics,this article attempts to make a contrastive study from the synchronic perspective on the Philippine language policy during the Spanish and American colonial period,to reveal the linguistic meaning and sociological meaning of such language policy,and its enlightenment to the Chinese language policy in the new era.
Binzhongluo township of Gongshan county, located at the north end of Yunnan Nujiang Lisu Minority Nationality Autonomous Prefecture,Binzhongluo township, transversed by high mountains and deep villages, is the habitat of seven minority nationalities such as Nu, Lisu, Tibet and Dulong. The total population of the township is 6,183, in which that of minority nationalities counts for over 98%. The main beliefs of the local people are primitive religion, Catholicism, Christianity and Tibetan Buddhism (Lamaism). Such stituation make Binzhongluo Township a tipical border area with various nationalities and various religion. In this article, the author took Binzhongluo as a study case, probed into the problem of conflict, coexist and fusion of tranditional religions and spread-in religions in domestic border muti-nationality regions, and its contributions to the transitions of social culture with the lapse of time.%贡山县丙中洛乡位于云南省怒江傈僳族自治州最北端，境内山高谷深，民族众多，居住着怒族、傈僳族、藏族、独龙族等7种民族，其中少数民族人口占总人口的98%以上。当地各族群众主要信仰原始宗教、天主教、基督教和藏传佛教（喇嘛教）。是典型的边疆、多民族、多宗教信仰的地区。本文拟以此为个案，初步探讨在一定的历史时期，我国边疆少数民族地区传统宗教和外来宗教从冲突到并存至相互交融，共同推动社会文化变迁的问题。
Maria José Rosado-Nunes
Full Text Available O texto trabalha as complexas relações entre elementos da moderna cultura de direitos, as proposições políticas dos feminismos contemporâneos e os ideais e valores do catolicismo. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a contribuição da Igreja católica no Brasil para a construção de uma certa "cultura de direitos", nos anos de 1960-1980, por meio das chamadas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base, as CEBs. No âmbito teórico, explora-se o interminável conflito dessa Igreja com os valores modernos que estão na base das reivindicações das mulheres, desde o século XVIII. Finalmente, voltando à realidade socioistórica do movimento de mulheres, aborda-se a questão da ampliação do conceito de direitos pela inclusão dos recém-denominados "direitos sexuais e direitos reprodutivos", como um novo, ma non troppo, campo de conflito entre o ideário feminista e o ideário católico.The text examines the complex relations between elements of modern culture of rights, the political proposals of contemporary feminists and the ideals and values of Catholicism. In the first part, the article analyzes the contribution of the Catholic Church in Brazil in constructing a certain 'rights culture,' during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, through the so-called 'Base Ecclesiastical Communities' - the CEBs. At the theoretical level, I explore the interminable conflict between the Catholic Church and the modern values that have formed the base of women's demands since the 18th century. Finally, returning to the sociohistorical reality of the women's movement, I approach the question of extending the concept of rights to include the recently emergent 'sexual and reproductive rights,' as a new, ma non troppo, field of conflict between feminist and Catholic ideas.
Christiane Jalles de Paula
Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o combate que empreendeu Gustavo Corção à juventude católica brasileira nas páginas do Diário de Notícias e d’ O Globo entre as décadas de 1950 e de 1960. No caso em tela, interessa-nos entender as reações de Gustavo Corção às mudanças na sociedade e na Igreja Católica entre 1957 e 1964. A hipótese é que as críticas de Corção explicitam o conflito entre duas gerações de católicos: uma conservadora; a dele; e outra progressista, a das organizações de jovens católicos, mais especificamente, a da Juventude Universitária Católica (JUC. Apresentaremos a disputa a partir do exame da seguinte questão: o papel que a juventude brasileira deveria desempenhar naqueles anos. O objetivo é mostrar que suas críticas à opção de ação temporal assumida pelas organizações de juventude católica devem ser lidas pela chave do conflito geracional que marcou o campo católico brasileiro. Palavras-chave: Catolicismo. Gerações. Gustavo Corção. Juventude católica. Abstract: This paper discusses the fight of Brazilian Catholic Youth Gustavo Corção in the newspapers Diário de Notícias and O Globo in the 1950s and 1960s. In case we are interested in understanding the reactions of Gustavo Corção to changes in society and the Catholic Church between 1957 and 1964. The hypothesis is that the criticism of Corção explains the conflict between two generations of Catholics: a conservative and other progressive, represented by the Catholic youth organizations, more specifically, the Youth Catholic University. We are going to examine the question: the role that Brazilian youth should play in those years. Therefore, the aim is to show that his criticism of the political action undertaken by the young catholic organizations should be read by the key of generation conflict which has marked the Brazilian Catholic field. Keywords: Catholicism. Generations. Gustavo Corção. Catholic youth organizations.
Cajade Frías, Sonia
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze from the perspective of ethnoliterature the novel Entre visillos (1958 by Carmen Martín Gaite in relation to the Spain’s social and cultural context in the 1950s. The objective of the work consists of studying the feminine and masculine archetypes that the novel projects, in connection with the gender-related models that National-Catholicism promoted at the time. Many of these models are still prevalent in Spain. For her the novel, as it encapsulated the socio-cultural context of the 1950s, had by itself, as a specific literary product, the power of impinging upon and re-constructing that social reality, especially by producing new archetypes of gender on which to offer alternate models of identity.
El propósito de este artículo es analizar desde una perspectiva etnoliteraria la novela Entre visillos (1958 de Carmen Martín Gaite en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la España de posguerra de los años cincuenta. El objetivo del trabajo consiste en estudiar los arquetipos femeninos y masculinos que se proyectan a través de la novela y su conexión con los modelos de género propuestos por la ideología dominante del nacional-catolicismo, muchos aún vigentes en la sociedad actual. Se trata así de explorar cómo el contexto sociocultural de la época se refleja en la novela y cómo a su vez la propia obra literaria, como producto cultural específico, posee la capacidad de proyectarse sobre esa misma realidad social, contribuyendo así a re-construirla, concretamente a través de la creación de nuevos arquetipos de género que proponen modelos de identidad alternativos.
Eduardo Cintra Torres
Full Text Available The impact of Émile Zola’s novel on Lourdes was felt in Portugal even before its publication in France in 1894. The naturalist writer’s documentary fiction plucked a central chord in the political and religious debate of the time, particularly the dichotomy between science and religion, the renewal of faith and the legitimacy of the crowd in public spaces. This paper deals with only one aspect of that debate, active in Portugal between 1894 and 1932 – the impact of Zola´s innovative thesis about Lourdes’ new religious crowd and ‘the crowd’s healing power’. The development of the debates shows how Catholic sectors increasingly incorporated the ‘crowd’ into renewed Catholicism, especially after the Fátima events of 1917, while the liberal bourgeoisie continued to reject the masses.L’impact du roman Lourdes d’Émile Zola au Portugal s’est fait avant même sa publication en France en 1894. Cette fiction documentaire de l’écrivain naturaliste a touché une corde sensible dans les débats politiques et religieux de l’époque, notamment en atour de questions telles que la dichotomie entre science et religion, le renouveau de la foi catholique et la légitimité de la foule dans l’espace public. Cet article se penche sur un aspect particulier des débats qui furent actifs au Portugal entre 1894 et 1932 : l’impact de la thèse originale de Zola sur les foules religieuses de Lourdes et le pouvoir guérisseur de la foule. Le développement des débats montre comment les catholiques ont progressivement incorporé la « foule » dans leur vision d’un catholicisme renouvelé, alors que la bourgeoisie libérale continua à rejeter les masses, particulièrement après les apparitions de Fátima en 1917.
