WorldWideScience

Sample records for catholicism

  1. The Spanish Catholicism in the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Cuenca Toribio, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of publications of the last seven years. It focuses in particular on Cardinal Goma’s enormous collection of letters and writings. One can say nothing sensible about the relationship between Catholicism and the Civil War without reference to this work, which has been carefully edited and annotated. The Civil War period is considered within the context of the historical evolution of the Catholic Church in the preceding century. The hotly debated issue of Catholic mart...

  2. Catholicism and marriage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1993-08-01

    This study examines the effects of a Catholic background on age at first marriage, the odds of never marrying, and the odds of ever divorcing. Estimates using Catholic upbringing are compared with estimates using Catholic at the time of the survey. A case is made that if the latter measure of Catholicism is used, serious selection bias problems occur in some cases because this measure excludes defectors and includes converts. Further, it is shown that a Catholic upbringing generally has no effect on men's age at first marriage and has a positive effect on the age when women marry. It is also shown that older Baptist men are substantially more likely than Catholic men to experience a divorce. Older Catholic women are somewhat less likely to experience a divorce than non-Baptist Protestant women. There is no Catholic effect on the odds that younger men and women will divorce.

  3. From Law to Paradise: Confessional Catholicism and Legal Scholarship

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    Wim Decock

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a prolegomenon to further study of the intensified relationship between law and moral theology in early modern times. In a period characterized by a growing anxiety for the salvation of the soul (»Confessional Catholicism«, a vast literature for confessors, which became increasingly juridical in nature, saw the light between roughly 1550 and 1650. By focussing on some of the most important Jesuit canonists and moral theologians, this article first seeks to explain why jurisprudence became regarded as an indispensable tool to solve moral problems. While Romano-canon law showed its merits as an instrument of precision to come to grips with concrete qualms of conscience, with the passing of time it also became studied for its own sake. The second part of this paper, therefore, illustrates how the legal tradition, particularly with regard to the law of obligations, was reshaped in the treatises of the moral theologians.

  4. Soledad Acosta de Samper: catholicism and modernity in Colombia 19th century

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    William Elvis Plata Quezada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soledad Acosta (1833-1913 is the main Colombian writer of the nineteenth century and the largest in Latin America. She has been mainly studied for his contributions to literature, but their religious aspects usual –Item in his writings have been little addressed. Looking to fill this gap, the present paper attempts to examine religious thought and praxis of Soledad Acosta, testing the following hypothesis: thanks to its special education and status, she is in Colombia, one of the most clear representatives of Catholicism trying to reconcile with fundamental ideas of the modern world that they were not opposed to the Gospel and the Catholic faith. This in a context of political and religious turmoil, marked by intolerance and intransigence. It is intended to draw attention to the need to study systematically and detailed Catholicism of the nineteenth century and its relations with the modern world, to go beyond the thesis unison and view it as monolithic.

  5. Catholicism - Friend or Enemy? Interdepartmental Dispute in Russian Government (1905-1914)

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    Александр Юрьевич Бендин

    2012-01-01

    The questions connected to the development of political strategy of the state in the attitude to Catholic church are considered in the article. The special attention is given to the conflict which has arisen in this occasion between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. This conflict became the result of various approaches to the decision of problems of Russian Catholicism. The Ministry of Internal Affairs was the supporter of a rigid line, the Ministry of For...

  6. Albums of “El Buen Tono”. Photography and social catholicism (Mexico, 1894-1909

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    Thelma Camacho Morfín

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that Ernesto Pugibet, founder of the cigarette factory “El Buen Tono”, established that industry in Mexico in 1885 inspired by Social Catholicism. He was trying to combine the most recent technology with the improvement of his worker’s quality of life. He also upholded that they should had access to a healthy amusement. Although he never wrote about his beliefs, the photographs he chose to promote his business show visually the social project of its creator.

  7. Catholicism - Friend or Enemy? Interdepartmental Dispute in Russian Government (1905-1914

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    Александр Юрьевич Бендин

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions connected to the development of political strategy of the state in the attitude to Catholic church are considered in the article. The special attention is given to the conflict which has arisen in this occasion between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. This conflict became the result of various approaches to the decision of problems of Russian Catholicism. The Ministry of Internal Affairs was the supporter of a rigid line, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs preferred a policy of concessions and compromises with Vatican. Interdepartmental dispute was finished with the First world war.

  8. Islam and Roman Catholicism as Transnational Political Phenomena: Notes for a Comparative Research Agenda

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    Ted G. Jelen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we offer some preliminary insights into a comparison of Islam and Roman Catholicism as transnational or “transcivilizational” political phenomena. We note that both traditions are monotheistic, offer universalist theologies, and have played important political roles both historically and in contemporary national and international politics. The comparison provides some additional insights into the role of ‘the sacred’ in politics at various levels, and presents the possibility of an intermediate level of analysis in comparative politics.

  9. The Dionysian Catholicism in the “Casa Grande” of Gilberto Freyre

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    Facundo Roca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The masters and the slaves, masterpiece of the Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre, has guided, in one way or another, the path followed by the great majority of the historical studies dedicated to the patriarchal system of the sugar plantations. This paper proposes an analysis of the Brazilian Catholicism during the period of slavery, in the context of a reinterpretation of Freyre’s work, in the light of the antagonism between the categories of apollonian and Dionysian. This Brazilian religiosity is for us an eminently Dionysian experience, opposed to the apollonian character of the Christian orthodoxy, and a key element within the model proposed by Freyre

  10. The 'International' and the 'Global' as Complementary Power Strategies within Corporate Roman Catholicism

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    Kenneth Houston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The putative resurgence of religious belief and its reinvigorated socio-political importance – or at least prominence – has prompted critical reflection on religion, broadly defined, as a new force in politics. This paper examines the ‘global’ and ‘international’ role of Roman Catholicism. Roman Catholicism has manifested itself as an actor on the international stage and as a trans-national and global ‘community’. Frequently the conceptual dividing line between these is ambiguous. Vatican City and the Holy See have both been accorded international status, the former since the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty by Italy’s fascist leader, Benito Mussolini, in 1929, the latter since the mid nineteenth century following the absorption of the Papal States into the newly unified Italian Republic. The Holy See also enjoys a special status position within the United Nations system as a non-member observer state. Following revelations of clerical child abuse the Holy See was put on the defensive in several national contexts in a public controversy that resonated much more widely. This trans-nationally organised religion has mobilised both nationally and internationally to defend its institutional interests. Through an examination of empirical instances the study sidesteps the question of whether religions are ‘global’ or ‘international’ phenomena, and draws attention to the distinct power modalities operative at the level of both international politics and in transnational or global organisation.

  11. American Catholicism's science crisis and the Albertus Magnus Guild, 1953-1969.

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    Binzley, Ronald A

    2007-12-01

    During the middle decades of the twentieth century, American Catholic scientists experienced a sense of crisis owing to the paucity of scientific research performed either by individual Catholics or in Catholic institutions of higher learning. In 1953 the Rev. Patrick Yancey, S.J., the chairman of the biology department at a small Jesuit college and a member of the newly created National Science Board, led efforts to establish a national organization of Catholic scientists. Subsequently known as the Albertus Magnus Guild, this organization attempted both to improve Catholics' scientific performance and to refute the widely held notion among non-Catholic Americans that Catholicism was inherently hostile to science. By reflecting on Yancey's career as an educator and scientist and on the history of the guild, this article seeks to deepen our understanding of twentieth-century Catholic science education and reveal the ways in which Catholic scientists approached the issues surrounding the interaction of science and religion.

  12. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

    2010-11-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario.

  13. [Contributions of Catholicism, Protestantism, and Buddhism to medicine--taking into account the future of palliative medicine in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    It is worth recalling that Catholicism and Protestantism have each played an important role in the development of modern medicine. Before modern medicine become widely accepted, palliative care was addressed by Catholic abbes in Western Europe, as well as by Buddhist monks in Japan. Palliative medicine exceeds the capability of contemporary medicine in general, insofar as spirituality is an important dimension when doctors are caring for patients who may be facing death. Being aware of this problem, the author tries to elucidate the contributions of religion to medicine, with the intention of considering the future of palliative medicine in Japan.

  14. Women in Catholicism or the eternal absence = La mujer en el catolicismo o la eterna invisible

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    Carmen Castilla-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: A partir de un trabajo de campo antropológico en las provincias de Huelva y Sevilla (España, el artículo reflexiona sobre la situación, la participación y las aspiraciones de la mujer andaluza en la religión católica. Las actividades femeninas en lo religioso se manifiestan, a menudo, como una prolongación de las tareas domésticas y por tanto menos visibles y a veces menos valoradas, mientras que las actividades masculinas son más perceptibles, en cuanto se producen en lo público, un espacio reservado a la masculinidad. Por otra parte, el artículo se acerca a las asociaciones voluntarias más importantes de Andalucía -las hermandades- y a los rituales más relevantes que desde éstas se organizan. En este sentido, se analizan las procesiones, las romerías, las visitas a los santuarios o el sistema de promesas para poner de manifiesto como a pesar de que la presencia y participación femenina en los rituales religioso populares es muy importante, el papel predominante y protagonista es sin embargo masculino.Abstract: Based on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in the provinces of Huelva and Seville (Spain, this article reflects on the current situation, participation and aspirations of Andalusian women in Catholicism. Female activity in the religious sphere is shown to often manifest as an extension of domestic tasks and, as such, is seen as less visible and often less valued. The activities carried out by men, however, are more perceptible in that they are enacted in public, a space traditionally reserved for men. The article also considers Andalusia´s most important voluntary associations -the Brotherhoods- and the rituals most relevant to them. As such, the processions, religious pilgrimages, visits to sanctuaries as well as the system of asking for religious favours are analysed. The outcome of such analysis is that, despite the importance of both the presence and participation of women in religious rites, the

  15. Symbolic landscapes: popular catholicism and the myth of the “Green Flags” in the Pilgrimage of the “Lord of Bonfim” in Araguacema, Tocantins

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    José Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to show the relationship between the religion and the landscape, based on the myth of the “Green Flags” in the imaginary of Popular Catholicism, which created and keeps the “Lord of Bonfim” pilgrimage, in Araguacema, Tocantins. We discuss the topic Religion and landscape from data obtained in field work in the perspective of humanistic cultural geography. The Pilgrimage’s landscape holds a number of symbols that represent a universe of meanings of popular catholicism in a game that establishes the relationship between the living area and memories, in which the images take the place of straight perceptions

  16. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother’s Life is in Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

    2010-01-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIOETHICAL ISSUES FROM VIEW POINTS OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS ADMINISTRATION IN TURKEY, ROMAN CATHOLICISM AND ORTHODOX JUDAISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvercin, Cemal Huseyin; Munir, Kerim M

    2017-07-01

    The arguments set forth by religious authority are important since they play a crucial role in shaping the social values of the public and influence the decision of individuals in practice pertaining to bioethical issues. The Religious Affairs Administration (RAA) was established at the inception of the Republic of Turkey in 1924 to guide religious considerations moving out of the Ottoman caliphate to a secular bioethical framework. In this article, the bioethical views of the RAA under Islamic tradition is examined and contrasted with those influenced by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Judaic traditions. On bioethical deliberations related to the beginning and end-of-life, all three religious traditions justify sacredness of life and that of God's will in its preservation it. Assisted reproduction techniques between spouses is considered to be appropriate, although third party involvement is explicitly forbidden. Organ transplantation is approved by all three religious traditions, except uterine transplantation. Contraceptive practices are approved under certain conditions - views differ most on approaches to contraception and the appropriateness of methods. The RAA judgement on cloning is to prohibit it, like Roman Catholicism and Orthodox Judaism. In other topics, cosmetic surgery and gender determination are approved only for treatment.

  18. Beyond Essentialist and Functionalist Analyses of the "Politicisation of Religion": The Evolution of Religious Parties in Political Catholicism and Political Islam

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    Joerg Baudner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about “politics and religion” has already rejected essentialist claims of fundamental differences in the impact of religion on politics in different cultures. This article will argue that political Islam in Turkey and political Catholicism in Italy and Germany adopted remarkably similar patterns of cross-class coalitions and policies for a “reconciliation of capitalism and democracy”. First, religious parties developed as mass integration parties which already encompassed cross-class coalitions. Second, in the aftermath of political and economic crises these parties transformed into catch-all parties with a pronounced neo-liberal agenda which was given a religious justification. Third, at the same time these parties continued to sponsor policies and organizations which cushioned and supplemented an uneven economic development. Fourth, the parties kept traditional family policies which helped attracting a significant female electorate. “Organized religion” provided religious parties with a potential electorate, ancillary organizations and ideological concepts; however, their role in this political evolution changed. The conclusion will discuss whether these findings can be generalized.

  19. Eugenia 'negativa', psiquiatria e catolicismo: embates em torno da esterilização eugênica no Brasil 'Negative' eugenics, psychiatry, and Catholicism: clashes over eugenic sterilization in Brazil

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    Robert Wegner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa o diálogo do eugenista Renato Kehl com um grupo de psiquiatras brasileiros que, no início da década de 1930, aproximaram-se da chamada eugenia negativa. Entusiasmados com as pesquisas e a aplicação de medidas eugênicas em países como os EUA e a Alemanha, autores como Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani e Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva elegeram a religião católica como empecilho para que o Brasil pudesse seguir caminho semelhante, especialmente quanto à resistência à implantação da esterilização dos ditos 'degenerados' que passara a vigorar na Alemanha em 1934. O artigo mapeia as diferentes estratégias propostas pelos autores para dialogar com a Igreja católica.The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church.

  20. Espaço e distinção social: o catolicismo na Província de Sergipe Space and social distinction: Catholicism in the Province of Sergipe, Brazil

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    Péricles Morais de Andrade Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as distinções sociais constituídas no catolicismo na Província de Sergipe Del Rey durante o século XIX. A análise está centrada nos critérios de admissão de duas irmandades religiosas atuantes na cidade de Estância. A pesquisa demonstra que havia uma população dividida entre as irmandades do Santíssimo Sacramento e de Nossa Senhora do Rosário, reflexos de uma hierarquia social mais diversificada, que diziam respeito a critérios de cor, riqueza e prestígio social. O espaço apresentava significados, na medida em que a cidade reproduzia simbolicamente a sociedade e sua organização em estratos sociais. Em outras palavras, observamos que o campo religioso católico na povoação de Estância seguia aos mecanismos de expressão da segregação e apresentava-se como representativo das oposições significativas entre os segmentos sociais, caracterizados a partir destas associações que definiam a posição social e os gostos dos seus integrantes.This article aims to analyze the social distinctions incorporated in the Catholicism in the province of Sergipe Del Rey during the nineteenth century. The analysis will be centered in the criteria of admission of two active religious brotherhoods in the city of Estancia in Sergipe, Brazil. The research shows that there was a population divided between the brotherhoods of the Blessed Sacrament and Our Lady of the Rosary, reflections of a more diversified social hierarchy about the criteria of race, wealth and social prestige. The space presented meanings in so far as the city reproduced, symbolically, the society and its organization in social strata. In other words, we notice that the Catholic religious field in the population of Estancia followed the mechanisms of expression of the segregation and presented itself as representative of the oppositions between the social groups, which were characterized by associations which defined the social position

  1. The Pattern of American Catholicism, 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, James R.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the historical implications of the Protestant-Catholic division and analyzes the current distribution of Catholics in the national population. Catholic immigrants, who came to the big northeastern cities, were regarded by the rural Protestant settlers as representing negative aspects of an urban-industrial state. Today Catholic groups are…

  2. Women in Catholicism or the eternal absence

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla-Vázquez, Carmen; Savage-Hanford, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    A partir de un trabajo de campo antropológico en las provincias de Huelva y Sevilla (España), el artículo reflexiona sobre la situación, la participación y las aspiraciones de la mujer andaluza en la religión católica. Las actividades femeninas en

  3. Twenty-first century cultural and religious diversification of modernity: the example of the shamanic indigenisation of Roman Catholicism among Native American peoples in the Northwest of the United States

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    Frédéric Dorel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La modernité, tout comme l’anxiété croissante qu’elle génère, semble avoir encouragé et parfois provoqué une atomisation des phénomènes religieux loin du contrôle de la rationalité et des grandes religions classiques. Un exemple nous est donné par l’indigénisation chamanique des pratiques missionnaires de l’Eglise catholique parmi les Amérindiens du Nord-Ouest des Etats-Unis. Eléments indigènes locaux et éléments urbains indigénisés y sont associés dans la persistance et une invention culturelles et spirituelles caractérisées par l’innovation permanente. L’efficacité symbolique du chamanisme, intégrant plus que jamais les divers éléments de la modernité n’est pas à considérer comme une survivance pittoresque mais plutôt comme un outil d’avenir.Modernity and the growing global anxiety it has generated have fostered numbers of ancient and new worships liberated from the control of both rationality and the mainstream religions. An example is the growing shamanic indigenization of missionary Roman Catholicism by Native American communities in the Northwest of the United States. Indigenous and indigenised exogenous urban elements are locally associated in producing spiritual and cultural invention and persistence of tradition through change and innovation. The symbolic efficiency of shamanism integrating more than ever the different elements in modernity, should not be seen as a relic of the past, but as a powerful healing tool for the future.La modernidad y la ansiedad creciente que ésta genera, parecen haber animado y a veces provocado una atomización de los fenómenos religiosos lejos del control de la racionalidad y de las grandes religiones clásicas. Un ejemplo nos es dado por la « indigenización » chamánica de las prácticas misioneras de la Iglesia católica entre los Amerindios del Noroeste de los Estados Unidos. Elementos indígenas locales y elementos urbanos « indigenizados » son

  4. Pertença/Desafeição religiosa: recuperando antigo conceito para entender o catolicismo hoje (Religious belonging /disaffection: recover the old concept in order to understand Catholicism today - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1230

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    Pedro Assis Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo recupera o par conceitual pertença/desafeição religiosa, usado nas pesquisas de “sociologia religiosa” nas décadas de 1950 e 1960, para analisar os fatores da perda de fiéis pela igreja católica, como demonstra o Censo IBGE de 2010. Toma como referência dados de uma pesquisa realizada na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte em 2012. Com base nessa pesquisa, demonstra que a diminuição de fiéis não se deve a conversão mas a simples trânsito do catolicismo a outra religião. A raiz da desafeição religiosa está na perda de fé na necessidade da mediação sacramental da Igreja para a salvação eterna e no caráter sacrificial da missa. Ela pode ser contrabalançada pelos laços familiares de pertença, mas também estes apresentam sinais de enfraquecimento. O artigo conclui afirmando que, no caso do catolicismo, a pertença religiosa supõe laços afetivos, de fé e de compromisso pessoal do fiel com a igreja. Quando os três se enfraquecem, ocorre a desafeição religiosa propriamente dita. Palavras-chave: Pertença religiosa. Desafeição religiosa. Censo IBGE 2010. Belo Horizonte. Sociologia religiosa Abstract The article revisits the religious conceptual pair belonging / disaffection, used by the "sociology of religion" in the 1950s and 1960s, to analyze the factors of loss of faithful by Catholic Church, as shown in the 2010 census. The text is based on data from a survey conducted in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte in 2012. Based on this research, the article shows that the decrease of the faithful is not due to conversion but due to the mere transit of Catholicism to another religion. The root of religious disaffection is the loss of faith in the necessity of sacramental mediation of the Church for eternal salvation and in the sacrificial character of the mass. It can be counterbalanced by the family religious belonging, but data signs that they also are weakening. The article concludes that, in the

  5. O conceito de romanização do catolicismo brasileiro e a abordagem histórica da Teologia da Libertação (The concept of Romanization of Brazilian Catholicism and the historical approach of the Liberation Theology - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n32p1485

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    Maurício de Aquino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação da Comisión para el Estudio de la Historia de la Iglesia en Latino América (CEHILA, no ano de 1973, na cidade de Quito, Equador, está umbilicalmente ligada ao nascimento da Teologia da Libertação em face da qual se apresenta, duplamente, como fundamento e expressão.  Considerando essa premissa, este artigo apresenta, problematiza e demonstra as relações entre a Teologia da Libertação e a história renovada da Igreja produzida pelo grupo CEHILA desde a análise histórica de livros considerados referenciais e, sobretudo, de artigos da Revista Eclesiástica Brasileira (REB, pertinentes ao conceito de romanização do catolicismo brasileiro – uma das noções centrais da produção historiográfica CEHILA com importante repercussão nacional e internacional. O artigo encerra-se com uma caracterização dos significados do conceito de romanização do catolicismo, as razões de sua adoção pelo grupo CEHILA e a defesa de que essa história renovada da Igreja pode ser considerada a mais bem-sucedida expressão da teologia libertadora latino-americana. Palavras-chave: Teologia da Libertação. CEHILA. Romanização. Igreja Católica. História do Brasil.  Abstract The creation of CEHILA [Comisión para el Estudio de la Historia de la Iglesia en Latino América], in 1973, in Quito, Ecuador, is inextricably linked to the birth to Liberation Theology in which it presents itself, doubly, as theoretical support and expression. Taking into account this premise the present article aims to discuss and demonstrate the relationship between Liberation Theology and the new history of the Catholic Church written by historians of CEHILA, mainly in the articles of REB (Revista Eclesiástica Brasileira, particularly about the concept of Romanization of Brazilian Catholicism – a key concept of historical production of CEHILA with significant national and international impact. Finally, there is a characterization of the meanings attributed

  6. catholicism and the demise of fascism, racism and colonialism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    central identity-related issues, namely colonialism and racism? Specifically, how were the Italian, fascist and Catholic 'Self' defined in relationship to the geographical, and/or racial, 'Other'? It is this last question, that is to the largely unexplored2. 'international' side of the Church-fascism relationship, that this paper.

  7. Italian psychology under protection: Agostino Gemelli between Catholicism and fascism.

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    Foschi, Renato; Giannone, Anna; Giuliani, Alessia

    2013-05-01

    Between the 1930s and 1940s, Agostino Gemelli (1878-1959) was the main Italian psychologist; he accepted and promoted an empirical conception of psychology influenced by neo-Thomism. The views of Gemelli were a landmark for many psychologists and psychological models in Catholic universities. Gemelli, moreover, throughout his scientific activity, continued ongoing work of expertise in matters concerning science, morality, and psychology. He was a Franciscan monk but also an officer of the Italian air force, a psychologist, and a rector. During the period of fascist rule in Italy, Gemelli sought compromise solutions to foster the survival of psychological institutions. Around his story, contrasting interpretations have emerged. The aim of this article is to look at Agostino Gemelli as an important historical subject to understand the ways in which scientific enterprises and institutions are likely to be influenced by political regimes and by the dogmatic and intolerant milieu. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Negotiating The Italian Self: Catholicism And The Demise Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Si interessa al modo in cui durante il periodo 1935-1949 questioni di colonialismo, razzismo e antisemitismo vennero inserite nel discorso tradizionalmente nazionalista e religioso della rivista. In questo modo, il presente studio illustra come sotto il fascismo nozioni di identità vennero trattate in un contesto religioso, e come ...

  9. An Irish solution to an Irish problem: Catholicism, contraception and change, 1922–1979

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    Girvin, Brian

    2018-01-01

    When Ireland became independent in 1922 there was widespread support for the imposition of a moral order that reflected Catholic teaching. This was remarkably successful: divorce was outlawed while contraception was prohibited as part of this process. The consensus on moral issues was challenged for the first time during the 1970s. The legalisation of contraception became the main battlefield between conservatives and liberals. This article analyses successive attempts to change policy and di...

  10. Religion and Depression in South Korea: A Comparison between Buddhism, Protestantism, and Roman Catholicism

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    Jinhee Seomun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the occurrence of depression in South Korea has significantly increased. Even though Buddhism was the main religion in historical South Korea, Christianity has recently emerged as a dominant faith tradition. However, the relationship between religion and depression among older Korean adults is understudied. The present study is designed to investigate religious variations and the role of religious participation in depression among older Korean adults using the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA. From the KLoSA database, 6817 participants were extracted and analyzed. Utilizing the Korean version of the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 10 and the generalized linear models (GLM, a significant difference in depressive symptoms between religious groups (p < 0.05 and religious nones surfaced. This significant difference remained even after adjusting for the confounding factors. When the levels of depressive symptoms were compared across various faith traditions, the lowest depression score was detected from Buddhists (7.04, followed by Roman Catholics (7.12, and Protestants (7.71. Moreover, a significant difference in depressive symptoms between Buddhists and Protestants was observed. With regard to the frequency of religious participation, a significant difference in the depression score was observed only for Protestants. That is, the depression score for those who reported attending religious meetings ‘once to six times a year’ was significantly higher than the others. It is concluded that those who are religiously involved had significantly less depression symptoms than religious nones. Moreover, of the three faith traditions, Buddhists and Protestants showed a significant difference in depressive symptoms.

  11. Catholicism and the Italian Fascist Myth of Romanità: Between Consciousness and Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nelis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esbozando tanto la investigación académica actual sobre las “religiones políticas” como la “politización” de la religión, este artículo presenta un estudio del periódico jesuita La Civiltà Cattolica, el cual analiza los años 1922-1943. El foco específico está en el discurso católico sobre la antigüedad romana: como el régimen fascista hizo un amplio de una supuesta herencia “espiritual” de la antigüedad- una idea que fue resumida en la noción de romanità (romanizad, la prensa católica reaccionó definiendo su posición en este debate, especialmente con referencia a la relación entre los paganos y los cristianos, los fascistas y la Roma católica. Este estudio se une al ya amplio cuerpo de investigaciones concernientes al mito fascista de la romanità._________________ABSTRACT:Drawing on current scholarly research on “political religions,” as well as on the “politicisation” of religion, this article presents a study of the Jesuitical periodical La Civiltà Cattolica, of which it analyses the years 1922-1943. The specific focus is on the Catholic discourse on Roman antiquity: as the fascist regime made ample use of a supposed “spiritual” heritage from antiquity –an idea which was summarised in the notion of romanità (“Romanness”-, the Catholic press reacted by defining its position in this debate, especially with regard to the relationship between pagan and Christian, fascist and Catholic Rome. This study joins the already extensive body of research concerning the fascist myth of romanità.

  12. The Shorts of Bury St Edmunds: medicine, Catholicism and politics in the 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Francis

    2008-11-01

    The Short family of Bury St Edmunds produced at least eight doctors between the first half of the 17th century and the first half of the 18th. Some of these practised locally and others went on to achieve fame in London or abroad. They included Richard Short (d. 1668), a medical polemicist, and Thomas Short (1635-85) who treated Charles II in his last illness and became the subject of poetry and other literature. The Shorts generated controversy through their adherence to the Roman Catholic faith at a time of persecution and suspicion. Richard Short used medical polemic as a vehicle for advancing his religious views, and his son and nephew became involved in James II's political programme to introduce religious toleration in 1688. After the Revolution the Shorts withdrew from political life but continued in their medical practice and their recusancy. This paper is the first to unravel the family relationships of the Shorts, which previously have eluded most historians.

  13. LATINO MIGRATION AND THE TRANSFORMATION OF U.S.A. CATHOLICISM: FRAMING THE QUESTION

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Figueroa Deck

    2014-01-01

    Este ensaio estuda a relação entre a migração latino-americana em direção ao Norte e as mudanças que estão tendo lugar no catolicismo estadunidense. A parte principal do artigo concentra-se na profunda e histórica experiência religiosa que os latinos trazem à Igreja nos Estados Unidos, herança marcadamente diferente da anglo-americana. Ao pano de fundo colonial, entretanto, devem ser acrescentadas as profundas mudanças que aconteceram no catolicismo latino-americano no período posterior ao Co...

  14. The Welcoming Pope: Images of Pope Francis in the Catholicism under mediatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane MILANI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the society in mediatization more and more the social fields are inserted in an ambiance in which borders are constantly tensioned, meaning that social practices are crossed by the logic of other fields, rather than their own place of knowing. It is perceived that the social/political/religious conjuncture interpenetrates with the logic of mediatization, and this phenomenon arouses transformations in all Christianity. The objective of this work is to analyze the circulation of Pope Francis' images in the media which formulate, in the collective imaginary, a mediated totem image of the Pope of embrace or of the welcoming Pope, what adheres to the new media technologies.

  15. Scientology and Catholicism Do Mix: A Note on Teaching New Religions in a Catholic Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mathew N.

    2006-01-01

    This note from the classroom explores teaching new or alternative religions within the context of a Roman Catholic Liberal Arts College. The essay will specifically focus on a section of a course entitled "Modern Religious Movements" in which students were asked to consider different methodological approaches to the teaching and study of…

  16. Why did Johann Weyer write De praestigiis daemonum?: How Anti-Catholicism inspired the Landmark Plea for the Witches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Hoorens

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Johann Weyer (1515/1516-1588’s book De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis (On devilish delusions and on enchantments and poisonings, first published in Basel in 1563, counts as a systematic attack on witch theories and witch trials. Vera Hoorens argues that Weyer wrote it not only to defend the witches but also and, perhaps even more, as an instrument to criticise the Catholic Church. This reinterpretation solves the problems that are associated with the traditional interpretation of De praestigiis daemonum, including the variety of its contents, Weyer’s seemingly enigmatic source use, and his having written the book before and not during the increase in witch trials. The article answers a numberof questions that are raised by the reinterpretation, including those surrounding Weyer’s religious persuasion, why contemporaries and historians almost unanimously viewed De praestigiis daemonum as a treatise against witch trials, and the extent to which he truly cared about the witches. Waarom schreef Jan Wier De praestigiis daemonum? Jan Wier (1515/1516-1588’s boek De praestigiis daemonum, et incantationibus ac veneficiis (Over duivelse begoochelingen en over betoveringen en gifmengerijen, waarvan de eerste editie in 1563 in Basel verscheen, geldt als een systematische aanval op heksentheorieën en heksenprocessen. Vera Hoorens betoogt dat Wier het niet enkel schreef om de heksen te verdedigen, maar ook, en misschien nog wel meer, als een instrument voor zijn kritiek op de Katholieke Kerk. Deze herinterpretatie lost de problemen op die geassocieerd zijn met de traditionele interpretatie van De praestigiis daemonum, namelijk de verscheidenheid van zijn inhoud, Wiers schijnbaar raadselachtig bronnengebruik, en het feit dat hij zijn boek schreef voordat en niet terwijl de heksenprocessen toenamen. Dit artikel beantwoordt een aantal vragen die de voorgestelde herinterpretatie oproept, zoals wat Wiers religieuze overtuiging was, waarom tijdgenoten en historici De praestigiis daemonum bijna unaniem zagen als een traktaat tegen de heksenprocessen, en in welke mate Wier echt om de heksen gaf.

  17. Ethical issues in end-of-life geriatric care: the approach of three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarfield, A Mark; Gordon, Michael; Markwell, Hazel; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

    2003-08-01

    Ethical dilemmas pervade modern geriatric medicine. What is considered right or wrong will differ depending on, among other things, the patient's religion. The three Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity (its Catholic variant), and Islam all have carefully considered positions on medical ethics. Although much is held in common, there are significant differences. The authors present three clinical cases, each of which presents ethical dilemmas typical of geriatric care, especially at the end of life. On the basis of these scenarios, the normative ethical position of each religion is compared and contrasted. It is hoped that this approach will offer the geriatrician a useful approach to treating patients in an increasingly multicultural society.

  18. Late medieval catholicism and the impact of the Reformation in the Deanery of Derby, c.1520 to c.1570

    OpenAIRE

    D'Arcy, Joan

    1996-01-01

    The question of the effects of the English Reformation is a matter of on-going and lively debate. This thesis hopes to illuminate this question in some small measure, by examining the deanery of Derby, an ecclesiastical unit within the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. Although the focal point is the deanery, it is set within the wider context of sixteenth century England. Past research on the Reformation in Derbyshire has been brought together, reviewed and expanded through a study of Refor...

  19. [An enigma named Agostino Gemelli: Catholicism, fascism and psychoanalysis in Italy during the inter-war period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Franciscan friar Agostino Gemelli has been the subject of much research and debate. This is due to his important political profile and, above all, to the role he played in mediating between the Catholic world and fascism in Italy during the inter-war period. Gemelli was also a central figure in Italian psychology, especially during the 1930s and 1940s. This article is structured to focus in particular on the way that his connections with political and ecclesiastic powers allowed him to become increasingly significant within Italian psychology. Using the example of Gemelli's relationship with psychoanalysis, this study highlights the tension between his relatively open-minded stance and his links to authoritarian, dogmatic ideologies and institutions.

  20. Two Universities and Two Eras of Catholicism in China: Fu Jen University and Aurora University, 1903-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares Fu Jen University in Beijing and Aurora University in Shanghai--the two comprehensive Catholic universities located in the two largest cities of China in modern history--and analyzes four aspects: identity, educational idea, curriculum, and campus culture. It was found that the differences between Aurora and Fu Jen resulted…

  1. Swedish Catholicism and Authoritarian Ideologies : Attitudes to Communism, National Socialism, Fascism, and Authoritarian Conservatism in a Swedish Catholic Journal, 1922–1945

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the attitude to communism, National Socialism, Fascism, and authoritarian conservatism in the Swedish Catholic Church’s journal Credo from 1922 to 1945. The comparative approach has made it possible to see how the journal distinguished between the various forms of authoritarian ideologies in Europe during this period. The article shows that the Catholic Church in Sweden took a very negative view of communism (the Soviet Union and the Spanish Republic) and strongly co...

  2. Demonios más bien vistos que españoles. Spanish warfare, catholicism and diplomacy in the Stuart Great Britain (1603-1625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Alfredo Ruiz Fernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During 1605 and 1625, in the years of the peace between the Spanish Monarchy and Great Britain under James I Stuart, there were several combats off the coasts and ports of Great Britain between Spanish galleons and Dutch ships. These combats always provoked diplomatic issues and disputes at the English Court among the Spanish and Dutch ambassadors. That showed the English government reluctance to comply with the treaty of 1604 with Spain, which settled the assistance of Spanish ships at British coasts and ports. Both of them were seeking the English support on their side on the occasion of these naval combats. As far as the situation of the officials and crew of these Spanish galleons, they suffered the hatred of the local protestant population, who supported the Dutch for religious, political and also economical reasons. Only a few dared to help these galleons on the British soil.

  3. Bedouelle G. The reform of Catholicism, 1480-1620 / J. K. Farge, Trans. , Ann. Toronto: pontifi cal Institute of medieval studies, 2008. 172 p

    OpenAIRE

    Мякшин, Василий

    2009-01-01

    Имя профессора Ги Бедуелла известного церковного историка, ректора Западного католического университета (Universite Catholique de l'Ouest) в Анжере (Франция) знакомо русскоязычному читателю прежде всего по вышедшей в 1996 г. на русском языке великолепной книге "История Церкви", посвященной идеологии западной церковной истории. Новая же книга автора охватывает более узкий период истории западного христианства и посвящена историко-богословскому осмыслению католической реформы позднего Средневек...

  4. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.3 (2) April, 2014

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Austin

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... most recent survey (CIA World Fact Book, 2010). Protestantism and local syncretic Christianity are evident in Yoruba areas, while. Catholicism dominated the Igbo and closely related areas. Both. Protestantism and Catholicism dominated in the Ibibio, Annang, and the Efik kiosa lands. The 1963 census ...

  5. Religião e Catolicismo em Belo Horizonte: dados de pesquisa e leitura teológico-pastoral (Religion and Catholicism in Belo Horizonte: research data and interpretation theological-pastoral - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1255

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberlei Panasiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dinamicidade do mundo atual chama a atenção. A rotatividade confronta-se com o permanente. Pensar ações pastorais no mundo atual supõe clara compreensão da realidade. Nesse sentido, a arquidiocese de Belo Horizonte encomendou uma pesquisa realizada em 2012 intitulada “Valores e religião na Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte”. Essa reflexão pretende apresentar os dados dessa pesquisa e apontar desafios no âmbito teológico-pastoral. A pesquisa atesta a presença do pluralismo e da mobilidade religiosa e critica a falta de diálogo inter-religioso. Valoriza a moral social e questiona a moral sexual da Igreja Católica.  Apresenta satisfação em face as celebrações e sugere maior formação das lideranças religiosas. O grande desafio é pensar uma igreja toda ministerial. O diálogo entre clero e leigos deve ser uma constante, rompendo as centralizações. Revisitar a identidade eclesial, repensando os traços de sua especificidade e estando aberta à criatividade e ao espírito novo que deve conduzir o ser cristão é um desafio itinerante. Palavras-chave: Religião. Igreja Católica de Belo Horizonte. Identidade. Teologia. Pastoral.   Abstract The dynamics of today´s world calls our attention. Changes are confronted by permanence. To reflect on pastoral actions nowadays you need a clear understanding of reality. For this purpose, the Archdiocese of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, commissioned in 2012, a survey called “Values and religion in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte”. This article presents data from this survey and points out challenges in theological and pastoral sphere. This research confirms the presence of pluralism and religious mobility and criticizes the lack of inter-religious dialogue. It values the social morality and question the sexual morality of the Catholic Church. It also shows satisfaction concerning religious celebrations and suggests more training of religious leaders. The major challenges are to think of a whole ministerial church. The dialogue between clergy and laity should happen steadily, thus breaking the centralizations. The main challenge is to revisit the ecclesial identity, to rethink the traces of its specificity and open up to creativity and new demands that should drive all Christians. Key-words: Religion. Catholic Church of Belo Horizonte. Identity. Theology. Pastoral. 