Full Text Available In 1855 Justo José de Urquiza -president of the Argentine ‘Confederation’- resolved reissue wiyh public funds the catechism Christian Instructions and recommend to the formation of children in primary schools of the 'Confederation'. The author of the text was jujeño cleric Escolástico Zegada (1813-1871. In rewriting, praised the Urquiza’s administration and explicitly summoned for readers to support the government. For this, the cleric used biblical models of Roman Catholicism. Thus, this paper examines, firstly, the reasons why Urquiza and his cabinet resolved reissue the catechism. Secondly, is studied how symbolically constructed cleric Urquiza’s leadership ahead of the national government. So, it seeks to understand the particularities of the relationship between temporal and heavenly power in Argentina by midnineteenth century.En 1855 Justo José de Urquiza -presidente de la ‘Confederación’ Argentina- resolvió reeditar con fondos públicos el catecismo Instrucciones Cristianas y recomendarlo para la formación de niños en las escuelas de primeras letras de la ‘Confederación’. El autor del texto fue el clérigo jujeño Escolástico Zegada (1813-1871. En la reescritura, exaltaba la administración de Urquiza y convocaba de forma explícita a los lectores a apoyar al gobierno. Para ello, el clérigo utilizó modelos bíblicos del catolicismo romano. En consecuencia, el presente trabajo analiza, en primer lugar, los motivos por los cuales Urquiza y miembros de su gabinete resolvieron reeditar el catecismo. En segundo lugar, se estudia cómo el clérigo construía simbólicamente el liderazgo de Urquiza al frente del gobierno nacional. Así, se busca comprender las particularidades de las relaciones entre poder temporal y poder celestial en la Argentina hacia mediados del siglo XIX.
Mariano García Canales
Full Text Available La crisis de la Restauración coincidió con una época de profunda transformación de los principios básicos del parlamentarismo. Los teóricos buscaron nuevas bases para un tema central del mismo: la representación política. ¿Cómo se entendía la representación? ¿Quiénes debían ser capaces de participar en la conformación de las Cortes? ¿Qué procedimientos debían ser adoptados? Éstas eran algunas de las cuestiones planteadas entonces entre los especialistas, políticos y publicistas. Esto fue abordado desde diferentes ángulos y con diferentes respuestas por varias corrientes políticas, desde las tradicionalistas, el catolicismo social y al movimiento liberal reformista de los krausistas. El objetivo es verificar cómo las ideas organicistas emergieron durante el reflujo general del individualismo, puesto de frente a la cuestión social, y que también sirvió para la llegada en los años veinte de las soluciones corporativas autoritarias y totalitarias.The Restoration crisis coincided with a time of profound transformation of the central political tenets of the liberal parliamentary system. Theorists sought new groundings for a central theme: political representation. What was understood by people or nation? What were the voices that should be heard at the time of forming the state’s will? What procedures should be adopted? These were some of the issues that were under review and that concerned publishers and scholars. This paper follows up what was advocated by various political currents, from the so-called Spanish traditionalist current, through the school of social Catholicism to the progressive arm of the Spanish Krausism. The purpose is to verify how generic organicist ideas that emerged in a general movement of reflux of individualism, put in front of the social question, eventually facilitated the arrival in the twenties to authoritarian or totalitarian corporatist solutions.
relationship between State and Churches, including religious denominations other than Catholicism.
Angelo Adriano Faria de Assis
Full Text Available A visitação do Santo Ofício ao Nordeste açucareiro entre 1591e 1595 traria à tona os conflitos sociais e a disputa de interesses entre cristãos velhos e novos. Principais delatados, os neoconversos tornam-se figuras centrais das acusações feitas à mesa e vítimas em potencial das generalizações sobre seu suposto comportamento criptojudaico, acusados das mais diversas heresias. Dentre os delatados, chama a atenção o significativo número de mulheres, baluartes da resistência judaica, difusoras de sua cultura e tradições para as novas gerações. Responsáveis pelo ambiente doméstico, seriam as grandes propagadoras do judaísmo secreto e diminuto que se tornara possível após as proibições de livre crença no mundo português a partir de 1497, e a instauração da Inquisição, em 1536, quando os lares passaram a representar papel preponderante para a divulgação e sobrevivência das tradições dos filhos de Israel.The visit of the Holly Inquisition to the northeast of Brazil between 1591 and 1595 would expose social conflicts and disputes of interests among old and new Christians. The last were the potential victims and the main accused of maintaining a crypto-judaic behavior, performing several heresies. Among the accused, there was an impressive number of women, center of Jewish resistence, transmitting the culture and the tradition to the new generations. After the prohibition of any other faith than Catholicism in the Portuguese world in 1497 and the stablishment of the Inquisition in 1536, women would become responsible for the diffusion of secret Judaism. Homes became a central place to the survival of Jewish traditions.