  6. “Por cristo luto; por cristo vos conclamo”. Plínio Salgado e o catolicismo no Brasil: um casamento perfeito? = "Mourning in christ; christ in you I call". Plínio Salgado and Catholicism in Brazil: a perfect marriage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Alexandre Luís de

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo demonstrar o quanto à separação do Estado com a religião, processo conhecido como secularização, enfrentou resistência por parte de lideranças políticas da década de 1930, em especial o Chefe Nacional da Ação Integralista Brasileira (AIB, Plínio Salgado. Suas posições se pautavam na resistência a um processo que havia se iniciado já no fim do século XIX, com a Proclamação da República e a não mais associação entre Estado brasileiro e Igreja Católica Romana. Sua atuação foi marcadamente influenciada por uma religiosidade aflorada, e em seus textos ficou evidente a tentativa de manter o Estado atrelado ao catolicismo. Juntamente a esses fatos, demonstramos o quanto as relações das lideranças católicas e Plínio Salgado foram repletas de movimentos de aproximação e distanciamento, principalmente devido à desconfiança dessas em relação ao futuro político do Brasil. Nosso esforço é no sentido de compreender o quanto esse processo de secularização não foi pacífico e muito menos aceito por toda a sociedade da época

  7. O conceito de romanização do catolicismo brasileiro e a abordagem histórica da Teologia da Libertação (The concept of Romanization of Brazilian Catholicism and the historical approach of the Liberation Theology) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n32p1485

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Maurício de; Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná - UENP.

    2013-01-01

    A criação da Comisión para el Estudio de la Historia de la Iglesia en Latino América (CEHILA), no ano de 1973, na cidade de Quito, Equador, está umbilicalmente ligada ao nascimento da Teologia da Libertação em face da qual se apresenta, duplamente, como fundamento e expressão.  Considerando essa premissa, este artigo apresenta, problematiza e demonstra as relações entre a Teologia da Libertação e a história renovada da Igreja produzida pelo grupo CEHILA desde a análise histórica de livros con...

  8. [Religion and health: the public intervention of Catholic religious agents trained in bioethics in the parliamentary debate on death with dignity in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrazábal, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses from a sociological perspective one of Catholicism's fronts of public intervention in the development and enactment of health legislation. In particular we analyze the debate in parliamentary committees on the so-called "death with dignity" law (No. 26742), for which a group of bioethics experts was convened to counsel senators regarding the scope and limits of the law. The majority of the invited experts advocated a personalist bioethics perspective, which is a theological bioethics development of contemporary Catholicism. In the debate no representatives of other faiths were present, reinforcing the widely studied overlap between Catholicism and politics in Argentina.

  9. Vrome daden en gedachten. Een revisionistische kijk op het katholieke verleden van Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    A.-L. Van Bruaene

    2009-01-01

    L. Bogaers, Aards, betrokken en zelfbewust. De verwevenheid van cultuur en religie in katholiek Utrecht, 1300-1600Ch.H., Parker, Faith on the Margins. Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age Pious Deeds and Thoughts. A Revisionist View of the Netherlands’ Catholic PastThis contribution comments upon the renewed interest in the Catholic past of the Netherlands. It discusses two recent books by Llewellyn Bogaers and Charles H. Parker on late medieval and early modern Catholicism, resp...

  10. The Catholic Bishops and the Rise of Evangelical Catholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White Catholics are increasingly trending toward the Republican Party, both as voters and candidates. Many of these Republican-leaning Catholics are displaying a more outspoken, culture-war oriented form of Catholicism that has been dubbed Evangelical Catholicism. Through their forceful disciplining of pro-choice Catholics and treatment of abortion in their quadrennial voting guides, as well as their emphasis on “religious liberty”, the U.S. bishops have played a major role in the rise of these Evangelical Catholics.

  11. Tolerovaní před tolerancí, netolerovaní po toleranci? Nekatolíci v Humpolci ve druhé polovině 18. století

    OpenAIRE

    HOLUB, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with "secret" non-Catholicism in the pre-Toleration Act period and early Toleration Act years, i.e. between 1755-1795. The main objective of the thesis is to cast light on the standing of non-Catholics in the town before and after Toleration Act was issued. In the first two chapters I try to compare development of non-Catholicism in Humpolec and research findings by Eva Melmuková and Zdeněk R. Nešpor in other places. The actual research on the territory of the tow...

  12. spirituality in a secular age: from charles taylor to study of the bible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were experienced in the malaise of a loss of mystery, meaning, sacred time and the heroic. The reactions could be those of unbelief, including some forms of Romanticism and Nietzsche, or of religion, including the Evangelical. Awakening, Methodism or 19th century French Catholicism. The nova effect, which began among ...

  13. Notes on the Emergence of Protestant Education in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The movement of the Germanic peoples from the barbaric state that the Romans found them in during the days of Julius Caesar to the highly civilized and educated condition of today is a long and complex history. At the heart of that development over the centuries was first the shift to Roman culture; then the slow adoption of Roman Catholicism and…

  14. Compassion and the Creation of an Affective Community in the Theatre : Vondel's Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Joost van den Vondel’s tragedy Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646), written after the playwright’s conversion to Catholicism, has been read as a provocative glorification of a Catholic martyr. Kristine Steenbergh argues that the play’s emotional poetics aim at the creation of an affective

  15. A historical overview of the study of the theology of religions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Department of Science of Religion and Missiology. University of Pretoria. South Africa .... Aristotle was lost in the West and rediscovered only centuries later. A Latin translation was made from the .... exclusivism, dialectic, reconception, tolerance, dialogue, catholicism and presence. Paul. Knitter (1974, 1985) identified the ...

  16. PERFORMANCE IN ART NATURE AND MEANING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... Or as Tucker has wisely stated concerning the American Missionary to India. Rev. William Carey: Carey was ... dominating the entire nation (such as Latin America where Roman. Catholicism is dominating other ..... civil-rights, injustice and present racism.. one thing is sure: plenty of gospel artists on the ...

  17. Patrimoines missionnaire et colonial. Des images médiévales à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-slavery and anti-'Arab' campaigns added to this medieval scene a touch of 'crusade'. The final purpose that remained was the conversion of the pagans. Keywords: abbeys, slavery, architecture, Catholicism, civilization, school colony, colonization, Belgian Congo, land tenure, Leopold II, missionary, middle age, ...

  18. The Society of Jesus and the Missionary Experience of Father Matteo Ricci in China between "Reformatio Ecclesiae" and Inculturalisation of the Gospel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Sustained by rich archival and published material, this paper describes the experience of Father Matteo Ricci in China in the perspective of the general evolution of the Church and European Catholicism between the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. Father Matteo Ricci's missionary works are re-read in the light of the more complex urgencies…

  19. Psychosis or Faith? Clinicians' Assessment of Religious Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Shawn; Vandenberg, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated mental health professionals' assessment of the pathognomonic significance of religious beliefs. A total of 110 participants reviewed 3 vignettes depicting individuals possessing the religious beliefs associated with Catholicism, Mormonism, and Nation of Islam. The religious beliefs of the individuals in the vignettes were…

  20. Moral Education or Political Education in the Vietnamese Educational System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Dung Hue

    2005-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced the influences of different social standards and values of Confucianism, Communism and several major religions, such as Buddhism and Catholicism, and has also undergone tremendous social change in recent decades. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions. Nowadays, moral…

  1. The political economy of churches in Denmark over 700 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Ella; Paldam, Martin

    : 1) The Reformation of Catholicism into Lutheranism in the first half of the 16th century caused a fall of 9%, and 2) modern economic growth after 1820 caused a fourfold fall as predicted by the theory of the religious transition. We suggest that similar data for all European countries would show...... the same strong reaction of church densities to modern economic growth....

  2. Opmerkings oor vroee katolisisme in die Nuwe Testament, met besondere verwysing na die briewe aan die Kolossense en die Efesiers, en die Pastorale Briewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Engelbrecht

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Remarks on early catholicism in the New Testament, with special reference to the letters to the Colossians and the Ephesians, and the Pastoral Letters Attention is given to differences of opinion as to the nature of early catholicism, whether it is present in the New Testament, where it is to be found and how it should be evaluated. The difference between primitive Christianity and early catholicism with regard to ecclesiology is also taken into consideration. Aspects such as offices in the church, the relation of the reign of Christ to the metaphor 'body of Christ', the church as a holy temple, church and Israel, the Gentiles and the church, the unity of the church, the constitution of the church and the vision of the church are discussed. According to one viewpoint the development of the apocalyptic primitive Christianity into early catholicism was not a fringe phenomenon, but 'the greatest change in Christianity 'Consequences of recent research may be that Protestants and Roman Catholics should keep in mind that in more than one aspect the Bible leaves room for a reconcilable variety.

  3. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  4. Twee leeuwen, een kruis : De rol van katholieke culturele kringen in de Vlaams-Nederlandse verstandhouding (1830-ca. 1900)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnino, R.

    2013-01-01

    Which were the cultural borders of the Dutch-speaking Catholicism between 1830 and the end of the nineteenth century? To what extent were the Netherlands situated within the ‘mental space’ of the Flemish Catholics and, vice versa, how much was Flanders a part of the cultural horizons of the Dutch

  5. La oposición católica al franquismo en Valladolid: la HOAC (1960-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Berzal de la Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The movements of the worker Catholicism in Castilla were not well accepted by the politicians franquistas, being especially watched from the decade of 1960s. Then the first social movements against the Régime started to be accomplished.

  6. Počátky českého nábožensko-politického konfliktu a katolický list Pozor (1861-1863)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Adam; Velek, Luboš

    61, 2014, č. 2 (2015), s. 31-51 ISSN 1803-7429 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-17092S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : political Catholicism * political parties * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  7. The Educational Narrativity in the First Period of Oliveira Salazar's Government. Women's Voices in the National Assembly (1935-1945)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adao, Aurea; Remedios, Maria Jose

    2005-01-01

    Oliveira Salazar's accession to the government followed the military coup of 1926, which put an end to the period of democratic republican life. The Constitution approved in 1933 defined the new regime, which came to be known as "Estado Novo". Ideologically sustained by an anti-liberal concept of Catholicism, this political regime would…

  8. Maintaining Ecclesial Identity in Christian Higher Education: Some Thoughts from the Catholic Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    By the mid-19th century, liberal protestant universities had allowed their religious identity to slip away. During the same period, Catholic institutions had maintained their religious identity. Catholicism's stance against modernist thought had held the day. In the 1960s, the Aristotelian-Thomistic hegemony was broken, allowing for a pluralistic…

  9. Towards a poetics of decolonization: Mongo Beti's The Poor Christ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sixa, a church establishment aimed at grooming young female converts in preparation for Christian marriage, is Father Drumont's signature project during his twenty-year tenure at the Bomba Mission. In practice, however, the sixa is a complete mockery of Catholicism and a subversion of African traditional marriages.

  10. O'Malley, John W. (ed.) [2015]. Art, Controversy, and the Jesuits : The ?Imago Primi Saeculi? (1640)

    OpenAIRE

    Campa, Pedro F.

    2017-01-01

    Recensión del libro: O'MALLEY, John W., S.I, [2015]. Art, Controversy, and the Jesuits: The ?Imago Primi Saeculi? (1640), Early Modern Catholicism and the Visual Arts Series 12. Philadelphia: St. Joseph?s University Press, 771 pp.

  11. Sympathy and the Non-human: Max Scheler's Phenomenology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    German phenomenologist and sociologist Max Scheler accorded sympathy a central role in his philosophy, arguing that sympathy enables not only ethical behaviour, but also knowledge of animate and inanimate others. Influenced by Catholicism and especially St Francis, Scheler envisioned a broad, cosmic sympathy ...

  12. Barbarian culture, ecclesiastical pattern, Roman tradition in the Lombard and Frankish Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gasparri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study offers an updated synthesis of the main political, religious and cultural issues in 8th and 9th century Italy. In particular, it examines the progressive transition of the Longobard religious faith from Arianism to Catholicism, and the troubled integration of Lombards, Latins and Franks. Special attention is paid to Lombards’ riots in southern Italy.

  13. Literacy as Magic: The Role of Oral and Written Texts in the Santeria Religious Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelb, Richard G.

    Santeria is a religion which originated in West Africa and evolved from the syncretism of the culture of the Yoruba people with Catholicism in Cuba. Juanita, who was born in Puerto Rico and taught herself how to read and write, owns a "botanica," a retail shop specializing in Santeria paraphernalia. Juanita is a santera (priestess) in…

  14. Traditional and New Enhancing Human Cybernetic and Nanotechnological Body Modification Technologies: A Comparative Study of Roman Catholic and Transhumanist Ethical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael J.

    Advances in cybernetic and nanotechnological body modifications currently allow for enhancements to human physical and mental function which exceed human species-based norms. This thesis examines body modification and human enhancement from two perspectives---Roman Catholicism and Transhumanism--- in order to contribute to bioethical deliberations regarding enhancement technologies. Roman Catholicism has a longstanding tradition of bioethical discourse, informing the healthcare directives of Roman Catholic institutions. Transhumanism is more recent movement that endorses body modifications and human enhancements as a means of individual betterment and social evolution. The thesis first considers definitions of human enhancement and levels of normalcy in connection to cybernetic and nanotechnological bionic implants, and outlines a series of criteria to assess a technology's potential bioethical acceptability: implantability, permanency, power, and public interaction. The thesis then describes Roman Catholicism's response to non-enhancing decorative body modifications (cosmetic surgeries, common decorative modifications such as tattoos and piercings, and uncommon modifications such as scarifications and brandings) in order to establish a basis for possible Roman Catholic responses to enhancing cybernetic and nanotechnological modifications. This is followed by an analysis from a Roman Catholic perspective of the major social issues brought forward by enhancement technologies: commodification, eugenics, vulnerability, and distributive justice. Turning to Transhumanism, the thesis describes the origins and philosophy of the movement, and then discusses the bioethical principles it advances with regard to human enhancement. The thesis concludes by locating points of convergence between Transhumanism and Roman Catholicism that could be the basis of more widely accepted ethical guidelines regarding modification technologies.

  15. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...

  16. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from...

  17. The Outlines of Political Theology in the Protestant Reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The ideas of Luther and Calvin challenged Catholicism and laid the foundation for the conventional American views on church-state relationships. Knowledge of the Protestant tradition in politics is a necessary requirement to an understanding of public life and of Western political culture since the Reformation. (RM)

  18. Pius 12. - legendy a skutečnost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2003), s. 26-29 ISSN 0862-8238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB8015305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8015903 Keywords : church history * political catholicism * 20th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  19. Politický a duchovní profil Pia 11

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (2003), s. 28-31 ISSN 0862-8238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB8015305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z8015903 Keywords : church history * political Catholicism * 20th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  20. The Catholic Laity and the Development of Catholic Identity (discussiedossier over Catholic Identity and the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1520-1635

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Forster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollmann, Judith, Catholic Identity and the Revolt of the Netherlands 1520-1635 (Past and Present; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, xiv + 239 blz., ISBN 978 0 19 960991 8.In her new book Catholic Identity and the Revolt of the Netherlands, 1520-1635, Judith Pollmann uses diaries and journals to bring an individual perspective to the development of Catholic identity in the Southern Netherlands. This perspective provides valuable insights for historians of Catholic Germany, while also showing many similarities to developments in the German-speaking lands. Most importantly, Pollmann, like recent historians of Catholicism elsewhere, emphasizes the role of the laity in early modern Catholicism. The urban character of society in the Southern Netherlands does contrast with the rural character of most of Catholic Germany. Pollmann’s insightful emphasis on clergy-lay relations may cause her to downplay the role of the Jesuits and other orders.

  1. The texts of Fr. Serafim Leite (S. J. in the Journal of the Historical and Geographical Brazilian Institute: a formative project focused in the Catholic nation idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Massami Martins Ruckstadter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as subject the defense of a project of nation centered on the Catholicism, present on the thought of the Portuguese-Brazilian intellectual Serafim Leite (1890-1969. It selects as main sources the four texts published by the priest on the Brazilian Historic Geographic Institute Review, between 1944 and 1964. The aim is to discuss the existing formative project in Serafim Leite‟s texts, situating it in relation to the Brazilian nation and nationality plan formulated by IHGB, during the 19th century. The analysis uses the references elaborated by Antonio Gramsci to understand, from Serafim Leite‟s publications and defense of a nation project supported on the Catholicism, the role of the intellectuals as culture organizers, especially on the construction of hegemony.

  2. «Our Only Hope is Apocalypse»: Marshall Mcluhan, Catholic Antimodernism, and 1960s Education Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh COLE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian thinker Marshall McLuhan is widely recognized as one of the great theorists and commentators on modernity in the post-1945 period. Yet he himself was not a modernist in any simple sense of that word. He consistently engaged with modernity, but did so in order to undermine it in favour of a pre-modern conception of the world inspired by his intense relationship with Catholicism. McLuhan was, in fact, an arch antimodernist, which makes his preeminent role as an «expert» on modernity and education within the self-consciously progressive 1960s Ontario (Canada Department of Education a deeply ironic one. This paper uses that paradoxical relationship to bring out the full complexity of McLuhan’s interconnected ideas on modernity, antimodernity, Catholicism, and school reform, while shedding light on his unique status as a public intellectual during Canada’s 1960s.

  3. Tradition and local histories: hope in the holy flag – Sao Luiz do Paraitinga – São Paulo – Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PELEGRINI, Sandra de Cássia Araújo

    2011-01-01

    The celebrations in praise of the Holy Spirit show connections with Lusitanian Catholicism, but they present peculiar attributes that span the sacred and the profane, as in other popular commemorations recognized as intangible cultural heritage. The analysis of meticulous collective activities expressed in the culture and in the religiosity of the common people calls attention to the perception of the peculiarities of these rituals and the clashes among the community members that participate ...

  4. Compassion and the Creation of an Affective Community in the Theatre: Vondel’s Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646)

    OpenAIRE

    Kristine Steenbergh

    2014-01-01

    Joost van den Vondel’s tragedy Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646), written after the playwright’s conversion to Catholicism, has been read as a provocative glorification of a Catholic martyr. Kristine Steenbergh argues that the play’s emotional poetics aim at the creation of an affective community of Protestants and Catholics in the theatre. Through the contagious bodily experience of fear and compassion with the Queen of Scots, Vondel intended to school the audience’s emotions and foste...

  5. Compassion and the Creation of an Affective Community in the Theatre: Vondel's Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646)

    OpenAIRE

    Steenbergh, K.

    2014-01-01

    Joost van den Vondel’s tragedy Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646), written after the playwright’s conversion to Catholicism, has been read as a provocative glorification of a Catholic martyr. Kristine Steenbergh argues that the play’s emotional poetics aim at the creation of an affective community of Protestants and Catholics in the theatre. Through the contagious bodily experience of fear and compassion with the Queen of Scots, Vondel intended to school the audience’s emotions and foste...

  6. El Comité Católico de Propaganda Francesa en España durante la Gran Guerra. Una puesta al día

    OpenAIRE

    Casas Rabasa, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Spain remained neutral during the Second World War, but its territory became the battleground for the propaganda of the different warring countries. One French response to the German propaganda in Spain (and, by extension, other neutral countries) consisted in the creation of the French Catholic Committee of Propaganda. This Committee was characterized by its employment of traditional Spanish Catholicism as a vehicle for nationalistic propaganda. The collaboration between some ecclesiastics a...

  7. Pierre Duhem, entropy, and Christian faith

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The French physicist and polymath Pierre Duhem was strongly devoted to Catholicism but insisted that science and religion were wholly independent. In an article of 1905 he reflected at length on the relationship between physics and Christian faith, using as an example the cosmological significanc...... to the late-nineteenth-century discussion concerning the meaning and domain of the law of entropy increase. I also consider Duhem's position with respect to Catholic science and culture in the anticlerical Third Republic....

  8. United States-Vietnam Relations 1945-1967, Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, Book 2 of 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    filial piety , devoted to Vietnam’s past, modern only to the extent of an intense, conservative Catholicism. The political apparatus he created to...DISSIDENT CAMPAIGNS HAD ACHIEVED SUCH SUCCESS, THE SOUTH VIETNAM GOVERNMENT DIVERTED MOST OF THE MILITARY TO TRAINING FOR CLASSICAL WARFARE AS A...modernizing challenges to familial piety , village centralism, and other cherished fundaments of Viet culture. 3/ While Annam — and Tonkin to the

  9. From one Religion, the Other1

    OpenAIRE

    Cauquelin, Josiane

    2012-01-01

    Takamoɭi, an extraordinary aboriginal scholar, has played an unusual role during the transition of Nanwang Puyuma religion from traditional shamanism to contemporary forms. Taking advantage of a childhood education in Japanese, and perhaps inspired by observing Japanese scholars’ interest in aboriginal traditions, Takamoɭi set about transcribing Puyuma rituals in the Japanese katakana syllabary. After his conversion to Catholicism, Takamoɭi incorporated the traditional sacred vocabulary in tr...

  10. From one Religion, the Other

    OpenAIRE

    Josiane Cauquelin

    2010-01-01

    Takamoɭi, an extraordinary aboriginal scholar, has played an unusual role during the transition of Nanwang Puyuma religion from traditional shamanism to contemporary forms. Taking advantage of a childhood education in Japanese, and perhaps inspired by observing Japanese scholars’ interest in aboriginal traditions, Takamoɭi set about transcribing Puyuma rituals in the Japanese katakana syllabary. After his conversion to Catholicism, Takamoɭi incorporated the traditional sacred vocabulary in tr...

  11. Religion and Politics in Brazil: a case study from the point of view and influence of American religions

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio Augusto Darius; Escola Superior de Teologia - EST

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Census of 2010, besides showing the decline of Catholicism in the country, revealed a large increase of an "original" Protestantism of the United States, primarily the Seventh Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses. The two groups, founded in the nineteenth century - the Jehovah's Witnesses are a dissidence of the Seventh-day Adventism - boast more than 3 million active members - the majority of the middle class - and have particular political characteristics. It highlights, amo...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the United States Military Relationships with the Republic of Korea and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    Santo Tomas University was founded in 1611. Roman Catholicism became the common religion and unifying force; however, during the three centuries...T_’**. The collaboration of the pre-war elite with the Japanese was justified by such men as Congressman Benigno Aquino , who...peso was devalued. (59:153) On August 21, 1983, opposition leader, Benigno Aquino , Jr., returning to the Philippines, was murdered at the Manila

  13. Convergence of interests: liberalism and protestantism in the 19th century Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Martins Campos; PUC-Campinas

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the hypothesis that Protestantism provided support for the political movements that fought against the hegemony of conservative Catholicism in Brazil in the second half of the 19th Century. Against the tendency to consider Protestantism as an intentional catalyst of liberalism and republicanism, it is proposed that part of the Brazilian liberal layers availed itself of the spirit and practice brought by the north American Protestant missionaries against the conservatism o...

  14. Between anti-communist hysteria and anti-yankee resentment. Salvador Abascal and cold war scenarios in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alejandro García Naranjo

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this article consists in analyzing the doctrinal position of a twentieth century Mexican right wing representative regarding the bipolarity of the Cold War. This was the case of Salvador Abascal Infante (1910 – 2000), intellectual and reactionary, who analyzed the Mexican twentieth century in each of his works, and judged it as an era of moral decadence due to the inluence of unbelief and the battle against Catholicism that, in his opinion, were carried out by the Mexican Revol...

  15. RELIGION & CARE INTERTWINED; NURSING IN CATHOLIC HOSPITALS 1950-1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how Catholicism influenced nursing in Catholic hospitals and how nurses met the religious needs of Catholic patients in the 1950s and early 1960s. Six nurses were interviewed who graduated from Catholic schools of nursing between 1952 and 1965 and worked in Catholic hospitals. Results indicate that nursing care was inexorably entwined with meeting the religious needs of Catholic patients. Religious practices were predictable and largely linked to the Holy Sacraments.

  16. От "народной религиозности" к "проживаемой религии" : дискуссия в польской антропологии религии

    OpenAIRE

    Niedźwiedź, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the problematic and debated terminology used specifically within Polish anthropology of religion and proposes new paths more relevant in current transnational and non-binary focused interpretative contexts. In the 1980s, when the anthropological turn in Polish ethnography/ethnology took place, "folk religiosity" was the most common term used in anthropological studies on religion within Polish academia (most of these studies focused on Catholicism in a rural setting)...

  17. Demographic and Political Influences on the Confessional Picture of East Slavonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Šundalić

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available East Slavonia is a region with a recognisable agrarian tradition and a culture specific to itself, in which religion has had great importance. Concretely, through a long period of history, Roman Catholicism was the most extensive confession and it has left the deepest traces in the spirituality, and also in the daily life of the area. Despite a dynamic past, frequent changes of states and rulers, penetration of Islam and Eastern Orthodoxy and a large number of other religious communities, Catholicism remained dominant in terms of numbers of adherents and also in regard to its influence on social processes in Slavonia and Baranja. The new historical reality in Croatia emphasised even more this presence of Catholicism. This paper studies the development and proportions of the Roman Catholic population in relation to the Eastern Orthodox and other communities in the example of six cities in Slavonia and Baranja. It confirms that just as at the end of the 19th century, at the end of the 20th century Roman Catholics is the most numerous confession: Roman Catholics make up 4/5 and more of the population. The paper also analyses “phases” in the relationship between politics and religion during the last ten years, and also indicates a more pronounced daily awareness of confessional adherence in East Slavonia, where the traces of the war are still very fresh, and where confessional and ethnic (national affiliations even today remain indivisible.

  18. Revolución, contrarrevolución... Evolución: Catolicismo y nuevas formas de legitimidad política en la España del siglo XIX. Los casos de Jaime Balmes y Juan Donoso Cortés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acle-Kreysing, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to traditional portraits of Balmes and Donoso Cortés as the most relevant figures of nineteenth-century Spanish Catholicism, which suppose them in pursuit of the same goals, this article highlights crucial differences between them, focusing upon three aspects: the relationship between catholicism and liberalism, the Church-State relations during the década moderada (1843-1854 and the situation of the Church in Europe in the context of the 1848 Revolutions. Their political projects show how contemporary Catholicism oscillated between intransigence and ideological openness.En contraste con el retrato tradicional de Balmes y Donoso Cortés como las figuras más importantes del catolicismo español en el siglo XIX, que da por sentado que persiguieron los mismos objetivos, este artículo señala diferencias cruciales entre ellos, centrándose en tres aspectos: el nexo entre catolicismo y liberalismo, la relación entre Iglesia y Estado durante la década moderada (1843-1854, y la situación de la Iglesia en Europa en el contexto de las revoluciones de 1848. Sus proyectos políticos muestran cómo el catolicismo de su época osciló entre la intransigencia y la apertura ideológica.

  19. Vrome daden en gedachten. Een revisionistische kijk op het katholieke verleden van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-L. Van Bruaene

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available L. Bogaers, Aards, betrokken en zelfbewust. De verwevenheid van cultuur en religie in katholiek Utrecht, 1300-1600Ch.H., Parker, Faith on the Margins. Catholics and Catholicism in the Dutch Golden Age Pious Deeds and Thoughts. A Revisionist View of the Netherlands’ Catholic PastThis contribution comments upon the renewed interest in the Catholic past of the Netherlands. It discusses two recent books by Llewellyn Bogaers and Charles H. Parker on late medieval and early modern Catholicism, respectively. Both authors reject a teleological conception of history and propose studying the devotion of laymen, laywomen and the clergy from within. Both studies can be considered as part of a wider international – partly anthropologically inspired – trend to reassess the history of Catholicism. The author of this contribution applauds these developments but advocates a stronger integration of the study of religious practices on the one hand, and the study of religious experiences and ideas on the other hand.

  20. Silêncios e diálogos: o catolicismo e a defesa dos direitos sociais e humanos ante à intolerância política da ditadura militar no Brasil (1964-1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília de Almeida Neves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Os anos 1964-1985 se caracterizam pela mobilização popular e pela emergência de uma poderosa vontade de mudança social. Queria-se uma libertação das opressões históricas que a maioria do povo vinha sofrendo. Paradoxalmente, foi um tempo de autoritarismo e desrespeito aos direitos sociais e humanos. Este trabalho pretende analisar o movimento do catolicismo brasileiro, especialmente sua luta por esses direitos. Diversos aspectos atuam e influenciam no contexto político-religioso desse período. A reconstrução do significado desse movimento valeu-se de ampla documentação. Apesar dos entraves e das limitações, o catolicismo fez seu percurso e assinalou um passo importante na trajetória histórica desse período. Na compreensão e análise desse caminho, está a proposta deste estudo.Palabras clave: Catolicismo; Direitos sociais e humanos.ABSTRACTThe years 1964-1985 were characterised by popular mobilisation and the emergence of a powerful wish for social change, in the sence of a liberation from historical oppressions suffered by most people. Paradoxically, it was a time of authoritarianism and disregard for social and human rights. This paper aims at analysing the movemnt of Brazilian Catholicism, especially its fight for those rights. Various aspects play a part in and influence the political and religious context of that period. A wide range of documents was used for reconstructing the meaning of that movement. Despite hindrances and constraints, Catholicism made its way and pointed out an important step in the historical development of the period. This paper aims at understanding and analysing that way.Key words: Catholicism; Social and human rights.

  1. Storiografia cattolica tedesca e Shoah: Memoria religiosa e politica della storia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Faggioli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay addresses and examines the approach of Catholic historians to the Shoah between the 1950s and the beginning of the 21st century in Germany. The relationship between German historiography and the Catholic perception of the Shoah is crucial to understanding the relationship between the post-World War II cultural landscape in Germany and what this German Catholic culture gave to contemporary Catholicism. This legacy is even more important since the Catholic Church elected a German pope in 2005, after the long pontificate of John Paul II, which was decisive in reshaping the historical and theological understanding of the Shoah.

  2. Storiografia cattolica tedesca e Shoah: Memoria religiosa e politica della storia / German Catholic Historiography and the Holocaust: Religious Memory and Politics of Remembrance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggioli, Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay addresses and examines the approach of Catholic historians to the Shoah between the 1950s and the beginning of the 21st century in Germany. The relationship between German historiography and the Catholic perception of the Shoah is crucial to understanding the relationship between the post-World War II cultural landscape in Germany and what this German Catholic culture gave to contemporary Catholicism. This legacy is even more important since the Catholic Church elected a German pope in 2005, after the long pontificate of John Paul II, which was decisive in reshaping the historical and theological understanding of the Shoah.

  3. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and co...

  4. Homegrown Terrorism Inside of Democratic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    McVeigh was raised in a Catholic household and his father was a devout follower of Catholicism . McVeigh himself did not identify with any particular...population before 1995; once at the wedding of the crown prince and again in a subway station (Lifton 2001, 40). Aum did have some success targeting...he did undertake a four week trip to Pakistan in 2002, his family claims it was for a wedding and not for any religious reasons (Rai 2006, 46

  5. Images and persons in Candomble

    OpenAIRE

    Sansi-Roca, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of “images” in the Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé. In many traditional houses of Candomblé it is often said that it is not allowed to photograph or film rituals. On the other hand, in recent years, the presence of Catholic and other figurative images in Candomblé shrines has been questioned by recent “purification” movements—often led by these traditional houses—who fight syncretism, separating Catholicism from African religion. Still, in many cases figu...

  6. Cultural Context in Evelyn Waugh’s “A Handful of Dust”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina E. Ryabchikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author makes an attempt to analyze Evelyn Waugh’s novel «A Handful of Dust» in the light of Waugh’s choice between Catholicism and Protestantism. It is claimed that the writer’s God-seeking experience can be understood through the symbols in the novel, which are connected to Faust («Gothic» cultural code of Europe, a motive of pilgrimage and Augustine of Hippo’s idea of The City of God.

  7. O Medievo Português em tempos de livre crença : relações entre judeus e cristãos em Portugal antes do monopólio católico iniciado em 1497

    OpenAIRE

    Faria de Assis, Angelo Adriano

    2003-01-01

    In december of 1496, the king of Portugal D. Manuel I (1495-1521) ordered the expulsion of jews from the kingdom in a period of ten months –decree that would be transformed, in 1497, in forced convertion to the catholicism. It was the beginning of the catholics’ monopoly in the portuguese world, finishing the time of free faith that was a characteristic of Portugal during the Medieval age. This article should make an analysis about the "Jews’ time" in Portugal, in a period that incl...

  8. Os espaços da fé: um estudo sobre o campo religioso na perspectiva da reliosidade popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Camargo Lopes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In view of the continuous change in the Brazilian religious field, this article is aimed at analyzing, through interviews and field observation, the maintenance and the ritual practices of the two major religious groups in the daily life of a small popular neighborhood in Londrina, state of Paraná. The discussion includes the circularities between the official discourse and the practices of religious agents, the maintenance of traditional popular Catholicism, the observation of a regular worship service, and an analysis of the elements that constitute the neighborhood’s religious identity of the Assembléia.

  9. "Leaving it to God" religion and spirituality among Filipina immigrant breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, Regina A; Yoo, Grace J; Levine, Ellen G; Donnell, Kira A; Lim, Holly R

    2014-04-01

    Many Filipinos have a powerful adherence to Catholicism. However, little is known about spirituality and religious involvement of Filipina Americans who have been diagnosed with breast cancer. Ten (n = 10) in-depth qualitative interviews with Filipina immigrant breast cancer survivors identified prayer to be the most common religious practice, followed by prayers by others and spiritual support from the Catholic Church. These findings can help clinicians and researchers understand the role of spirituality and religion in providing comfort and support for Filipina immigrant breast cancer patient as they face the stress of diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Fish for peasants and kings - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2011-01-01

    Fish played an important role in medieval Europe. It formed the basis of a food culture influenced by Catholicism and was a central commodity in the national and international network of trade. Fish of all sorts held a prominent position on the dining tables of peasants as well as kings. Household...... accounts and medieval recipes and descriptions of dinners give us a glimpse of a variety of fresh, salted, air-dried and smoked fish and ways of preparing and serving them. The archaeological evidence from excavations on monasteries and castles, in towns and villages support this picture of variety...

  11. Escenario discursivo y signifi cados implícitos en una guía ‘para los verdaderos viajeros’: el caso de la Guía Azul de Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Garofalo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the manipulation strategies used in the ‘construction’ of the tourist destination, emphasizing the evolution of some myths indicated by Barthes (catholicism, the imperial past, the concept of ‘Spanish nation’. Actually, some recent guides hint at the rising of a fresh mythology in which local particularism and the century-old desire for self-governance plays an essential role. After outlining the ‘scenography’ or representation model, the suggested analysis aims to prove that both the image of the place and the discursive memory are refl ected in the text through implicit meaning,such as presupposition and irony.

  12. Mothers and Spirits: Religious Identity, Alcohol, and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candi K. Cann

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mothers and Spirits examines the intersection of women, alcohol, and death through a comparative analysis. Offering a brief history of the study of drinking, followed by a short analysis of drinking in European and Chinese cultures, Cann examines two religious texts central to the roles of women and alcohol in Chinese religious thought and Christianity. Finally, Cann utilizes the historical and textual background to contextualize her ethnographic study of women, alcohol, and death in Mexican Catholicism, Chinese religions, and American Southern Baptist Christianity. Cann argues that both alcohol and temperance are used as a way to forge, cement, and create gender identity, constructing alternate discourses of power and inclusivity.

  13. Catholic Republicanism: The Creation of the Spanish American Republics during Revolution.

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    Entin, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    The crisis of the Spanish Catholic monarchy paved the way for the creation of more than twenty republics in Latin America between 1810 and 1825. This paper analyzes early nineteenth-century Spanish American republican experiences, which have been generally neglected in the historiography, as constitutive parts of Atlantic republicanism. It focuses on the theologico-political considerations of the res publica from the seventeenth century onwards, the articulation of a patriotic discourse in the American colonies of Spain during the eighteenth century, and how Spanish-American revolutionaries used republican languages based on Roman references, natural rights, and Catholicism to create new political legitimacy.

  14. SHADES OF VENICE IN THE BIOGRAPHY OF HEGUMEN PALLADY ROGOVSKY

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    Alex YASTREBOV

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pallady Rogovsky was the fi rst Russian doctor of theology and philosophy. While a student of the Slavyano-Greek-Latin Academy directed by the Brothers Lichudes, he left his homeland for the West in order to obtain a full university education. The years which he spent in Europe and particularly in Italy have attracted little notice on the part of Church historians. The study of unpublished materials in Italian archives together with those already published by the Russian researcher E. Shmurlo from the archive of the Propaganda de Fide and the Greek College, which however, remain unnoticed for the great majority of academics, permit us to have an idea of what occupied Rogovsky during this time, as well as to draw a more precise portrait of his personality. Most remarkable is the fact of his priestly ordination in the Roman Catholic Church and the correspondence relating to Rome’s acceptance of his Russian Orthodox diaconal ordination. One of the most informative documents found among those relating to his ordination and addressed to the Roman Curia is the letter of a Russian Catholic, the deacon (later defrocked Petr Artem’ev, in which Artem’ev revealed that Rogovsky already had converted to Roman Catholicism before he left Russia. Equally noteworthy is Rogovsky’s own letter which he composed while in Venice and in which he formulated his plans for the propagation of Roman Catholicism in Russia.

  15. From Idealised Moral Community to Real Tiger Society. The Catholic Church in Secular Ireland

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    Jean-Christophe Penet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1960s to the 1980s, a time of “tension management” between “the old hegemony of Catholicism and nationalism and the emergence of liberalism and materialism” (Fogarty 1984: 102, Ireland’s self-image as a moral community came under the influence of secularisation. The country’s secularisation process speeded up when it decided to embrace new technologies – and consequently met with huge economic success – in the early 1990s, the results of which for Catholicism in Ireland were the visible and apparently irreversible undermining of the institution. However, I believe that Ireland’s secularisation through economic and psychological transformation affected the Irish Catholic Church as a whole, that is to say, its people as well as the institution. My argument in this article is that, whereas in an Ireland which many viewed as a traditional, well-integrated religious nation, it was possible for Irish Catholics to live their faith in an institutionalised manner through the idealised moral community desirable both to Church and State, economic success and increased internationalisation made this idea of community less sustainable. Indeed, in what has now become a “network society” (Castells 1996: 469, there has emerged a new breed of Catholics who no longer live their religion as a transcendent inheritance but as an immanent choice, and who, therefore, seem to “connect” to their religion more than they “commune” with it.

  16. Post-secular religious practices entering traditional religion

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    Urszula Pękala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we can observe complex interactions between the religious and secular spheres. Several different processes take place simultaneously: the traditionally religious elements function in the secular sphere as if they were part of secular culture; elements of the secular sphere build a specific kind of post-secular religiosity; finally, this post-secular religiosity influences traditional religions. This article focuses on the last stage of these changes. The author's purpose is to describe and interpret the practices we can observe. Because of the complexity of this issue, the analyses are limited to examples taken from the Catholic Church in Germany, where this process seems to be as popular as it is paradoxical. Catholicism realises that the post-secular forms of religiosity are very popular and that many people choose them instead of the traditional Church. It could offer them spirituality based on ages of experience. But instead of making its own spiritual tradition competitive on the spiritual market, Catholicism seems to offer Christianised post-secular goods, or its own traditional elements represented in a secularised form. It seems difficult to predict how it will all end. However, we observe an interesting encounter and interaction between an ‘old’ religion and a new religiosity, which will certainly have impact on further presence of the Church in the society.

  17. Mental hygiene in early Francoism: from racial hygiene to the prevention of mental illness (1939-1960).

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    Campos, Ricardo; Novella, Enric

    In this paper, we study the ideological bases of mental hygiene, understood as racial and moral hygiene, during the first years of Franco's regime and their evolution until 1960. First, we discuss the conceptualization of mental hygiene in the 1940s and its role as a tool for the legitimization of dictatorship, revealing the involvement of orthodox Catholicism and its links with moral and racial hygiene. Second, we assess the transformation of mental hygiene during the 1950s towards modernization and a stronger linkage with the dominant trends of contemporary psychiatry without ever leaving the ideological background of Catholicism. For this purpose, we will focus on analysis of the activities of the Mental Hygiene Week held in Barcelona in 1954 and on the creation in 1955 of the National Board of Psychiatric Care, which took on mental hygiene as one of its functions. This paper shows the close relationship of mental hygiene during the early years of Francoism with the political principles of the Dictatorship. The 1940s witnessed the deployment of a harsh discourse in which mental hygiene was a tool for the (moral and spiritual) education of the Spanish people in the political principles of the "New State", pathologizing political dissent and ideologically purifying the country. In the 1950s, Francoist mental hygiene underwent a process of aggiornamento marked by international political events following the defeat of fascism in World War II, advancing a project for (authoritarian) modernization in an international context already directed towards mental health.

  18. Presentación

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    Bianchi, Susana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of de latter military dictatorship in 1983, the history of the Catholicism in Argentina ceased to be a matter concerning only to the Catholic historians to enter in the academic ground. This situation permitted the development of new perspectives and renewal theoretical and methodological views. But, despite the advances realised, there are still many gaps, as happen in the case of the religious minorities. This dossier present some lines of research developed in the last years concerning to the history of the Catholicism.

    Desde fines la última dictadura militar, la historia del catolicismo dejó de ser una cuestión confesional para ingresar en el ámbito académico. Esto permitió el desarrollo de nuevas perspectivas y nuevos planteos teóricos y metodológicos. A pesar de los avances, aún quedan vacíos. Uno de ellos es el estudio de las minorías religiosas que integran el campo religioso argentino. Este dossier presenta algunas de las últimas líneas de investigación.

  19. The Dutch Connection: Johanna van der Meulen’s Contribution to Russian Symbolism

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    Magnus Ljunggren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Symbolist Ėllis’ (Lev Kobylinskij writings during his Moscow period emphasize the split, the division and dichotomy between material reality and celestial vision. His works written in exile in Locarno-Monti in Switzerland are devoted to resolving these antitheses by building bridges on all levels: between Catholicism and Orthodoxy, between culture and religion, between worldly and otherworldly, ultimately between East and West. From being a poet and critic he became a translator and culturologist: “Dr. Leo Kobilinski-Ellis.” The Dutch medium Johanna van der Meulen — whom he had met in 1911 in Rudolf Steiner’s Theosophical, soon Anthroposophical colony — played a crucial role in this fundamental metamorphosis. With her he lived in a thirty-five-year-long creative symbiosis that proved extremely beneficial to the two of them. Van der Meulen developed a mystical doctrine of her own, “Cosmosophy”, based on a Gnostic world view, strongly influenced by Russian religious philosophy. As she had finished her work in four parts Dr. Kobilinski-Ellis published his summary and interpretation of her teachings, in which he defines the core of Cosmosophy as a synthesis of the “Johannian” element in the meditative wisdom of the Eastern Church and the “Petrine” component in the energetic faith of Catholicism.

  20. Confederação Católica do Trabalho: práticas discursivas e orientação católica para o trabalho em Belo Horizonte (1919-1930

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    Deivison Gonçalves Amaral

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo será de analisar a atuação da Confederação Católica do Trabalho junto aos trabalhadores de Belo Horizonte, entre 1919 e 1930. Para tanto, são consideradas a prática discursiva católica, a luta por direitos e por melhores condições de vida e a mediação dos conflitos entre capital e trabalho. A entidade, orientada pela encíclica Rerum Novarum, foi a difusora do catolicismo junto aos trabalhadores de Belo Horizonte. A metodologia da análise do discurso é utilizada com o objetivo de perceber o papel das práticas discursivas católicas e a inserção do catolicismo entre os trabalhadores de Belo Horizonte. As fontes nucleares da pesquisa são O Operário e os Annaes do Conselho Deliberativo de Bello Horizonte. Críticas comumente feitas que atribuem a esse tipo de ação reformista a responsabilidade por um movimento operário pouco autônomo ou "amarelo" são contrariadas. Tentamos demonstrar que a estratégia sindical reformista católica buscou atender às demandas urgentes dos trabalhadores: jornada de oito horas, descanso dominical e habitações.  Palavras-chave: Reformismo; Discurso católico; Catolicismo e trabalho. Abstract This article analyzes the performance of the Catholic Labor Confederation with workers in Belo Horizonte between 1919 and 1930. For such, it focuses on the Catholic discourse practice, the struggle for rights and better conditions of life, and the mediation of conflicts between capital and labor, with basis on Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum, which diffused Catholicism among Belo Horizonte workers. The discourse analysis methodology aims at grasping the role of Catholic discourse practice and the penetration of Catholicism among those workers. The research sources are O Operário ("The worker" and the Annaes do Conselho Deliberativo de Bello Horizonte ("Annals of the Belo Horizonte Deliberative Council". Criticism attributing to that kind of reformist action the

  1. Algunas tendencias del catolicismo social en Chile: reflexiones desde la historia

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    ANDREA BOTTO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo queremos proponer una mirada diferente a lo que se ha entendido de la relación entre catolicismo social y los grupos que lo han sustentado. En la década de 1930, por diversos motivos, surgieron desde una especial generación de jóvenes católicos chilenos vinculados al conservadurismo, diferentes grupos que interpretaron a su manera cómo llevar a la práctica las doctrinas sociales dictadas desde Roma. Esas diferentes interpretaciones generaron una división profunda en el catolicismo chileno, que trascendió hasta el mundo de la política y generaron profundos resentimientos que subsistieron por varias décadas. Se propone aquí un recorrido sobre esas posiciones que nos servirá para entender parte del proceso que ha vivido el catolicismo nacional en el siglo XX, y para comprender el origen de algunas posturas que continúan vigentes en aquel espectro católico vinculado a posturas más tradicionales y conservadoras.In this essay, the author proposes a different perspective on what has been understood up to now regarding the relationship between Social Catholicism and the groups that have sustained it. In the decade of the 1930s, for diverse motives, different groups emerged from a special generation of young Chilean Catholics linked to a hard-line conservatism. These groups interpreted in their own ways how to put into practice the social doctrines dictated by Rome. Those different interpretations generated a deep división within Chilean Catholicism which transcended into the world of politics and generated deep resentments that subsisted for several decades. A review of those positions is proposed here, serving to help us understand part of the process that national Catholicism lived out in the 20th century, and comprehend the origin of some positions that are still current in that Catholic spectrum linked to more traditional and conservative postures.

  2. Juventude, militância e fé (Youth, militancy and faith - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p657

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    Wellington Teodoro da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo espera contribuir para a compreensão da relação entre a religião e a política. Por meio da análise tipológica e do recurso metodológico da história oral temática elaboramos o seu ambiente teórico. Estudamos os jovens inseridos na Pastoral da Juventude do Meio Popular entre meados das décadas de 1980 e 1990, na região industrial de Belo Horizonte – Brasil. Estes jovens são representantes do grande movimento religioso conhecido como cristianismo da libertação de larga e profunda repercussão na história política e religiosa da república brasileira da segunda metade do século XX. Nossa compreensão situa-se na passagem do catolicismo tradicional para o catolicismo internalizado experimentado por esses jovens e suas famílias no processo de migração das áreas rurais para a jovem área urbana. Vale dizer que os fragmentos de entrevistas citadas foram realizadas por nós para a pesquisa que deu vaga a esse artigo. Palavras-chaves: Juventude. Religião e política. Esquerda católica brasileira.  Catolicismo   Abstract This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the relationship between religion and politics. The theoretical environment of this research has been prepared by analyzing typological and methodological resource of oral history. For this purpose, we studied the young participants of the Youth Ministry of the "lower middle class" between the mid 1980s and 1990 in the industrial region of Belo Horizonte - Brazil. These young people represent a religious movement known as liberation Christianity, with profound repercussions in the political and religious history of the Brazilian republic of the second half of the twentieth century. The scope of this study lies in the transition from traditional Catholicism to the form of Catholicism internalized and experienced by these young people and their families in the process of migration from rural to urban areas. The fragments of interviews cited were

  3. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  4. Libertad sin libertades. El Concilio y la realidad social durante el episcopado de Vicente Enrique y Tarancón en Asturias

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    José Luis Fernández Jerez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article centers on the analysis of the implantation of the Second Vatican Council on Asturias. There are multiple reasons that justify it: on one hand, after finishing the Council, Vicente Enrique and Tarancon – who, with posteriority, would be a key figure in the democratic Transition – was named as archibishop. On the other hand, this region was one of the places where the social catholicism and the anticlericalism developed with more force in the first third of the XXth century. Already in the period of the Council, the concept of freedom born of the Dignitatis Humanae, together with the Gaudium et Spes, not only was interpreted in relation with other religious creeds, but also it included the fight for the rights and democratic freedoms.

  5. RELIGIÕES AFRICANAS E O CATOLICISMO NAS ORIGENS DO BRASIL.

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    Rafael Egidio Leal e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between Catholicism and Afro-Brazilian religions in the colonization of Brazil. We question the way the Portuguese colonists, imbued with the pursuit of profit and adventure, and also of faith and evangelization, dealt with the black slave and his beliefs. This discussion is important to understand the ways of religion and faith in Brazil, and also a form of sociability that was established from the social relations in the colonizing process. By reference to authors like Gilberto Freyre, Darcy Ribeiro, Roger Bastide and Luiz Mott we'll discuss the encounter of European and African culture during colonization and slavery and how this impacted on the formation of the Brazilian people.

  6. A Musical Fight between Soul and Body in 1600

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this article is a discussion of Emilio de' Cavalieri's early Baroque music drama, Rappresentatione di anima, et di corpo (The Play of Soul and Body), performed in Rome in 1600 with a particular focus on the ambivalence apparent in this work between the text's explicit pious plea...... for renouncing worldly pleasures on the one hand and, on the other hand, the theatrical, musical, and even textual means in the play intended to delight the audience, but also through this delight to bring about its religious message to the audience. This ambivalence may shed light on broader issues of cultural...... history connected to continuities and changes in Reform Catholicism in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Although seemingly influenced by a general pessimism of the time, the Catholic world could draw on a devotional, aesthetically resourceful, tradition providing ambiguous relief in contemporary...

  7. “CATHOLICITY AND CIVILIZATION”: CATHOLICS AND THE CAPITALIST ETHIC IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA

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    Martin J. Burke

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines arguments made by American Catholics that “Catholicity” promoted progress and that Catholic morality was essential to capitalist societies. These arguments developed in two contexts: as responses to charges that “popery” caused poverty; and in debates over relationships between Catholicism and capitalism. Articulate Catholics compared the social and economic conditions of Catholic and Protestant nations, and argued that the former were preferable. Only the Church, they insisted, could provide the morality necessary for the state and marketplace. While dissenting from the faith of the American majority, these intellectuals did not reject the political and economic ideologies of American culture. Rather, they assimilated them, and adapted them to Catholic ends.

  8. The reformasi of Ayu Utami; Attacking the monopoly of the great religions

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    Karel Steenbrink

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In eight novels, Ayu Utami has presented critical attacks on doctrines and practices of the major religions in Indonesia. The two books, that describe the spiritual struggle of the Catholic priest Saman (1998–2002, call for a religion that is more active in the political arena, but leaves sexual rules to the individual people. The novel Bilangan Fu (2008 condemns the monopoly of the great religions in favour of local and individual spirituality. This is developed in a series of novels of which two more have already appeared. A third cycle of three more or less autobiographic novels (2003–2013 sketch her personal quest from atheism towards a critical but positive spirituality condemning a clerical and monopolist trend in Catholicism. Utami’s criticism of the great religions is external (more players in the field should be recognised and internal (religious leaders should have more modest claims towards their faithful and leave more space for personal choice.

  9. Typology and the Holocaust: Erich Auerbach and Judeo-Christian Europe

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    Malachi Haim Hacohen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to Nazi exclusion of the Jews from German society on racial grounds, Erich Auerbach (1892–1957, a secular Jewish intellectual inspired by cultural Protestantism and Catholicism, formed a vision of a cosmopolitan Judeo-Christian civilization that reintegrated the Jews as biblical founders and cultural mediators. But the integration expunged any mark of traditional Jewishness. Focusing on Christian figurative thinking (typology, Auerbach viewed the binding of Isaac through the crucifixion, and contemporary Jews as civilization’s (unwilling and undeserving martyrs. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, his cosmopolitanism reached a crisis, reflected in his postwar vision of Western decline. The progressive mandarin who had begun his intellectual life elevating Dante’s care for everyday life and sympathizing with French realist social critique ended endorsing Hugh of St. Victor’s alienation from reality and Pascal’s acquiescence in totalitarian rule.

  10. Pseudepigraphy and the Petrine school: Spirit and tradition in 1 and 2 Peter and Jude

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    Patrick Chatelion Counet

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies four “patterns of religion” (E P Sanders in the pseudepigraphic letters of Peter and Jude in order to support the hypothesis of a “Petrine school” (J H Elliott. The first pattern that connects the letters is a Geisttradition (K Aland, guaranteeing continuity of tradition. The second is the interrelationship between faith and ethics (fides quae and fides qua. The combination of sanctification and eschatology is a third pattern connecting the three documents. Finally, two florilegia can be identified (one from the Old Testament and apocrypha, and one from the chokmatic tradition, suggesting a fourth pattern: a warning against ungodliness and infidelity. The existence of a Petrine group could represent a preliminary stage of subsequent Early Catholicism.

  11. Opportunities and costs of tourism for a new Humanism

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    Bizzarri Carmen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes the flow of tourism on a national and international scale, emphasizing the role that entertainment tourism and theme parks play globally. Following these preliminary remarks, the second part of the paper presents the positive and negative economic effects of leisure tourism opportunities at the European and regional level. The third part of the paper analyses the environmental aspects of tourism and entertainment tourism. It shows that sustainable tourism development can be an essential condition for the protection of natural and cultural resources. Finally, the fourth part summarizes some of the most important social issues arising from tourism activities, among them the conflict between residents and tourists on the exploitation of resources and the demonstration effect deriving from the consumption of resources. To avoid this spoliation and destruction of the destination (land and local community, the paper suggests a new Humanism based on Catholicism as a way to realize a sustainability utopia.

  12. “Nahni wa xfendik” (We and the others: Negotiation of multiple identities in the maronite community of Cyprus

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    Koumarianou Maria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will examine the negotiation of multiple identities in the Maronite Community of Cyprus which comprises four villages in the occupied territories (Kormakiti, Asomatos, Karpashia, Agia Marina and a large number of displaced population in the area of Nicosia, Larnaca and Limassol, and especially the extent to which some identities are negotiable, while others are not. I will analyze the concept of collective identity in relation to religious and ethnic factors (Maronite, Arab origin vs the Orthodox Cypriots of Greek origin, differences within the community in relation to language (use of a particular Arabic dialect only by the inhabitants of Kormakiti, while other villages speak the Greek-Cypriot dialect and a deliberate identification with Lebanon through Catholicism and similarities in history.

  13. Flower Power: Desire, Gender, and Folk Belief in the Joycean Mary Garden

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    Christin Mulligan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Robert Brazeau and Derek Gladwin’s Eco-Joyce (2014 largely overlooks a historical basis for ecocritical thought. The absence of a historicist view requires consideration not only of the natural world but folk botany, such as the Mary Garden that is a phantom presence in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man as well as in “Nausicaa” and “Penelope” in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. The undergrowth of the garden reconfigures human action and subtly predicts it with its compendium of theological and devotional meanings for the burgeoning sexuality expressed by Gerty MacDowell and Issy Earwicker as well as the mature longing of Molly Bloom. This essay will establish a fresh Deleuzian paradigm of Becoming-Flower to demonstrate how the Mary Garden blooms to present new perspectives on Catholicism, eros, and gender identity in Joyce’s major works.

  14. The ethical implications and religious significance of organ transplantation payment systems.

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    Smith, Hunter Jackson

    2016-03-01

    One of the more polarizing policies proposed to alleviate the organ shortage is financial payment of donors in return for organs. A priori and empirical investigation concludes that such systems are ethically inadequate. A new methodological approach towards policy formation and implementation is proposed which places ethical concerns at its core. From a hypothetical secular origin, the optimal ethical policy structure concerning organ donation is derived. However, when applied universally, it does not yield ideal results for every culture and society due to region-specific variation. Since religion holds significant influence in the organ donation debate, three religions-Catholicism, Islam, and Shinto-were examined in order to illustrate this variation. Although secular ethical concerns should rest at the core of policy construction, certain region-specific contexts require cultural and religious competence and necessitate the adjustment of the optimal template policy accordingly to yield the best moral and practical results.

  15. The chapel and the operating room: the struggle of Roman Catholic clergy, physicians, and believers with the dilemmas of obstetric surgery, 1800-1900.

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    Ryan, Joseph G

    2002-01-01

    By 1800, the Roman Catholic Church and organized medicine faced the dilemma of how to resolve cases of obstructed births. American physicians usually practiced destructive operations, like craniotomy, in an attempt to save the lives of mothers. The church allowed such operations after the death of the infant. A new technique of surgery, the cesarean operation, offered hope that both patients would survive childbirth. Medical progress, and an emerging Catholic belief that the fetus was human, prompted Catholic physicians to advocate the new operation, and stirred a renewed debate among European theologians on the propriety of craniotomy. In America, the broad Christian tradition promoted by the Catholic Church began to inform medicine on the moral and ethical parameters of surgery. American physicians, for their part, engaged in their own debate on the propriety of the cesarean operation. This article, focusing on the cesarean debate, reveals the intersections of Catholicism and medical progress amid the growth of obstetric surgery from 1800 to 1900.

  16. Il Concilio Vaticano II nella stampa comunista italiana (1959-1965

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    Lorenzo Ettorre

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The John XXIII’s pontificate and the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council’s convocation were a major turning points, not only for the religious institution but also for the modern society. In order to improve the Christian spirit in history, these changes renewed some ways of action and the positions of Catholicism in the contemporary age. Through a particular analysis of the Italian communist press, where also judgments of Togliatti, Donini, Spriano appear, the Italian communist party’s reactions in respect to the Council have been verified, keeping its aspirations, strategies and international internships in mind. The result is an original study in regard to the relationships between catholics and communists and a general vision of Italian Republic’s history.

  17. As mulheres ou os silêncios da Procissão do Fogaréu

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    Clovis Carvalho Britto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of preliminary reflections on the transformation of women's participation in festivities of Brazilian popular Catholicism and it had as research object the Procession of “Fogaréu” in the city of Goiás-GO. Its goal is to understand the place occupied by women in the fabric of religious-symbolic economy and the implications of this strangled voice. / O presente texto é fruto de reflexões preliminares sobre as transformações da participação das mulheres nas festividades do catolicismo popular brasileiro tendo como objeto de pesquisa a Procissão do Fogaréu na cidade de Goiás-GO. Seu objetivo é compreender o lugar ocupado pelas mulheres na trama de economia simbólico-religiosa e as implicações dessa voz embargada.

  18. Religión, guerra y ciudad: clero y gobierno local en Puebla durante la guerra con Estados Unidos (1847-1848

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    Sergio Rosas Salas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of the clergy in Puebla (Mexico in defense of the city during the war with the United States, and their ability to reach agreements with civil authorities in order to protect the civilian population, maintain order despite the military occupation, and maintain religious services as a factor of public tranquility. It argues that, thanks to negotiation and agreement between both powers, devotional practice became a fundamental factor in maintaining order. The research was based on local files and a group of published sources dealing with the relations between the U.S. army and the clergy in Puebla, leading to the conclusion that Catholicism was a factor of cohesion in defending the city.

  19. Spirituality and Religiosity in Elderly Adults with Chronic Disease

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    Isabel Patricia Gómez Palencia

    Full Text Available Objective.This work sought to explore the relationship between spirituality and religiosity in elderly adults with chronic disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional cohort study with a representative sample of 229 elderly adults with chronic disease registered in 12 life centers in the city of Cartagena. Reed's Spiritual Perspective and Francis' Religiosity scales were applied. Results. Mean age was 74.4 years, 62.9% were women, and the most frequent occupations were: unemployed (45.9% and housewives (44.5%; the religion most practiced was Catholicism (81.2%. Levels of spirituality and religiosity were high, showing a moderate and direct correlation (r = 0.57. Conclusion. A directly proportional relationship exists between spirituality and religiosity in elderly adults with chronic disease.

  20. Catolicismo y política en el Gobierno de Kirchner

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    Fortunato MALLIMACI

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se trata de un estudio histórico y sociológico de las múltiples relaciones entre religión y política en Argentina mostrando un catolicismo que se presenta con propuestas a nivel social, simbólico y generador de identidad nacional. Se profundiza en las nuevas tensiones entre el actual gobierno peronista de Kirchner y la institución católica por el control de las creencias, los cuerpos y la memoria.ABSTRACT: The historical and sociological study of the relations between religion and politics in Argentina reveals a Catholicism that presents itself with a project at the social and symbolic level, and as provider of national identity. This is accentuated in the new tensions between the current Peronist government of Kirchner and the institutional Catholic church over control of beliefs, bodies and memory.

  1. A Review of Catholic Periodical Literatures in China (1872-1949

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    Fuying Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1872, the Jesuits of the Xujiahui Observatory in Shanghai started a French newspaper, the Bulletin des Observation Météorologiques, which marked the beginning of the Catholic periodical literatures in China. During the early period of the Republic of China, the Catholic periodicals surged fast and spread from the coastal to the inner cities. The publications were run by different Catholic religious orders in many languages. But with the outbreak of Anti-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, Catholic periodical literatures in China fell to decadency. The periodicals stimulated the development of Catholicism in China and the cultural exchange between China and the West and thus played an active and important role in the modern Chinese history. This paper describes the development of the Catholic periodical literatures in different stages and discussed on the influences of the Catholic periodicals to the Chinese society. [Article content in Chinese

  2. "The priest obviously doesn't know that I'm gay": the religious and spiritual journeys of Latino gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dalia I; Gray-Stanley, Jennifer; Ramirez-Valles, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, most adults state that religion plays an important role in their lives and claim a religious affiliation. For gay, bisexual, and transgender persons (GBT), the story is unique because their sexual and gender identity is not accepted by most religions. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of religiosity in the life course of Latino GBTs raised as Catholics. Data come from 66 life history interviews with Latino GBTs living in Chicago and San Francisco, who grew up as Catholics. We found a religious trajectory that mirrored participants' developmental stages. During childhood, religion was inculcated by the family, culture, and schools. In adolescence, many experienced a conflict between their religion and their GBT identity, and in adulthood, they reached a resolution. Most participants abandoned Catholicism to join other religions or spiritual groups that they perceived to be welcoming. We found participants engaging in a remedial ideological work to reconcile their religious values and their identity.

  3. The law of the leading digits and the world religions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, T. A.

    2012-02-01

    Benford's law states that the occurrence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but tends to follow a logarithmic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate here numerical data on the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Baha'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits occurring in the distribution conforms to Benford's law. We find that the adherent data of all the religions, except Christianity, excellently does conform to Benford's law. Furthermore, unlike the adherent data on Christianity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations i.e. Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obeys the law. Thus in spite of their complexity general laws can be established for the evolution of religious groups.

  4. Discovering the African freshwater "torpedo": legendary Ethiopia, religious controversies, and a catfish capable of reanimating dead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolino, Marco; Finger, Stanley; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-07-01

    The electric catfishes of African rivers and lakes, once depicted on Egyptian tomb art, have been largely overlooked in histories and reviews of electric fish biology and animal electricity. This article examines how Westerners, especially Dominican and Jesuit missionaries, discovered them in Ethiopia and other parts of Africa at the beginning of the seventeenth century. What transpired took place against the backdrop of tales involving the Bible, Prester John's mythical empire, and imaginary animals with fabulous powers. In effect, how they were found is related to attempts to convert Ethiopian Christians to true Catholicism, hopes of discovering great riches, and opportunities to trade, and not with the efforts of skilled natural philosophers to document and conduct experiments on the wildlife of this continent. Nevertheless, the early descriptions by Europeans circulated, and during the next century these catfishes began to be used in experiments that helped to make animal electricity a reality.

  5. Singing Thy Sweet Radiance Encircling the Gem like World: A Comparative Study between Gerard Manley Hopkins and Rabindranath Tagore

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    Mohammad Kaosar Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabindranath Tagore, the first Nobel- Laureate in the Indian sub-continent journeyed all spheres of the domain of Bangla Literature in 19th century. His works are viewed in the West as spiritual and mercurial. On the other hand, Born in Victorian England and being influenced by the Oxford Movement, Hopkins decided to convert into restricted form of Catholicism, Jesuit life that made him culturally isolated. Despite having different religious and socio-cultural background their central philosophical concern is in most cases similar. Shading   light on their views about nature, devotion to God, spiritual agony, this article goes deep into their values and beliefs and makes an analogy between them.

  6. Estabilidad y Naufragio en el Devenir de la Sociedad Moderna

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    Héctor Fernando López Acero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutero se distancia del catolicismo y aglutina a los creyentes alrededor de la fe. Su interpretación de la verdad presiona, sin embargo, en dirección de la autonomía y de la libertad. Ello introduce a la humanidad en la búsqueda incesante de sí misma trasformando la estabilidad religiosa en un naufragio metafísico.Palabras Clave: Naufragio; estabilidad; fe; autonomía; pensar. Stability and Shipwreck Becoming of Modern SocietyAbstractLutero moves away from Catholicism and agglomerate the believers around faith. His interpretation of the truth pressed, however, in the direction of autonomy and freedom. This introduces humanity in the relentless pursuit of itself that transforms the religious stability in a metaphysical shipwreck.Keywords: Shipwreck; stability; faith; autonomy; to think.

  7. Religious construction of a first episode of psychosis in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redko, Cristina

    2003-12-01

    Religion plays an important role in the lives of people with psychosis. Based on fieldwork with 21 families living in poor neighborhoods of São Paulo, Brazil, this article examines how youth suffering a first episode of psychosis resort to religion for help (including, Catholicism, Pentecostalism, Candomblé, and Umbanda) and how this frames their experience of psychosis and that of their family members. For young people, the personal articulation of religious idioms and signifiers served to communicate, elaborate and transform their experience of psychosis. Family members resorted to religion as a source of healing, complementary to psychiatric treatment, as well as for personal relief and comfort. For youth, involvement with religion worked in both 'progressive' and 'regressive' ways, to improve and, at times, to diminish functioning and well-being.

  8. Globalization, New Age and Popular Religions:A digression from Sunrise Valley

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    Amurabi Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the religious movement “Valley of the Dawn” (Vale do Amanhecer  whose origins was in Brasília in the late 60s, through the articulation of elements of popular Catholicism, Kardecism, Umbanda and the New Age, as well as the use of signs drawn from various global contexts and used in a performative way. We understand that its formulation is given as an intense process of interaction between the global and the local, from references to popular religions in Brazil with the signs of the universe of the New Age, and from the use of performative and visual references to different cultures. Such articulation enables the creation of polysemous senses and meanings that constitute the identity of individuals who experience the sacred. Our considerations are brought from an ethnographic fieldwork conducted in São Lourenço da Mata and Recife.

  9. Niels Stensen: a 17th century scientist with a modern view of brain organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2013-07-01

    In 1665 the Danish scholar Niels Stensen (1638-1686) reached Paris, where he pronounced a discourse on brain anatomy that was to orient neuroscientists for years to come. In his lecture, Stensen rejected ancient speculations about animal spirits and criticized René Descartes and his followers who, despite a poor knowledge of brain anatomy, elaborated complex models to explain the multifaceted function of what he considered the principal organ of the human mind. He advocated the need for studying the brain through a comparative, developmental and pathological convergent approach and called for appropriate dissection methods and accurate illustrations. His own careful anatomical studies permitted him to precisely depict many brain structures. After pioneering works in paleontology and geology, he devoted himself to theology. In 1677 Stensen converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and, while working relentlessly as a bishop and apostolic vicar in Northern Europe, he died in self-imposed poverty at age 48.

  10. Dissecting modernist religion in Gottfried Keller’s Das verlorene Lachen

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    F. Hale

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the Enlightenment and heavily influenced by serious challenges in Biblical scholarship to conventional doctrines, various kinds of liberal theology emerged in European Protestantism of both the Reformed and Lutheran traditions. Within the Calvinist-Zwinglian churches of Switzerland, this came to expression in, inter alia, progressive religion which stood in marked contrast to confessional orthodoxy. The novelist Gottfried Keller had been influenced by the German atheistic philosopher Ludwig Feuerbach in the 1840s and shortly thereafter gained prominence as one of the most gifted Swiss writers of his era. In his novella “Das verlorene Lachen”, Keller systematically rejected confessional Reformed orthodoxy, liberal currents in the Reformed churches, Roman Catholicism and Protestant nonconformity as intellectually archaic and out of harmony with the democratic and egalitarian spirit of the times, either products of supporters or a stratified social system which he found unacceptable.

  11. "Dios es amor" en Guambiano o la forma de crear una nueva religión: la circulación de las prácticas rituales y las pertenencias étnicas

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    Juan Diego Demera Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the transformations of religious modernity, Latin American ethnic groups have not remained static to the attacks on the reconstructions of identity, the new ways to fi nd a sense in life, and the recent processes of conversion and evangelization. In the Colombian Andes, the Guambiano ethnic group has received the Protestant missionary’s infl uence, but also it has looked for diverse cultural, symbolic and religious contacts with them. A Pentecostal church from Brazil, with multiple mystical and magical resources, attracts the Guambiano’s interests, and through old Protestant believers it permits the religious manipulation of Catholicism, Protestantism and the indigenous religious practices with dialogue, superposition, and synthesis processes. This religious hybridation appears in an authentic ritual that remakes the concepts and the practices associated to the tradition, the transformation and the cultural memory of this ethnic group

  12. `Science to the Glory of God'. The Popular Science Magazine Ibérica and its Coverage of Radioactivity, 1914-1936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran, Néstor

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides a first approach to the history of Ibérica, one of the most important popular science magazines published in Spain before the Civil War. Founded in 1914 by members of the Society of Jesus based at the Ebro Observatory, Ibérica reached a weekly circulation of about 10,000 in the mid 1920s, and was instrumental in extending science education in Jesuit education facilities and in developing a "reactionary modernist" culture that embraced Catholicism and modernisation. By focusing on its coverage of radioactivity and the radium industry, the article aims to examine the magazine's popularising style and ideology, and to determine its role in the debates regarding the cultural value of science in the first decades of twentieth century Spain.

  13. Opulence and Simplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    in various positions of moral debt that one can more-or-less willingly work towards suspending. In Damascus, Syria, a popular Catholic ethic of simplicity often collides with clergy who appear to collect money for this-worldly purposes or for the sake of what is perceived as their own benefit. Lamentation...... over such perceived opulence attests to a tension between grace, gift, and debt. This chapter explores such tension in attending to how moral personhood is fashioned through various engagements with prayer, surrender, and debt. Where David Morgan has argued for a particular Catholic sacrificial economy...... (2009), wherein individuals are placed in charged relationships, this chapter examines the inherent tension between simplicity and opulence. Catholicism, it argues, may very well work by asserting a particular emphasis on the holy office that appear opulent, which necessitates a counter...

  14. From the Renaissance to the Modern World—Introduction

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    Peter Iver Kaufman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available On November 11 and 12, 2011, a symposium held at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill honored John M. Headley, Emeritus Professor of History. The organizers, Professor Melissa Bullard—Headley’s colleague in the department of history at that university—along with Professors Paul Grendler (University of Toronto and James Weiss (Boston College, as well as Nancy Gray Schoonmaker, coordinator of the Program in Medieval and Early Modern Studies—assembled presenters, respondents, and dozens of other participants from Western Europe and North America to celebrate the career of their prolific, versatile, and influential colleague whose publications challenged and often changed the ways scholars think about Martin Luther, Thomas More, the Habsburg empire, early modern Catholicism, globalization, and multiculturalism. [...

  15. Culture barbariche, modelli ecclesiastici, tradizione romana nell'Italia longobarda e franca Barbarian culture, ecclesiastical pattern, Roman tradition in the Lombard and Frankish Italy

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    Stefano Gasparri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Propone una sintesi aggiornata sui principali problemi politici, religiosi e culturali dell’Italia dei secoli VIII-IX: l’evoluzione della religiosità dei longobardi dall’arianesimo al progressivo inquadramento cattolico e la difficile integrazione tra longobardi e latini e franchi. Una attenzione particolare è rivolta ai longobardi dell’Italia meridionale.

    This study offers an updated synthesis of the main political, religious and cultural issues in 8th and 9th century Italy. In particular, it examines the progressive transition of the Longobard religious faith from Arianism to Catholicism, and the troubled integration of Lombards, Latins and Franks. Special attention is paid to Lombards’ riots in southern Italy.

  16. Hilpoltstein at Johann Christoph Sturm's times (German Title: Hilpoltstein zu Zeiten Johann Christoph Sturms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Kai Thomas

    After an overview on the foundations of research, the conditions inside the town of Hilpoltstein in the first half of the 17th century are described. Since Hilpoltstein was situated at the road from Nuremberg to Munich, and thus at one of the most important north-south trading routes of medieval times, the town florished in economic terms at the beginning of the 17th century. Afterwards, however, the inhabitants had to suffer religious troubles, since the count palatine Wolfgang Wilhelm converted to catholicism. We collect the traces of the Sturm family in Hilpoltstein that still exist today, and complete the picture by giving an overview of the architectural, commercial and social conditions of those times.

  17. À esquerda da tradição / To the left of tradition

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    Wellington Teodoro da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O movimento conhecido como esquerda católica organizou-se ao entorno de três eixos: 1 a consciência histórica e a consciência da história; 2 a revolução cristã e 3 a fidelidade à grande tradição. Este artigo trata deste último eixo que constitui o empenho desse movimento em mostrar-se como o fiel intérprete da longuíssima tradição do catolicismoromano. / The movement known as Catholic Left is organized around three axes: 1 the historical consciousness and the awareness of history, 2 the Christian revolution and 3 the loyalty to the great tradition. This article deals with this last axis, which constitutes the commitment of this movement to show itself as the faithful interpreter of the very longtradition of Roman Catholicism.

  18. Religion and Cultural Identity in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and the Musical Works it Inspired

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    Bottez Alina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protean Shakespeare thrives not only in the theatre, but also through what Bolter and Grusin call remediation. This article analyses the religious stances in the play and then shows how opera, symphony and musical have been adapting the veteran Elizabethan drama since the 18th century. Its main approach is comparative and relies on the history of mentalities. Adaptation is dictated by cultural context, the conventions of the lyrical theatre, social and political factors, and reception. The confusing religious configuration of Shakespeare’s England is reinterpreted kaleidoscopically. The article demonstrates, for instance, that Berlioz and Gounod reread it according to staunch Catholicism in 19th century France, while Bernstein’s West Side Story moves the action to New York in the mid- 50’s, the Capulets and Montagues are replaced with rival Polish and Puerto Rican gangs and religion with cultural identity.

  19. Evangelization, media and marketing: provocation to debate

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    Afonso Tadeu Murad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a reflection on the relationship between evangelization, media and marketing, especially in Catholic circles. In the first part, we present the six dimensions of Christian religious experience that are part of evangelization: mystical, ritual, ethics, Cognitive (intellectual, communal and missionary. The article also shows that these dimensions come in different concentration on multiple agents acting in religious media. In the second part, serving up the contribution of science of media and marketing, the article outlines the basic concepts of Media, market and marketing, revealing the relationship of autonomy and interdependence between them. Finally, the text reflects on the possibilities and risks of evangelization in the mainstream media as well as social media. It denounces the misconceptions of "media Catholicism," the reduction of evangelization to the sale of a religious product and a brand. It justifies the use of the media to spread the gospel, founded on values and on dialogue with the great human questions.

  20. Religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette

    2012-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.

  1. La nuova qualificazione dei docenti di religione: note a margine del D.P.R. n. 175 del 2012

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    Simona Attollino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, è destinato alla pubblicazione negli atti del Convegno nazionale ADEC "Insegnamenti e insegnanti di religione nella scuola pubblica italiana" (Catanzaro, 25-27 ottobre 2012. SOMMARIO: 1. Il piano dei diritti: incompiute acquisizioni giurisprudenziali - 2. La qualificazione professionale dei docenti alla luce del D.P.R. n. 175 del 20 agosto 2012 - 3. Verso l’accentuazione del carattere culturale dell’I.R.C. - 4. L’ermeneutica del pluralismo sociale: un’offerta formativa aperta. ABSTRACT This essay regards the new professional status of teacher's religion in public school, in the light of juridical discipline approved in 2012. It analyses the rules as well as the abundant case-law in this field, underling the trend that considers the cultural value of catholicism teaching in public school in respect to the context of religious and social pluralism.