Fernández Escudero, Agustín
Full Text Available In 1889, in order to commemorate the XIII centenary of Recaredo conversion to Catholicism, the two Carlist factions, namely the ones loyal to Don Carlos and the integrists separated ones, tried to have their say on the celebration. The Marquis of Cerralbo was chosen by the Carlist pretender Carlos VII to preside a Central Assembly (Junta whose main object was to build up a pyramid in Toledo to show the whole word the Carlist opposition to the Eiffel Tower and to the first centenary of the French Revolution. This project, although supported by assemblies established around the peninsula, could not be accomplished due to economic reasons and to certain issues with the Church. In the other hand, the integrists also planned to construct a basilica in Valladolid, a project that could not be undertaken either. Nevertheless, the Carlists loyal to the pretender used the assemblies formed for the pyramid project around the whole peninsula as a base to establish electoral assemblies for the next elections.En el año 1889 para conmemorar el XIII Centenario de la conversión de Recaredo al catolicismo, las dos facciones carlistas, los leales a don Carlos y los escindidos integristas, intentaron, a su manera, hacer suya la celebración. El marqués de Cerralbo fue nombrado por el pretendiente carlista Carlos VII para presidir una Junta Central que llevaría a efecto la erección de una pirámide en Toledo, con el fin de demostrar al mundo entero la oposición del carlismo a la Torre Eiffel y al primer centenario de la Revolución Francesa, aunque su proyecto, apoyado por todas las juntas constituidas en toda la península, no pudo llegar a culminarse. Los motivos fueron económicos y por ciertas diferencias con la Iglesia. Por su parte, los integristas también proyectaron edificar una basílica en Valladolid, que tampoco pudo ser realizada. No obstante, a los carlistas leales al pretendiente, esta experiencia de crear juntas para la construcción de una pir
Ruether, R R
This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman
Jorge Dagnino Jiménez
Full Text Available Este artículo tiene por objetivo el análisis de los principales aportes a una nueva vision del catolicismo y elaboración teológica de la Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana (FUCI entre 1933 y 1939. La FUCI, la organización oficial de Acción Católica para los estudiantes universitarios de la época, fue liderada por Giovanni Battista Montini, el futuro Papa Pablo VI, entre 1925 y 1933. Hasta el día de hoy, la organización es principalmente conocida por haber formado en sus filas a gran parte de la futura clase dirigente demócrata cristiana que gobernaría Italia durante buena parte de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Así, otros procesos de igual valor han tendido a ser dejados de lado por la historiografía. Este artículo pretende colaborar a llenar este vacío, concentrándose en la elaboración teológica de la federación, en especial la formación de la personalidad cristiana en torno a un cristianismo 'totalitario', la eclesiología de Emilio Guano y los nuevos modelos de santidad del período, todo con el fin último de ofrecer una variante de una modernidad católica para la Iglesia del período.The present study aims at analyzing the main contributions made by the Federazione Universitaria Cattolica Italiana (FUCI to a new vision of Catholicism and theological elaboration between 1933 and 1939. As the official university student organization for Catholic Action at that time, the FUCI was led by Giovanni Battista Montini, who later became Pope Paul VI between 1925 and 1933. To date, this organization has been known to have bred most of the Christian Democratic ruling class that governed Italy for almost the entire second half of the XX century. Nevertheless, this and other processes with similar historical value have been left out of the books. This paper intends to contribute to filling such gap and focus on the theological elaboration of the FUCI. In particular, it analyzes how the organization developed a Christian
Full Text Available Peter Borschberg (ed., Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century (Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied Katharine L. Wiegele, Investing in miracles; El Shaddai and the transformation of popular Catholicism in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Jean Gelman Taylor, Indonesia; Peoples and histories (Peter Boomgaard Clive Moore, New Guinea; Crossing boundaries and history (Harold Brookfield Nathan Porath, When the bird flies; Shamanic therapy and the maintenance of worldly boundaries among an indigenous people of Riau (Sumatra (Cynthia Chou and Martin Platt Paul van der Grijp, Identity and development; Tongan culture, agriculture, and the perenniality of the gift (H.J.M. Claessen Tim Bunnell, Malaysia, modernity and the multimedia super corridor; A critical geography of intelligent landscapes (Ben Derudder L. Fontijne, Guardians of the land in Kelimado; Louis Fontijne’s study of a colonial district in eastern Indonesia (Maribeth Erb Karl-Heinz Golzio, Geschichte Kambodschas; Das Land der Khmer von Angkor bis zur Gegenwart (Volker Grabowsky Emmanuel Poisson, Mandarins et subalternes au nord du Viêt Nam; Une bureaucracie à l’épreuve (1820-1918 (Martin Grossheim Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, Volume 10, 1737-1743 (Gerrit Knaap Aris Ananta and Evi Nurvidya Arifin (eds, International migration in Southeast Asia (Santo Koesoebjono Vladimir Braginsky, The comparative study of traditional Asian literatures; From reflective traditionalism to neo-traditionalism (G.L. Koster Fiona Kerlogue (ed., Performing objects; Museums, material culture and performance in Southeast Asia (Jennifer Lindsay Th.C. van der Meij, Puspakrema; A Javanese romance from Lombok (Julian Millie Robyn Maxwell, Sari to sarong; Five hundred years of Indian and Indonesian textile exchange -- Jasleen Dhamija, Woven magic; The affinity between
“A visão aérea e a do nadador”: reflexões sobre católicos e pentecostais no censo de 2010 (“The aerial vision and the vision of the swimmer”: reflections on Catholics and Pentecostals in 2010 Census - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1154
Paulo Gracino Junior
remain privileged reserves of Catholicism. In parallel, we intend to analyze the possibilities and limitations of census data produced by the IBGE, as useful tools for the study of religion in Brazil. At this point, we will take into account both the construction of instruments to collect data from the IBGE - creating census categories for religious types – as the boundaries of these categories compared with the dynamics of the Brazilian religious field. Keywords: Pentecostals. Catholics. IBGE Census.
Full Text Available Issue d’une première tentative de synthèse portant sur la peinture monumentale religieuse à Lille dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, cette étude permet d’exhumer l’œuvre d’artistes régionaux, mais également belges et néerlandais, mettant en évidence le rôle de carrefour de l’actuelle métropole lilloise. Dans une région fortement marquée par le catholicisme, les sujets traités sont à la fois le reflet des dévotions nationales et de cultes plus locaux, que ce soit à travers la figure de saint Vincent de Paul, le rôle de la Vierge ou la dévotion aux âmes du purgatoire qui prend une importance particulière à partir du foyer de Loos. Cette expression artistique et religieuse se développe sous la forme de grands cycles dont la réalisation connaît son apogée sous la IIIe République, en particulier de 1880 à 1900. Une fois ce panorama dressé, il devient possible d’interroger les catégories traditionnelles de l’art à cette époque, la notion centrale de primitivisme et les jugements de valeur auxquels cette peinture est encore souvent soumise.This article is based on a synthetic analysis of monumental religious painting at Lille during the second half of the 19th century. This study led to the rediscovery of many regional artists, but also Belgian and Dutch artists, underlining the long history of Lille’s present-day position as an international crossroads. In a region which was strongly marked by Catholicism, the subjects dealt with offer a reflection of national devotional practices but also draw attention to more local cults. Examples here include the figure of Saint Vincent de Paul, the role of the Virgin Mary and the devotion to souls in purgatory, which is particularly important in Loos. This artistic and religious expression develops according to major cycles which reached a high point during the Third Republic, and particularly from 1880 to 1890. Once this general overview has been established
Martínez Sánchez, Santiago
Full Text Available Fermín Yzurdiaga was a priest from Navarra who carried out an extremely visible political and propaganda activity for Falange, during the Spanish Civil War. Having been born in Pamplona, he carried out some pioneering cultural projects in Franco's Spain: the Arriba España newspaper and a magazine called Jerarquía. Besides, in May 1937, Franco appointed him as Falange’s Press and Propaganda chief. As a clergyman, Yzurdiaga aspired to reconcile Catholicism and Falange. However, due to his constant political visibility, his speeches and sermons, his frequent controversies with many catholics, and the uncertainty about the increasingly totalitarian character of the State that Yzurdiaba was working for, he was seen by his Church superiors with increasing suspicion. The Bishop of Pamplona, Marcelino Olaechea, required him to resign both from his political activity at the end of 1937, and from his journalistic role in late 1938. Our goal is to analyze the early clashes between civil and religious authorities to control the direction of the priest’s initiatives.El sacerdote navarro Fermín Yzurdiaga desarrolló una notable actividad política y periodística al servicio de la Falange durante la guerra civil española. Impulsó desde Pamplona algunos proyectos culturales pioneros en la España franquista: el diario Arriba España y la revista Jerarquía. Franco le encumbró a la jefatura de prensa y propaganda de la Falange unificada, en mayo de 1937. Como clérigo, Yzurdiaga aspiró a conciliar catolicismo y falangismo. Pero sus superiores eclesiásticos le vieron con creciente recelo, por su incesante visibilidad política, por sus arengas y sermones, por sus habituales polémicas con católicos y por la incertidumbre sobre el rumbo totalitario del Estado al que Yzurdiaba servía. Su obispo Marcelino Olaechea exigió que renunciase a su protagonismo público: a la actividad política, a finales de 1937; y a la periodística, a fines de 1938
Luípa Michele Silva
apoyar a los profesionales en la comprensión de la adhesión de las prácticas preventivas de la política y el fortalecimiento de los ancianos dirigidos a este grupo poblacional.This study aimed to identify elders' social representations of quality of life. This is an exploratory study with a sample of 240 elders, of both sexes. For data collection we used a Free Association Test with Words, using the inductive stimulus "quality of life" and sociodemographic variables. The interviews were analyzed with the software Alceste. Of the 240 studied eslders, 167 were women, with the dominant age from 60 to 69 years, income between two and three minimum wages, most of the married and with catholicism as the predominant religion. The results from Alceste pointed towards seven hierarchical classes: accessibility, work, activity, support, affection, care and interactions. Social representations of quality of life by elders can support professionals in understanding the adhesion to preventive practices for the elderly and in strengthening policies directed to this population.