  2. EVOLUTION IN SCHOOL: REGENERATION OF THE LIBERAL REPUBLIC (1880-1930

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    Leonardo Tovar Bernal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to clarify, based on the analysis of some representative texts from the time, the way that the evolution´s notions were materialized on classroom during the conservative dominance of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, before liberalism took power again in 1930. It is not a definitive study; much less, intended to exhaust the topic. It describes a scene about the reaction, not infrequently acrimonious, that evolution and those explanations did not contemplate the divine idea faced within education profoundly affected by Catholic dogma. It also tries to explain the convoluted situation of this case, therefore, although the dominance of notions influenced by Catholicism, there was a small space for those lessons solved to the evolution, as well as others that conjugated elements of both, which is to show a problematic situation, in which the religious feud was not absolute.

  3. The role of Vatican in disintegrating of Yugoslavia

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    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance of Vatican primarily toward Serbs and afterwards towards Serbian state has long enduring history. This history got new impetus after the forming of Congregation for the religious propaganda. Vatican led policy against the forming of first Yugoslavia between the World Wars and worked on its destabilization especially after the forming of catholic organization named the Cruisers. During the II WW Vatican took full cooperation with Ustashi’s Independent State of Croatia. During this period Catholic church headed by the Holy Chair approved mass introduction into Catholicism of Serbs and their mass killing that became real genocide in scope. In last crisis during the nineties Vatican gave full help in disintegration of Yugoslavia in order to make easier proselytism on the East.

  4. CATHOLICS, MUSLIMS, AND GLOBAL POLITICS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

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    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of Catholics, Muslims, and civic associations in the global politics of the Philippines and Indonesia. The two countries have shared in common with regard to the geographical feature (both are archipelagic countries, the diversity of societies and cultures, and the history of colonialism, dictatorship, ethno-religious violence, and political movement, to name but a few. In addition to their similarities, both countries also have significant differences in particular pertaining to religious dominance (the Philippines dominated by Catholicism, while Indonesia by Islam and the structure of their societies: while the Philippines is a class-stratified society, Indonesia has long been ideologized by colonial and post-colonial religious and political powers. Apart from their parallels and distinctions, religion—both Catholicism and Islam—has marvellous role, negatively or positively, in global politics and public cultures, indicating its vigor and survival in global political domains. This comparative paper, more specifically, examines the historical dynamics of the interplay between religion, civil society, and political activism by using the Philippines and Indonesia as a case study and point of analysis.[Artikel ini mendiskusikan peran Katolik, Muslim dan asosiasi warga dalam politik global di dua negara; Indonesia dan Filipina. Kedua negara tersebut memiliki kesamaan, baik dalam hal ciri geografis sebagai negara kepulauan, keragaman masyarakat dan budayanya, sejarah kolonialisme, pemerintahan diktator, kekerasan etnik-agama, serta gerakan keagamaan. Terlepas dari kesamaan tersebut, keduanya memiliki perbedaan, utamanya menyangkut agama dominan (di Filipina didominasi oleh Katolik, sementara di Indonesia oleh Islam dan struktur masyarakatnya (Filipina ditandai dengan stratifikasi masyarakat berdasarkan klas sosial, sementara di Indonesia ditandai dengan ideologi agama kolonial, paska-kolonial, politik. Terlepas

  5. Modernism and catholic political doctrine

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    Henry T. Sardaryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the perception of Modernism by the Catholic Church as a movement within the clerical structure and philosophy that existed during the 19-20th centuries in the framework of general skepticism and rejection of tradition, prioritization of individualism, formal equality, faith in inevitability of social, scientific and technological progress, rationalization and professionalization. A distinctive feature of this movement is the participation of the priests themselves, especially in France and Italy. The object of research is the Catholic political doctrine during the pontificate of Pius X. Modernist movement in Catholicism, in opinion of many scientists had a decisive impact on the reform direction during the Second Vatican Council, but on closer study of the discourse that took place in the late 19th - early 20th centuries, it becomes obvious that this is not true. The focus of the article is the political doctrine of Catholicism - the issue of state political structure, its relationship with church institutions, status of the individual in societyc. In this regard, the modernists gave priority to necessity of secularization and complete separation of secular and spiritual power. In the article different scientifical methods, ave used such as dialectical, logical, comparative, systematic. The main conclusion of the author is that modernism should be regarded as an unsuccessful attempt to reform the Catholic Church that could have lead to its another schism, rather than a route towards the Second Vatican Council. The desire to change the structure, methods of church mission, its hierarchy and a number of other formal elements – was implemented by church itself for multiple times before. However, revision of the foundations of Christian ethics and its ontology, including its political doctrine, ran into resistance of the Holy See, causing, in essence, a rhetorical question - whether scientific and technical progress should

  6. El concilio Vaticano II y su impacto en el campo episcopal argentino The Second Vatican Council and its impact on argentinian Episcopal field

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    Paulo Margaria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca explorar el impacto que tuvo el Concilio Vaticano II en la Iglesia Católica Argentina, haciendo especial hincapié en el campo de los obispos, desde una perspectiva socio-religiosa que pretende dar cuenta de la complejidad del campo católico. Para ello nos parece adecuado utilizar la noción de "campo" en términos bourdianos. Consideramos que hablar de "campo religioso" nos permite concebir el catolicismo como un espacio social dinámico y atravesado por constantes conflictos y luchas llevadas a cabo por grupos de agentes que intentan dominar dicho campo. Esto nos permitirá caracterizar las diversas posturas que el Concilio acentuará en el catolicismo argentino, actuando de este modo como un propulsor y legitimador de reflexiones y conflictos que existían previamente.This article examines the impact that Second Vatican Council had on argentinian Catholic Church, with special emphasis on the Bishops field, from a socio-religious perspective that seeks to explain the complexity of Catholic field. Therefore, it seems appropriate to use the Pierre Bourdieu's notion of "field". We believe that talk about "religious field" allows us to conceive Catholicism as a dynamic social space spanned by constant conflicts and struggles carried out by groups of agents who tried to dominate the field. Again, this allows us to characterize the positions that the Council emphasized in the Argentine Catholicism, acting as a propellant and legitimizing ideas and conflicts that existed previously.

  7. Narrativas biográficas: a construção da identidade espírita no Brasil e sua fragmentação

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    Sandra Jacqueline Stoll

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A BIOGRAFIA de dois médiuns brasileiros - Chico Xavier e Luiz Antonio Gasparetto -, constitui o objeto de reflexão deste artigo, que tem como propósito rever as relações construídas pelo espiritismo no campo religioso brasileiro, salientando, em especial, os diálogos estabelecidos com a religião hegemônica no país, o catolicismo e, mais recentemente, com o universo da chamada "Nova Era". Na trajetória dos personagens em questão, o catolicismo ocupa lugar central: no caso de Chico Xavier como matriz de reinterpretação da doutrina espírita; no caso de Luiz Antonio Gasparetto, como alvo de crítica. Essas duas biografias caracterizam, portanto, momentos distintos da história do espiritismo no Brasil. Ao mesmo tempo, a convivência desses dois modelos evidencia modos concorrentes de sua expressão contemporânea no país.THE BIOGRAPHY of two Brazilian psychics - Spiritist channelers Chico Xavier and Luiz Antonio Gasparetto - is this essay's object of thought, a review of the relationships created by Spiritism in the Brazilian religious milieu, stressing in particular the dialogue with the country's hegemonic religion, Catholicism, and, more recently, with the universe of the so-called New Age. In the life history of the two mediums, Catholicism plays a central role: for Chico Xavier as a matrix to reinterpret the Spiritist doctrine; for Luiz Antonio Gasparetto, as an object of criticism. The two biographies, therefore, characterize distinct moments in the history of Spiritism in Brazil. At the same time, the simultaneous existence of both models evinces competing modes of their contemporary expression in Brazil.

  8. Reconciling religious identity and reproductive practices: the Church and contraception in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Dannefer, Rachel

    2010-08-01

    After the fall of state socialism in Poland in 1989, a Catholic-nationalist government assumed power. The new political power of the Catholic Church resulted in severe restrictions on family planning (FP) services. Yet, Poland's fertility rate declined sharply, suggesting that women are controlling their fertility despite restrictions. This study examined the Church's influence on women's contraceptive decisions, and how women reconcile religious teachings with their contraceptive use. We conducted a mixed-methods study, including a cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews, in Gdańsk, Poland with sexually active women aged 18-40. The quantitative sample included 418 respondents; the qualitative sample included 49 respondents. Despite restrictions on FP services, modern contraceptive use among our sample was 56%, up from 19% in 1991. Catholicism played a relatively small role in respondents' contraceptive decisions; though 94.2% of respondents were Catholic, 79% reported that the Church had little or no influence on reproductive decisions. Women's explanations for how they reconcile their reproductive practices with Catholicism included using elements of religion to support contraceptive use, prioritising responsibility for family and financial considerations over the Church's prohibitions, and challenging the Church's credibility in FP matters. Our findings underscore women's struggles under post-socialist reproductive policies that limit FP access. Despite religious, political, and economic obstacles, contraceptive use has increased dramatically, indicating that FP is a high priority for women in Poland. Policies should respond to women's needs. Comprehensive, state-sponsored FP and sex education are urgently needed and the state should legitimise such services.

  9. Catolicismo social: porvenir de una tradición en crisis

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    Eduardo Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Como cierre prospectivo de un coloquio dedicado al catolicismo social, este artículo reconoce, en su primera parte, la crisis del discurso social de la Iglesia. Crisis no solo actual, sino también en el origen e historia de una tradición que se estima es uno de los antecedentes de la renovación conciliar, que en su diálogo con el mundo invita a la entrada del tiempo en la teología y en la ética. El porvenir de esta tradición en crisis requiere del recurso a la razón filosófica y a la realidad histórica. Por ello en la segunda parte se recogen los aportes de la filosofía política de Paúl Ricoeury de Charles Taylor en tres asuntos claves: lo bueno respecto de lo justo, el holismo frente al atomismo, los derechos colectivos frente a la exclusividad de los derechos individuales. Finalmente, en la tercera parte recogiendo su legado y estos debates filosóficos se reflexiona sobre el aporte del catolicismo social latinoamericano a un continente en el que los procesos de mercantilización, despolitización e individualismo, que acompañan esta modernidad tardía globalizada, amenazan con la disolución de nuestras comunidades históricas en sociedades sin atributos y sin identidad cultural. Las tradiciones vivas del continente, seculares y religiosas, y entre ellas el catolicismo, son el mayor recurso para enfrentar este desafío que suma a la cuestión social el de la cuestión liberal.As a closing perspective at a colloquium dedicated to Social Catholicism, this article recognizes, in the first section, the crisis in the social discourse of the Church. This crisis is not exclusively a present reality, but is also found in the origins and history of a tradition that is considered to be one of the precedents to conciliar renewal, which in its dialogue with the world invites modern times into theology and ethics. The future of this tradition in crisis demands recourse to philosophical reason and historical reality. So, in the second part

  10. Las nuevas armas del “enemigo”. Los tradicionalistas católicos argentinos y su “cruzada” contra los derechos humanos durante el “Proceso de Reorganización Nacional” (1976-1983

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    Cersósimo, Facundo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Durante los primeros años del “Proceso de Reorganización Nacional” (1976-1983 un sector del catolicismo argentino, los tradicionalistas católicos, emprendieron una “cruzada” condenatoria contra las denuncias sobre violaciones a los derechos humanos que se estaban cometiendo desde el Estado. Este sector del catolicismo, el más comprometido con los métodos represivos clandestinos, consideraba que los derechos humanos representaban una nueva arma de la “subversión” para debilitar y desprestigiar la imagen de la Junta Militar en el exterior. A partir de analizar dos coyunturas particulares de aquellos años –el documento redactado por la Conferencia Episcopal Argentina en mayo de 1977 y el Mundial de Fútbol del año siguiente– el presente trabajo intentará dar cuenta de las posturas adoptadas por los grupos laicos y por los obispos tradicionalistas en torno a las denuncias de las violaciones a los derechos humanos, además de mostrar las tensiones al interior del Episcopado católico ante sus primeros pronunciamientos acerca de la temática. Abstract During the early years of the "National Reorganization Process" (1976-1983 a sector of the argentine Catholicism, the catholic traditionalists, undertook a damning "crusade" against allegations about the human rights violations that were being committed by the State. This sector of the Catholicism, the more committed with clandestine repressive methods, believed that human rights represented a new weapon of "subversion" to debilitate and discredit the image of the Military Board abroad. Starting from analyzing two particular junctures of those years -the document prepared by the Episcopal Conference of Argentina in May 1977 and the World Cup next year- this paper will attempt to show the positions taken by the catholic groups and the traditionalist bishops around allegations of human rights violations, and also will show the tensions within the interior of catholic

  11. УЧАСТЬ ПРЕДСТАВНИКІВ РИМО-КАТОЛИЦЬКОГО КЛІРУ ПРАВОБЕРЕЖНОЇ УКРАЇНИ В РЕВОЛЮЦІЙНО-ДЕМОКРАТИЧНИХ ТА ЛІБЕРАЛЬНИХ ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯХ у другій половині XIX — на початку XX ст.

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    Ю. В. Хитровська

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is deep analysis the problem of the participation of the Rome-Catholic clergy on the Right-Bank Ukraine in the liberal and revolutionary-democratic movements in the second half of the 19th — in the beginning of the 20 th ct. For the investigating this problem author used scientific literature and archives documents. At the end of 18th — in the early 19th ct. the top of Roman-Catholic Church, despite the significant differences in the ideology of Catholicism and Freemasonry, went to the rapprochement with Poland Masons of political reasons — the struggle for independence of the Commonwealth. This was due to the inevitability of secularization of land ownership and the establishment of the «Latin» church of the same administrative control by the imperial government, under which long ago was the Russian Orthodox Church. In this historical period, the Polish elite largely relied on Masonic organization guided exclusively patriotic aspirations to revive the Great Poland. For the Polish secret societies support the Roman-Catholic Church was a significant factor on the eve of the uprising against Russia in 1830 –1831, they were preparing hard, since Catholicism had significant ideological influence on a significant part of the Right-Bank Ukraine. This goal subordinated forces formed at the beginning of 19th ct. in Right-Bank Ukraine in the Polish secret societies and Masonic lodges and local Roman-Catholic clergy. As the evidence archival documents, they continued their work in the middle of 19th — in the early 20th ct., especially before and during the uprising against autocracy in 1863–1864 years, achieving the overthrow of the Russian monarchy. However, part of the Roman-Catholic clergy in this process was somewhat more modest than in the beginning 19th ct., which was caused by the tsarist government holding tight against church policy of the Roman-Catholic Church, including the Right-bank Ukraine.

  12. Tendências católicas: perspectivas do cristianismo da libertação Catholic tendencies: perspectives of the freedom cristianism

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    Flávio Munhoz Sofiati

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto analisa as diferentes vertentes da Igreja Católica no Brasil, apresentando-as a partir de teóricos da própria Igreja das ciências sociais. Em seguida, discute-se a tendência ligada à Teologia da Libertação, chamada de Cristianismo da Libertação. Afirma-se que o conceito de “Tendências Internas do Catolicismo” é mais apropriado para compreender os processos internos do catolicismo e que, atualmente, a Teologia da Libertação vem perdendo espaço no cenário religioso. Isso ocorre em virtude de questões internas – como o fortalecimento do movimento carismático – e externas – como o advento do neoliberalismo. Diante dessa situação, esse segmento assume uma nova postura de atuação, que tem como idéia central a construção de mudanças “de baixo para cima” e em longo prazo. Conclui-se que houve um recuo programático dessa tendência que passa a priorizar sua ação no interior da Igreja e a valorizar temas como espiritualidade, ecologia e cultura em detrimento da dimensão política. Palavras-chaves: Sociologia da Religião. Catolicismo. Tendências católicas. Teologia da libertação. The text analyzes different aspects of the Catholic Church in Brazil, presenting them through theories of the church, from social sciences. After that there is a discussion about the tendency connected to the Theory of Freedom, so called “Freedom Cristianism”. It is said that the concept of “Inner Theories of Catholicism” is more appropriate to understand the inner processes of the Catholicism and that, nowadays, the Freedom Theory has been loosing space inside the religious scenery. This occurs due to inner reasons – such as the growing strength of the charismatic movement – and also due to external reasons – as the ascending of Neoliberalism. With that, this segment gets to a new posture of action which has as central idea the“from down to up” changes, during long terms. After all, there is the

  13. LGBT movement's legal strategies and the christian social movement reaction in Colombia

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    Lina Malagón Penen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 several organizations of the Colombian LGBT movement have been implementing a constitutional impact litigation strategy in order to obtain legal equality. The objective of this paper is to show how the case law from the Constitutional Court, in response to this activity, has on the one hand invigorated public participation in the debate about homosexual couples’ rights but, on the other hand, produced a democratic deficit. In particular, the paper discusses the strengthening of a religious countermovement willing to use human rights law to defend the status quo. The road to democratization was clouded by intransigent and fundamentalist Catholicism taking over one of the most important authorities of the State, the Office of the Inspector General of Colombia (Procuraduría General de la Nación. This situation has resulted in a powerful public authority committing its resources to the goal of avoiding recognition and protection of homosexual couples rights, despite the fact that its mandate is to defend people's fundamental rights and to punish offenses committed by public officers.

  14. CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING AND THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN UNION

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    Tiberiu Brailean

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many papal encyclicals were not directly concerned about the appearance of European Union due to many historical, political and social contexts. The fundamental principles developed through several encyclicals from early 19th century to the present day reaffirmed the neutrality of the Church regarding to many forms of government. But the most important idea has its root in the restoration of the Christian principles in society. In a time of de-Christianization and secularism, the role of Church as the foundation of peace is also important to notice. It was considered that every modern democracy is the image of the revealed heart of the universal law of charity (Jacques Maritain. That is why between a supranational entity like the European Union and the Catholic Church should be a friendly and close relationship. A unite Europe has its roots in Christianity, especially in Catholicism. The soul of Europe is animated by religious principles. Whether we talk about Schuman or Adenauer, their Christian faith is the engine for their political success. After the Second World War, in Western Europe, the Christian democratic parties had a huge impact for the democratic governance. The socio-economic policies of these parties were anchored in Catholic social teaching.

  15. The Construction of the Francoist Imaginary and the “Popular” Religiosity, 1931-1945 | La construcción de los imaginarios franquistas y la religiosidad “popular”, 1931-1945

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    César Rina Simón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The festivities associated with “popular” religiosity play an important role through the representation of symbols, discourses, and social identities that were used by de the different ideological factions to their own convenience. National Catholicism used these rituals and religious contexts to legitimize the dictatorship in accordance with divine principles. Francoist imaginary focuses on appropriating and redefining the symbols associated with “popular” religiosity, from a purifying ecclesiastical perspective or fascist rhetoric. | Las celebraciones vinculadas a la religiosidad “popular”, como manifestaciones de fuerte arraigo en la comunidad, desempeñan una relevante función en la articulación de símbolos, discursos e identidades sociales, susceptibles de presentar diferentes lecturas ideológicas. El nacionalcatolicismo se valió de este conjunto de rituales y creencias para legitimar la dictadura en principios supraterrenales. Los imaginarios franquistas pugnaron por la apropiación y resignificación de los símbolos relacionados con la religiosidad “popular”, bien desde una perspectiva eclesiástica purificadora o bien desde una praxis fascista.

  16. A Santería/Palo Mayombe ritual cauldron containing a human skull and multiple artifacts recovered in western Massachusetts, U.S.A.

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    Pokines, James T

    2015-03-01

    Santería and Palo Mayombe are West African-derived religions/sects with components of Catholicism, and both involve the ritual use of nonhuman skeletal remains which make them an increasing object of forensic interest. Palo Mayombe specifically involves also the use of human skeletal remains placed within ritual cauldrons or ngangas along with multiple ritual artifacts. A case of a nganga recovered from a periodically drained canal in Western Massachusetts, U.S.A. is presented. This nganga contained multiple items indicating its origin, including railroad spikes, coins, other metal objects, a stone, a glass bead, and multiple labeled and unlabeled sticks and was associated with a knife. It also contained skeletal remains of a bird and a snake as well as a nearly intact human skull of an adult male. The origin of the human remains is likely from a cemetery or as a former anatomical specimen. The find of this nganga is atypical in that it is away from the usual urban centers of Palo Mayombe in the U.S.A., and forensic practitioners should be aware that such sources of human remains may occur in their jurisdictions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. La revisión del concordato de 1953: la reunión entre Casaroli y López Rodó (noviembre de 1973

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    Martín de Santa Olalla Saludes, Pablo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Council Vatican II was a decisive effort to change the relation between the Catholic Church and the State in Spain. The Concordat of 1953, that was the juridic marc for the regulation of the relation of the Catholicism and Franco's Regime, had to be renegociated after been left in an anacronic situation. As both powers were in a growing conflict, the designation of Laureano López Rodó for the ministery of Foreign Affairs made possible the celebration of a first meeting after the defeat of Anteproyecto Casaroli-Garrigues inl971, February.El Concilio Vaticano II constituyó un impulso decisivo para la transformación de la relación Iglesia-Estado en España. El Concordato de 1953, que era el marco jurídico que regulaba la relación entre el catolicismo y el Régimen de Franco, hubo de ser renegociado al haber quedado anacrónico. Ante una creciente tensión entre ambos poderes, la llegada al ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores de Laureano López Rodó hizo posible la celebración de un primer encuentro tras el fracaso del llamado Anteproyecto Casaroli-Garrigues en febrero de 1971.

  18. Naturaleza, religión y cultura tradicional: Un ensayo sobre el pensamiento rústico

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    Calavia Sáez, Óscar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the natural elements in the religious lore of La Rioja, in northern Spain: mainly trees, bulls and bees in myth and ritual. It stresses their sociological and cosmological meanings: patterns of kinship, marriage and group identity, ideas about gender, body and ultimately «nature». Furthermore, it this study proposes on implicit «rustic mind», contemporary wilt but apart from Christian taught (not a mere survival of the past and discusses the role of this «mind» in the history of Spanish Catholicism.Los elementos naturales presentes en el folklore religioso de La Rioja, en el norte de España, árboles, toros y abejas, en primer plano, son analizados en este estudio en sus componentes sociológicos (las ideas que reflejan sobre consanguinidad, alianza e identidad de grupo y organizados en una sucinta cosmología, que incluye nociones sobre el cuerpo, los géneros y la propia «naturaleza». Se explora la virtualidad de un «pensamiento rústico», diferente del cristianismo pero contemporáneo suyo (no una mera supervivencia del pasado y el lugar que ocupa en la historia del catolicismo español.

  19. The Catholic Bishops in the U.S. Public Arena: Changing Prospects under Pope Francis

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    Richard L. Wood

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The public profile of the Roman Catholic bishops of the United States results not simply from their own interventions in political life, but from the broad array of actions and actors within “public Catholicism” broadly conceived. This article assesses the contemporary profile of the American bishops from this broad angle, particularly in light of new dynamics under the papacy of Francis I. It does so by documenting public Catholicism’s presence in ecclesial institutions, other public institutions, and lay-centered social movements (particularly faith-based community organizing and via a case study of the healthcare reform debate around the State Children’s Health Insurance Program and the Affordable Care Act. Cultural and institutional factors shaping Catholic public presence are analyzed in three dimensions of social life: institutional leadership; authority dynamics within the Church; and the culture of prayer, spirituality, and worship in parishes. Finally, the conclusion discusses the key dynamics likely to shape the future of public Catholicism in America.

  20. Populismo municipal y nacionalcatolicismo en la Valencia del general Primo de Rivera: el marqués de Sotelo (1923-1930 = Populism and Municipal Propaganda in Valencia during Primo de Rivera’s Dictatorship: the Marquis of Sotelo (1923-1930.

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    Julio López Iñíguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende explicar las principales características políticas del régimen de Primo de Rivera en la ciudad de Valencia. Desde un análisis de la política municipal, el populismo y la publicidad de la construcción de obras públicas se presentan como los principales pilares para la consolidación del régimen en Valencia. La praxis política del marqués de Sotelo supuso para la ciudad el primer contacto con el nacionalcatolicismo. La figura de este alcalde, además, ocupa buena parte del texto al ser un fiel exponente de las prácticas políticas nacidas tras el golpe de septiembre de 1923.This paper aims to explain the main features of the political regime of Primo de Rivera in the city of Valencia. From an analysis of municipal politics, populism and advertising public works construction are presented as the main supports for the consolidation of the regime in Valencia. The political praxis of the Marquis of Sotelo assumed for the city’s first contact with the National Catholicism. The figure of the mayor, also occupies much of the text to be a faithful exponent of political practices born after the September 1923 coup.

  1. In search of the Holy Presence of the Blessed Mary in Tolkien’s Middle-earth

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    Farid Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the Catholic framework in J.R.R. Tolkien’s legendarium has long been the subject of debate. Various Tolkien scholars and literary critics have already written different critical interpretations to consider whether to assign The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion to Christian Mythology or not; numerous attempts have been made to clarify this statement. Therefore, the reasons, why it should be included in this category are many and various. There are several examples in Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings that can be studied in relation to Christian themes and motives. Consequently, the aims of this paper are to study the possible similarities of Varda, Queen of the Stars, and Galadriel, the Lady of Light, to the Blessed Virgin Mary in Christian contexts. Moreover, to study the influence of Tolkien’s strong faith, which shaped his Catholic imagination, all through his legendarium, and subsequently leads us to observe Tolkien’s complete obedience to Catholicism, and especially, his profound devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

  2. Does the end justify the means? Blessed Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn about Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky’s proceedings in the religious and national fields

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    Osadczy Włodzimierz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century the Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky and the Blessed Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn represented two ways of the development of the Uniate Church in Galicia, and later in Western Lesser Poland. The Metropolitan Archbishop from Lvov was obsessed with the idea to impose Catholicism in Russia. To achieve this he was ready to take the most desperate steps – to merge the Uniate tradition with the Orthodox tradition, to reconcile with different political forces, which was recorded in his letter to the Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Hitler, and Stalin. In order to get more support from the Ukrainian people, he completely ignored the spread of outrageous nationalism. Such position was strongly criticized by Hryhoriy Khomyshyn, the Bishop of Stanyslaviv, whose main purpose was to preserve the original Uniate rituals reflecting the integral unity with the Western Latin civilization. Being devoted to his beliefs, Greek Catholic Archbishop mercilessly condemned nationalism and de-Christian social life of the Ukrainian Uniate community. Those problems are the focus of attention of the book “Two Kingdoms” by Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn, published in Ukrainian in 2016, translated into Polish in 2017.

  3. Compassion and the Creation of an Affective Community in the Theatre: Vondel’s Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646

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    Kristine Steenbergh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joost van den Vondel’s tragedy Mary Stuart, or Martyred Majesty (1646, written after the playwright’s conversion to Catholicism, has been read as a provocative glorification of a Catholic martyr. Kristine Steenbergh argues that the play’s emotional poetics aim at the creation of an affective community of Protestants and Catholics in the theatre. Through the contagious bodily experience of fear and compassion with the Queen of Scots, Vondel intended to school the audience’s emotions and foster religious tolerance in the context of the peace negotiations that would eventually lead to the end of the Eighty Years’ War. Compassie en de vorming van een affectieve gemeenschap in het theater. Vondels Maria Stuart of gemartelde majesteit (1646Vondels tragedie Maria Stuart of gemartelde majesteit (1646 wordt vaak gelezen als een provocatieve verheerlijking van een katholieke martelares. Kristine Steenbergh laat zien dat de emotionele poëtica van het stuk erop gericht was om binnen de schouwburg een affectieve gemeenschap van protestanten en katholieken te vormen. Door de lichamelijke werking van  angst en compassie wilde Vondel de emoties van het publiek trainen om op die manier religieuze tolerantie te bevorderen in de context van de vredesbesprekingen die uiteindelijk zouden leiden tot het einde van de Tachtigjarige Oorlog.

  4. Las políticas del Instituto de Cultura Hispánica. 1947-1953

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    Antonio Cañellas Mas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Cultura Hispánica respondió al interés por retomar el diálogo con los países iberoamericanos desde una óptica cultural aparentemente desideologizada, pero que por su interpretación esencialista de la historia hispánica generaría una teología política propia, ligada a las pautas del tradicionalismo católico. Con ello se definiría el contenido y actividad del Instituto en todos los ámbitos posibles, para inaugurar –dentro del bloque occidental– una auténtica Comunidad Hispánica de Naciones, fundada en esos principios que aspiraba a liderar España en su objetivo por superar el bloqueo diplomático.Palabras clave: hispanidad, tradicionalismo, cultura, diplomacia.________________________Abstract:The Instituto de Cultura Hispánica responded to the interest in reinitiating a dialogue with the Iberoamerican Countries. This dialogue will be engaged from a cultural perspective that is apparently ideologized, but still, due to its essentialist interpretation of hispanic history, it will generate a political theology related to traditional Catholicism. This will define the Institute’s content and activity in all possible areas, with the aim of opening an authentic Hispanic Community of Nations within the Western bloc, a community founded on those principles that Spain once aspired to overcome the diplomatic blockade.Keywords: Spanishness, traditionalism, culture, diplomacy.

  5. [Moyse Charas, apothecary and medical doctor (Uzés 1619 - Paris 1698)].

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    Felix, Fred W

    2002-01-01

    Some new information, based on many unedited documents is presented, in order to complete the biography of Moyse Charas, as published in this revue by Dorveaux (1929) and Bouvet (1949). The origin of the protestant family Charas lies in Pont-Saint-Espirt, from where the parents of Moyse Charas, passing Uzés, moved to Orange, where he took up the profession of apothecary and was declared Master by Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. Later, in Paris, he had contacts with the Dutch diplomat Constantijn Huygens and his son, the scientist Christiaan Huygens, and with the English physician and philosopher John Locke. After shorter visits to London and the Royal Society he lived there for a certain time, being called to contribute to cure King Charles II. He revisited Orange to get his promotion as a doctor of medicine. After having practised for some time in Holland he went to Spain for five years, as a physician of the embassy of the States General in Madrid and later in Galice. The last six months he suffered imprisonment by the Inquisition. Liberated after his conversion to Catholicism, he could finally return to Paris.

  6. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

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    Sallam, H N; Sallam, N H

    2016-03-28

    Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi'a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction.

  7. The Behavior of Stock Prices during Lent and Advent

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    Ramona DUMITRIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The religious practices generate some important calendar effects on the stock markets evolutions. This paper explores the impact on stock markets of two periods from the Catholic Church Calendar, Advent and Lent, for the period January 2009 � May 2017. We employ as data the closing daily values of stock exchanges indexes from five countries where the main religion is the Roman Catholicism: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Hungary and Mexico. The sample of data used in the investigation is divided in two sub � samples: the first, from January 2009 to December 2012, covers a period when international stock market recovered after the 2007 � 2008 crisis, while the second sub � sample, from January 2013 to May 2017, corresponds, at a global scale, to a relative normal period. We employ GARCH models to reveal the impact of the Advent and Lent on the prices returns and volatility. For the first sub-sample we found no effect on returns but a decline in volatility during Advent for all the five indexes and during Lent only for the stock market from Brazil. For the second sub-sample the results indicate a decline in returns during Advent, for the stock markets from Argentina and Chile, but no impact on volatility. Such results could be explained by the circumstances specific to the religious practices but also by the inference of other calendar effects.

  8. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

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    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  9. The Uses and Abuses of Censorship: God, Ireland and the Battle to Extend Censorship Post 1929

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    Anthony Keating

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The passage of the 1929 Censorship of Publications Act marked a significant development for the inclusion of Irish Catholic teaching into the Free State’s legal system. Notwithstanding this, many on the fundamentalist wing of Irish Catholicism felt let down by the scope of the Act. Censorship, under the Act, was limited to issues of sex, sexual morality, contraception and abortion and excluded attacks on the Catholic faith and the denial of God, all of which were viewed as blasphemy, and therefore the legitimate focus of censorship, by many of those who had lobbied for the extension of censorship. The Catholic Truth Society of Ireland (CTSI was in the vanguard of lobbying for the introduction of the 1929 Act and played the leading role in its policing. The CTSI was unstinting in its efforts to officially and surreptitiously extend censorship. This article traces the correspondence of the CTSI with politicians, the Catholic hierarchy and a leading print distributor, in order to demonstrate how the organization sought to extend literary censorship to encompass blasphemy, through the application of moral, economic and political pressure. A campaign that had at its heart the desire to control the actions and thoughts of the Irish people.

  10. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

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    Gilad Be'ery

    Full Text Available Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism. We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1, American Jews (study 2, and American Catholics (study 3. The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated.

  11. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, William E.

    Galileo's understanding of the relationship between science and the Bible has frequently been celebrated as anticipating a modern distinction between the essentially religious nature of scripture and the claims of the natural sciences. Galileo's reference to the remarks of Cardinal Baronius, that the Bible teaches one how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go, has been seem as emblematic of his commitment to the distinction between the Book of Nature and the Book of Scripture. This essay argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo shares with the theologians of the Inquisition the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation: principles which include traditional scriptural hermeneutics enunciated by Augustine and Aquinas, as well as those characteristic of Counter-Reformation Catholicism. Although Galileo argues that one should not begin with biblical passages in order to discover truths about nature, he does think that the Bible contains scientific truths and that it is the function of wise interpreters to discover these truths. The dispute with the theologians of the Inquisition occurred because they thought that it was obviously true scientifically that the earth did not move and, on the basis of this view, they read the Bible as revealing the same thing. They reached this conclusion because, like Galileo, they thought that the Bible contained truths about nature. Of course, what these theologians accepted as scientifically true, Galileo denied.

  12. Vos que me empezaste y quiero que me acabes en la mitad de vos. The Mystical Poetry of Juan Gelman

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    Bianca Pamela Ramírez Rivera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The mystical experience is a phenomenon that just a few people experience,and even for those people, it’s complicated to explain what it meant and what it still means in their lives. Stories of ancient and contemporary mystics are scattered around the world and do not belong to a single religion. Thus, it is possible to find mystical experiences stories of practitioners of several religions such as Islam, Judaism or Catholicism.Juan Gelman, poet, essayist and journalist, is one of the most important figures of contemporary literature in Latin America. With his journalistic textsand poems, he could denounce the injustices of his country’s politics; and wasalso a personality that starkly gave an account of one of the bloodiest processes occurring in Argentine: the military dictatorship.Gelman also approached the phenomenon of mystical experience. Whetherit was a sense of identification (feeling as a foreigner or through the searchof ‘the mystical’ (which transcends him as a human being, Gelman is a LatinAmerican author whose phase of mystical poetry is central to understand thisphenomenon through literature.This essay aims to explore Juan Gelman’s vein as a seeker and narrator ofmystical experience. This will be traced from the material of this nature thatthe author left in his works, Citas y Comentarios, Com/posiciones and Dibaxu,as well as from his revision of the jewish tradition mystics.

  13. All God's children: religion, divorce, and child custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzband, M G

    2000-01-01

    Many young Americans, married and marriageable, are turning to more traditional or fundamentalist religions. Religiosity and ultra-strict morality often leads to attitudes that alter decision-making in marriage, divorce, and the disposition of the children of divorce. Judgmental pastoral counseling may affect these decisions even more. This paper discusses these issues, emphasizing the need for forensic psychiatrists involved in the custody arena to be aware of the religious, spiritual, irreligious, or even anti-religious feelings of the battling partners. It also presents detailed information about the four major American religions (Roman Catholicism, traditional Judaism, Mormonism, and Islam) that have specific doctrine, protocols, or customs affecting decisions in marriage, divorce, and child custody and visitation. This information is presented from the viewpoint of a child advocate. Mental health experts consulting in child custody must understand the backgrounds of the battling parents, including the religious pressures that well may adversely affect their interspousal disputes, particularly those over child custody. The experts must also recognize the attitudes of the religious communities in which the custodial parent may reside after divorce. Those attitudes may be rejecting of the children as well as of the divorced parent(s). Mental health experts may have a better chance to reach agreement between the battling parents if the experts reverse the historic reluctance of psychiatrists to evaluate and discuss the religious feelings and beliefs of their forensic evaluatees.

  14. Religiosidad popular y heterodoxia en los Andes: El caso del «niño compadrito»

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    Fernández Juárez, Gerardo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available There are cults in Andean societies that are alien to the Catholic orthodoxy, yet assimilated as popular manifestations of Catholicism under the tutelage of the Church. The case of "Niño compadrito", venerated in Tambo del Montero, near Plaza de Armas in Cuzco, Perú, illustrates the personality and attributes with which devotees endow holy images in the country. This cult has the characteristic features of the indigenous and Mestizo context in Cuzco to which it belongs.Las sociedades andinas presentan formas de culto peculiares que no encajan con la ortodoxia católica, a pesar de ser tutelarmente asimiladas por aquella como manifestaciones populares de catolicismo. El caso del "niño compadrito", figura venerada en la zona de Tambo del Montero, cerca de la Plaza de Armas del Cuzco (Perú, es un ejemplo más de la personalidad y atribuciones que a las imágenes sagradas otorgan sus devotos. El "niño compadrito" esgrime cualidades propias del dominio mestizo e indígena en que se contextualiza su culto en la ciudad de Cuzco.

  15. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2016-01-01

    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  16. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-09-18

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty.

  17. Sexualidade e religião: o caso das mulheres muçulmanas na França Sexuality and religion: the case of the muslim women in France

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    Janine Mossuz-Lavau

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta dados de uma pesquisa realizada com mulheres migrantes que vivem na França. O foco da pesquisa é a relação entre sexualidade e religião, no caso de mulheres vivendo em situação de precariedade. As informações sobre essa população foram recolhidas utilizando-se o método de histórias de vida. O artigo salienta a relação negativa para as mulheres entre prescrições religiosas e exercício da sexualidade, especialmente para as muçulmanas.In France, the Muslim religion is the second one (after Catholicism because of the presence of many immigrants from North of Africa and Turkey, usually living there for more than one generation. In their countries, women have fewer rights than men, and this tradition is perpetuated when they live in France. This article intends to show that the prescriptions about sexuality lead to women's discrimination.

  18. 'Andere katholieken': een nieuwe visie

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    P. Luykx

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Other Catholics’: A New VisionThe title of my response to De Rooy’s text sums up the crux of our discussion. Andere katholieken, a volume of essays published in the year 2000, offers ‘a new vision’ of the history of Dutch Catholicism in the twentieth century. Contrary to the prevailing idea of an unshakable unity and a closed front, recent studies demonstrate more and more clearly variation and differentiation in mentality and behaviour, above all under the influence of a progressive modernization of state and society. It is the so-called pillarization theory, in particular, which was put forward by a group of politicologists (notably A. Lijphart, that seems to influence the view of my opponent. According to that theory, passivity and docility of, among others, Catholic people is unjustly assumed. Last but not least, my response aims to correct some inaccuracies and clear up some misunderstandings in my opponent’s critique.

  19. Onheilig moeten. Drie studies over aspecten van het katholicisme

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    P. de Rooy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available M. Derks, Heilig moeten. Radicaal-katholiek en retro-modern in de jaren twintig en dertigM. Monteiro, G. Ackermans, Mannen Gods. Clericale identiteit in veranderingA. van den Oord, Voor het oog van het kerkvolk. Tilburgs volksklasse tussen klerikale normering en geleefde praktijk, 1927-1939Unholy ObligationsIn this contribution, three recent studies about Dutch Catholicism in the first half of the twentieth century are reviewed. The success of the ‘verzuiling’ [pillarization] of the Catholic population was striking: the cohesion of the Catholic pillar was great, compared with the other pillars; in the Netherlands, the Catholic pillarization was also greater than in other countries. This success can be explained to a large extent by the intensive use of sacralism. The literature under review makes that perfectly clear, although it does have a strong tendency to blur this image by giving too much attention to so-called ‘other Catholics’ who managed to extricate themselves one way or another from the clergy’s authority.

  20. Barriers and Facilitators of HIV Prevention With Heterosexual Latino Couples: Beliefs of Four Stakeholder Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma

    2012-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976

  1. Miedo y fe: la figura del Maligno entre los neocatecumenales (Fear and faith: the concept of Evil among Neocatechumenals groups

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    Carmen Castilla-Vázquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El trabajo que presentamos pretende acercarse al tema del miedo, y concretamente el miedo al diablo entre los neocatecumenales. Para llevar a cabo este estudio nos hemos basado en los discursos ofrecidos por un grupo de informantes pertenecientes a las comunidades neocatecumenales de Huelva y Sevilla (España. Estos, a través de su discurso religioso, dejan entrever una faceta que, hoy en el siglo XXI, podría estar casi olvidada o relegada a la consideración únicamente de unos pocos. Nos referimos al miedo al diablo -al "maligno"- y a todo lo que él representa dentro del catolicismo: no poder encontrarse con Dios, negar al Creador, en definitiva quedar excluido de la salvación eterna si uno cae atrapado en sus redes.Abstract: The present paper aims to approach the subject of fear, specifically fear of the devil among the Neocatechumenal Way. To carry out this study we have based on the speeches given by a group of respondents belonging to the Neocatechumenal communities of Huelva and Seville (Spain. These, through their religious discourse, a facet that glimpse, now in the XXI century, could be almost forgotten or relegated to the consideration only of a few. We refer to the fear of the devil -the "evil"- and all that he represents within Catholicism: could not we meet God, deny the Creator ultimately be excluded from eternal salvation if one falls caught in their nets.

  2. Calvin on Human Reason

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    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God.

  3. Towards A New Reading of the Political Thought of the Dévot Faction: The Opposition to Cardinal Richelieu’s Ministériat

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    Caroline Maillet-Rao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, historiography has considered the political thought of the dévot party, led by Mathieu de Morgues and Michel de Marillac, to be supportive of a traditional monarchy, Catholicism and the extermination of Protestants, while being opposed to the Thirty Years War. This faction’s political thought has been looked upon as being in contrast to that of Cardinal Richelieu, which was comparatively regarded as profoundly absolutist and modern. Such an understanding of the dévots’ political thought, albeit disputed, continues to prevail. The present article intends to demonstrate that the dévots were in fact on the side of the absolutists, which explains their opposition to Richelieu. Indeed, they never criticized absolutism, but rather, the illegitimate leadership of the government by an all-powerful premier ministre, namely, Richelieu. According to the dévots, the ministériat actually betrayed the very essence of absolute monarchy. Before proposing a new perspective on its political thought, it is important to reflect upon the definition of the dévot party. This will be followed by an overview of the lives and work of the principal representatives of this faction, Mathieu de Morgues (1582–1670 and Michel de Marillac (1560–1632. An examination of the historiography on this subject enables this article’s conclusions to be situated in a broader context.

  4. The Interstitial Status of Irish Gayness in Colm Tóibín’s The Blackwater Lightship and The Master

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    José M. Yebra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the liminal status of Irish gayness in the aftermath of its decriminalization in 1993. Colm Tóibín’s The Blackwater Lightship (1999 tries to reconcile Irish Catholicism and traditional family with new models of Irishness. Declan, the protagonist of the novel, goes back home when he is about to die of AIDS. His return reveals a dysfunctional family which only his disease brings together. His grandmother, mother and sister mourn Declan’s corpse-like body. Making reference to Julia Kristeva’s concepts of “abjection” and “the chora” (1982, 1984, I contend that the hero’s disease is a necessary sacrifice for the family and Ireland as a whole to resurface. The second part of the paper addresses Tóibín’s The Master (2004, whose fictional Henry James counterbalances Declan’s overt homosexuality and AIDS-related death. The Master delves into James’s hybridity as a closeted American of Irish descent opposed to Oscar Wilde’s flamboyant gay Irishness. The restraint of the former and the traumatic downfall of the latter make up the late-Victorian framework through which Declan’s late-twentieth-century sacrifice becomes meaningful.

  5. The Art of Governing the Self and Others in the Christian Philippines

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    Pak Nung Wong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic depiction of cultural creolization, this paper will detail the ways in which traditional Filipino values have been successfully mixing with and eventually lodging into the intersubjective landscape of Cagayan Valley, where the Chinese, Ibanag, Ilocano, and Itawes ethnic groups dwell. This cultural creolization process informs the ways in which the imagined social reciprocity between the self and others has been governed by a historically constituted power/knowledge system: the padrino system. This system is mainly composed of the symbiotic codes and social practices of (1 Catholicized ritual kinship and (2 the Tagalog ethics of “debt of gratitude” (utang na loób. In light of Foucault’s (1988 governmentality, the uncertain contact zone between the art of governing the self and the selves of others, I will detail the creative ways in which the padrino (power/knowledge system is used in the Philippine frontier life-world to build local communities, resolve conflicts, and restrain self-aggrandizement.

  6. Reformation or Revolution? Herman Bavinck and Henri de Lubac on Nature and Grace

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    Parker Gregory W.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Henri de Lubac’s treatment of the relationship between nature and grace will be critiqued by Herman Bavinck’s ‘grace restores nature’ theme. In two significant addresses, Bavinck critiqued a Roman Catholic approach to nature and grace. De Lubac’s influence upon Roman Catholic thinking addressing nature and grace occurred post-Bavinck and has altered Catholic thinking on the subject. Neo-Calvinist scholar, Wolter Huttinga admits that Bavinck and de Lubac offer similar critiques of Roman Catholicism (Huttinga 2014. The question remains then, do Bavinck’s critiques still hold? I propose that Bavinck’s account of grace restores nature still makes valid critiques of a post-Vatican II construction of nature and grace. The paper is broken into three sections: (1 an exploration of de Lubac’s nature and grace theme, (2 the framework of Bavinck’s ‘grace restores nature’ theme, and (3 a Bavinckian critique of de Lubac’s nature and grace theme.

  7. Christian psychopathology: psychiatry and knowledge for the sake of salvation in the early years of Francoism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Pablo, Ángel

    After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged. One example of this Catholic science was the psychiatric approach developed by Juan José López Ibor during the first Francoist period, including the concepts of anagogy, the perfection instinct, psychagogy and, above all, anxious thymopathy and life anguish. This paper analyses the Christian background of these notions, their scientific repercussions and their social utility for the dictatorship. This paper emphasizes the consideration of these key notions of Spanish psychiatry during the First Francoism as knowledge of salvation, i.e., as conveyors of assumed eternal values in accordance with the prevailing view of Catholicism. On the other hand, it points to the functioning of these concepts as a part of the regulatory network designed and deployed by Francoism to promote submission and resignation in the Spanish population.

  8. Judeo-Conversos en la audiencia del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Siglos XVI y XVII.

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    Maria Cristina Navarrete.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Portuguese “New Christians” (Jewish converts to Catholicism constituted one of the most important components of the white population of the Indies during the 16th and 17th centuries. They settled in various cities within the jurisdiction of the High Court of Justice of the New Kingdom of Granada, especially in Cartagena, where they occupied themselves in the slave trade and commerce in general. They extended their trade networks to and from the Viceroyalty of Peru and other provinces to the south of the New Kingdom. The Inquisition used its power to persecute them and to confiscate their property as a way to protect the purity of the faith and to sustain the institution economically. The New Christians were accused of secretly practicing the Jewish religion and of not being true Christians. Many of them were crypto-Jews who observed the Sabbath and Queen Esther’s feast day, observed Jewish fasting and dietary practices, and attended synagogue meetings. The most respected men among them acted as rabbis and orally transmitted their prayers and the few traditions remaining extant among them. As a result of both persecution by the Inquisition and the independence of Portugal in 1640, some of them returned to that country, while others scattered throughout the Caribbean and still others blended into the traditional Christian population.

  9. »According to Common Sense«: Gender, Nationality and Class in Cooking Show Ljubezen skozi želodec

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    Kristina Meršak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available »Ljubezen skozi želodec« is the first Slovenian lifestyle cooking show hosted by spouses, publishers and foodies Valentina Smej Novak and Luka Novak. The aim of the article is to determine what gender, class and national representations are reproduced by the show. The analysis of four seasons of the cooking show demonstrates that, in regard to social class and gender, »Ljubezen skozi želodec« can be compared to similar shows abroad, such as those hosted by Jamie Oliver and Nigella. Masculinity and femininity are constructed through traditional roles where the ideology of family and care for the children is vital. All this corresponds to the Slovenian socio-cultural environment characterized by Catholicism. Class identities are the reflection of Bourdieu’s taste of luxury and a contemporary omnivorous taste of an environmentally conscious consumer. As for the national angle, the Central-European and partially also the French and Italian identity are stressed rather than the Slovenian one, which puts Slovenia on the socio-cultural map of the Central Europe and at the same time negates the culinary influence of the former Yugoslav republics.

  10. Violencia simbólica y educación: el aula de enseñanza primaria en el nacionalismo a través del museísmo pedagógico. S ymbolic violence and education: the primary teaching class in nacionalcatolicismo through pedagogical museism

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    José Ángel Ayllón gómez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES Los museos pedagógicos y la reconstrucción de la cultura escolar en el aula han supuesto un gran avance para investigadores de diversas áreas a lo largo de los últimos tiempos. El presente estudio trata de determinar si a través de dichos espacios escolares y curriculares, y de la metódica distri-bución de los objetos dentro del aula, se ejercía una violencia simbólica y adoctrinadora por parte del Régimen de Franco a los alumnos de la enseñanza primaria durante la etapa de mayor auge del nacionalcatolicismo en nuestro país. (EN The pedagogical museums and the reconstruction of the school culture in the classroom have meant a great advance for researchers of diverse areas in recent times. The present study tries to determine if through these school and curricular spaces, and of the methodical distribution of the objects within the classroom, a symbolic and indoctrinating violence was exerted by the Franco´s regime to the pupils of the primary education during the stage of greater national-Catholicism boom in our country.

  11. Secret Sisters: Women Religious under European Communism Collection at the Catholic Theological Union

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    Vincent P. Tinerella

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of Communism in Eastern Europe, Pope John Paul II asked Catholics around the world to assist members of the Church who had suffered under the yoke of communist oppression as a result of their commitment to Catholicism. Sr. Margaret Savoie, and Sr. Margaret Nacke, Sisters of St. Joseph, Concordia, Kansas, decided that the experiences of Catholic women in religious communities – “surviving sisters” – was an important story that needed to be documented, preserved, and made available for future generations and researchers. In 2003, Sisters Mary and Margaret began their research, recording the plight of Catholic sisters in eight countries, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and the Ukraine, from the rise of Stalin until the collapse of European communism. Over 200 testimonials now reside at the Paul Bechtold Library at the Catholic Theological Union in Chicago under the auspices of the library’s archivist, Dr. Kenneth O’Malley, C.P. , and their work has been made into a national and award-winning documentary film. .

  12. Aesthetics as an Aspect of Good in Enderby Novels by Anthony Burgess

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    Ekaterina V. Smyslova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interaction of ethics and aesthetics in A. Burgess's worldview. It is based on an analysis of the novels about the minor poet Enderby, who is interpreted as the writer's alter ego. The material for the article is represented by the novels "Inside Mr. Enderby", "Enderby outside", "The Clockwork Testament, or Enderby's End", "Enderby's Dark Lady", or "No End of Enderby". Particular attention is paid to the personality of the protagonist and his worldview. In the course of the analysis, the superficial interpretations of Enderby's image and the system of his relationships with the outside world are rejected in favor of deeper ones, arising from the system of the author's outlooks on creativity. The material of other writer's novels is also attracted to the study ("A Clockwork Orange", "The Wanting Seed", "Little Wilson and Big God", etc, where his religious and ethical views are most clearly manifested. The analysis of Burgess's search for faith, his path from congenital Catholicism through Manichaeism to the development of his own religious and ethical picture of the world has been performed in this paper. It has shown that according to Burgess the Beauty is of primary value and the writer is seen as the creator of such a world view where the original duality of reality can be overcome through the language.

  13. “Un giogo salutare per l’intelligenza”: dogma religioso e libertà politica nella Democrazia in America di Tocqueville

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    Carlo Sabbatini

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The essay examines the relationship between religion and politics in Tocqueville's thinking, with particular attention to the synergy between Christianity and the development of democratic institutions, studied by the author in the United States. In the two volumes of Democracy in America, he observes that the doctrine of Christianity, subject to a process of popularization characteristic of American social dynamism, constitutes an essential connective tissue, through which the principle of equality permeates custom, law and institutions. This stabilization function finds a fundamental premise in the separation between spiritual and temporal sphere, which allows the former not to be bent to the conveniences of the second and, above all, not to be subjected to attacks which, as in the French Revolution, have confused and condemned it with its institutional form under the ancien régime. Such a circumstance, according to Tocqueville, has deprived society of the fundamental ethical background that unites it, neglecting above all the powerful egalitarian message that he identifies as a general character of Christianity and in particular of Catholicism, which he thinks even more appropriate to the democracy as the Protestant faith and which, by acting on custom, would enable the establishment and development of an indigenous democratic model also in France.

  14. O crescimento da libertade religiosa e o declínio da religião tradicional: A propósito do censo 2010

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    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article – based on the data of the 2010 census, gathered and interpreted by Flavio Pierucci – deals with the fight to conqueer the followers’ souls in the Brazilian metropolises. The different religions – the Catholic church, the Protestan churces, the cults of African origins, are harsh competitors and every means is allowed to get the conversion. The most relevant datum of the religious scenery – which is extremely dynamic and lively – is the decline of Catholicism, nothwistanding a number of 123 millions declared Catholics in a population of 190 millions. The religious freedom is accompanied by the “secularization”, and consequently the separation between the State and the Church. The disestablishment is the core of the Brazilian religious modernity. The secularization of the state juridical asset is associated with an extraordinary socio-cultural vitality, and, because of the large number of religious operators, missionaries of the new churches, prophets, gurus and magicians, it is extremely difficult to say whether thee Brazialian population is more or less religious now than a century ago.

  15. Uma Estranha Diáspora Rumo a Portugal: Judeus e Cristãos-Novos Reduzidos à Fé Católica no século XVII

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    Braga, Isabel M. R. Mendes Drumond

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a number of Jewish and new Christian people, descendants of Peninsular Jews, who arrived in Portugal in the 16th century and consequently converted to Catholicism. The source material used in this study are the Books of Converted Jews that belonged to the Holy Office of Inquisition. These books provide information on the nature of the people (age, status, birthplace, place of residence, the way they experienced their religion in different parts of Europe, and the true or apparently true reasons for their conversion.

    Este artículo aborda el tema de algunos judíos y cristianos nuevos descendientes de judíos peninsulares que, en el siglo XVII, llegaron a Portugal y se convirtieron al catolicismo. Las fuentes para este estudio son los libros de convertidos del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición. Éstos nos proporcionan datos acerca de las personas (edad, estado civil, lugar de nacimiento y de residencia y, especialmente, sobre la vivencia del judaísmo en diferentes partes de Europa, así como sobre las motivaciones, reales o aparentes, para la conversión.

  16. Performing, Representing, and Archiving Belief: Religious Expressions among Jazz Musicians

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    Vaughn A. Booker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The archives of African American jazz musicians demonstrate rich sites for studying expressions of religious belief and daily religious practice in public and private arenas, in professional and personal capacities. Highlighting print material from the archives of Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington (1899–1974 and Mary Lou Williams (1910–1981, this article examines the ways that these musicians worked to articulate their beliefs in print and to make meaning of their routine practices. Ellington and Williams produced written records of their aspirations for non-clerical religious authority and leadership, novel notions of religious community, and conceptions of quotidian writing tasks as practices with devotional value in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In preparation for his Sacred Concert tours of American and Western European religious congregations, Ellington theologized about the nature of God and the proper language to address God through private hotel stationery. Following her conversion to Roman Catholicism, Williams managed a Harlem thrift shop and worked to create the Bel Canto Foundation for musicians struggling with substance abuse and unemployment. This study of the religious subjectivity of African Americans with status as race representatives employs archival historical methods in the effort to vividly approximate complex religious interiority.

  17. Religião e patriotismo: o anticomunismo católico nos Estados Unidos e no Brasil nos anos da Guerra Fria

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    Carla Simone Rodeghero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa e compara o anticomunismo católico no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos no período da Guerra Fria. Depois de situar o campo de estudos constituído no Brasil sobre o tema, discute as relações entre americanismo e anticomunismo, procurando situar o catolicismo norte-americano neste meio. Utiliza-se de uma produção recente sobre cultura da Guerra Fria nos Estados Unidos. Levanta, finalmente, uma série de elementos de comparação sobre a forma que o anticomunismo católico assumiu nos dois países.This article analyses and compares the Catholic anticommunism in the Brazil and in United States during the Cold War years. After showing the recent studies produced in Brazil about the fight against communism, it discusses the relationship between Americanism, anticommunism and Catholicism. This step is based on recent historical research about the Cold War culture in the United States. Finally, it makes comparisons between the forms that anticommunism assumed in each country.

  18. Reproductive rights in Poland: when politicians fear the wrath of the Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.

  19. Georges Bataille and the Transgression of Taboos by Stephan Dedalus

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    Shataw Naseri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is not a pornographic novel like Georges Bataille' Story of the Eye; however, the present study attempts to trace Bataille's heterological notions in A Portrait. This paper attempts to see whether or not Stephan Dedalus as the main character of Joyce's literary work, has the potential to carry Batatille's heterogeneous elements which shatter any religious, linguistic, economic and political system. In order to reach this goal, the paper first attempts to establish the powerful dominance of the Catholic discourse, one of the strictest religious systems in the world, over Ireland which is the main setting of A Portrait. In the next part it will trace the authoritarian shadow of Catholicism and its impression upon Stephen Dedalus. Here, the principal aim is to indicate the significance of Stephen's transgressive acts in the novel and to see whether these transgressions have Bataillean nature as they shatter a very strict religious structure. Afterward, Stephen's transgressions as well as the implicit reaction of the religious system toward these transgressions will be investigated regarding Georges Bataille's heterogeneous notions.

  20. El derecho al aborto en discusión: la intervención de grupos católicos en la comisión de salud de la legislatura de la ciudad de Buenos Aires The debate on abortion rights: the involvement of catholic groups in the health committee of the Buenos Aires legislature

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    Gabriela Irrazábal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo da cuenta de la participación de grupos católicos especializados en bioética y "bioderecho" en los debates parlamentarios sobre aborto no punible en la Comisión de Salud de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires a fines de 2008. Teniendo en cuenta las múltiples transferencias e influencias entre los campos político y religioso en Argentina, se intentará abordar la estrategia política que ciertos actores del catolicismo utilizan para consolidar la hegemonía simbólica de la Iglesia Católica en la regulación de la vida de los individuos, especialmente de las mujeres y la utilización de estas estrategias como apuestas de estos grupos para mantener su lugar hegemónico al interior de la Iglesia Católica.This paper discusses the participation of Catholic groups, specialized in bioethics and biolaw, in parliamentary debates on non-punishable abortion, in the Health Committee of the City of Buenos Aires, in late 2008. Taking into account the multiple transfers and influences between the political and the religious spheres in Argentina, the article examines the political strategy that certain actors of Catholicism use to consolidate the symbolic hegemony of the Catholic Church by regulating the life of individuals, especially women; and the use of these strategies as a way to maintain their hegemonic position within the Catholic Church.

  1. Cultural change, hybridity and male homosexuality in Mexico.

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    Carrillo, H

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes how contemporary perceptions of male homosexuality are being shaped in Mexico. Ethnographic analysis included four short case studies from 64 mostly middle class individuals for two years in Guadalajara City. Mexican sexual culture is often portrayed traditionally as grounded in values inherent in machismo and influenced by Catholicism. There is a contrast between these traditional interpretations of roles and sexual identities in Mexico and the identities that are being adopted by many contemporary Mexican homosexual men. The homosexual men were categorizable in terms of 1) those who dominated in the sexual relationship and who were capable of maintaining a nonstigmatized identity as regular men, 2) those who assumed a feminine role and were penetrated and who were stigmatized for their effeminate demeanor, and 3) a minority of men who assumed both roles and who were termed "anally active and passive". The study revealed that middle-class homosexuals established networks in which individuals, supported by their friends, acquired the strength to effect personal changes along with other larger cultural changes. Thus, individual actions are beginning to have a collective effect on the society at large.

  2. Barriers and facilitators of HIV prevention with heterosexual Latino couples: beliefs of four stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Um aspecto da diversidade cultural do caboclo amazônico: a religião

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    Raymundo Heraldo Maués

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available ESTE TRABALHO trata de um aspecto da diversidade cultural do caboclo amazônico, isto é, a religião. Esta se constitui numa espécie de catolicismo popular, que mantém relações com o xamanismo nativo - a pajelança cabocla -, e que se originou de antigas práticas e crenças dos índios Tupinambás, que habitaram parte da região amazônica no período colonial, bem como de influências portuguesas e africanas.HIS PAPER deals with a particular aspect of the Amazon caboclo's cultural diversity, namely, religion. Caboclo religion represents a form of folk Catholicism, witch is related to native shamanism - pajelança cabocla -, originating from practices and beliefs of the Tupinambá Indians, who inhabited part of the Amazon Region in colonial times, and cultural influences from Portuguese colonialists and African slaves.

  4. Poland: A Dark Side of Church Cultural Policy

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    Szocik Konrad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultural policy of the Roman Catholic Church in Poland is incorporated into state-run cultural policies. The organs of public authority enforce the objectives of Church regardless of Church’s actual ability to influence the society. It should be pointed out that the secularization of religion in Poland is frequently misinterpreted and usually equated with its deprivatization. It is worth mentioning that Catholicism is the dominant religion of the country and the Roman Catholic Church has hold a special position in Poland and play a major role in the country’s social and political life. In practice, however, Polish society appears to be religiously indifferent. This paper proves that the official, state-run cultural policy in Poland is based on favoritism of the Roman Catholic Church, regardless of Church’s actual ability to wield influence on society. Thus, there is a variety of implicit and explicit cultural policies implemented by the authorities to support Church. This work also aims at addressing the question of social attitudes to women, especially the one concerning the UN and EU law embracing women’s rights, until recently still not implemented in Poland. This paper further explores some peculiarities of this topic as an example of a specific outcome of Church cultural policy and its impact on both the past and present-day society.

  5. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be’ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God’s control of the world is common to many of the world’s religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God’s absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God’s control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God’s control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated. PMID:26061050

  6. Imágenes especulares: Educación, laicidad y catolicismo en Santa Fe, 1900-1940

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    Diego A. Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se interroga en torno a las relaciones entre catolicismo y laicismo en el terreno educativo. Se pregunta, en particular, sobre la consistencia historiográfica de las imágenes construidas como reflejo de la tesis del "renacimiento católico". Según estos cuadros, la contracara del denominado "renacimiento" habría sido el ocaso de una "Argentina laica y liberal", consagrada en términos educativos en la ley 1420. Partiendo de estas visiones especulares, el texto se propone discutir, para el caso de la provincia de Santa Fe, algunos de los argumentos esgrimidos tras la "postal laicista", a la luz de los debates abiertos en torno a las teorías de la "secularización" y de la "modernidad".The present work studies the relationships between catholicism and laicism in the educational field. In particular, it wonders about the historiographic consistency of the images built as a reflection of the "catholic rebirth" thesis. According to these frames, the counterpart of the denominated "rebirth" would have been the decline of a "lay and liberal Argentina", established in educational terms in the 1420 law. Starting from these views, the text discusses, for the Santa Fe county case, some of the arguments fenced behind the "lay postal", in light of the opened debates around the theories of the "secularization" and of the "modernity".

  7. "Natural family planning": effective birth control supported by the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, R E

    1993-01-01

    During 20-22 September Manchester is to host the 1993 follow up to last year's "earth summit" in Rio de Janeiro. At that summit the threat posed by world overpopulation received considerable attention. Catholicism was perceived as opposed to birth control and therefore as a particular threat. This was based on the notion that the only method of birth control approved by the church--natural family planning--is unreliable, unacceptable, and ineffective. In the 20 years since E L Billings and colleagues first described the cervical mucus symptoms associated with ovulation natural family planning has incorporated these symptoms and advanced considerably. Ultrasonography shows that the symptoms identify ovulation precisely. According to the World Health Organisation, 93% of women everywhere can identify the symptoms, which distinguish adequately between the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle. Most pregnancies during trials of natural family planning occur after intercourse at times recognised by couples as fertile. Thus pregnancy rates have depended on the motivation of couples. Increasingly studies show that rates equivalent to those with other contraceptive methods are readily achieved in the developed and developing worlds. Indeed, a study of 19,843 poor women in India had a pregnancy rate approaching zero. Natural family planning is cheap, effective, without side effects, and may be particularly acceptable to the efficacious among people in areas of poverty. Images p724-a p724-b p724-c p724-d p724-e p724-f p724-g PMID:8401097

  8. Pro- and anti-Franco political cultures: a female perspective | Mujer y culturas políticas en el franquismo y el antifranquismo

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    Mónica Moreno Seco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A female interpretation of Catholic and communist political cultures, which were the fundamental ideologies of the Franco regime and the opposition, provides us with a fresh perspective to explain the evolution of Spanish society towards democracy. If they began in conflicting positions, from the 1960s onwards, the changes introduced in the discourse and practices of women within the spheres of Catholicism and communism would transform these two political cultures. This process culminated in close collaboration between Catholic and communist feminists in the fight for equality during the political transition. | La lectura en femenino de las culturas políticas católica y comunista, que fueron las ideologías esenciales de la dictadura franquista y la oposición, introduce una nueva perspectiva para explicar la evolución de la sociedad española hacia la democracia. Si bien partían de posiciones antagónicas, a partir de los años sesenta los cambios introducidos en discursos y prácticas de mujeres en el ámbito del catolicismo y del comunismo transformaron estas dos culturas políticas. Este proceso culminó durante la transición en una estrecha colaboración de católicas y comunistas en el feminismo de la igualdad.

  9. The new totalitarian society

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    Vlajki Emil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The new totalitarian society is a euphemized expression denoting the New World Order, which in itself denotes the American globalization. The underpinning of this mindset is rationality, which is characteristic of Western civilization. Christianity engendered rationality by introducing it through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotle, and especially formal logic. Since it is obvious that religion and logic cannot ultimately be harmonized, this combination has proven lethal in many cases throughout history. For instance, the Inquisition, which, contrary to what happened at scholastic universities, severely berated rational thinking in practice. Catholicism helped carry out genocide against the Jews, and Orthodoxy is in a certain manner tied in with Stalinism. The new totalitarian society is anchored in American Protestantism. On the whole, Christian rationalism is a sphere of science, techniques and technologies efficiently employed to promote the West to the status of a society of plenty and the conception of human rights, which turn into their opposite and irrational behavior of the worst kind. An example of such inhumanity is the attack against Yugoslavia/Serbia in 1999.

  10. “The Priest Obviously Doesn’t Know That I’m Gay”: The Religious and Spiritual Journeys of Latino Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dalia I.; Gray-Stanley, Jennifer; Ramirez-Valles, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, most adults state that religion plays an important role in their lives and claim a religious affiliation. For gay, bisexual, and transgender persons (GBT), the story is unique because their sexual and gender identity is not accepted by most religions. The purpose of this article is to analyze the role of religiosity in the life course of Latino GBTs raised as Catholics. Data come from 66 life history interviews with Latino GBTs living in Chicago and San Francisco, who grew up as Catholics. We found a religious trajectory that mirrored participants’ developmental stages. During childhood, religion was inculcated by the family, culture, and schools. In adolescence, many experienced a conflict between their religion and their GBT identity, and in adulthood, they reached a resolution. Most participants abandoned Catholicism to join other religions or spiritual groups that they perceived to be welcoming. We found participants engaging in a remedial ideological work to reconcile their religious values and their identity. PMID:19042279

  11. [Adolescents and religion. The risk of religiosity without transcendence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni, T; Bruschettini, M

    2001-12-01

    We studied the religiosity of adolescents, taking into consideration both the Italian and American literature. Religious beliefs and practices are neither required nor appreciated by governmental institutions. They only belong to our inner self, where they become important if supported by personal and conscious conviction. In the USA 80% of youth (15-19 years) believe that God exists and in the divinity of Jesus, but only 18% attend weekly religious services. Females show greater involvement in the services and stronger closeness to God. However, the majority is made up of people who neither face religious issues nor break clearly with religion. Several studies have shown that religious involvement is associated with a diminished risk of behavioral problems, higher levels of school attainment and professional competence. Religion helps people deal with stress by means of mechanisms that are not yet clear. About 74% of committed catholics do volunteer work at least monthly, vs only 25% of non-believers. Attaining a full religious experience requires a period of criticism, and belonging to a church or to church related educational groups seems to be important. In Italy, over 95% of primary school students choose to study catholicism and attending catechism in church is also very widespread. The role that the catholic religion plays in encouraging religious socialization is noteworthy. Italian society acknowledges that the societal services provided by the church are useful, though this may lead to making full religious experiences less possible.

  12. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'ery, Gilad; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit

    2015-01-01

    Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel) and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism). We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1), American Jews (study 2), and American Catholics (study 3). The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated.

  13. Alceu Amoroso Lima’s Spiritual Itinerary Desert and Faith’s Ecstasy

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    Leandro Garcia Rodrigues

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show a little bit of Alceu Amoroso Lima’s (1893-1983 spiritual trajectory, the mainly catholic leadership in Brazil throughout XX century.  Amoroso Lima was a victim of the Agnosticism lived in the beginning of that century, exactly when he rediscovered religion as a source of life and turned into Catholicism.  All these changes happened during his strong friendship with two important intellectuals of that time: the writer Jackson de Figueiredo and the theologian Father Leonel Franca.  Amoroso Lima kept a non-stopping Correspondence with them, and then faced a kind of “spiritual battle” through six years, giving another significance to the Epistolography as a literary gender.  This research follows the “desertic paths” faced by Amoroso Lima up to his final meeting with God, the doubts and certainties, faults and lucky hits, specially in the peculiar difficulties of those who believe in God.Keywords: theology; literature; spirituality; conversion.

  14. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

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    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  15. Abortion: articulating a moral view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    2000-01-01

    This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.

  16. Sombart and the Jews

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    Mauro Protti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay has the purpose of collecting and exposing in synthetic form the main issues which Sombart treats in his book Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben, 1911. Sombart defends the view that the Jews have founded modern capitalism, inventing financial practices (such as credit instruments and security interests, thus easing the movement of money and investments (financial intermediation. In this they have been supported by texts (the Bible and its interpretative commentaries and customary practices between people belonging to Jewish communities and strangers. The resulting form of capitalism is of a financial and commercial type, which Weber distinguishes from and opposes to the ‘modern’ form of capitalism, based on industry and rational production of goods, and determined by the typical character of Protestant ethics. The juxtaposition between Sombart and Weber sees the former arguing for a historical and conceptual articulation of capitalism that is more complex and articulated than the one posited by the latter. Weber believes that the ‘bloc’ formed by Jews, strangers and heretics (as opposed to Catholicism, that is, the Protestants has founded capitalism in its original version, the Jewish form of capitalism, later supported by the English translation of the Bible, urged and authorized by James I, whose influence has powerfully affected the ideological construction of a ‘historic’ object.

  17. Michael Field’s “A Dance of Death”

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    LeeAnne Richardson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 1912 poem "A Dance of Death" by Michael Field (pen name of Katherine Bradley and her niece Edith Cooper depicts Salome in an alternate version of the biblical story: this Salome dances on a frozen river, falls through the ice, and is decapitated on a jagged edge. Nonetheless, her beautiful head continues dancing over the frozen river. This poem is highly unusual, especially in the context of the other poems in the postconversion volume Poems of Adoration, because it questions, rather than submits to, authority. In re-writing a familiar Christian tale, as well as a familiar decadent theme, Field uses the poem to assert the supremacy of their artistic vision, which (despite their ardent Catholicism cannot be subject to any law outside themselves. Like the continually dancing head of Salome, which continues to create beauty even after nature (and perhaps God has struck it down, the poet is subjugate only to her own law and creates without boundaries or restrictions on her art. Bradley and Cooper were acutely aware of their authorial persona (actively taking not only a masculine but also a singular poetic identity, and their mode of reconciling the apparent contradictions of this identity are mirrored in their presentation of Salome in a "Dance of Death."

  18. From rectilinear road to the cross: the opening of strada Maqueda in Palermo

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    Maurizio Vesco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strada Maqueda has until the present day been subjected almost exclusively to critical interpretations, which have correctly highlighted its symbolic value, especially with reference to the showing-off of the cross. This is an expression of an increasingly orthodox and extremist Catholicism on an unprecedented urban scale. Little has been said, on the other hand, about issues related to the actual construction of this urban space, to all the gutting that was necessary related to the opening of the building site in the dense, compact area of one of the most important Mediterranean capitals, of a road which is one and a half kilometres long and more than 11 metres wide; in the year 1600, this rectilinear road was an extremely complex urban intervention on the European scene. This research, with the aid of new archival documentation, aims to focus on the protagonists of this architectural achievement, on the progressive steps taken, the timing and organization of the construction site, as well as the  tools and techniques used to plan the urban space in order to properly lay out the new road through the medieval neighbourhoods. Keywords: Sicily, Palermo, strada Maqueda, city planning, XVIIth century

  19. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

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    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  20. The Slava or Patron Saint’s Day among the Serbs

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    Pavković Nikola F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slava has been a folk-religious holiday among the Serbs for centuries. As the cult of a specific Christian saint within the family (genus, tribe, a protector and giver, over time many common structural elements of the ritual emerged. However, the ways of celebrating, ritual meals and duration of the Slava have certain local variances which are caused by folkreligious traditions as well as the wider (state and socio-political context. From the 13th century onward the Slava has been under a strong influence from the Serbian Orthodox Church. The contemporary way of celebrating the Slava has been formed by the Church. Some authors have considered the Slava a marker of Serbian national identity. The Slava is a social and spiritual good passed down from father to son. In matrilocal marriage, the son in law accepts the Slava from his father in law, and keeps his own as secondary. Over the centuries there were many limitations and even bans on the practice of the Slava, most notably imposed on the Serbs by the Venetian republic and the Austro-Hungarian Empire - all with the aim of imposing a union of the faith with the Vatican and turning the Orthodox faithful over to Catholicism.

  1. A saint in the history of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Niels Stensen (1638-1686) was born in Copenhagen. He took courses in medicine at the local university under the guidance of Professor Thomas Bartholin and later at Leiden under the tutelage of Franz de la Boë (Sylvius). While in Holland, he discovered the existence of the parotid duct, which was named Stensen's duct or stenonian duct (after his Latinized name Nicolaus Stenon). He also described the structural and functional characteristics of peripheral muscles and myocardium. He demonstrated that muscular contraction could be elicited by appropriate nerve stimulation and by direct stimulation of the muscle itself and that during contraction the latter does not increase in volume. Toward the end of 1664, the Academic Senate of the University of Leiden awarded him the doctor in medicine title. Later, in Florence, he was admitted as a corresponding member in the Academia del Cimento (Experimental Academy) and collaborated with the Tuscan physician Francesco Redi in studies relating to viviparous development. In the Tuscan capital, he converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism and was shortly afterwards ordained in the clergy. After a few years, he was appointed apostolic vicar in northern Germany and died in the small town of Schwerin, capital of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin on November 25, 1686. He was beatified on October 23rd, 1988. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. Punishing the sea wolf: corsairs and cannibals in the early modern Caribbean

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    Kris Lane

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Looks at how Western law was interpreted and applied to perceived cannibals and corsairs in the Spanish Caribbean in the 16th and 17th c., by Spanish jurists in the period, and at the development of the cannibal and corsair image in Spanish culture. Author outlines the convergence of terms suggesting a growing semantic linkage between certain indigenous peoples, specially the famed "Carib cannibals", and foreign, mostly Western European, corsairs poaching on Spanish wealth. He describes how of the Caribs, said to be cannibals, involved in piracy, an image was constructed of not only cannibals, but also greedy criminals, or rebelers against Catholicism, in order to (legally justify punishments or wars against them, and thus Spanish rule. He then discusses how of French, British, and other corsairs in the Caribbean involved in piracy against the Spanish, an in some ways similar image was painted of fanatical canine types ruled by appetites, and also of anti-Catholic heretics and criminals, in order to justify punishments as well as the Spanish claim on rule of the Caribbean.