e religião na região metropolitana (Values and religion in the metropolitan region, which was carried out in 2012. The reading proposed by this article focuses especially on what the data from these investigations says about the Catholic Church. After commenting briefly on some elements presented by the research, the text proposes some interpretive keys. The first is a socio-religious reading, showing that the steep decline in rates of belonging to Catholicism is the result of the shift from an “environmental” and “natal” type of religion to a religion of “conviction,” with a “confessional” nature. Secondly, the article presents some roots of this way of understanding faith in the New Testament and in the Second Vatican Council’s reading of the nature and mission of the Church. Finally, it concludes with some pastoral considerations, pointing not so much to solutions regarding the decline in Catholic belonging, but rather to the attitudes that a “confessional” church should have in our time. Key-words: IBGE Census 2010. Census data on religions. Catholic Church in Brazil. Theological reading
Pela educação lutaremos o bom combate: a instrução operária como um campo de disputas entre católicos e anarquistas na primeira república brasileira - For education will fight the good combat: the workers' education as a field of disputes between catholic
Isabel Bilhão, Brasil
Full Text Available Neste artigo aborda-se o contexto de transformações sócio-educacionais ocorridas ao longo da Primeira República brasileira, quando o crescimento urbano-industrial e o aumento da força organizativa e numérica do operariado começou a se fazer sentir, ensejando o crescimento de disputas de diferentes grupos em torno da educação dos trabalhadores. Observam-se as polêmicas travadas entre integrantes do clero católico e militantes anarquistas pela adesão operária às suas concepções educativas.Palavras-chave: movimento operário, educação, polêmicas, anarquismo, catolicismo. FOR EDUCATION WILL FIGHT THE GOOD COMBAT: THE WORKERS' EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND ANARCHISTS IN THE FIRST BRAZILIAN REPUBLICAbstractThe article addresses the context of social and educational changes that occurred along the Brazilian First Republic, in which urban-industrial growth and increased the organizational and numerical strength of the workers began to be noticeable, increasing disputes of the distinct groups around the workers education. Will observe the polemics between members of the catholic clergy and anarchist militants by the adhesion of the working class to their educational conceptions.Key-words: labour movement, education, polemics, anarchism, catholicism. POR LA EDUCACIÓN LUCHAREMOS EL BUEN COMBATE: LA INSTRUCCIÓN DE LOS TRABAJADORES COMO UN CAMPO DE DISPUTAS ENTRE LOS CATÓLICOS Y LOS ANARQUISTAS EN LA PRIMERA REPÚBLICA DE BRASILResumenEl artículo aborda el contexto de transformaciones socio educacionales ocurridas a lo largo de la Primera República en Brasil, en el cual el crecimiento urbano-industrial y el aumento de la fuerza organizativa y numérica de los obreros empezaba a ser sentida, intensificando las disputas de distintos grupos alrededor de la educación de los trabajadores. Se observan las polémicas trabadas entre miembros del clero católico y militantes anarquistas por la adhesi
Festa da Ouriçada e devoção a Santa Luzia na praia de Suape-PE: expressão sincrética e simbólica da biodiversidade e do território de pescadores artesanais (Sea Urching Festival and the devotion to Santa Lucia, on the beach of Suape, Pernambuco.
Juana de Oliveira Santos
ethnographic study that uses the participant observation and interviews with special emphasis on life story, as well as literature and documents. The methodology took into account also the memory narrative composed of “symbols that mark the identity of a social group”. (TEDESCO, 2002, highlighting elements as “social relationship, their ties of belonging, the nature of biophysical meaning into their lives and the environmental conflicts experienced” (SOUZA, 2009. Keywords: Popular Catholicism. Territorial conflicts. Symbolism. Biodiversity.
Viviane da Costa
Full Text Available Resumo O presente estudo analisa o discurso educacional veiculado por seis obras de autores católicos publicadas no Brasil entre 1930 e 1960, época em que representantes do pensamento católico disputaram com os liberais o domínio do campo educacional. São apresentadas as falas dos autores a respeito das propostas educacionais da Escola Nova e, em particular, dos princípios filosóficos, sociais e pedagógicos de John Dewey. O objetivo é expor as estratégias discursivas utilizadas pelos autores para persuadir os leitores e encaminhá-los a práticas educacionais consoantes com os preceitos do catolicismo, garantindo assim o predomínio das idéias católicas em âmbito social. A metodologia é a análise retórica baseada nos trabalhos de Chaïm Perelman e Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, Tratado da argumentação, e Stephen Toulmin, Os usos do argumento. Palavras-chave: discurso educacional católico; Escola Nova; John Dewey; análise retórica. THE WAY JOHN DEWEY’S IDEAS ARE USED BY CATHOLIC AUTHORS Abstract The present study analyses the educational speech through six works of catholic authors published in Brazil between 1930’s and 60’s during a time where the representatives of the Catholicism disputed with the liberals the dominion of the educational field. It shows the arguments of the catholic intellectuals in relation to the new pedagogical purposes and in particular of John Dewey´s philosophical, social and pedagogic principles. It aim is to show the strategic speech used by the authors to persuade the readers to practice the Catholic Pedagogy making sure, that way, the dominance of catholic ideas. This methodology is rhetorical analysis, based upon the works of the Chaïm Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca, Traité de L´argumentation, and Stephen Toulmin, The uses of arguments. Keywords: catholic educational speech; New School; John Dewey; rhetorical analysis. JOHN DEWEY EN LA ARGUMENTACIÓN DE AUTORES CATÓLICOS Resumen
Marcelo Cortes Neri
religious studies. However, these statistics are today only available until 2000. Microdata from national Family Expenditure Surveys (POF/IBGE allow us to measure the recent Brazilian religious evolution by detailing religious subgroups and also by exploring a richer array of correlated variables. This study processes microdata from POF in 2003 and 2009 when the economic context differs from the previous decades. It allows us to study the relation between economy and religion during a boom. This article aims to show that: i The speed of the fall in Catholicism in Brazil is two times faster than the one observed in 1990, although similar to the one observed in the 1990s; the destinies of the Catholics however are less the Pentecostal Evangelicals and more the Traditional Protestants. ii In contrast to major European Catholic countries that are facing a recession, the Brazilian localities with a catholic population have experienced an economic expansion. iii Brazilians are on the World median in terms of attendance to religious activities. iv Although females are more religious than males, they are less catholic. v There is a faster reduction of Catholics among the youth in Brazil.Key words: Religion. Economy. Max Weber. Maps of Religions in Brazil.
A visibilidade e representação social das religiões nos selos postais brasileiros (The visibility and social representations of religions in Brazil postage stamps.DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p233
Diego Andres Salcedo
stamps. From the observation and identification of religious recurrences 222 commemorative stamps were compiled. The study correlated the recurring religious theme with the historical Brazilian context, taking into account the decline of the Catholicism as the major religion in Brazil and also the representations of the religious practices in the media. The conclusion of this paper indicates the influence of the National Conference of the Bishops of Brazil regarding the Ministry of the Communications, establishing and enforcing the visibility of Brazilian personalities, events, and also of catholic practices taken as special and superior in comparison with other religious practices.Key-words: Brazil; Religion; Postage Stamps; Social Representation; Visibility.
Diversificación y competencia religiosa en Guatemala: entre pentecostalismo y cultos "neotradicionales" Diversification and religious competence in Guatemala: between Pentecostalism and "neotraditional" cults
Sylvie Pédron Colombani
traditional movements - or so defined by themselves. This is the case, for example, of the cult of Maximón - also known as San Simón (Saint Simon - whose appearance is the result of a long syncretic process that combines Catholicism and Mayan religion. In the present time, in spite of being continually considered a "traditional," "Mayan" cult, with a strong ethnic dimension, it also encompasses a number of adaptations and syncretic conformation between aboriginal and ladinos peoples. Moreover, the cult to Maximón is in the process of adapting to the new context of internationalization and competency of the religious universe.
and explains that all world religions' (Judaism, Christianity and Islam are built on the basis of a dialectic of the erudite and the popular. This exposition acts as an introduction to the analysis of Pentecostalism and neo-Pentecostalism, which represent unprecedented forms of religiosity in which the supernatural is present. But here the exchange is with the church itself and not with supernatural entities. The church operates more as a "Spiritual First Aid Centre" than as the foundation of a moral order or the place where human beings can make their peace with God. Pentecostalism is part of a tendency throughout the Western world which has left inclusive religions (like Catholicism and Anglicanism stagnating, while the more exclusionary, those which demand substantial sacrifice of their followers, are gaining ground.
Paulo Gracino Júnior
review the sociological production, seeking to establish a parallel between representations of Brazilian society and culture evident in the way researchers consider and analyze the Pentecostal phenomenon. We focus our attention on the works that follow Cândido Procópio de Camargo's theory, which can be expressed schematically as: conversion, breaking with the traditional past (represented here by belonging thoughtlessly to a religion - Catholicism; disenchantment of beliefs, which would lead to individuation and rational action; and, finally, the modernization of Brazilian society. The conclusion points out that Camargo's thought and that of his followers are inserted into a broader intellectual framework, which dates back to the 1930s and is concerned with the reasons behind Brazilian underdevelopment and the chances of overcoming it. Key words: Max Weber; Pentecostalism; Disenchantment; Secularization; Modernization.
Full Text Available Drawing on contemporary theories about national identity, legitimacy and intellectual authority this article explores identitarian issues at stake during the 1762-1764 controversy on Spanish theater. Re-reading texts by Clavijo y Fajardo (El Pensador, Nicolás Fernández de Moratín (Desengaños al teatro español and other writings, Mariano José Nipho (Diario Estrangero and La nación española defendida and José Romea y Tapia (El escritor sin título we contend that what these authors are debating indeed is not theater but the legitimacy and authority they are claiming for, and ultimately opposing conceptions of national identity. Calderón becoming a cultural icon of such identity. Particularly significant is the role of autos sacramentales in this context. In effect, acrimony and irritation are part of this polemics because orthodox Catholicism is, from a conservative point of view, an essential component of what they consider Spanish national identity. The prohibition of the autos is just a sign of a temporary change in the relationship of forces.A partir de teorías actuales sobre la identidad nacional, la legitimidad y la autoridad intelectual, este artículo explora los puntos clave identitarios que se ponen en juego durante la polémica sobre el teatro español de los años 1762-1764. Mediante una re-lectura de los textos de Clavijo y Fajardo (El Pensador, Nicolás Fernández de Moratín (Desengaños al teatro español y otros escritos, Mariano José Nipho (Diario Estrangero y La nación española defendida y José Romea y Tapia (El escritor sin título, sostenemos que lo que estos autores discuten realmente no es sobre el teatro, sino sobre la legitimidad y autoridad que reclaman, y en último término concepciones enfrentadas sobre la identidad nacional, de la que Calderón parece convertirse en icono cultural. De particular significación es el papel de los autos sacramentales en este contexto. En efecto, la acritud y la irritaci
Ivan Rêgo Aragão
" of Brazilians. This present article seeks to address aspects of the Procession of "Nosso Senhor dos Passos" the city of São Cristóvão state of Sergipe. The methodology used was literature, with discussion in the theoretical field of Baroque, Devotional Feast, Tradition, Religion, Procession, Religious Tourism, Culture and Identity. We also carried out field research, with direct observation.With this study, it was noticeable that, as distant territory of Portugal, the religious feasties in Brazil have taken a very dynamic, absorbing the profane elements and reframing through popular appeal. Key words: Religious Tourism; Catholicism; Feast; Nosso Senhor dos Passos.