  3. How to create a building typology?: Typological matrix for mapping 19th century synagogues

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    Klein Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a research that comprised 500 synagogues, this paper is the first attempt to create a comprehensive building typology of synagogue architecture. This typology is the first that takes into consideration interior arrangement (plan and section, architectural language of the interior, bearing structure, architectural language (decoration of the exterior, exterior mass composition, size and urban context - the relationship of the synagogue building towards the neighboring buildings and towards the urban context in general. This typology has been developed on Ashkenazi synagogues of 19th century Habsburg Empire, but it can be applied to other building types and other territories in the 18th and 19th centuries, up to the onset of modernism in the 1920s and 1930s. The methodology if this research maybe applied particularly well for Orthodox and Protestant churches in Vojvodina, where the state religion has been Catholicism and confessional minorities faced some restrictions. These restrictions and the common architectural context make their religious buildings in typological sense similar.

  4. Religious aspects of assisted reproduction

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    Sallam, HN; Sallam, NH

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human response to new developments regarding birth, death, marriage and divorce is largely shaped by religious beliefs. When assisted reproduction was introduced into medical practice in the last quarter of the twentieth century, it was fiercely attacked by some religious groups and highly welcomed by others. Today, assisted reproduction is accepted in nearly all its forms by Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism, although most Orthodox Jews refuse third party involvement. On the contrary assisted reproduction is totally unacceptable to Roman Catholicism, while Protestants, Anglicans, Coptic Christians and Sunni Muslims accept most of its forms, which do not involve gamete or embryo donation. Orthodox Christians are less strict than Catholic Christians but still refuse third party involvement. Interestingly, in contrast to Sunni Islam, Shi’a Islam accepts gamete donation and has made provisions to institutionalize it. Chinese culture is strongly influenced by Confucianism, which accepts all forms of assisted reproduction that do not involve third parties. Other communities follow the law of the land, which is usually dictated by the religious group(s) that make(s) the majority of that specific community. The debate will certainly continue as long as new developments arise in the ever-evolving field of assisted reproduction. PMID:27822349

  5. Misiones del racionalismo: Rosario de Acuña en la prensa librepensadora

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    Díaz-Marcos, Ana María

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rosario de Acuña’s articles and essays in the freethinking press illustrate her radical and heterodox writing and criticism of Catholicism. The writer supported the free-thinking cause and stressed that women should actively participate in the debate. The gender perspective connects the two main intellectual concerns of this writer who believed that the emancipation of women and religious liberty were the two burning issues of the age. Acuña wrote numerous essays and articles that actively defended the need to remove barriers between sexes in order to aspire to an ideal of equality and fraternity.La colaboración de Rosario de Acuña en la prensa librepensadora define su escritura radical, heterodoxa y crítica con el catolicismo. La autora apoyó la causa del librepensamiento recalcando que la mujer debía ser participar activamente en el debate. Este matiz de género permite unir dos de las preocupaciones básicas de una escritora que consideraba que la emancipación de la mujer y la libertad religiosa eran las dos cuestiones palpitantes de ese contexto histórico. Acuña escribió numerosos ensayos y artículos apoyando activamente la necesidad de anular las barreras entre los sexos para aspirar a ideales de igualdad y fraternidad universal.

  6. A festiva devoção no Círio de Nossa Senhora de Nazaré

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    Isidoro Alves

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available NESTE artigo analisa-se o Círio e a Festa de Nossa Senhora de Nazaré como um grande rito coletivo que conjuga aspectos formais e devocionais com a informalidade profana da Festa brasileira. Expressão do catolicismo popular, festividade típica do Estado do Pará, o Círio de Nazaré e os festejos que lhes são próprios englobam elementos nativos que configuram a expressão de uma identidade regional, uma temporalidade particular e uma percepção da ordem e as diferentes formas de contrastá-la.This article analyzes the Círio [candle-lit procession] and the Feast of Our Lady of Nazaré as a great collective rite that combines formal and devotional aspects with the profane informality of a Brazilian festival. As a grass roots manifestation of Catholicism and a typical celebration of the state of Pará, the Círio of Nazaré and attending festivities embrace native elements to express a regional identity, a particular temporality, and a perception of order and differing ways to contrast it.

  7. “Because words are not deeds.” Antisemitic Practice and Nationality Policies in Upper Hungary around 1900

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    Miloslav Szabó

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the processes of transformation within political antisemitism in Hungary around 1900. It mainly investigates the extent to which the crisis of Hungarian political antisemitism in the early 1890s fostered antisemitic practice, namely, the social and economic boycott of rural Jews in particular through the establishment of cooperatives and credit unions. It is to be assumed that antisemitic practice was not restricted to a strictly antisemitic milieu, but propagated and executed by diverse anti-liberal actors such as political Catholicism, the agrarian lobby and the Slovak nationalists. The study illuminates antisemitic practice in the multi-ethnic Kingdom of Hungary in the context of agrarian and nationality policies. In the rural parts of Upper Hungary this practise was accompanied by propaganda against “usury” as a way of legitimizing cooperatives and credit unions. The study will elaborate to what extent the Hungarian campaigns against the Jewish money-lenders united ethnically diverse, non-Jewish actors, such as Hungarian conservatives and Slovak nationalists.

  8. J. F. Powers and Betty Wahl: Irish Americans and Returning Yanks

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    John L. Murphy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The limited critical attention given J.F. Powers (1917-99 has concentrated on his engagement with Catholicism. Powers also applies Irish American motifs to his fiction. This article analyzes the depiction that Powers and his wife Betty Wahl (1924-88, who left postwar America to live on and off in Ireland, made of the Irish in both their homeland and in America. Powers only once directly addressed his own experience as a sporadic Irish resident, in the final story, “Tinkers,” anthologized in his third and last collection in 1975. Wahl’s writing career proved limited. Her only novel, Rafferty and Co. (1969, semi-fictionalizes the Powers family’s decision to move to Ireland, for a series of extended stays in the 1950s and early 1960s. This article examines these writers’ dramatization of postwar Ireland as expatriate Americans. Powers’ story and Wahl’s novel depict the stresses of living in suburbs south of Dublin while struggling to sustain a countercultural yet conservative idealism. That combination drove the family away from the Midwest, in both fiction and fact, to settle in an economically destitute and patriotically insecure Ireland.

  9. The Architect, the Planner and the Bishop: the Shapers of ‘Ordinary’ Dublin, 1940–60

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    Ellen Rowley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available From the 1930s through the 1960s, Dublin’s development occurred at its periphery: wheels of narrow roadways punctuated by green spaces provided the low-density frameworks for terraced residential boxes surmounted by pitched roofs and fronted by pocket gardens. Vast structures of ecclesiastic authority, Catholic (determinedly revivalist church building and the suite of Catholic (tentatively modernist schools were presented as support structures for mass housing, thereby completing the image and experience of Dublin’s new mid-twentieth-century suburbs.Taking the 1950s genesis of one vast north Dublin neighbourhood, Raheny/Coolock, as a case study, this paper sets previously unexamined archive material from the local Catholic bishopric and Dublin Corporation alongside critical thinking about Irish Catholicism and postwar suburbia generally. Startling hand-drawn maps by local priests reveal how John Charles McQuaid, archbishop of Dublin from 1940–71, influenced Dublin’s planning processes and controlled the architectural flavour of swathes of developing parishes. This paper seeks to unpick the variously silent and active roles of the architect, the planning office, the patron and the user, in the making of the more recent, everyday built environment that is Irish suburbia.

  10. The Catholic Church, moral doctrine, and HIV prevention in Recife, Brazil: Negotiating the contradictions between religious belief and the realities of everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Murray, Laura R; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Religious beliefs have had a key role in shaping local responses to HIV and AIDS. As the world's largest Catholic country, Brazil is no exception. Yet little research has been conducted to document how the religious doctrine is enacted in practice among its lay leaders and followers. In this article, we present ethnographic research from Recife, Brazil, conducted to understand the way in which religious doctrines are interpreted on a local level. Contextualized within the sociology of contemporary Brazilian Catholicism, we draw on interviews with clergy members, lay leaders and parishioners in order to discuss how the Catholic Church's vision of sexuality translates into the everyday lives of its followers by. We explore the disjuncture between the Catholic ideals of fidelity and delaying sex until marriage with the everyday reality of the Church's followers, highlighting the role that gender plays in defining sexual roles and expectations. We conclude posing questions for future research and HIV prevention strategies considering the formal institutional response of the Brazilian Catholic Church to AIDS on one hand, and the social and cultural contexts in which Catholics live their daily lives on the other.

  11. Católicos entre el mercado y el Estado: la calificación moral de películas por parte de la dirección central de cine y teatro de la acción católica argentina / Catholics between the Market and the State: the Moral Rating of Films by the Central Office of Film and Theatre of the Argentine Catholic Ac

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    Fernando Ramírez Llorens

    2016-08-01

    moral appropriateness of attending the shows. We describe the work of the office, study the statistics of rating task and analyze forbidden films by the Office. The objective is to discuss rating criteria, their relationship with the film business and its influence on the state. Faced with the usual idea that the qualifiers automatically rejected everything that had to do with sex, the main hypothesis of this paper is that there are three major issues that drew the attention of the qualifiers: sex, religion, and politics, but the main issue was to consider how these subjects were addressed. Far from finding that members of the office banned everything that had to do with these three topics, we see that they acknowledged and even promoted controversial movies, when they considered that its content was moralizing. Thus, the task of the Office encouraged a debate about the social uses of cinematography that was articulated incomplex ways with the world of cinema and beyond the borders of Catholicism, strongly influencing development of official policies of cinematography control.Keywords: cinema, moral rating, censorship, Catholicism.

  12. Tendencias a la pluralidad y la diversificación del paisaje religioso en el México contemporáneo Tendencies towards plurality and diversification of the religious landscape in contemporary Mexico

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    Renée de la Torre

    2008-01-01

    -protestant; a proportional augment of those who are not members of any religion; a reinstating of native, neo-indigenous or ethnic religious streams that tend to break away from popular Catholic practice; and, finally, a marked tendency to de-institutionalization and subjectivization of beliefs and values. This tendency traverses and diversifies cult practices and ways of acting and believing inside Catholicism. We hereby analyze several sources that deliver empirical data on a national scale, with the purpose of informing on these tendencies towards religious change, namely, INEGI's 1950-2000 census results on the plurality of religious confessions; the results of a study on Catholics in Mexico, which was carried out to contemplate diversity inside Catholicism; an analysis of compared results provided by 1990-2000 World Values Survey data; and, finally, information extracted from a longitudinal study in Guadalajara city. All of these data will help us assess current tendencies towards de-institutionalization and subjectivization of Mexicans.

  13. Belief and Disbelief in the Space Between, 1914-1945

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    Jean-Christophe MURAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article s’intéresse au cheminement politique et spirituel de Douglas Hyde (1911-1996, du méthodisme au catholicisme en passant par le communisme, cheminement qui fait l’objet de son autobiographie, I Believed, publiée en 1950. Membre important du Parti communiste britannique entre 1928 et 1948, Hyde occupe une position dans l’histoire du communisme qui est à la fois typique et atypique. Son adhésion au Parti en 1928 représente une forme de « conversion » partagée par nombre de ses contemporains. Dans son propre cas, une telle démarche impliquait d’abord un rejet des valeurs non-conformistes de son milieu de naissance, à l’origine de sa décision initiale de devenir prêcheur. Malgré son implication active dans toutes les campagnes officielles, Hyde s’est cependant trouvé en décalage grandissant avec la ligne officielle du Parti. L’annonce de sa démission en 1948, consécutive à sa conversion au catholicisme, lui valut naturellement la haine de ses anciens camarades. Le triomphalisme quelque peu irritant des derniers chapitres de I Believed peut être interprété comme l’enthousiasme d’un converti tout à la joie de sa Révélation, mais aussi comme le signe que l’entreprise autobiographique de l’auteur n’était rien d’autre qu’un règlement de comptes avec le communisme.This article explores the political and spiritual journey of Douglas Hyde (1911-1996, from Methodism through communism to Roman Catholicism, as described in I Believed, his autobiography published in 1950. Hyde, a prominent member of the British Communist Party (CPGB from 1928 to 1948, occupies a position in the history of twentieth-century communism that is at once typical and unusual. His becoming a member of the Communist Party in 1928 represented a form of “going-over” shared by many young men and women of his generation. In his particular case, this meant turning his back on the middle-class nonconformist milieu he had

  14. Vida e medo: concepções de corpo e sexualidade na tradição cristã-católica (Life and fear: conceptions of the body and sexuality in Christian tradition-Catholic - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n21p284

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    Carolina Teles Lemos

    2011-05-01

    search to verify how fear of death, recognized as a characteristic of human nature, is expressed in the conceptions of body and sexuality shown by Christian-catholic tradition; also how this fear is perceived today and how it reflects upon the conceptions of body and sexuality nowadays. The research pointed to the conclusion that one of the possible reasons why Christianity-Catholicism invests so much energy in the control of sexuality and the body is that this represents an area of confrontation of fear of death. Such design is echoed in the wider culture, leading people to join, albeit partially, for so long, the ideal Christian-Catholic control of sexuality and the body. Key words: body; sexuality; fear; Catholicism

  15. Trajetórias do sagrado Pathways of the sacred

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    Lísias Nogueira Negrão

    2008-11-01

    through the positions adopted by ecclesiastical or group leaders. Instead, I focus on the individual religious agents and their attitudes in response to a growing religious pluralism and diversification. The work therefore looks at individuals who are 'religious mutants:' people who have changed their religious affiliation at least once during their lives, or who are religious duplicates or multiplicates, participants of two or more symbolic-religious universes simultaneously. By studying people's religious trajectories, we can analyze their beliefs and religious practices irrespective of their affiliation to specific organized groups. With the single exception of the Protestants, still anchored in the conception of a transcendent God and a strong ecclesiality (though the Pentecostals diverge slightly through their incorporation of magic, we can perceive a trend towards a kind of religiosity that Troeltsch called mystic - and which Campbell identifies as its orientalization. The followers of other religions, or the duplicates/multiplicates, tend towards mystical religious ideas and magical practices lived out in private, accept frequenting a variety of religious groups and repudiate clerical authoritarianism. The old conflicts of traditional religious duplicities (Catholicism/Spiritism; Catholicism/Afro-Brazilian Religions have been amplified with new forms (Catholic/Protestant; Catholic/Other Religions and with the emergence of multiplicity, reproducing in Brazilian style the same transformations experienced throughout the West for a long time.

  16. ¿Primos o hermanos? Nacionalismo, integralismo y humanismo cristiano en la Argentina de los años sesenta

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    José A. Zanca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Les études consacrées à l'histoire du catholicisme argentin pendant le XXe siècle reposent sur l’idée selon laquelle il existerait une continuité «structurelle» allant de la Première Guerre mondiale aux années quatre-vingt. Cette continuité renverrait, d’une part, à la formation d'une identité profonde et intransigeante qui aurait catégoriquement rejeté la modernité et, d’autre part, à la diffusion dès les années trente du «mythe de la nation catholique». Dans ces études, Vatican II est considéré comme un «réarrangement» plutôt que comme un changement radical. Cet article revient donc sur ces théories, en y incorporant la tradition de l'humanisme chrétien afin de relier les évolutions du catholicisme avec le processus plus large de sécularisation sociale qui touche les sociétés contemporaines. En ce sens, cette étude interprète l'humanisme chrétien comme un «agent interne» de sécularisation, dans la mesure où ses pratiques et son discours ont progressivement diminué le pouvoir de l'autorité dans la culture religieuse.Studies on the history of the Catholicism in Argentina in the 20th century claim there were very few changes between the first postwar period and the1980s. Many of these studies state that, in spite of the change of discourse, there was an intransigent matrix that openly rejected modernity. In the 1930’s, that rejection was expressed by the «myth of the Catholic nation». Furthermore, these interpretations consider Council Vatican II as a «rearrangement» rather than as a radical change. This article tries to debate these ideas, through the analysis of the tradition of Christian Humanism. Our goal is to link the changes within Catholicism with the process of social secularization. In this sense, this work considers Christian humanism as «an internal agent of secularization», as its practices and discourse allowed the decrease of the importance of authority in the religious

  17. Subversión y mímesis en el mundo evangélico. Exploraciones sobre las minorías religiosas ascendentes en Argentina

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    Joaquín Algranti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L'un des traits formels qui caractérise les groupes évangéliques en Argentine est la forme à travers laquelle ils entrent en relation avec le catholicisme, religion hégémonique dans ce pays. De fait, ils adoptent une attitude critique à l’encontre de ses privilèges institutionnels, tout en essayant d’occuper des espaces de distinction similaires. Cet article explore donc le rapport qui s’établit entre ces deux religions, en proposant une analyse centrée, d’une part, sur l'importance du » catholicisme intégral » dans l'histoire religieuse de l’Argentine et, d’autre part, sur le changement que génèrent les formes d'organisation collective des méga-églises évangéliques. Enfin, cette étude soulève la question de la viabilité de la laïcité dans l’actuelle société argentine.One of the formal features that characterize evangelical groups in Argentina is the way they relate to Catholicism, as a hegemonic religion. We find here an attitude of critic and challenge of their institutional privilege, combined with a quest to occupy the same spaces of distinction. In this article we want to explore this unsolved link. To do this we propose to divide the analysis into two sections. The first one focuses on the importance of « integral Catholicism » in the religious history of Argentina. The second one aims to characterize the changes of the collective organization that introduce the evangelical mega-churches, in which is possible to find lines of continuity and rupture with this matrix. In the conclusion we will pose the question related to the condition of possibility of secularism in this context.Uno de los rasgos formales que caracteriza a los grupos evangélicos en la Argentina consiste en la forma en que se relacionan con el catolicismo, en tanto religión hegemónica. Aquí se pone en juego una actitud de crítica y desafío de sus privilegios institucionales combinada con una búsqueda por ocupar los

  18. Pluralismo e multiplicidades religiosas no Brasil contemporâneo Religious pluralism and multiplicities in contemporary Brazil

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    Lísias Nogueira Negrão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma visão panorâmica sobre a formação do campo religioso brasileiro desde os tempos coloniais até os dias correntes. Parte de uma visão histórica dos tipos de catolicismo que vicejaram no Brasil colonial e imperial e das suas características que influenciam a religiosidade brasileira até o presente. Passa pelas transformações advindas com a proclamação da República: a separação constitucional da Igreja Católica do Estado e a instituição da liberdade religiosa por este garantida. Acompanha as transformações ocorridas ao longo do século XX, com o estabelecimento de um campo religioso pluralista em que o catolicismo vai, gradualmente, perdendo adeptos para outros grupos religiosos, especialmente, os protestantes pentecostais, sem, contudo, perder a hegemonia. Chega à atualidade, em que essas tendências persistem, mas, além disso, altera-se substancialmente a dinâmica do campo religioso, com a perda de influência das instituições religiosas em conseqüência da subjetivização das crenças e práticas. Desse ponto de vista, o artigo analisa as trajetórias religiosas individuais possibilitadas pelo crescente pluralismo e pela progressiva adesão a duplicidades e mesmo multiplicidades religiosas, que acrescentam novas formas de expressão às tradicionais. Tais processos atingem a quase totalidade dos mutantes religiosos - a exceção é apenas o grupo protestante -, inclusive os católicos retornados após outras experiências de vida religiosa, e envolvem crenças e práticas provindas de fontes religiosas orientais tradicionais e recentes, bem como o esoterismo.This article presents a panoramic view of the formation of the Brazilian religious field from the colonial times to the current days. It begins with a historic view of the Catholicism types that thrived in the colonial and imperial times in Brazil and of their characteristics influencing Brazilian religiosity to the present. It goes through

  19. Vida em Santidade: modos de ser santo em uma comunidade messiânico-milenarista do sertão baiano (Pau de Colher, 1934-1938 - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n18p170

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    Filipe Pinto Monteiro

    2010-11-01

    throughout the research - around the manifestation of catholic saints in the Bahia´s hinterland in the 30s of the twentieth century. The movement of Pau de Colher, through the preaching of their leaders, established a dialogue with a tradition dating back to the origins of christianity; did believe in the resurrection of characters as St. Joseph the Carpenter and St. Mary, the Immaculate - privileged figures in our study -; and re-updated a set of beliefs and values transmitted by the hands of itinerant missionaries and blessed wandering during Brazil's history, revealing an intense hybridization between popular and ecclesiastical catholicism. Key words: Pau de Colher; saints; hinterland; catholicism; popular religiousness.

  20. Claves belgas para la lectura de Por la Europa católica de Emilia Pardo Bazán

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    Behiels, Lieve

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán took a trip to Belgium in order to familiarize herself with Belgian social Catholicism; the result was an essay, Por la Europa católica. In this article we will try to answer the following questions: did the author interview relevant personalities, did she document herself with trustworthy sources and did she provide a faithful image of the Belgian socio-political reality to her Spanish readers? First we will offer data about the publication of the texts, second we will sketch the context of the social role of the Church in Belgium and Spain at the turn of the century, and then we will analyse the chapters on social policy in the essay. We may conclude that Pardo Bazán interviewed Catholic figures of the highest level and visited important social works supervised by the Church, but she made no contact with the early Christian democracy. Her main source of information on the socialist movement is Le socialisme en Belgique, still a historical reference work. Although she knew about the tensions in the Catholic party and the huge social antagonisms, in her book she tends to present a too idyllic image of Belgium, probably in order to be able to present the country’s social Catholicism as an example for Spain.En 1901, Emilia Pardo Bazán realizó un viaje a Bélgica para conocer desde dentro el catolicismo social belga. Nos preguntamos en este artículo si la autora entrevistó las figuras realmente relevantes, si se documentó en las fuentes importantes y si da una imagen fiable de la situación sociopolítica belga al lector español. En primer lugar ofrecemos datos sobre la publicación de los textos, luego esbozamos el contexto del papel social de la Iglesia en Bélgica y en España y analizamos los capítulos sobre política social de Por la Europa católica. Podemos concluir que la autora entrevistó figuras intelectuales de pro entre el clero y visitó obras sociales enmarcadas por la Iglesia, pero no contact

  1. The Art of the Portrait in the Religious Painting of Wallachia and Moldavia in the 15th – 17th centuries

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    Valentin Sava

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the diversity of the forms of socio-economic and cultural-artistic development, at the end of the 14th century, Wallachia, Moldavia and the knights of Romanian origins of Transylvania, Banat and Maramureş were gathered in one single system, with feudality institutions of Occidental inspiration, but with mostly Orthodox spirituality, a system that is permanently struggling to find the perfect equilibrium between the Islamic-Ottoman expansionism and the insistent conversion actions of Western Catholicism. Medieval painting promoted the portrait as an artistic genre beyond the canonical constraints of the painting of Byzantine inspiration. The votive portrait of the founder did no necessarily reproduce the individual features of the portrayed person, not even in the last period, when the artistic and technical evolutions could initiate tendencies to a desacralization of the religious themes. The introduction of the portrait reflecting the social class in the Court of the two Romanian Countries through the Central – European sources of Austria, Hungary or Poland produced a major change in the aesthetics of the portrait when the artist came to have a new vision on the way he rendered the physical features and later the mental experiences of the model, sometimes making use of an obvious descriptive exactness in rendering the physical features, the physiognomy of the portrayed person. Just like in the medieval votive portrait, in the case of easel portraits, the artist focused on the representation of external features, according to the social importance and rank of the portrayed person. Gradually, the evolution of the corresponding capture of the physical features, initially sufficient, went up from a qualitative point of view to complete this first effort with a precious performance of the expression of the spiritual characteristics of the portrayed character, insistently claimed by both the artist and the contemplator.

  2. El discurso desincretizador y womanista de Georgina Herrera: hacia una descolonización de la espiritualidad de la mujer negra cubana=Georgina Herrera’s Womanist and unsyncretic discourse: Toward a Spiritual Decolonization of the Afro-Cuban Woman

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    Ana Zapata-Calle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El propósito de este artículo es usar la poesía de Georgina Herrera para deconstruir la tradición de la santería que considera la religión yoruba como una ramificación del catolicismo y no como una religión universal. Georgina Herrera refleja en sus poemarios África (2006 y Gatos y liebres o libro de las conciliaciones (2010 el nuevo discurso afro-cubano que apuesta por una heterogeneidad religiosa que emerge en Cuba a finales de los años ochenta. Además, la poeta aboga en su poesía por el derecho del liderazgo religioso de la mujer afro-cubana, recuperando las practicas yorubas ortodoxas y el papel activo de las mujeres en sus rituales. Abstract The purpose of this article is to use Georgina Herrera’s poetry in order to deconstruct the tradition of santería that considers the Yoruba religion under the wing of Catholicism and not as a universal religion. Georgina Herrera reflects in her books of poems África (2006 and Gatos y liebres o libro de las conciliaciones (2010 the new Afro-Cuban discourse of religious heterogeneity that emerged in Cuba at the end of the eighties. Furthermore, the poet advocates for the right to leadership of Afro-Cuban women recovering the orthodox Yoruba practices and the active role of women in their rituals.

  3. (Reconstruyendo la identidad musical española: el jazz y el discurso cultural del franquismo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

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    Iván Iglesias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.   Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz

  4. (Reconstruyendo la identidad musical española: el jazz y el discurso cultural del franquismo durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial

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    Iván Iglesias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La victoria del general Franco en la Guerra Civil, en abril de 1939, proporcionó a su régimen la legitimidad para emprender la reconstrucción identitaria de España bajo los preceptos de la tradición, el nacionalismo y el catolicismo. La música ocupó un destacado lugar en la articulación de esa imagen, como parte integrante de la cultura y la raza españolas y como medio de información y persuasión. Este artículo analiza el papel del jazz como referente simbólico y como práctica musical en la propaganda de la dictadura franquista hasta 1945, en relación con las condiciones ideológicas y materiales de España y los avatares de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.   Palabras Clave: España, franquismo, Segunda Guerra Mundial, propaganda, Estados Unidos, música, jazz___________________________Abstract:General Franco’s victory in the Civil War, in April 1939, provided to his regime the legitimacy to tackle the reconstruction of the Spanish identity under the rules of tradition, nationalism and Catholicism. Music occupied a prominent place in the articulation of this image, as an integral part of the Spanish culture and race and as a means of information and persuasion. This article examines the role of jazz as symbolic reference and musical practice in the propaganda of the Francoist dictatorship until 1945, in relation to the ideological and material conditions of Spain and the changes of the Second World War.Keywords: Spain, Francoism, Second World War, propaganda, United States, music, jazz

  5. La identidad religiosa en el humanismo bíblico español: Pedro de Valencia y la integración judía e islámica

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    Nieto Ibáñez, Jesús M.ª

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The work of the humanist Pedro de Valencia belongs to “biblical humanism”. Religion and politics are inseparable in the work of this author. In the sixteenth century, a part of the population in Spain still subscribed to Jewish or Islamic thought. The Spanish church was making a huge effort at the time to integrate within the traditional Catholicism converts from these two communities. In this conflict the justifications of religious identity in various writings of Pedro de Valencia can be located. The common denominator of the writings discussed is summarized in the idea of religious unity of Conversos and Moriscos under the authority of the king in response to the conflicts in the Spain of the time.La obra del humanista Pedro de Valencia pertenece al «humanismo biblista». Religión y política son inseparables en este autor. En la España del siglo XVI existía todavía una parte de la población que pensaba en clave judía o bien en clave islámica. La iglesia española del momento estaba haciendo un esfuerzo enorme por integrar dentro del catolicismo tradicional a los conversos de estas dos comunidades. En este conflicto se enmarcan las justificaciones de la identidad religiosa en varios escritos de Pedro de Valencia. El común denominador de los escritos comentados se resume en la idea de la unidad religiosa de judeoconversos y moriscos bajo la autoridad del rey como respuesta a los conflictos de la España de la época.

  6. The Petition of Peter the Great for The Orthodox Christians of Venice as Part of Russia's Foreign Policy

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    Iastrebov Aleksei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The petition of Peter the Great for return of a taken church from the Orthodox christians of Venice is interesting in the context of the religious motives behind his domestic and foreign policy, his interaction with Catholicism, and his support of Orthodoxy in Europe and the Ottoman Empire. The charter itself is a unique document testifying to the concerns of the Russian czar for coreligionists in a Catholic country. At the same time, it is clear that in an epoch when religion was tightly intertwined with politics, such an appeal was not only part of religious but also secular politics. The goals of the Russian government in the Balkans coincide with the aspirations of the Orthodox peoples languishing under the yoke of the Turks: they had seen in Russia the liberator of the hated invaders. The natural allies of Moscow-Petersburg themselves for a long time to convince kings to stand up for the persecuted faith, and calls were heard from bishops of the Eastern Church and the authorities are dependent on the Turkish vassal principalities. Finally, the moment came. Despite the fact that Peter did not want war with the Sultan, he had to prepare for it, and for that sought to mobilize all the allies, including the Balkan Christians. The letter addressed to the Venetian Doge, actually addressed to them. Following the message the Russian government opens in Venice diplomatic agency, whose task are monitoring the political situation in Italy and the Balkans, as well as the recruitment of volunteers under the fl ag of St. Andrew. Thus, the charter-petition of Peter for the Orthodox of Venice has completely fulfi lled its task — it has become part of a policy to win sympathy of the peoples of the Balkans, and has contributed to the understanding that the Venetian government would not object to the actions of the Russian envoys in the country.

  7. 'Mixed blessings': parental religiousness, parenting, and child adjustment in global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Lansford, Jennifer E; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Steinberg, Laurence; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2017-08-01

    Most studies of the effects of parental religiousness on parenting and child development focus on a particular religion or cultural group, which limits generalizations that can be made about the effects of parental religiousness on family life. We assessed the associations among parental religiousness, parenting, and children's adjustment in a 3-year longitudinal investigation of 1,198 families from nine countries. We included four religions (Catholicism, Protestantism, Buddhism, and Islam) plus unaffiliated parents, two positive (efficacy and warmth) and two negative (control and rejection) parenting practices, and two positive (social competence and school performance) and two negative (internalizing and externalizing) child outcomes. Parents and children were informants. Greater parent religiousness had both positive and negative associations with parenting and child adjustment. Greater parent religiousness when children were age 8 was associated with higher parental efficacy at age 9 and, in turn, children's better social competence and school performance and fewer child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. However, greater parent religiousness at age 8 was also associated with more parental control at age 9, which in turn was associated with more child internalizing and externalizing problems at age 10. Parental warmth and rejection had inconsistent relations with parental religiousness and child outcomes depending on the informant. With a few exceptions, similar patterns of results held for all four religions and the unaffiliated, nine sites, mothers and fathers, girls and boys, and controlling for demographic covariates. Parents and children agree that parental religiousness is associated with more controlling parenting and, in turn, increased child problem behaviors. However, children see religiousness as related to parental rejection, whereas parents see religiousness as related to parental efficacy and warmth, which have different

  8. Theory and Practice of Parochial Preaching in the late 18th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

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    Stanisław Witecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades of the 18th century, a few Polish dioceses were governed by representatives of the Catholic Enlightenment. Their pastoral activities focused on the reform of the priesthood and, especially, on the duty of preaching. Despite being perceived as members of a single group, their ideas differed to the point of being mutually contradictory. Interpretation of the ideological differences among these bishops is the preliminary aim of the paper. I examined pastoral letters and preacher handbooks written by four of these bishops: Michał Poniatowski, Ignacy Massalski, Wojciech Skarszewski, and Porfiriusz Skarbek-Ważyński. However, my main concern is the social practice of parochial preachers in their dioceses. I was interested in the methodology of sermonizing, the frequency of preaching topics, and the style and content of homilies delivered by clergy. I based my research on pastoral visitations, especially from the Diocese of Płock, providing information about the printed collections of sermons used by parochial clergy as well as the texts they wrote. The main conclusions are as follows: the clergy adopted to some extent only those reforms which were adjusted to their parochial needs and were supported by administrative pressure. Regardless of theoretical programs, preaching in the Commonwealth was changing in the direction of “Enlightened Tridentine Catholicism.” This means that the clergy accepted an enlightened style and language and a focus on morality, but not models of social and natural worlds. However, by rejecting the latter, they avoided enhancing the process of division between popular and elite.

  9. The Socio-cultural Characteristics of Zemstvo District Heads in Ufa Province at the Late of XIX – the Beginning of XX Centuries

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    Rezida I. Kantimirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studied the activity of zemsky district heads in Ufa province in the late XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, in the context of the analysis of their social composition, economic status, confession and other characteristics. Although the different aspects of local government institutions activity throughout the Russian Empire are widely studied in the Russian historiography, the research studies on the review of regional experience in such activities in the territory of the Russian province are scarce. Special works devoted to the study of the activities of the zemstvo district heads in the territory of Ufa province, aren’t represented. The authors, basing on attracting a wide range of unpublished sources, among which employees formulary lists have particular importance, attempted to present the basic socio-cultural characteristics of this category of officials in the local government system on materials Ufa province. The authors concluded that the average shape of the province zemstvo district heads had the following characteristics. The composition of the zemstvo heads in Ufa province, was completed mostly from the local nobility, which was 78 % of the total. The property status of zemstvo district heads in Ufa province was characterized by the fact that 44 % of zemstvo heads had land ownership, 10% had houses in different cities of Ufa province and 46 % did not have the real estate. By confession the vast majority of zemstvo district heads were Orthodox, and only 7 % of the number of professed Islam, Catholicism and Lutheranism. A feature of the educational level of district heads in Ufa province was the fact that half of their number was represented by persons with military education.

  10. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects.

  11. Worlds apart 2: Thailand and the Philippines. Heroes and villains in an Asian population drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, G D

    1994-01-01

    A comparison of population growth was made for the Philippines and Thailand. Although both countries had 20 million population in 1950 and developed family planning (FP) in similar stages, Thailand had a contraceptive use rate of about 65% and total fertility of 2.1 and a population of 57 million, while the Philippines had 7.4 million more people and slower economic development. Environmental effects of this situation in the Philippines included the movement of people to marginal mountainous land and soil erosion and degradation. A major medical problem has been complications from illegal abortion. While Thailand is expected to reach replacement level by 1995, the Philippines will not reach replacement level until at least 2015, by which time the population will be 20 million more than in Thailand. Thailand is experiencing declines in school age population, and the Philippines is experiencing growth in its school enrollment and labor force. Although the Philippines has received more foreign FP assistance than Thailand, the demographic impact has been greater in Thailand. The Philippines made mistakes in centralizing its FP efforts in Manila and spending too much on communication programs and less on service delivery in rural areas. After 1978, the emphasis shifted and funds were diminished for all social services by the Marcos regime. Mrs. Aguino could not right the wrongs of the previous administration because of her strong commitment to Roman Catholicism. The new Fidel Ramos administration and Health Secretary Flavier are now dedicated to promotion of primary health care and FP. Unfortunately, past political and religious leaders abnegated their responsibility in promoting responsible parenthood and providing appropriate social services. Instead these parties achieved personal wealth at the expense of the masses and protected a "dubious morality."

  12. Marina Caffiero (Hg.: Rubare le anime. Roma: Viella 2008

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    Rita Unfer Lukoschik

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In den Akten des päpstlichen Staatsarchivs und der römischen jüdischen Gemeinde finden sich zeitgenössische Zeugnisse für die im päpstlichen Rom vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert nicht seltene Zwangskonvertierung jüdischer Mädchen und Frauen zum Katholizismus. Eines der wertvollsten Dokumente dieser Konversionspraxis liegt nunmehr in einer kommentierten Neuedition vor: das Tagebuch der 1749 sich erfolgreich der versuchten Zwangskonvertierung widersetzenden 18-jährigen Anna del Monte. In ihrer Einleitung ordnet die Herausgeberin Marina Caffiero dieses außergewöhliche Einzelschicksal in die zeitgleich und parallel laufenden Assimilations- und Emanzipationsprozesse ein, die sich in der mit aufklärerischem Gedankengut ‚infizierten‘ jüdischen Oberschicht Roms im 18. Jahrhundert abzeichneten.Contemporary reports on the forced conversion of Jewish girls and woman to Catholicism, not a rare occurrence in papal Rome from the 16th to the 19th centuries, can be found in the files of the official papal archive and the Roman Jewish community. One of the most valuable documents of this conversion practice has now been published in a new annotation edition: The diary of 18-year-old Anna del Monte, who was able to successfully resist the attempted forced conversion in 1749. In her introduction the editor Marina Caffiero places this extraordinary individual fate within the concurrent and parallel processes of assimilation and emancipation. These emerge in 18th century Rome’s Jewish upper class, which was “infected” with Enlightenment ideas.

  13. DOGMA AND ANTINOMY IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF SERGEY BULGAKOV

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    Natalya Vaganova

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the thought of Bulgakov as regards the dogmatic formulation of the council of Chalcedon as well as his thoughts on the Holy Eucharist. The author wishes to describe the difficult path which Bulgakov followed to arrive at his understanding of the most fundamental points of Christian doctrine and during the course of which he was initially fascinated and later disenchanted by Roman Catholicism. This rather short period, usually known by the name of the Crimean Philosophy of Bulgakov, is one of the key moments in the whole of his activity and provided the final impetus for his turn to Sophiology. The author of this article describes how the return of Bulgakov to Russian Orthodoxy was accompanied by the philosopher’s rediscovery of Sophiology. Sophiology was interpreted by Bulgakov as relieving the existing antinomy between two opposing principles in both the mystery of the Eucharist and the mystery of the Incarnation, between the divine and the mortal. The problem of the consecration of the holy gifts was met and resolved by Bulgakov in the domain of Christology and more precisely in the doctrine of the body of Christ: the earthly or material body and the glorifi ed body, the reality of Christ’s body up until the Resurrection and after the Resurrection. This teaching about the relationship between the two realities of the corporality of Christ was little studied in Orthodoxy Theology before Bulgakov. It was interpreted by Bulgakov in the light of his Sophiology: the Incarnation as the absolute realization in human form of the divine sophiological prototype. The author of this article concludes that Bulgakov’s use of Sophiology provided him with a way to oppose and overcome Kant’s transcendentalism. Thus, it became one of the major facets of Russian Philosophy

  14. Megalomania narodowa w ujęciu twórców polskich początku XX wieku

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    Katarzyna Wrzesińska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available National megalomania in Polish reflection in the early 20th century In the early 20th century, a number of Polish thinkers betrayed a mentality in which was deeply rooted the notion of the Polish nation’s unique character. These thinkers also expressed a conviction that Poles had a special mission both in Europe in general and towards other European nations. The signs of the intellectual elite’s national megalomania were reflected in Polish journalistic writings in the final period of World War I and the initial period of regained independence shortly after it. The article analyzes the views of selected thinkers: the philosopher W. Lutosławski, the journalist and literary critic A. Górski, the publicist A. Chołoniewski, and the historian J.K. Kochanowski. All of them believed in an optimistic picture of Polish history and emphasized the significance of the Polish mission in an ethical dimension understood as a desire to establish European order based both on respect towards the individual and at the same time on national diversity. This attitude was clearly based on Romantic thought – a historiosophy tinted with mesianism. All these authors dealt with the same themes from Polish history, treating them as a justification of their attitudes (such as: the Republic of Nobility as an embodiment of the ideal of freedom, Poland as an intermediary between the East and the West, as well as the propagator of Christian civilization in the East; the prominent role of Poles among the Slavic peoples, the importance of Catholicism. All in all, they created a mythologized vision of the Polish Republic in order to integrate the Polish society and mobilize it to act. This stream of glorification of the Polish statehood met with severe criticism after Poland regained its independence. S. Zakrzewski, F. Bujak, J.S. Bystroń, Bocheński brothers and others protested against falsifying the history of Poland.

  15. Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueiro, Inês; Teixeira, João C.; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte, and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b) was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population. PMID:25699075

  16. Un “ethos” para el gobierno y la administración: un debate entre el liberalismo y el jesuitismo políticos

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    Sauquillo, Julián

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This survey refutes Carl Schmitt’s thesis that hold catholicism, and jesuitism in particular, as a great complexio oppositorum which joins both conservatism and leftism under a same absolute unity represented by the papal forms. The “ethos” of obedience postulated by the Society of Jesus decisively contributed to the formation of an Administration that surpasses the ecclesiastic burocracy’s framework. It replaced the Renaissance education for an education with a Thomist stamp, decisive in the fashioning of the disciplined “ethos” of the official who acts sine ira et studio. But it failed for its attempt to replace the vitality, the naturalism and the confrontation of opinions of Liberalism under the aforementioned complexio oppositorum.

    Este estudio rebate las tesis de Carl Schmitt que conciben al catolicismo, y al jesuitismo en particular, como una gran complexio oppositorum que reúne tanto al conservadurismo como al izquierdismo bajo una misma unidad absoluta representada por las formas del Papa. El “ethos” de obediencia postulado por la Compañía de Jesús contribuyó decisivamente a la formación de una Administración que rebasa el marco de la burocracia eclesiástica. Sustituyó la educación renacentista por una educación de cuño tomista, decisiva en la formación del “ethos” disciplinado del funcionario que actúa sine ira et studio. Pero fracasó en la pretensión de remplazar la vitalidad, el naturalismo y la confrontación de opiniones del liberalismo bajo la mencionada complexio oppositorum.

  17. PORTUGUESE CRYPTO-JEWS: THE GENETIC HERITAGE OF A COMPLEX HISTORY

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    Inês Pires Nogueiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages’ was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population.

  18. To the polls, in defence of the faith! Catholic political mobilization in Spain at the beginning of the twentieth century | ¡A las urnas, en defensa de la fe! La movilización política católica en la España de comienzos del siglo XX

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    Rosa Ana Gutiérrez Lloret

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the political and electoral mobilization of Spanish Catholics in the first decade of the twentieth century, using the following documentary sources: pastoral letters and papal documents, documents from the Vatican archives, national and local Catholic newspapers and magazines, apostolic publications, propaganda material, and the official bulletins of the bishoprics. We examine the first steps of Spanish political Catholicism, fraught with difficulties, internal divisions and tension, in a context of mobilization and propaganda promoted by the Church hierarchies as a policy of «social defence» in the face of the progressive secularization of society and the subsequent loss of ideological, social and institutional influence of the Church. | El presente trabajo aborda la movilización política y electoral de los católicos españoles en la primera década del siglo XX, utilizando como base documental diversas fuentes: Cartas pastorales y documentos pontificios, documentación de los Archivos Vaticanos, prensa y revistas católicas nacionales y locales, publicaciones del apostolado, folletos propagandísticos y Boletines Oficiales de los Obispados. Se analizan los primeros pasos, no exentos de dificultades, divisiones y crispaciones internas, del catolicismo político español en un contexto de movilización y propaganda impulsado por las jerarquías eclesiásticas como una política de «defensa social» a la progresiva secularización de la sociedad y a la paralela pérdida de influencia ideológica, social e institucional de la Iglesia.

  19. The importance of religion in shaping volcanic risk perception in Italy, with special reference to Vesuvius and Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David K.; Duncan, Angus M.; Dibben, Christopher J. L.

    2008-05-01

    With the exception of societies that are relatively untouched by modernism, the academic consensus holds that since the Eighteenth Century Enlightenment popular perception of divine responsibility for disasters has been progressively replaced by a perspective that views losses as resulting from the effects of extreme natural events upon vulnerable human populations. Nature is considered to be de-moralised. By means of examples of volcanic eruptions that have occurred over the past one hundred and fifty years and which transcend place, culture and faith tradition, the present authors have maintained a contrasting position, by arguing that religious perspectives are still important features of the ways in which people in many societies perceive volcanic eruptions. In the present paper it is argued that religious terms of reference have been and remain vital elements in the perceptions held by a significant proportion of the population in southern Italy when confronted by volcanic eruptions, particularly those that have occurred on Vesuvius and Etna. Within the context of what is termed popular Catholicism, the development of distinctive religious responses in pre-industrial times is first described. Next, through bibliographic research and social surveys, it is argued that the idiosyncratic religious character of disaster responses has been maintained following eruptions that have occurred during the past one hundred years, including the small number of eruptions of Etna that have taken place in the early years of the twenty-first century. The implications of these religious perceptions and behaviours are discussed within the context of emergency planning and the suggestion is made that they form part of a 'parallel practice' in response to volcanic threat, where actions to encourage the miraculous take place at the same time as more 'rationally' grounded protective measures such as evacuation.

  20. The Religious Identities and Social Stucture of Bosnia-Herzegovina

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    Nebojša Šavija-Valha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the structural preconditions of articulation of religious identities in Bosnia-Herzegovina from the historical perspective. These have been produced by the processes of Christianization and Islamization at the intersection of heterogeneous origin of Bosnian-Herzegovinian population, the influence of paganism and folk beliefs, and the geopolitical situation on the border line between the great empires. Due to the influence of these factors, these processes have never been successful in encompassing the entire population, which has always been divided among several simultaneously co-existing religious institutions: Catholicism, Christian Orthodoxy, the Bosnian Church and Islam. Through the institution of Millet, allowing its subjects relative cultural and social freedoms within their religious communities, the Ottoman Empire provides the communities with preconditions for ethnic modelling, but also for “political” articulation. The interplay of these agents has provided a base for interaction among the religious groups, which can be seen at two complementary levels: the vertical one, “the political”, ruled by hierarchical and discriminative relations; and the lateral one, “the social”, which is a sphere of egalitarian trans- and inter-ethnic social practices. Both levels have their religious aspects: at the first, it is about institutionalized religions; at the second, about “folk” religion, a syncretism of pre-Christian tradition and Christian and Islamic elements. Hence, religion has been acting in a totalizing way in Bosnian-Herzegovinian society, appearing both as a primary repertoire of symbolic elements and as a basic mechanism of further group identifications – ethnic and national.

  1. Portugal: setting new goals for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B

    1987-11-01

    Portugal has entered a period of economic recovery spearheaded by Prime Minister Anibal Cavaco Silva. A slow but steady rise in the standard of living may finally offset the 0.9% annual growth in the country's population. Growth in the gross national product (GNP) reached 5% in 1987 and fixed capital investment increased 9.5% in 1986. Cavaco Silva's economic recovery program has included entry into the Common Market, foreign investment in industry, attention to the enormous public debt, and dismantling of the state-centered economy of the 1970s. Per capita GNP increased from US$743 in 1985 to $1970 in 1986 and unemployment had fallen to 8.5% by 1988. The prolongation of average life expectancy to 68 years for men and 75 years for women indicates a general improvement in the health and lifestyle of most Portuguese. By the year 2000, the population of Portugal is expected to reach 11.1 million, with the largest rates of growth occurring in the west and coastal areas. Half of the population falls into the 25-64-year age group, suggesting potential for economic growth and spending. A low rate of urbanization (30%) has complicated attempts to raise the level of technology in industry. Strong adherence to Catholicism is largely responsible for the exceptionally high marriage rate and low divorce rate in Portugal. The average birth rate was 14.5/1000 in 1987 and the average total fertility rate was 2.1. 34% of all births are to women 20-24 years old. The annual mortality rate is 9.6/1000, while infant mortality stands at 17.8/1000. A significant change occurring in Portugal in the current period is the rise of a new middle class.

  2. Abortion: a reader's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisel, L M

    1996-01-01

    This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."

  3. Modern Literature and Christianity: The Religious Issue in Lucien Rebatet's Les Deux étendards

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    Pascal A. Ifri

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Lucien Rebatet's Les Deux étendards (The Two Standards has been hailed by a number of critics as one of the best novels written in France since World War II, it is surrounded by a wall of silence because its author actively supported the Nazi movement before and during the war. Yet the novel does not deal with politics but with love, art, and religion. Based on real events, it is the story of a love triangle involving Michel, who has lost his Catholic faith, Régis, who studies to become a Jesuit priest, and Anne-Marie, a young student who shares a mystical love with Régis and also intends to join a religious order. When Michel meets Anne-Marie, he falls desperately in love with her, but hopelessly since she belongs to God and to Régis. Yet, fascinated by his friends' adventure, he tries to recover the faith he has lost in order to join them on their mystical plane, but eventually fails. The theme of religion and more specifically Catholicism dominates Les Deux étendards which treats the most complex religious issues with passion and intensity and tackles the history of the Church and religious exegesis with a thoroughness and a minuteness worthy of Proust. Over one thousand pages, Les Deux étendards , mainly through Régis and Michel's animated discussions, reenacts the quarrel that has been raging for two thousand years between believers and nonbelievers. If, in the end, Les Deux étendards condemns religion, it is in order to better affirm what can be called the sacred or the spiritual which stands in opposition to the religious. In any case, this passionate handling of religion, its place at the heart of the story and its intimate association with the other main themes, love and art, largely account for the originality of the novel.

  4. Portuguese crypto-Jews: the genetic heritage of a complex history.

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    Nogueiro, Inês; Teixeira, João C; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Alvarez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The first documents mentioning Jewish people in Iberia are from the Visigothic period. It was also in this period that the first documented anti-Judaic persecution took place. Other episodes of persecution would happen again and again during the long troubled history of the Jewish people in Iberia and culminated with the Decrees of Expulsion and the establishment of the Inquisition: some Jews converted to Catholicism while others resisted and were forcedly baptized, becoming the first Iberian Crypto-Jews. In the 18th century the official discrimination and persecution carried out by the Inquisition ended and several Jewish communities emerged in Portugal. From a populational genetics point of view, the worldwide Diaspora of contemporary Jewish communities has been intensely studied. Nevertheless, very little information is available concerning Sephardic and Iberian Crypto-Jewish descendants. Data from the Iberian Peninsula, the original geographic source of Sephardic Jews, is limited to two populations in Portugal, Belmonte, and Bragança district, and the Chueta community from Mallorca. Belmonte was the first Jewish community studied for uniparental markers. The construction of a reference model for the history of the Portuguese Jewish communities, in which the genetic and classical historical data interplay dynamically, is still ongoing. Recently an enlarged sample covering a wide region in the Northeast Portugal was undertaken, allowing the genetic profiling of male and female lineages. A Jewish specific shared female lineage (HV0b) was detected between the community of Belmonte and Bragança. In contrast to what was previously described as a hallmark of the Portuguese Jews, an unexpectedly high polymorphism of lineages was found in Bragança, showing a surprising resistance to the erosion of genetic diversity typical of small-sized isolate populations, as well as signs of admixture with the Portuguese host population.

  5. Regulation of Islamic art in confessional policy of Catherine II (on materials of the Tyumen region

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    Yulia A. Bortnikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of the religious conflicts and Islamic extremism, education of confessional tolerance, – these and other questions became the most actual political and scientific problem now. Art reflects outlook of people and is an ideological lever on society. In article the policy on use of Islamic art for education of confessional tolerance is analyzed. This policy began by Catherine II in 1773, had the content of reform and extended on religious art and architecture of all gentiles in the Russian Empire. Article is written on the basis of materials of the Central historical archive of the Republic of Bashkortostan and exhibits of the museums. The Tyumen region (the South of the modern Tyumen region was an optimum basis for carrying out this policy because of the mixed option of Islam which arose there. Muslim art included a complex of the subjects intended for execution of a religious cult. It reflected elements of Shamanism and Tengriism, and after carrying out reform – Judaism and Christianity. Thus, at it there were forms and images of all religions of the Tyumen region. Syncretism of Islamic art was shown in a typology of cult objects, their ornament and mission. The most unusual phenomenon was existence of a religious sculpture which was forbidden in Islam and Orthodoxy, but existed in both religions, and also in Catholicism, Tengriism and Shamanism. In article ways of impact on Muslim art which were used by the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual meeting are considered. It didn't interfere in preservation of religious syncretism, and also executed orders of the government on Christianization of Islamic art. Authors come to a conclusion that reform carried lines of policy of multiculturalism for gentiles.

  6. Desponta novo ator no campo religioso brasileiro? O Padre Cícero Romão Batista

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    Pierre Sanchis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available É em torno dos vários sentidos possíveis do qualificativo de "popular" que gira a problemática deste artigo. A figura carismática do Pe. Cícero Romão Batista, patriarca de Juazeiro, integra de há muito o panteão da devoção popular de milhões de romeiros, mas era objeto até hoje de amplas reservas no seio da Igreja oficial. O momento parece ser de revisão destas perspectivas. A reabilitação institucional do "padrinho" pode estar em curso. Pergunta-se aqui em que medida e com que condições esta transformação da sua imagem pode confluir com certa metamorfose do que se convencionou chamar de "Igreja Popular", de modo a dotar inesperadamente de novo ícone o catolicismo brasileiro em seu conjunto.The discussion presented in this paper turns around the several possible meanings of the qualifying adjective "popular". The charismatic figure of Father Cícero Romão Batista, Juazeiro's patriarch, has belonged, for many decades, to the pantheon of popular devotion of millions of pilgrims, but it is nevertheless still regarded with strong reserve inside the official Church. At the moment, it seems that this official position is being reviewed. An institutional rehabilitation of the "godfather" may well being under way. This being the case, the paper asks if, to what extent and under what conditions, can this transformation of Father Cícero's image flow together with certain metamorphosis of what has been named "Popular Church", so as to endow, even though unexpectedly, the Brazilian Catholicism with a new icon.

  7. «No es la religión de Cristo». La figura de Jesús de Nazaret en el socialismo español hasta 1936

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    Joseba Louzao Villar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse l'image de Jésus de Nazareth que produit le socialisme espagnol entre la fin du XIXe et le début du XXe siècles, dans des journaux tels que El Socialista et La Lucha de Clases et différents ouvrages de référence. Jusque dans les années trente, le socialisme a présenté la figure de Jésus comme un antécédent du socialisme. C’est pour cette raison qu’elle est devenue un élément central dans le conflit normatif entre le catholicisme et la laïcité.This article will explore the image of Jesus of Nazareth in Spanish socialism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, through its publications (El Socialista or La Lucha de Clases and books. Until the thirties, socialism discussed this religious figure as an antecedent of socialism. For this reason, the image of Jesus became a central element of the anticlericals complaints within the normative conflict between catholicism and laicism.Este artículo analiza la imagen de Jesús de Nazaret en el socialismo español entre finales de siglo XIX e inicios del XX, a través de sus publicaciones (El Socialista o La Lucha de Clases y libros. Hasta la década de los treinta, el socialismo debatió sobre este personaje religioso como antecedente del socialismo. Por eso mismo, la imagen de Jesús se convirtió en un elemento central de las denuncias anticlericales dentro del conflicto normativo entre catolicismo y laicismo.

  8. Professional 'imperialism' and resistance: Social Work in the Filippines

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    Jem Price

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The sociology of professions has traditionally attempted to increase our understanding of categorisations of different occupations by reference to taxonomic hierarchies, as well as the identification and exploration of characteristics that warrant 'professional status'. In may cases, this explorations take the forms of historical accounts of professional activity. Rarely, however, has the literature on professions explored processes of professionalization in devoliping, post-colonial contexts. This article contributes to this body of literature in the study of professions in a number of ways. Firstly, it 'maps' the growth of social work in the Filippines, placing this account within a broader discussions of social work as an internationality activity (Harrison & Melville, 2010; Lyons, 2006 and identifying some of the key forms and features of social work in the Filippines. Consideration is given to the degree of professionalisation of social work within the country by exploring professional organisation, regulation and education.  In doing this, the article offers a critical overview of the nature and preoccupations of social work in the Filippines and celebrates the invaluable contributions it makes to the country and its people. The article argue that the forms social work takes and the settings in wich it happens reflect both contemporay societal and environmental factors as well as the global development of social work.  In this sense, the article considers the impact of Roman Catholicism as well as the orientation of social work in relation to some enduring tensions and debates around the profession's purpose and potential. Key to the professional forms that social work takes in the Filippines is the contribution of 'indigenous' social work knowledge base wich is explored, alongside a comentary on social work education and training in the country. 

  9. The Technologies of Lie in Local Cultures of Western Siberia

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    Evgeny A. Naumenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the political phenomenon – "technology of lie" that emerged of Jesuit and quasi-Catholic culture of Europe at the Middle Ages. The article also considers penetration of this phenomenon into Western Siberia through representatives of exile. According to author, the technologies of lie were created as a result of distortion of Catholicism, departure from a true spiritual component. This policy was considered by its carriers as a competition form. The author considers that misstatement of Orthodoxy was possible to a lesser extent because of its traditional dogmatism; the Russian imperial power did not use technologies of lie at the wide nation-wide and geopolitical level. The phenomenon existed only in local cultures. In article the social and economic and political reasons of forming of these technologies in the Russian Empire and Western Siberia, their manifestations and a consequence are analyzed. As examples cases of anti-Semitic "bloody slanders" are given in the European Russia and a defiant line item of the Jesuit organization in a Siberian exile. The author notes that the considered tactics has been directed to some religious groups and to certain representatives of society and the government. As a rule, none of the victims were ready to "information attacks" and lost them, losing not only property and positions, but also life sometimes. The author emphasizes that this practice has been adopted by part of the Russian revolutionary atheists. There is approved action of these technologies in terms of the Siberian penal servitude and the exile. Later the experience gained by them has formed the basis of fabricated political processes in case of the Stalin the regime.

  10. "Bye bye, Brasil": o declínio das religiões tradicionais no Censo 2000

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    Antônio Flávio Pierucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available NO CAMPO das religiões em nosso País, estamos diante de mudanças sociais aceleradas. Elas são principalmente culturais, mas têm importante dimensão demográfica e é justamente para salientar a significação sociológica mais ampla dessa dimensão populacional inevitável, que o artigo elege o ponto de vista do declínio demográfico de três das nossas religiões tradicionais: o catolicismo, o luteranismo e a umbanda. São mutações socioculturais de monta essas que o censo demográfico de 2000 descreve com números checados e rechecados por pessoal técnico da maior competência, dotados, por isso, da vantagem comparativa de ser altamente confiáveis, diferindo nesse aspecto dos dados quantitativos que circulam normalmente na mídia, provenientes não raro de fontes religiosas de (desinformação.SWIFT social changes are occurring in Brazil's religious milieu. Although these changes are mainly cultural, there is an important demographic dimension as well. It is precisely to highlight the greater sociological significance of this inescapable component that we chose the viewpoint of the demographic decline of three religions: Catholicism, Lutheranism and Umbanda. These are momentous sociocultural mutations, as described by 2000 demographic Census, founded on data that was checked and double checked by highly qualified technical personnel. Thus, the figures have the comparative advantage of being highly trustworthy, unlike the quantitative data normally conveyed by the media, not rarely originating from religious sources of (disinformation.

  11. Terra e etnia: Os casos da Raposa/Serra do Sol e do Morro Seco

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    Melvina Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, pretendemos pensar a questão da ela­boração de identidades, sublinhando elementos que cruzam esse tipo de processo entre indígenas e remanescentes de quilombo no Brasil, por meio da análise de dois casos: Quilombo Morro Seco, em São Paulo, e Terra Indígena Raposa/Serra do Sol, em Roraima. Isso será feito no intuito de sublinhar a pre­sença de fatores para além da questão da criação de melhores condições de subsistência, pressupostos presentes em boa parte da literatura sobre o tema, particularmente aqueles que colocam a titulação de terras como objetivo primeiro das populações envol­vidas nesses tipos de movimentos identitários. In the article Land and Ethnicity: Case Studies of Rapo­sa/Serra do Sol and Morro Seco, we intend to consider the issue of developing identities, underlining elements that undergo this kind of process among the indigenous and remaining quilombo communities in Brazil, through the analysis of two cases: Quilombo Morro Seco, in São Paulo, and Terra Indígena Raposa/Serra do Sol, in Roraima. This will be done in order to highlight the presence of fac­tors beyond the question of creating better conditions of subsistence, presuppositions found in a large part of the literature on the subject, especially in those that place land ownership as the primary objective of the populations in­volved in these kind of identity movements.Keywords: quilombolas, indigenous people, identity, missionaries, catholicism

  12. Geology and religion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana; Simoes, Ana; Diogo, Maria Paula; Mota, Teresa Salomé

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between geology and religion in Portugal by focusing on three case studies of naturalists who produced original research and lived in different historical periods, from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. Whereas in non-peripheral European countries religious themes and even controversies between science and religion were dealt with by scientists and discussed in scientific communities, in Portugal the absence of a debate between science and religion within scientific and intellectual circles is particularly striking. From the historiographic point of view, in a country such as Portugal, where Roman Catholicism is part of the religious and cultural tradition, the influence of religion in all aspects of life has been either taken for granted by those less familiar with the national context or dismissed by local intellectuals, who do not see it as relevant to science. The situation is more complex than these dichotomies, rendering the study of this question particularly appealing from the historiographic point of view, geology being by its very nature a well-suited point from which to approach the theme. We argue that there is a long tradition of independence between science and religion, agnosticism and even atheism among local elites. Especially from the eighteenth century onwards, they are usually portrayed as enlightened minds who struggled against religious and political obscurantism. Religion—or, to be more precise, the Roman Catholic Church and its institutions—was usually identified with backwardness, whereas science was seen as the path to progress; consequently men of science usually dissociated their scientific production from religious belief.

  13. Reflexiones sobre la controversia clericomasónica en la Restauración y Segunda República

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    José- Leonardo RUIZ SÁNCHEZ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Durante la primera fase de la Restauración alfonsina la masonería fue el arma esgrimida por el clericalismo español, internamente muy dividido y enfrentado, para atacar la política liberal así como para evitar que triunfase una transacción de los sectores católicos con el liberalismo más templado. El radicalismo de los ataques desde posiciones clericales obedeció en parte al medio empleado —la prensa— y a las características intrínsecas de la que ellos utilizaban, vinculada más que a la Iglesia a partidos claramente reaccionarios. El cambio de orientación del catolicismo español en la segunda fase de la Restauración, apostando por la participación en el sistema liberal con organizaciones nuevas, menos ultramontanas y radicales, usando una prensa nueva sometida a los prelados, contribuye a explicar la disminución del antimasonismo. ABSTRACT: During the first period of the Restoration under the reigns of Alfonso XIII, the masonry was the weapon used by the Spanish clericalism, very divided and confronted within its own members, to attack the liberal policy and prevent the triumph of a transaction between the Catholic sectors and the most restrained liberalism. The fact that the attacks from clergy positions were radical was in part due to the means they used —the press—, and the intrinsic characteristics of the press they used, which was connected to parties that were obviously reactionary rather than to the Church. The change of orientation of the Spanish Catholicism in the second period of the Restoration relying now on the participation with new organizations in the liberal system, less ultramontane and radicals, and using the new press that was subdued to the prelados (Ecclesiastical Superiors helps to explain the decrease of the anti-masonism.

  14. Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1994-01-01

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.

  15. Representação contra o Diretor da Saint John d'el Rey Mining Company, Limited (Morro Velho 1861 Representation against the Director of the Saint John d'el Rey Mining Company, Limited (Morro Velho 1861

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    Rafael de Freitas e Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Publicamos a seguir um documento dirigido ao Imperador dom Pedro II, em 1861, denunciando, sob o ponto de vista de um eclesiástico católico, as interferências praticadas por James Newell Gordon, superintendente da Saint John d'el Rey Mining Company, Limited (Morro Velho, nas práticas religiosas dos escravos (que à época eram quase 3000 e os atritos que ocorriam entre catolicismo e protestantismo dentro da companhia. Suas entrelinhas, no entanto, acabam por revelar outros importantes aspectos do mundo do trabalho na mineração aurífera inglesa em Minas Gerais, na segunda metade do século XIX, como por exemplo, os castigos, prisões, descanso dominical, assistência religiosa aos enfermos, mendicância, relações de hierarquia, dentre outros.We are publishing a document sent to the Emperor of Brazil, D. Pedro II, in 1861, denouncing, under a catholic clergyman's point of view, the interferences practiced by James Newell Gordon, superintendent of Saint John d'el Rey Mining Company, Limited (Morro Velho, in the slaves' religious practices and the attritions which happened between Catholicism and Protestantism in this company. Between the lines, however, we can observe that it ends for revealing other important aspects of the world of the work in the English auriferous mining in Minas Gerais, in the second half of the century XIX, as for instance, punishments, prisons, Sunday rest, religious attendance to patients, begging, hierarchy relationships, among others.

  16. Unveiling Cebuano Traditional Healing Practices

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    ZachiaRaiza Joy S. Berdon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the features of Cebuano’s traditional healing practices. Specifically, it also answers the following objectives: analyze traditional healing in Cebuano’s perspectives, explain the traditional healing process practiced in terms of the traditional healers’ belief, and extrapolate perceptions of medical practitioners toward traditional healing. This study made use of qualitative approach, among five traditional healers who performed healing for not less than ten years, in the mountain barangays of Cebu City. These healers served as the primary informants who were selected because of their popularity in healing. The use of open-ended interview in local dialect and naturalistic observation provided a free listing of their verbatim accounts were noted and as primary narratives. Participation in the study was voluntary and participants were interviewed privately after obtaining their consent. The Cebuano traditional healing practices or “panambal” comprise the use of “himolso” (pulse-checking, “palakaw” (petition, “pasubay” (determining what causes the sickness and its possible means of healing, “pangalap” (searching of medicinal plants for “palina” (fumigation, “tayhop” (gentle-blowing, “tutho” (saliva-blowing,“tuob” (boiling, “orasyon” (mystical prayers, “hilot” (massage, and “barang” (sorcery. Though traditional with medical science disapproval, it contributes to a mystical identity of Cebuano healers, as a manifestation of folk Catholicism belief, in order to do a good legacy to the community that needs help. For further study, researchers may conduct further the studies on the: curative effects of medicinal plants in Cebu, psychological effect pulsechecking healed persons by the mananambal, and unmasking the other features of traditional healing.

  17. From Ethical Exceptionalism to Ethical Exceptions: The Rule and exception Model and the Changing Meaning of Ethics In German Bioregulation.

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    Braun, Kathrin

    2017-12-01

    Germany is an interesting case with respect to the governance of reprogenetics. It has a strong profile in the technosciences and high aims regarding the global bioeconomy, yet her regulation of human genetics, reproductive medicine and embryo research has for a long time been rather restrictive. German biopolitical exceptionalism has often been explained by reference to Catholicism and the legacy of the Nazi past. The Germans, so goes the common story, have learnt the lessons of history and translated them into unconditional respect for human dignity, which in turn translates into unconditional protection of human life, including the human embryo, and the firm repudiation of any eugenic distinction between 'life worth to live' and 'life not worth to live'. This, however, is not the whole story. Alongside deontological strictness we find another strand of governing body politics and reprogenetics in Germany, the rule-and-exception model, running from the mid-1970s abortion law via the 2002 Stem Cell Act to the 2011 regulation of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. In contrast to the former, that strongly draws on Kant and his concept of human dignity, the latter bears resemblances to Carl Schmitt's concept of state of exception. The article will show that the rule-and-exception model builds the exception into the rule and transforms the meaning and mandate of ethics, namely from safeguarding ethical standards to deciding about the exception. Given that the exception has now tended to become the rule, the question is whether the lessons of history will govern German reprogenetics for much longer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. BAROQUE AND ICONIC ECPHRASIS IN GOGOL'S "TARAS BULBA"

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    Anastasiya Viktorovna Kozlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the tools verbalization European Baroque painting techniques and Old icons in the Gogol's story  "Taras Bulba". Narrative functions of implicit ecphrasis investigated in connection problem relatedness Catholicism and Orthodoxy in the minds of Gogol at the beginning of the 1840s.The purpose of the article analyzes the ways of verbalization and features of non-attributed implicit ecphrasis in the second edition of Gogol's "Taras Bulba" reproducing Caravaggio painting style and Old icons.Method or the methodology of work: Among research material are Gogol's "Taras Bulba" in two editions, the European Baroque paintings and ancient Russian icons. Were applied structural-typological, structural, intertextual, hermeneutical methods.Results: We describe the correlation of ecphrasis in Gogol with referents: the paintings of Caravaggio and Honthorst , and Old Russian iconography . Found that ecphrasis descriptions that appear only in the edition of 1842 are not local segments of the text and form the entire text layers, actively organizing narrative, operating plot and composition. Hidden emplisit ecphrasis is the artistic code, extending the semantic space of the text , the text translation tool of religious and philosophical ideas of the author. Valuable contraposition of baroque and iconic ecphrasis in the story reflects not only the author's reflection on the problem of beauty , inner and outer, but also a reflection of their own style.Application area: The results of our study can be used for lectures on the history of Russian literature of the XIX century, the history of Russian and European culture, cultural studies, specialized courses and electives in the problem of interaction between different kinds of art, as well as material for interdisciplinary humanities research, including in school practice teaching literature and art history.

  19. Medical and neuropsychiatric phenomena depicted in two Spanish medieval texts of Marian miracles.

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    de Assis Aquino Gondim, Francisco; Bastante, Pamela; Gondim, Wilcar Cavalcante; Filha, Joana Gurgel Holanda; Thomas, Florian P

    2018-03-01

    In the history of Christianity, veneration of the Virgin Mary reached its greatest intensity in the XIII century. Her perceived impact on daily life was tremendous and not surprisingly this extended to the spheres of disease and healing. The purpose of this study is to compare the medical and neuropsychiatric findings in two XIII century Spanish texts of Marian miracles, both examples of the popular Catholicism (vs. official catholic doctrine). We analyzed the medical and neuropsychiatric events in the Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St. Mary, CSM), composed at the court of Alfonso X and the Milagros de Nuestra Señora (The Miracles of Our Lady, MNS), written by Gonzalo de Berceo. Among the 25 miracles reported in the MNS, medically relevant facts were addressed in 19 miracles with a total of 23 recorded events (including resurrection or escape from death in five) and demonic possession in three (one with witchcraft/deicide). The most common medical subjects were ergotism, obstetric-gynecological, sudden death, intellectual disability/illiteracy, encephalopathy/alcohol intoxication, suicide (with self-mutilation/castration), infanticide, infections, and absence of body decomposition after death. The 427 canticles in the CSM contain 270 medically relevant facts. Neuropsychiatric conditions were alluded to in 98 songs. Blindness and dystonia/weakness/deformities were the most common phenomena. Illuminations detailed many of the medical facts in the CSM, but not in the MNS. Medically relevant facts were described in both texts, but with more details in the CSM. Neurological conditions were more often described in the CSM, psychiatric conditions in the MNS.

  20. Preaching and Confessional Culture in Early Modern Germany. Catholic Sermons between 1650 and 1800

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    Florian Bock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the Council of Trent, Catholicism defined itself for the first time as a confession with distinct identifying features. In order not only to create but also to maintain such a Catholic Confessionalised identity, Catholic preachers needed to react to contemporary settings and currents as well as to fixed points of reference, as represented by the decrees of Trent. The scope provided by the Trent decree on preaching, “super lectione et praedicatione,” was so wide that, based upon it, individual ideas could be constructed about what constituted a “good” sermon. This can be seen in the various hermeneutics of the Council that developed up to the 18th century, and the associated post-Tridentine practices of piety, which are commonly grouped under the terms “Baroque” and “Enlightenment.” This article, which analyses sermons from the perspective of aesthetics of production and reception, is nonetheless able to show that along with Baroque and Enlightened piety, Jansenist influences also coexisted, something which has hardly been appreciated so far in research. At the same time, the preachers and the audiences do not seem to have understood the complex network of variously coded elements of Catholic confessional culture as a contradiction: the pastoral strategies of Catholics from the years 1650 to 1800 seem rather not to have been characterised by wave-like motion, with specific extensions on the ritual-sensual or rational-iconoclastic levels, as has been assumed in research. Such asynchrony can also be recognised in textual samples drawn from the Russian Orthodox history of preaching.

  1. La “Mujer Católica” y la sociedad de masas en la Argentina de entreguerras. Catolicismo social, consumo e industria cultural en la ciudad de Rosario (1915-1940

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    Mauro, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how, from a series of editorial initiatives, Social Catholics of Rosario (Argentina reproduced and disseminated traditional conceptions of “Catholic woman”, presented as opposed to the “Modern woman” – in the context of processes forming a mass society in Argentina. Specifically, we focus on the description and analysis of the resources used to reproduce female stereotypes Catholics in the mold of mass culture, increasingly widespread, and the culture industry. Thus expected to contribute to the understanding of the processes of “religious change” that crossed the Argentine Catholicism during the interwar period.El presente trabajo indaga cómo, a partir de una serie de iniciativas editoriales, los católicos sociales de Rosario (Argentina reprodujeron y difundieron las concepciones tradicionales de “mujer católica” —presentadas en contraposición a la llamada “mujer moderna”— en el marco de los procesos de conformación de una sociedad de masas en la Argentina. Concretamente, nos centraremos en la descripción y el análisis de los recursos empleados para reproducir los estereotipos femeninos católicos en los moldes de la cultura de masas, cada vez más difundidos, y en la industria cultural. Espera contribuir de este modo a la comprensión de los procesos de “cambio religioso” que atravesaron al catolicismo argentino durante el período de entreguerras.

  2. A Qualitative Inquiry into the Mediating Role of Religion and Spirituality in Adjusting Marital Relationships of Infertile Women

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    Robab Latifnejad Roudsari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Despite growing body of literature regarding marital adjustment of infertile women, to our knowledge, there is no study to address the role of religious and spiritual beliefs in adjusting marital relationships in infertile women. Considering the significance of marital cohesiveness and commitment in the long and stressful journey of infertile women, this study was designed to explore how marital relationships are experienced by infertile women who affiliated to different religious faiths.Methods: A group of 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity (Protestantism, Catholicism, Orthodoxies and Islam (Shiite and Sunni were interviewed. The design was a grounded theory study including semi structured in-depth interviews. Data were collected in one Iranian and two UK fertility clinics through theoretical sampling and analyzed using Strauss and Corbin’s mode of grounded theory. Results: Religious infertile women using a religious/spiritual meaning-making framework tried adjust their marital relationships through going the following phases: being optimistic and positive, having supportive relationships, being grateful and appreciated for their marital life, offering spiritual sympathy and adopting religious role models. These strategies aided infertile women to be more understanding, sympathetic and gentle towards maintaining the family cohesion.Conclusion: I argue that awareness of health professionals of the potential ways in which religion and spirituality assist infertile women to deal with their marital issues could be important. This knowledge will help them to support emotional wholeness and integrity of infertile women, offering religious and spiritual coping strategies which can help adjusting their marital relationships.  

  3. El Socialista versus El debate (Enero-Septiembre 1933

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    Arbeloa, Víctor Manuel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the first nine months of 1933 breakthrough year, and leave the judgment to the reader, the opinions and attitudes of two principal Spanish media-The Debate-Socialist and service, respectively, of the PSOE and the CEDA, concerning the Left and the Right, Socialism and political Catholicism, Fascism and Nazism, the socialist revolution, which is prepared in Spain, Orders and religious Congregations, whose law is discussed in Parliament, the “eternal issues” of the Spanish anticlericalism-antieclesialism: God, Jesus, the Church, the Pope, the bishops, clergy, Catholics...La lectura de El Socialista y de El Debate permite conocer mejor y interpretar las posiciones de la izquierda y de la derecha, del socialismo y del catolicismo político, entre enero y septiembre de 1933. En esos meses, se produce el ascenso del fascismo y del nazismo y un giro en la estrategia de la izquierda. La posición de la Santa Sede ante el Gobierno de México, reforzó la opción legalista de los católicos que dieron su sufragio a la CEDA. La línea de cada uno de los dos diarios, la confrontación entre ellos, enmarca y da fondo al bloque de los trabajos legislativos, a la solución de la crisis de junio, con la salida del Partido Radical, a la dimisión de Manuel Azaña en septiembre y a la convocatoria de elecciones legislativas, que dan paso a una nueva situación política.

  4. A espetacularidade da performance ritual no Reisado do Mulungu (Chapada Diamantina - Bahia

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    Eloísa Brantes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O ritual de visita do Reisado, prática religiosa do catolicismo rural, se baseia nas relações de troca material/espiritual entre o grupo de devotos e as pessoas visitadas. Os Santos de devoção abençoam as casas através da visita anual do Reisado. Este artigo sobre a dimensão espetacular do corpo nesse ritual focaliza os processos de montagem da performance analisando as interações entre devotos/santos/donos das casas. O ponto de partida é o estudo do Reisado na comunidade negra rural Mulungu (Município de Boninal - Chapada Diamantina/Bahia desenvolvido através de pesquisa etnográfica e das conexões entre teatro/ritual, traçadas por Jerzy Grotowski no campo da Antropologia Teatral.The visita do Reisado ritual, religious practice of the popular rural catholicism, is based on material/spiritual exchange relations between the group of worshippers and the visited people. The Saints of devotion bless the houses through the annual visita do Reisado ritual. This article on the spectacular body's dimension in this ritual focuses on the performance's construction processes by analyzing the interactions among worshippers/saints/owners of the visited houses. The starting point is the study of the Reisado in the black rural community called Mulungu (City of Boninal - Chapada Diamantina/Bahia developed through ethnographic research and connections between ritual/theater, traced by Jerzy Grotowski in the Theatre Anthropology field.