Ostolaza Elizondo, Maria Isabel
Full Text Available The article describes the time of the creation of library of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero (Navarre. Over the years it became one of the most important in the kingdom, until its decline trougth secularisations and confiscations of property suffered by the convent in the 19th century. The data on its initial phase come from the books of the abbots Fray Marcos de Villalva and Fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, both originally from Castile, who were appointed abbots vy virtue of the righ to royal patronage exercised by King Philip II. Although most of the books belong, as could be expected to an ecclesiastical library, a surprising case inthat of Abbot Ibero for the wide range of subjets he covers and the high quality of the editions, often accompanied by engravings and musical notes. Through these books, which are either identified through the exlibris or references ot notarial list, one can perceive the important ecclesiastical issues of the day: the reform of the monasteries and the practice of Orthodox Catholicism, and also secular issues that came to the knowledge of the monastery related to the two great powers of the Catholic world, the monarchy and the papacy.El artículo recoge los momentos de la creación de la biblioteca del monasterio cisterciense de Fitero (Navarra, que sería con el tiempo una de las más importantes de ese reino, hasta su mengua por causa de las distintas exclaustraciones y desamortizaciones que sufrió el convento en el s. XIX. Los datos de estos primeros tiempos corresponden a las librerías de fray Marcos de Villalva y fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, ambos procedentes de Castilla y nombrados abades fiterenses en virtud del derecho de patronato real ejercido por Felipe II. Aunque la mayoría de los libros corresponden a lo que se entendería como lógico en una biblioteca eclesiástica, sorprende en el caso de la del abad Ibero la amplitud de la temática y la calidad de las ediciones, en muchos casos con grabados
sociodemographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: Five percent of Brazilians reported having no religion, 83% considered religion very important in their lives, and 37% attended religious services at least once a week. The most frequent affiliations were Catholicism (68%, Protestant/Evangelicals (23%, and Kardecist Spiritism (2.5%. Ten percent reported attending more than one religion. In line with studies in other countries, older age and female gender were independently associated with higher levels of subjective and organizational religiousness after controlling for other sociodemographic factors. However, educational level, income and black race were not independently associated with religious involvement variables. DISCUSSION: This study shows high levels of religious involvement among Brazilians and suggests that religiousness may have different associations with other variables across different cultures. To better understand the influence of religion on health, it is necessary to expand this kind of survey to other cultures.
Full Text Available Protection of natural culture in concepts of the contemporary National Right Wing in Poland In the centre of the system of values of the National Right Wing which revived after 1989 there are still nation, family and religion. The nation as community of culture is in opinion of the said parties exposed to dangers. The main risks are in their opinion as follows: cosmopolitism, Communist ideology, individualism, liberalism; secularization.In Poland, such ideas are, in the opinion of the National Right Wing, propagated by the liberal and post-communist circles. In the beginning they demanded that the communist activists are brought to justice. Some columnists refer to antisemitism. They perceive also the fall of the literary output. They assess critically the novels of Czesław Miłosz, Stanisław Barańczak or Olga Tokarczuk. Similar assessments regard the works of Polish historians. As preventive measures the following is mentioned: appropriate educational activity, statutory protection of national heritage, broadening of Catholicism, promotion of national culture. They attach great importance to the national branding. Its components are history, language, political regime, architecture, literature, art, religion, icons landscape, music. They would probably accept the opinion of Michael Porter: “Many contemporary discussions of international competition stress global homogenization and a diminished role for nations. But, in truth, national differences are at the heart of competitive success.” Ochrona kultury narodowej w koncepcjach współczesnej prawicy narodowej w Polsce W centrum systemu wartości odrodzonego po 1989 roku ruchu narodowego pozostają naród, rodzina i religia. Naród, traktowany jako wspólnota kultury, narażony jest w ocenie wspominanych wyżej środowisk na liczne zagrożenia. Za najgroźniejsze uznają one: kosmopolityzm, ideologię komunistyczną, indywidualizm, liberalizm, sekularyzację. W Polsce wspomniane idee
Burrieza Sánchez, Javier
Full Text Available Since the foundation of the Society of Jesus in 1540, there was identification between its spiritual aims and the task ascribed to the Spanish Monarchy. The article starts pointing out the traditional concept of the Jesuits as an army and the constant association that empowered them. It establishes how different people of the Society have been related with the government and the different ways of the Jesuits to get involved in politics, as well as the most important Jesuits who have taken part in these interventions. It is explained, later, some of the main political problems where the Society participated: the supposed Spanish identity of the Order, which was questioned after Francisco de Borja´s death in 1572; the conspiratory image associated to the desires of the Catholic Restoration in England; the defence of Catholicism in Europe while the war, during the first half of the XVII century; the Jesuits´ position in the crisis of the Monarchy in 1640, specially, during the independence of Portugal; and finally, the utopias and clashes of interests in the Spanish America, as well as the missionary plans proposed for China. So, the Jesuits weren’t unaware of the political life in the modern Spanish.Desde la fundación de la Compañía de Jesús en 1540, se produjo una identificación entre los objetivos espirituales de la misma y la misión atribuida a la Monarquía española. El artículo comienza matizando el concepto tradicional de los jesuitas como ejército y la continua asociación que se les ha realizado con el poder. Establece cómo diferentes individuos de la Compañía se han relacionado con los gobiernos y los distintos medios de intervención de los jesuitas en la política, así como los jesuitas más importantes que han protagonizado estas intervenciones. Se plantea, después, algunos de los principales problemas políticos en los que intervino la Compañía: la supuesta identidad española de la orden, cuestionada tras la
Full Text Available The Spanish Catholic church (SCC conforms a multi-issue interest group with a heterogeneous political record: unlike finance and education, two key areas which are covered by the 1979 Agreements with the Vatican, moral policies need not be negotiated with public authorities. Responding to the liberalization of abortion and approval of same-sex marriage by the Zapatero government, the SCC, in contrast with other churches under similar political circumstances, has embarked upon a confrontation strategy in alliance with conservative Catholic groups and like-minded political parties. Its monopoly position in a society that still defines itself as predominantly Catholic (sociological argument, the inextricable link between Catholicism and national identity (historical argument and its privileged relationship with the state, as a result of the 1979 Agreements with the Vatican state and its partially-established constitutional status (institutional argument help understand this strategy. The Episcopal Conference (EC is the main responsible for confrontation at the state level while the bishops, at the regional one, have set out to defend church interests, and minimize the inflicted “damage”, by means of a number of agreements with regional authorities. Thus, the EC might end up losing political power in favour of regional EC, promoted not only by local nationalist churches but also by the increasing relevance of the regional level for church interests.La Iglesia católica española (ICE constituye un grupo de interés multi-issue con distintos resultados en su actividad política: la financiación y la educación son asuntos clave en los que está protegida por los Acuerdos de 1979, pero los poderes públicos no tienen la obligación de negociar con esta institución políticas de contenido moral. Como respuesta a la liberalización del aborto y a la aprobación del matrimonio de personas del mismo sexo, promovidas por el Gobierno de Rodr
Raquel dos Santos Sousa Lima
natural and unconditional. With basis on the contribution of cultural history and gender studies, it demonstrates how that Church attributed male and female characteristics to the distinction not merely biological between men and women, associating the latter with the idea of motherhood and natural love for their children. It concludes that, through time, the Church has changed its misogyny discourse - refusing the female sex - into one that incorporates women as essential to support Catholicism in facing the laicization of contemporary western society. Key words: Women; Catholic discourse; Motherhood; Gender.
Ficha catalográfica e sumário bilíngue
Full Text Available REDES, Santa Cruz do Sul, v. 18, nº 2, p. 1 - 273, maio/ago. 2013. ISSN: 1982-6745 Editores Virginia Elisabeta Etges Silvio Cezar Arend Sumário/Summary A EFETIVIDADE DA COLABORAÇÃO ENTRE ORGANIZAÇÕES DO ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL (APL: EXPERIÊNCIAS DOS PROCESSOS LOGÍSTICOS NAS INDÚSTRIAS DO VALE DA ELETRÔNICA DE MINAS GERAIS – BRASIL THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COLLABORATION INTER-COMPANIES: EXPERIENCES OF LOGISTIC PROCESSES IN THE INDUSTRIES OF THE ELECTRONIC VALLEY OF MINAS GERAIS – BRAZIL Ricardo Silveira Martins Osmar Vieira de Souza Filho IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CLUSTERS INDUSTRIAIS: UMA APLICAÇÃO DE ÍNDICES DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO E CONCENTRAÇÃO, E ALGUMAS CONSIDERAÇÕES IDENTIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS: AN APPLICATION OF INDICES OF SPECIALIZATION AND CONCENTRATION, AND SOME CONSIDERATIONS Autenir Carvalho de Rezende Bernardo Palhares Campolina Diniz CAPACIDADES LOCAIS: POR UMA NOVA ECONOMIA DOS TERRITÓRIOS PRODUTIVOS LOCAL CAPACITIES: FOCUSING ON A NEW ECONOMY FOR PRODUCTIVE TERRITORIES Giancarlo Corò Paolo Gurisatti ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DA INFLUÊNCIA DO CAPITALISMO TRANSNACIONAL SOBRE AS INSTITUIÇÕES E ORGANIZAÇÕES CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSNATIONAL CAPITALISM ON INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS José G. Vargas-Hernández REDES SOCIAIS E GOVERNANÇA DEMOCRÁTICA: O CASO DE UMA INSTITUIÇÃO FEDERAL DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE MINAS GERAIS – BRASIL NETWORKS AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: THE CASE OF A PUBLIC INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF MINAS GERAIS – BRAZIL Edimilson Eduardo da Silva Fábio Costa Lasmar José Roberto Pereira DE MATRIZ CONSERVADORA A UMA POSTURA PROGRESSISTA: CATOLICISMO SOCIAL NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL (RS - BRASIL FROM A CONSERVATIVE MATRIX TO A PROGRESSIVE ATTITUDE: SOCIAL CATHOLICISM IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL (RS - BRAZIL Olgário Paulo Vogt Roberto Radünz DO PREJUÍZO À TRANSGRESSÃO: O DISCURSO SOBRE O MOVIMENTO GREVISTA NA IMPRENSA INJURY TO THE TRANSGRESSION: THE DISCOURSE ON STRIKE IN THE PRESS
State over the years after the Revolution. To this end, we established a chronology of these relations that includes the ensuing frictions, conflicts and dialogues - from the expulsion of a bishop and his deportation to Spain after a procession dedicated to Our Virgin of Charity [La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, Cuba's patron saint], which ended in a march against the Revolution in Havana in 1961, to the visit of pope John Paul II in 1998 and the reconciliation and restructuring of the Catholic Church on the island. As a constant background concern, the chronology takes into account the dilemma between "revolution" and "Catholicism that was introduced in 1959. Thus, the essay traces the long road from initial divergence to the current climate of religious freedom and conciliatory dialogue between Church and State in Cuba.
This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self
José Arilson Xavier de Souza
do trabalho, são apresentadas as características que expressam Fátima da Serra Grande como uma forma simbólica modelar do catolicismo mariano, conciliador de tradições e inovações e gestor de um turismo religioso sob a liderança da Igreja regional.The “geograficity” of symbolic forms: The Sanctuary of Fatima da Sierra Grande in analysis.This paper discusses the geographical basis of symbolic forms, choosing the culture as an essential element for such research. The Sanctuary of Fátima da Serra Grande, located in St. Benedict city, Northern of the Ceará State, is analyzed in a geographical and phenomenological perspective, considering it as a symbolic form of tourist attraction. The article considers the concept of geographic originally proposed by Eric Dardel, as fundamental for thinking the relationship between motivation and appreciation of the devotees in search of new Catholic shrines. Then, a recovery is made as large sanctuaries influenced the cultural geography of this small and dynamic center of pilgrimage has been developing in northeastern Brazil. At the end of the paper presents the characteristics expressing Fátima da Serra Grande as a symbolic model of Catholicism Marian conciliator of traditions and innovations and manager of a religious tourism under the leadership of the regional church.
anthropological fieldwork conducted by the author in the field of popular Catholicism in Andalusia (Spain, work funded by the Commission of Ethnology of the Andalucian government for the realization of her thesis PhD. In order to fight and end disease, different cultural systems offer both empirical and supernatural answers, especially in situations where scientific medicine lacks one. In those circumstances, people resort to metaphysical explanations in an attempt to propitiate supernatural beings so that they apply their healing powers. In traditional catholic societies Andalusia for the case that concerns us people have used, and still do, a magical-religious model based on the belief that supernatural beings (God, the Virgin or the saints possess enough power to interrupt the course of any disease. In addition, this model comprises a ritual to invoke the participation of the supernatural beings in the rearrangement of some fact in exchange for a votive offering. My aim in this paper is to present this religious ritual whose main motivation is the resolution of health-related problems. The votive offering is the last link in a ritual process that begins with a situation of disease, accident or risk suffered by a subject; this circumstance is followed by an invocation and a promise to be fulfilled by the subject or another person in her name, requesting the intervention of the supernatural being to end that threat. When the request is granted to the petitioners satisfaction, it commits her to fulfill the promise. Here is where the votive offering plays its part a material object of lasting character that appears as the materialization of the miraculous fact.
Wolbert G.C. Smidt
sides. While the Blin of Bogos accepted their vassalry towards /Hamasen, they also assured international protection by converting to Catholicism in great numbers. The Blin of Halhal converted to Islam, thus avoiding future raids from vassals of Egyptian Sudan. This article argues that the main strategy of the Blin was that of an active adaptation to political and religious domination by greater powers, which allowed them to preserve their highly developed internal autonomy, based on an age-old non-centralized confederacy (network of Blin leaders.
Eduardo Silva Arévalo
possibilities that Catholicism offers this modernity and Latin America are analyzed in particular, which would not be possible without a Christianity that rises to the occasion and a modernity with the religious depth that this continent offers (III
Full Text Available In 1916, facing the probable capitulation of the Central Powers, Louis Massignon participates in French-British negotiations reflecting on the future division of the Ottoman Empire.In this context, Massignon is looking to find a position toward the Zionist question which, for him, is first and foremost a near-east policy issue.Under the influence of Aaron Aaronsohn, the islamologist first expresses an enthusiastic friendliness toward the pioneers of Eretz Israel, in light of their agricultural accomplishments, making him wish for the successful establishment of the national Jewish Homeland in Palestine. In particular, his commitment will prompt him to write, together with Maritain, a “report on Zionism” to Pius XI in 1925, with the objective of gaining support from the Holy See for Jews converted to Catholicism who sought to participate to the common work of the resurrection of Israel.However, the colonizing methods and conspicuous atheism of many Zionist leaders, going against the religious convictions of indigenous Christian and Muslim Arabs, will progressively push Massignon to a complete reversal, resulting in “excessive language” toward Jews.Massignon considers that it is impossible to separate time from spirituality in the Holy Land, and that facts must be enlightened by events transpiring throughout religious history from the time of Abraham, “first hero of hospitality”. To Massignon, coming to the realisation of the purity of Mary seems necessary to Jewish recognition in the spirit of the Patriarch, even more, a precondition to any possible peace. He sees in the Immaculate Conception the “marial rallying sign” of various confessions of the Abrahamic family.En 1916, Louis Massignon participe aux négociations franco-britanniques qui envisagent, dans la perspective de la capitulation probable des empires centraux, le futur partage de l’Empire ottoman. Dans ce contexte, Massignon cherche à se situer face la question
-British negotiations reflecting on the future division of the Ottoman Empire.In this context, Massignon is looking to find a position toward the Zionist question which, for him, is first and foremost a near-east policy issue.Under the influence of Aaron Aaronsohn, the islamologist first expresses an enthusiastic friendliness toward the pioneers of Eretz Israel, in light of their agricultural accomplishments, making him wish for the successful establishment of the national Jewish Homeland in Palestine. In particular, his commitment will prompt him to write, together with Maritain, a “report on Zionism” to Pius XI in 1925, with the objective of gaining support from the Holy See for Jews converted to Catholicism who sought to participate to the common work of the resurrection of Israel.However, the colonizing methods and conspicuous atheism of many Zionist leaders, going against the religious convictions of indigenous Christian and Muslim Arabs, will progressively push Massignon to a complete reversal, resulting in “excessive language” toward Jews.Massignon considers that it is impossible to separate time from spirituality in the Holy Land, and that facts must be enlightened by events transpiring throughout religious history from the time of Abraham, “first hero of hospitality”. To Massignon, coming to the realisation of the purity of Mary seems necessary to Jewish recognition in the spirit of the Patriarch, even more, a precondition to any possible peace. He sees in the Immaculate Conception the “marial rallying sign” of various confessions of the Abrahamic family.
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. xxii + 322 pp. -Robert Fatton, Jr., Brian Weinstein ,Haiti: The failure of politics. New York: Praeger, 1992. ix + 203 pp., Aaron Segal (eds -Uli Locher, Michel S. Laguerre, The military and society in Haiti. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993. x + 223 pp. -Paul E. Brodwin, Leslie G. Desmangles, The faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. xiii + 218 pp. -Marian Goslinga, Enid Brown, Bibliographical guide to Caribbean mass communication. John A. Lent (comp.. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. xi + 301 pp.''Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles: An annotated English-language bibliography. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992. xi + 276 pp. -Jay B. Haviser, F.R. Effert, J.P.B. de Josselin de Jong, curator and archaeologist: A study of his early career (1910-1935. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western studies, University of Leiden, 1992. v + 119 pp. -Hans van Amersfoort, Anil Ramdas, De papegaai, de stier en de klimmende bougainvillea. Essays. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1992. -Ineke van Wetering, Deonarayan, Curse of the Devtas. Paramaribo: J.J. Buitenweg, 1992. v + 103 pp. -Ineke van Wetering, G. Mungra, Hindoestaanse gezinnen in Nederland. Leiden: Centrum voor Onderzoek Maatschappelijke Tegenstellingen, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990. 313 pp. -J.M.R. Schrils, Alex Reinders, Politieke geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba 1950-1993. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993. 430 pp. -Gert Oostindie, G.J. Cijntje ,Stemmen OK, maar op wie? Delft: Eburon, 1991. 150 pp., A. Nicatia, F. Quirindongo (eds -Genevieve Escure, Donald Winford, Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993, viii + 419 pp. -Jean D'Costa, Lise Winer, Trinidad and Tobago. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. xi + 369 pp. (plus cassette
Kyoko I. Davis
noble roots of the Salatko-Petrishche family, its relocation to Siberia amidst the chaos of revolution and horrors of civil war, education under the tsarist Russian system in Harbin, and most importantly his growing love for poetry and philosophy.The personal events of Pereleshin’s early years document the still understudied but rich history of Russian Orthodox Ecclesiastical Mission in the Far East. Pereleshin, being sensitive and deeply religious, enrolled in the Mission’s Theological Faculty in 1937, was ordained a Monk Herman(in honour of St. Herman of Kazan’ and Sviiaga in 1938, and a Priest-Monk Herman in 1941.Harbin émigré literary circle “Churaevka” and the lively interaction among its intellectuals also add new cultural dimensions to the study of Russian émigré society in Asia. Pereleshin began publishing his books of poetry in 1937.The poet, however, was rather a dissonance in his own conservative community. For example, as a monk, his participation in public poetic activities was limited. Moreover, he was inclined toward Catholicism and admired St. Francis of Assisi and St. Thérèse of Lisieux- a liberal expression of his spiritual interest. He began to travel and preach in Chinese cities with foreign concessions such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin with a determination to live his life to the fullest by serving God. But Pereleshin had difficulty finding inner peace with his vow of celibacy. While his poetry is infused with divine inspiration, passion and kindness, he was often tormented by the social stigma of his sexuality. In addition, the volatile political situation in the Far East made Pereleshin mistaken at times for a Japanese spy, a Fascist spy, a Soviet spy, and a Communist. Adversity, however, ignited his poetic creativity, especially after his departure to a third home, Brazil. Part Two consists of seven chapters covering 39 years of Pereleshin’s life in Brazil during the period 1953-1992. The main focus shifts towards his
art. The theological and aesthetic differences between Catholicism and the Orthodox church are also reflected today in the theologically-inclined reception of works with religious content. For example, based on the lively theological feedback to Mel Gibson’s 2004 film, The Sufferings of Christ one might claim that the judgments of Catholics mostly concern the m e s s a g e of the work, the appropriateness of its content, that is the referential pole; Orthodox theologians rather place more emphasis on the appropriateness of the m e d i u m to theological goals, that is, the performative effect of the work of art. Besides differences in pure artistic representation, it is also worth examining such questions as Catholic and Orthodox interpretations of the Trinity or the teaching of Gregorius Palamas (1296–1359 on divine energies, which were later declared to be heretical. Thus Orthodox liturgical practice seems to contradict many of the stereotypes that eastward-turning seekers of sacred theatre have attributed to Western sacral culture as a whole, overlooking aspects of dynamism that can be found in the Eastern Christian church. This topic has been discussed in several recent accounts of iconography, which examine the performativity of the icon, distinguishing its processes of creation and perception from the Western representation-oriented concept of the picture (eg Bissera V. Pencheva, Adrian Gorea. Granted, one should be careful when drawing parallels between the strictly rule-bound theology of the icon and aesthetics of performativity focused on the sensory aspect of art. However, this article takes the position that what should be emphasized are the differences between Orthodox and Catholic views of art, by means of which one can elucidate the points of departure of the Western quest for sacred theatre and the performative level to which it aspires.