  5. Sexual morality of Christianity.

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    Runkel, G

    1998-01-01

    After discussing the origin of religion, functions of religion, and the construction of meaning by religion, the author focuses on the connection between religion and anxiety. The permanent anxiety in religion is determined by guilt feelings that arise for example from the violation of norms in the area of sexuality. In a religion at enmity with sexuality, such as Christianity, the satisfaction of sexual desires is considered bad and sinful; the permanent production of anxiety and a guilty conscience are the result of it. Christian sexual suppression leads to the propagation of asceticism as the taming of corrupt sensuality that only religious virtuosi can maintain. One result of asceticism is celibacy, although passages from the Bible demand monogamy for bishops without prohibiting celibacy. In Catholicism, celibacy institutionalizes the enmity with sexuality and causes a permanent depreciation of real sexuality in favor of one projected onto the mother church and the Virgin Mary. A further consequence of asceticism is the reduction of sexuality to reproduction. In the section about the factual consequences of Christian sexual morality, the author connects sexual instinctual gratification with religious affiliation on the basis of an analysis of the sexual behavior of Germans. The weekly frequency rate of sexual intercourse amounts to 3.1 with male and female nondenominationals, 2.6 with Protestants, and 2.3 with Catholics; 39% of nondenominational men, 20% of Protestant men, and 12% of Catholic men in Germany use condoms. The connection of religion and aggression is empirically significant as well. The religiously most active men feel more inclined to use aggression to reach sexual goals than religiously indifferent ones.

  6. A philosophical approach to the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis

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    Bogomilova Nonka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the philosophical aspects of the 'religion - national mythology' synthesis. The main directions of the study are as follows: 1. Both on the individual and social plan, the orientation of the transcending universalizing power of religion could vary depending on the macro-social movements a community /or an individual/ is involved in. For the individual as for the community, religion could be a cultural position transcending ego and ethno-centrism, mono-cultural tendencies; in situations of internal differentiation and disintegration of these entities, the universalizing binding role of religion is partialized and determined by various social groups, who are often in opposition to each other due to their economic political, ethnic, psychological features; 2. This process is usually related to the invalidation of universally uniting religious-moral bonds and values and intensification of differences: power, property, doctrinal differences to a shift of the weight center from internal spiritual movements /particularly typical of mysticism, asceticism, priesthood/ on to practical social action - reformist heresies, the various practical theologies of revolution, liberation, the religious-motivated wars; 3. When reduced to an ethnic, political, or state emblem, religious affiliation to Judaism, Islam Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Protestantism has become and still remain a tool for the sacralization of military and political conflicts. In religion-motivated conflict situations, opposing parties de-sacralize their Sacred Books as their acts contradict the books' moral content; 4. The power of historical mythologies is in reverse proportion to the capacity of a nation to periodically renew its social life world - its psychological attitudes labour relations, political stereotypes; 5. In this type of situation religion is usually reduced to 'belonging', as G. Davie put it, at the expense of 'believing' and a corresponding moral behavior. The

  7. Expressing Intellectual Freedom: A Content Analysis of Catholic Library World from 1980 to 2015

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    Megan E. Welsh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Professional librarians have varying values relating to the topic of intellectual freedom that may or may not align with the American Library Association’s (ALA policies defining professional expectations on the topic. The personally held values and beliefs of Roman Catholic librarians and those working in libraries affiliated with Roman Catholicism are worthy of study to determine how personal religious values may translate into professional practice. The objective of this paper is to ascertain how frequently and in what context the topics of intellectual freedom and censorship were expressed in articles published in Catholic Library World (CLW, the professional journal of the Catholic Library Association (CLA from 1980 to 2015. Published content on these topics can be used as evidence to determine how this population discusses the concept of intellectual freedom. Methods – Articles relevant to these topics were retrieved from the American Theological Library Association Catholic Periodical and Literature Index (ATLA CPLI and Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA databases by conducting keyword searches using the terms “intellectual freedom” and censorship. Each retrieved publication was analyzed by counting the number of times the phrase “intellectual freedom” and the root censor* occurred. Through a deep reading of each publication, statements containing these search terms were then coded as positive, negative, or neutral, establishing a context for each occurrence. Results – The majority of published content supported intellectual freedom and opposed censorship. Negative content typically occurred in publications about children or school libraries. Additionally, CLW contributors did express a certain level of conflict between personally held religious values and professional values. Conclusions – This study adds to the limited research available on the intersection of personally held

  8. БУКОВИНСЬКА «МАЛАНКА» У ЗАГАЛЬНОЄВРОПЕЙСЬКОМУ КАРНАВАЛЬНОМУ КОНТЕКСТІ / BUKOVINIAN “MALANKA” IN THE GENERAL EUROPEAN CARNIVAL CONTEXT

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    Олександр КУРОЧКІН

    2017-11-01

    Carnival as a product of pan-European civilization and Catholicism as a whole is not typical of Eastern Europe. The aim of the investigation. The article offers new approaches to the less-researched issues of the calendar custom of Ukrainians and eastern Romans. The methodology of the research is based on the combination of the method of direct included observation and the comparative / historical-comparative / method, which allows to determine the common and different in the festive ritual culture of different ethnic groups. Bukovinian "Malanka", which has many local variants, belongs to the carnival-type holidays with a pronounced folk color. The novelty of the work is to attempt to organizationally join the Foundation for European Carnival Cities [FECC] through the popularization of this unique complex ritual. Carnival as a product of Western civilization and Catholicism in general is not typical for Eastern Europe. Bukovyna New Year “Malanka”, having many local versions, is one of the carnival type events with bright ethnic and folk flavor. For the sake of preserving and popularizing a unique ritual set, it is worth to join the Foundation of European Carnival Cities (FECC. Conclusions. After the proposed investigation, we could make a conclusion, that carnival as a product of Western civilization and Catholicism is generally not typical in Eastern Europe. Bukovina New Year "Malanka", having many local versions, is one of the carnival type events with a bright ethnic and folk flavor. For the sake of preserving and popularizing a unique ritual set, it is worth joining the Foundation of European Carnival Cities.

  9. Rituais Fúnebres em memórias de velhos (Funeral rituals in old people memories - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1112

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    Marisete Teresinha Hoffmann-Horochovski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este artigo discute as mudanças e permanências que caracterizam o universo simbólico da morte, especialmente no tocante aos rituais fúnebres. O intuito principal é perceber como esses rituais foram se modificando significativamente na sociedade brasileira das últimas décadas do século XX, principalmente nos centros urbanos. Para tanto, investigamos memórias de idosos com sessenta e cinco anos ou mais, socializados no catolicismo e residentes em Curitiba/PR, colhidas por meio da história oral. Sobreviventes, os velhos pesquisados testemunharam muitas mortes e participaram de inúmeros rituais ao longo de sua existência e, por isso mesmo, podem lembra-los e transmiti-los com propriedade. Por meio de suas vozes, abre-se a possibilidade de entender uma época na qual a morte representava verdadeiro acontecimento social que promovia interação e reforçava os laços de solidariedade. Época que contrasta com a atual, caracterizada pela crescente dessocialização da morte e pela aceleração e simplificação das práticas rituais. Palavras-chave: Morte. Rituais fúnebres. Memórias de velhos. Abstract This article aims to discuss the changes and continuities that characterize the symbolic universe of death, particularly with regard to funeral rites. This research also aims to comprehend how these rituals have been modified significantly in Brazilian society over the last decades of the twentieth century, especially in urban centers. In this sense, this paper investigates the memories of people older than 65 years of age, who were socialized in Catholicism and resides in Curitiba – Paraná –Brazil. These memories were collected through oral history. The surveyed people witnessed many deaths and participated in various rituals throughout its existence and, for this reason they can recall these rituals and transmit them properly. Through these elderly people

  10. A produção de reconhecimento num contexto popular: devoção e narrativa contemporâneas / The production of recognition in a popular context: contemporary devotion and narrative

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    Régis de Toledo Souza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro da dinâmica de lutas de reconhecimento da cultura popular do vale do Paraíba paulista, identificamos sujeitos responsáveis pelo registro e pela transmissão oral das narrativas de grupos devocionais do catolicismo popular. Atualmente, para sistematizar o registro de suas narrativas, verificamos que alguns sujeitos populares apropriam-se das técnicas e tecnologias antes exclusivas dos profissionais (jornalistas e pesquisadores que geralmente não participam do cotidiano dos sujeitos populares. Constatamos que, ao realizarem esse movimento, esses sujeitos populares passaram a ocupar um espaço de coexistência de vários discursos que disputam os sentidos dessas práticas religiosas, criando uma circularidade dos significados que colocam um desafio para os próprios pesquisadores, pois os discursos e práticas dos pesquisadores tornam agora mais complexas as interpretações das devoções populares e de seus sujeitos. Nas novas narrativas dos especialistas “nativos" existe o uso de categorias assimiladas da lógica de domínios exógenos mais amplos que se fazem presentes em seus cotidianos. / Within the dynamic of struggles for recognition of popular culture in Paraiba Valley, state of São Paulo/Brazil, we identified individuals responsible for the register and oral transmission of narratives of devotional groups of popular Catholicism. Nowadays, to systematize the register of their narratives, we verified that some individuals of these groups appropriate techniques and technologies which were once exclusive to professionals (journalists and researchers that generally do not participate in the individual‟s everyday life. It was observed that, by making this movement, these popular Catholics started to occupy a space of coexistence of several discourses which fight for the meanings of these religious practices, creating a circularity of meanings that challenge the researchers, since their discourses and practices now make the

  11. Les contextes de la conversion à l’époque de la Réforme Contexts of conversion at time of Reform

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    Raymond Mentzer

    2010-03-01

    obliged to convert to Catholicism in 1685 when the Sun King revoked the Edict of Nantes. How did they go about submitting to conversion and, at the same time, devise strategies for maintaining their Reformed faith, safeguarding their families, and avoiding the menace of the Catholic monarchy and its ecclesiastical allies?

  12. La peinture religieuse monumentale, une expression artistique emblématique du nord de la France au XIXe siècle ?

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    Catherine Guillot

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Issue d’une première tentative de synthèse portant sur la peinture monumentale religieuse à Lille dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle, cette étude permet d’exhumer l’œuvre d’artistes régionaux, mais également belges et néerlandais, mettant en évidence le rôle de carrefour de l’actuelle métropole lilloise. Dans une région fortement marquée par le catholicisme, les sujets traités sont à la fois le reflet des dévotions nationales et de cultes plus locaux, que ce soit à travers la figure de saint Vincent de Paul, le rôle de la Vierge ou la dévotion aux âmes du purgatoire qui prend une importance particulière à partir du foyer de Loos. Cette expression artistique et religieuse se développe sous la forme de grands cycles dont la réalisation connaît son apogée sous la IIIe République, en particulier de 1880 à 1900. Une fois ce panorama dressé, il devient possible d’interroger les catégories traditionnelles de l’art à cette époque, la notion centrale de primitivisme et les jugements de valeur auxquels cette peinture est encore souvent soumise.This article is based on a synthetic analysis of monumental religious painting at Lille during the second half of the 19th century. This study led to the rediscovery of many regional artists, but also Belgian and Dutch artists, underlining the long history of Lille’s present-day position as an international crossroads. In a region which was strongly marked by Catholicism, the subjects dealt with offer a reflection of national devotional practices but also draw attention to more local cults. Examples here include the figure of Saint Vincent de Paul, the role of the Virgin Mary and the devotion to souls in purgatory, which is particularly important in Loos. This artistic and religious expression develops according to major cycles which reached a high point during the Third Republic, and particularly from 1880 to 1890. Once this general overview has been established

  13. Algumas interpelações do Pentecostalismo no Brasil (Some questionings of Pentecostalism in Brazil - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n22p383

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    Ari Pedro Oro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O pentecostalismo ocupa um lugar cada vez mais importante na sociedade brasileira em geral, e no campo religioso em particular. Este texto procura analisar as interpelações que o pentecostalismo provoca na esfera religiosa e na esfera política. Por um lado, no campo religioso, é sobretudo a Igreja católica que o pentecostalismo interpela, especialmente seu caráter hegemônico no campo religioso brasileiro e sua exclusividade na demarcação religiosa da esfera pública, marcando presença na política e nos meios de comunicação de massa. Além disso, ao reivindicar uma identidade religiosa exclusiva e única, o pentecostalismo questiona os próprios fundamentos da “cultura católica brasileira”. Por outro lado, o pentecostalismo interpela o campo político ao afirmar a sua presença ativa na vida política nacional, a partir de motivações de ordem prática e simbólica.  Isto não significa, porém, o desejo pentecostal de conquista do poder político, ou a contestação dos fundamentos da democracia republicana ou, ainda, a tentativa de  estabelecer uma hegemonia ideológica e a submissão dos cidadãos a dogmas e preceitos religiosos. Palavras-chave: Pentecostalismo; Evangélico; Brasil; Política; Interpelação. AbstractPentecostalism plays an ever increasing role in Brazilian society specially what concerns its religious field. This article aims to analyse some questionings made on the religious and political spheres by pentecontalism. On the one hand, these questionings aim at the hegemonic role Catholicism plays in the Brazilian religious field as well as its broad religious influence on the political arena and in the mass media. On thinking of itself as having an unique and exclusive religious identity Pentecostalism also questions the very foundations of “the Brazilian catholic culture.”  On the other hand, Pentecostalism gives its own interpretation of the Brazilian political field in demarcating its active

  14. Calvin on Human Reason

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    Nicolaas Vorster

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his recent book The Unintended Reformation, Brad Gregory makes the statement that the Reformation replaced the teleological social ethics of Roman Catholicism based on virtue with formal social ethics based on rules and enforced by magistrates, because they regarded human reason as too depraved to acquire virtue. The result, according to Gregory, is that the relation between internalised values and rules were undermined. This article asks whether this accusation is true with regard to Calvin. The first section discusses the intellectual environment of Calvin’s day – something that inevitably influenced his theory on reason, whilst the second part analyses Calvin’s view on the created nature of reason. The third section investigates Calvin’s view on the effects of sin on reason; and the fourth section discusses Calvin’s perspective on the relation between grace and reason. The article concludes that Gregory’s accusation against the Reformation is not applicable to Calvin. Gregory fails to take into account Calvin’s modified position that the imago Dei was not totally destroyed by sin as well as his teaching on common grace that maintains that even non-believers are able to acquire virtue through the common grace of God. Calvyn oor Menslike Rede. In sy onlangse boek, The Unintended Reformation, maak Brad Gregory die stelling dat die Reformasie die substantiewe teleologiese deugde-etiek van die Rooms-Katolisisme vervang het met ‘n formele etiek gebaseer op reëls wat deur magistrate afgedwing moet word. Die Reformasie was, volgens Gregory, van mening dat die menslike rede sodanig deur sonde geskend is dat die mens nie langer deugde kan beoefen nie. Dit het tot ‘n skadelike skeiding tussen waardes en reëls gelei. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag of Gregory se stelling op Calvyn van toepassing is. Die eerste afdeling bespreek die intellektuele omgewing waarin Calvyn gewerk het. Tweedens word Gregory se siening van die geskape

  15. Manuel Larraín y la conciencia eclesial latinoamericana: Visión y legado de un precursor

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    Fernando Berríos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Larraín Errázuriz, obispo de Talca, Chile, entre 1938 y 1966, es una de las principales figuras de la Iglesia latinoamericana del siglo XX y uno de los más importantes precursores del Concilio Vaticano II en este continente, sobre todo por su actitud de apertura a los desafíos y complejidades del mundo moderno desde una profunda fidelidad al Evangelio. El artículo busca destacar su aporte, en ese horizonte, a la conformación de una conciencia eclesial auténticamente latinoamericana. La primera parte es una presentación del catolicismo chileno tradicional en que él se formó y que más tarde se abriría a perspectivas más amplias por diversos influjos históricos. La segunda parte se refiere a cuatro grandes temas y circunstancias en los que Manuel Larraín jugó un destacado rol como pastor, forjando así esa conciencia eclesial que ha quedado como su principal legado. El texto concluye con una breve reflexión sobre este legado y sobre los desafíos que él plantea hasta hoy a la Iglesia del continente.Manuel Larraín Errázuriz, bishop of Talca, Chile, between 1938 and 1966, is one of the principal figures of the Latin American Church in the 20th century, and one of the most important forerunners of Vatican Council II on this continent, above all for the openness of his attitude while facing the challenges and complexities of the modern world from a position of deep faithfulness to the Gospel. This article seeks to emphasize his contribution, on that horizon, to the conformation of an authentically Latin American ecclesial consciousness. The first part of this article is a presentation of the traditional Chilean Catholicism in which he was brought up and which, later on, would open itself to wider perspectives thanks to different historical influences. The second part refers to four great themes and the circumstances in which Manuel Larraín played an important role as pastor, thus forging that ecclesial consciousness which

  16. Cidade aberta, sem muralhas: a religião luso-brasileira na literatura de viagem (séculos XVIII-XIX Open city, without walls: the Portuguese-Brazilian religion in the travel literature (XVIII-XIX centuries

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    Amilcar Torrão Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de finais do século XVIII e início do século XIX, um grande número de viajantes britânicos e franceses aportaram no Brasil, interessados em suas riquezas naturais e desejosos por conhecimento sobre a sociedade luso-brasileira. Um dos seus principais interesses era o conhecimento das práticas religiosas dos brasileiros que servia, tanto para católicos franceses quanto para protestantes britânicos, como um índice de civilidade alcançado por nossa sociedade. Suas descrições tratarão, assim, das igrejas, sua composição arquitetônica e obras sacras, das missas, procissões e festas religiosas, das obras de caridade, do clero católico, dos sacramentos como casamentos e batizados, enterros, etc. Nestas descrições estão colocadas interpretações da sociedade luso-brasileira, as possibilidades de desenvolvimento do novo Império brasileiro e o caráter do catolicismo português transplantado para a América.From the end of the XVIII century and beginning of the XIX century, a large number of British and French travelers docked in Brazil, interested in her natural riches and keen on knowledge about the Portuguese-Brazilian society. One of their main interests was the knowlege of the religious practices of the Brazilians who served to French Catholics as well to British protestants, as an index of civility reached by our society. In this way, their descriptions will be about the churches, their architectural construction and holy works, masses, processions and religious festivals, charitable works, the Catholic clergy, the sacraments such as wedding and baptism cerimonies, burials etc. Interpretations of the Portuguese-Brazilian society are included in these descriptions. The possibilities of development of the new Brazilian empire and the character of the Portuguese Catholicism transplanted to America.

  17. Effects of price and availability on abortion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohmann, S F; Ohsfeldt, R L

    1993-10-01

    This study explained the variation in US state abortion demand due to the price of services, the net of insurance cost of birth services, the ability to pay, contraceptive use, individual attitudes regarding abortion, and government policy affecting cost of benefits of terminating an unintended pregnancy or of carrying to birth. The empirical model uses pooled data from 48 states for 1982, 1984, 1985, and 1987. Prices are deflated to 1977 dollars. Another two-staged least squares model is based on cross-sectional state level data for 1985. The dependent variable is the log of abortion per 1000 pregnancies. Other variables pertain to income, education, labor force, family planning, tax, aid to families with dependent children, religion, and abortion-related measures. The results of the cross-sectional analysis are consistent with Medoff's and Garbacz's findings. The estimated coefficient of per capita income is positive with a point elasticity ranging from 0.62 to 1.0. The model with the most complete specifications has an abortion price elasticity range from -0.75 to -1.3 and is statistically significant when religion measures are excluded. The Hausman test shows the pro-choice variable significantly correlated with the error term. The net price of birth services is not statistically significant. Catholic religion and no religion are only significant when the abortion provider variable is excluded. The suggestion is that the effect of Catholicism is ambiguous. In the pooled analysis, the fixed effects model is used to control for abortion attitudes and other unobserved factors. Abortion demand includes abortion per 1000 pregnancies, the ratio of abortions to pregnancies, and the logarithm of abortions per 1000 pregnancies. Higher income is associated with a higher abortion rate and elasticities of 0.76 and 0.35 and is associated with a higher pregnancy rate. The abortion ratio is found to be elastic with respect to price, and price elasticities are sensitive to

  18. Direitos, cidadania das mulheres e religião Rights, women's citizenship and religion

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    Maria José Rosado-Nunes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O texto trabalha as complexas relações entre elementos da moderna cultura de direitos, as proposições políticas dos feminismos contemporâneos e os ideais e valores do catolicismo. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a contribuição da Igreja católica no Brasil para a construção de uma certa "cultura de direitos", nos anos de 1960-1980, por meio das chamadas Comunidades Eclesiais de Base, as CEBs. No âmbito teórico, explora-se o interminável conflito dessa Igreja com os valores modernos que estão na base das reivindicações das mulheres, desde o século XVIII. Finalmente, voltando à realidade socioistórica do movimento de mulheres, aborda-se a questão da ampliação do conceito de direitos pela inclusão dos recém-denominados "direitos sexuais e direitos reprodutivos", como um novo, ma non troppo, campo de conflito entre o ideário feminista e o ideário católico.The text examines the complex relations between elements of modern culture of rights, the political proposals of contemporary feminists and the ideals and values of Catholicism. In the first part, the article analyzes the contribution of the Catholic Church in Brazil in constructing a certain 'rights culture,' during the 1960s, 70s and 80s, through the so-called 'Base Ecclesiastical Communities' - the CEBs. At the theoretical level, I explore the interminable conflict between the Catholic Church and the modern values that have formed the base of women's demands since the 18th century. Finally, returning to the sociohistorical reality of the women's movement, I approach the question of extending the concept of rights to include the recently emergent 'sexual and reproductive rights,' as a new, ma non troppo, field of conflict between feminist and Catholic ideas.

  19. LA DEMOCRACIA Y EL REPLIEGUE DEL INDIVIDUO: ORGANICISMO Y CORPORATIVISMO = DEMOCRACY AND THE WITHDRAWAL OF THE INDIVIDUAL: ORGANICISM AND CORPORATISM

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    Mariano García Canales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de la Restauración coincidió con una época de profunda transformación de los principios básicos del parlamentarismo. Los teóricos buscaron nuevas bases para un tema central del mismo: la representación política. ¿Cómo se entendía la representación? ¿Quiénes debían ser capaces de participar en la conformación de las Cortes? ¿Qué procedimientos debían ser adoptados? Éstas eran algunas de las cuestiones planteadas entonces entre los especialistas, políticos y publicistas. Esto fue abordado desde diferentes ángulos y con diferentes respuestas por varias corrientes políticas, desde las tradicionalistas, el catolicismo social y al movimiento liberal reformista de los krausistas. El objetivo es verificar cómo las ideas organicistas emergieron durante el reflujo general del individualismo, puesto de frente a la cuestión social, y que también sirvió para la llegada en los años veinte de las soluciones corporativas autoritarias y totalitarias.The Restoration crisis coincided with a time of profound transformation of the central political tenets of the liberal parliamentary system. Theorists sought new groundings for a central theme: political representation. What was understood by people or nation? What were the voices that should be heard at the time of forming the state’s will? What procedures should be adopted? These were some of the issues that were under review and that concerned publishers and scholars. This paper follows up what was advocated by various political currents, from the so-called Spanish traditionalist current, through the school of social Catholicism to the progressive arm of the Spanish Krausism. The purpose is to verify how generic organicist ideas that emerged in a general movement of reflux of individualism, put in front of the social question, eventually facilitated the arrival in the twenties to authoritarian or totalitarian corporatist solutions.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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    Ali-Risasi, Catherine; Mulumba, Paul; Verdonck, Kristien; Vanden Broeck, Davy; Praet, Marleen

    2014-02-18

    Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Nevertheless, the level of women's awareness about cervical cancer is unknown. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) are important elements for designing and monitoring screening programs. The study purpose was to estimate KAP on cervical cancer and to identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kinshasa, DRC, including 524 women aged 16-78 years (median age 28; interquartile range 22-35). The women were interviewed at home by trained field workers using a standardized questionnaire. The women's score on knowledge, attitude and practice were dichotomized as sufficient or insufficient. We used binary and multiple logistic regression to assess associations between obtaining sufficient scores and a series of socio-demographic factors: age, residence, marital status, education, occupation, religion, and parity. The women's score on knowledge was not significantly correlated with their score on practice (Spearman's rho = 0.08; P > 0.05). Obtaining a sufficient score on knowledge was positively associated with higher education (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.65; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3.31-17.66) and formal employment (adjusted OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.85-6.09); it was negatively associated with being single (adjusted OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.24-0.81) and living in the eastern, western and northern zone of Kinshasa compared to the city centre. The attitude score was associated with place of residence (adjusted OR for east Kinshasa: 0.49; 95% CI 0.27-0.86 and for south Kinshasa: 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and with religion (adjusted OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.35-0.86 for women with a religion other than Catholicism or Protestantism compared to Catholics). Regarding practice, there were negative associations between a sufficient score on practice and being single (adjusted OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13-0.41) and living in the eastern zone of the city (adjusted OR 0.39; 95

  1. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

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    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  2. The Emotional Museum. Thoughts on the “Secular Relics” of Nineteenth-Century History Museums in Paris and their Posterity

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    Felicity Bodenstein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cet article examine le discours élaboré dans les musées d’histoire à Paris au cours du XIXe siècle à travers la présentation d’effets personnels et privés « ayant appartenu à » des personnages historiques célèbres, des artistes ou écrivains. Comment et pourquoi a-t-on choisi de présenter des objets en soi aussi banals et profanes que le mouchoir de Napoléon ou une boucle des cheveux de Marie-Antoinette ? Dans le cadre rationnel du musée public, quel sens peut-on encore donner à ces objets qui ne fournissent pas d’information documentaire et qui n’ont pour ainsi dire pas de valeur esthétique ?De fait, cette tradition muséographique a encore toute sa place dans les musées d’aujourd’hui, surtout dans les musées maisons et les musées biographiques. Nous allons considérer son apparition depuis la Révolution comme la transposition de pratiques commémoratives chrétiennes dans le monde laïc de l’État républicain, mais aussi comme le transfert d’un culte privé dans le domaine public. Cela nous permet d’examiner le caractère affectif des rapports que ces objets établissent avec l’histoire.This article examines the discourse elaborated in Paris’ historical museums during the nineteenth century through the display of personal, private objects “having belonged to” famous historical figures, artistes and writers. How and why do we exhibit objects in and of themselves as banal as the handkerchief of Napoleon or locks of Marie-Antoinette’s hair? In the scheme of the rational public museum, what meaning was and is still given to these objects of little documentary or artistic importance?Indeed this museographical tradition still holds an important place in museums today, especially in biographical or personal museums, its appearance during the Revolution and its subsequent development will be considered as the transposition of a commemorative practice taken from Catholicism and introduced into the

  3. Construyendo consenso y legitimidad. La proyección política del catecismo de escolástico Zegada en tiempos de la ‘Confederación’ Argentina (1853-1862

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    Medina, Federico

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1855 Justo José de Urquiza -president of the Argentine ‘Confederation’- resolved reissue wiyh public funds the catechism Christian Instructions and recommend to the formation of children in primary schools of the 'Confederation'. The author of the text was jujeño cleric Escolástico Zegada (1813-1871. In rewriting, praised the Urquiza’s administration and explicitly summoned for readers to support the government. For this, the cleric used biblical models of Roman Catholicism. Thus, this paper examines, firstly, the reasons why Urquiza and his cabinet resolved reissue the catechism. Secondly, is studied how symbolically constructed cleric Urquiza’s leadership ahead of the national government. So, it seeks to understand the particularities of the relationship between temporal and heavenly power in Argentina by midnineteenth century.En 1855 Justo José de Urquiza -presidente de la ‘Confederación’ Argentina- resolvió reeditar con fondos públicos el catecismo Instrucciones Cristianas y recomendarlo para la formación de niños en las escuelas de primeras letras de la ‘Confederación’. El autor del texto fue el clérigo jujeño Escolástico Zegada (1813-1871. En la reescritura, exaltaba la administración de Urquiza y convocaba de forma explícita a los lectores a apoyar al gobierno. Para ello, el clérigo utilizó modelos bíblicos del catolicismo romano. En consecuencia, el presente trabajo analiza, en primer lugar, los motivos por los cuales Urquiza y miembros de su gabinete resolvieron reeditar el catecismo. En segundo lugar, se estudia cómo el clérigo construía simbólicamente el liderazgo de Urquiza al frente del gobierno nacional. Así, se busca comprender las particularidades de las relaciones entre poder temporal y poder celestial en la Argentina hacia mediados del siglo XIX.

  4. Historical and Doctrinal Background for the Study of Secularism | Antecedentes históricos y doctrinales para el estudio del laicismo

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    Salvador Ordóñez Delgado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Spanish constitutionalism, progressive texts have included several provisions of a secular character, as in the case of the draft federal Constitution of 1873 and, especially, the Republican Constitution of 1931 and the various regulations adopted during the Second Republic, as well as the period of the Sexenio Democrático, in contrast to the setback of the Restoration period and, particularly, the Franco period, during which Catholicism became the official State religion, as part of the special treatment which the Catholic Church obtained in its relations with the State. The current Constitution of 1978 restored the secular spirit of the Republican period within a framework of respectful relations with the Catholic Church. In this context, the successive democratic governments have devised their educational policies, in which secular principles have depended on the political colour of the various cabinets and the distribution of parliamentary seats, against the background of the agreements between the Spanish State and the Holy See of 1979. | En la historia del constitucionalismo español, los textos progresistas contemplan diversas disposiciones de carácter laicista, como es el caso del proyecto de Constitución federal de 1873 y, especialmente, la Constitución republicana de 1931 y las distintas disposiciones legislativas aprobadas durante la II República, además de la etapa del Sexenio democrático, en contraposición con el retroceso que representa la época de la Restauración y particularmente el franquismo, en el que el catolicismo se convierte en la religión oficial del Estado, de acuerdo con el especial tratamiento que consigue la Iglesia en sus relaciones con el Estado. La actual Constitución de 1978 retoma el espíritu laico de la etapa republicana en el marco de unas relaciones de respeto con la Iglesia católica. En este contexto, los gobiernos democráticos han elaborado sus políticas educativas, en las

  5. Iglesia y movimiento obrero en la Rioja (1876-1923

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    Sergio Cañas Díez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la compleja relación entre catolicismo, laicismo y anticlericalismo, dada en la historia contemporánea de España, tanto el movimiento obrero como la Iglesia desempeña-ron un papel crucial a la hora de ganarse las simpatías y el rechazo de las distintas clases sociales y de los individuos que la compusieron. En una tesitura regional de enfrentamiento entre los grupos dirigentes y dirigidos en La Restauración, la propia Iglesia riojana deberá adaptarse a las nuevas circunstancias políticas y socioeconómicas creadas por el nuevo orden administrativo liberal y la organización capitalista del trabajo, del mismo modo en que a medida que estas estructuras vayan articulándose y desarrollándose en la provincia de Logroño, crearán un caldo de cultivo propicio para el desarrollo de distintos conflictos sociales. Estudiando la visión católica del movimiento obrero en La Rioja, podemos comprobar hasta qué punto la Iglesia aceptó, o no, las aspiraciones de los trabajadores, así como la lógica de sus enfrentamientos y las distintas derivas que éstos tuvieron para la historia posterior.      Palabras clave: Iglesia, Restauración, La Rioja, movimiento obrero, conflicto social.  _______________ Abstract: Inside the complex relation between catholicism, laity and anticlericalism, given in the contemporary history of Spain, both the labor movement and the Church played a crucially role at the moment of there be gaining the sharm and the rejection of the different social classes and of the individuals who com-posed it. In a regional attitude of clash between the groups leader and directed in La Restauración, the own Riojan Church will have to adapt to the new political and socioeconomic circumstances created by the new administrative liberal order and the capitalist organization of the work, in the same way in that as these structures go being articulated and developing in the province of Logroño, they will create a propitious

  6. Nihilism, relativism, and Engelhardt.

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    Wreen, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a critical analysis of Tristram Engelhardt's attempts to avoid unrestricted nihilism and relativism. The focus of attention is his recent book, The Foundations of Bioethics (Oxford University Press, 1996). No substantive or "content-full" bioethics (e.g., that of Roman Catholicism or the Samurai) has an intersubjectively verifiable and universally binding foundation, Engelhardt thinks, for unaided secular reason cannot show that any particular substantive morality (or moral code) is correct. He thus seems to be committed to either nihilism or relativism. The first is the view that there is not even one true or valid moral code, and the second is the view that there is a plurality of true or valid moral codes. However, Engelhardt rejects both nihilism and relativism, at least in unrestricted form. Strictly speaking, he himself is a universalist, someone who believes that there is a single true moral code. Two argumentative strategies are employed by him to fend off unconstrained nihilism and relativism. The first argues that although all attempts to establish a content-full morality on the basis of secular reason fail, secular reason can still establish a content-less, purely procedural morality. Although not content-full and incapable of providing positive direction in life, much less a meaning of life, such a morality does limit the range of relativism and nihilism. The second argues that there is a single true, content-full morality. Grace and revelation, however, are needed to make it available to us; secular reason alone is not up to the task. This second line of argument is not pursued in The Foundations at any length, but it does crop up at times, and if it is sound, nihilism and relativism can be much more thoroughly routed than the first line of argument has it. Engelhardt's position and argumentative strategies are exposed at length and accorded a detailed critical examination. In the end, it is concluded that neither strategy will do, and

  7. Fronteras del corazón shamánico: Azares y dilemas Qom

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    Pablo Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizo dilemas y paradojas que plantea la modernidad en el caso de los Takshek Qom o tobas del oriente de Formosa (Argentina. Para ello me centro en la experiencia del lkillakte o corazón como uno de los núcleos vitales y existenciales de la persona. Allí se alojan las distintas clases de poder shamánico y también es sede de los pensamientos y las emociones. Me interesa explorar qué le pasa en términos simbólicos al corazón shamánico frente al contacto con el catolicismo y el evangelismo, y sus definiciones de lo sagrado y el poder numinoso, la enfermedad y la terapia. De este modo es posible observar al corazón como un lugar-proceso que ha transformado sus fronteras, redefiniendo su anatomía y fisiología ontológicas. Así, como un operador metonímico sensible, los azares del corazón shamánico condensan eventos, símbolos y metáforas significativas de la historia qom.In this paper I analyze certain dilemmas and paradoxes of modernity in the case of the Takshek Qom or Eastern Toba (Formosa province, Argentina. To do so I focus on the experience of the heart or lkillakte, defined as the person's key vital and existential center. Within it thoughts and emotions occur, and it also houses different kinds of shamanic power. From a symbolic approach, I explore what happens with the shamanic heart under the influence of Catholicism and Evangelism, stressing their definitions of the sacred and numinous power, illness and therapy. In this sense, I suggest to regard the heart as a place-process that has widened its boundaries, redefining its anatomy and ontological physiology. Thus, as a sensible, metonymic operator, I argue that the contingencias of shamanic hearts condense events, symbols and meaningful metaphors of Qom history.

  8. Feminine and masculine archetypes in Carmen Martín Gaite’s Entre visillos. An analysis from ethnoliterature

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    Cajade Frías, Sonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze from the perspective of ethnoliterature the novel Entre visillos (1958 by Carmen Martín Gaite in relation to the Spain’s social and cultural context in the 1950s. The objective of the work consists of studying the feminine and masculine archetypes that the novel projects, in connection with the gender-related models that National-Catholicism promoted at the time. Many of these models are still prevalent in Spain. For her the novel, as it encapsulated the socio-cultural context of the 1950s, had by itself, as a specific literary product, the power of impinging upon and re-constructing that social reality, especially by producing new archetypes of gender on which to offer alternate models of identity.

    El propósito de este artículo es analizar desde una perspectiva etnoliteraria la novela Entre visillos (1958 de Carmen Martín Gaite en relación con el contexto social y cultural de la España de posguerra de los años cincuenta. El objetivo del trabajo consiste en estudiar los arquetipos femeninos y masculinos que se proyectan a través de la novela y su conexión con los modelos de género propuestos por la ideología dominante del nacional-catolicismo, muchos aún vigentes en la sociedad actual. Se trata así de explorar cómo el contexto sociocultural de la época se refleja en la novela y cómo a su vez la propia obra literaria, como producto cultural específico, posee la capacidad de proyectarse sobre esa misma realidad social, contribuyendo así a re-construirla, concretamente a través de la creación de nuevos arquetipos de género que proponen modelos de identidad alternativos.

  9. Las tensiones político-eclesiásticas en torno a Fermín Yzurdiaga, 1936-1939

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    Martínez Sánchez, Santiago

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermín Yzurdiaga was a priest from Navarra who carried out an extremely visible political and propaganda activity for Falange, during the Spanish Civil War. Having been born in Pamplona, he carried out some pioneering cultural projects in Franco's Spain: the Arriba España newspaper and a magazine called Jerarquía. Besides, in May 1937, Franco appointed him as Falange’s Press and Propaganda chief. As a clergyman, Yzurdiaga aspired to reconcile Catholicism and Falange. However, due to his constant political visibility, his speeches and sermons, his frequent controversies with many catholics, and the uncertainty about the increasingly totalitarian character of the State that Yzurdiaba was working for, he was seen by his Church superiors with increasing suspicion. The Bishop of Pamplona, Marcelino Olaechea, required him to resign both from his political activity at the end of 1937, and from his journalistic role in late 1938. Our goal is to analyze the early clashes between civil and religious authorities to control the direction of the priest’s initiatives.El sacerdote navarro Fermín Yzurdiaga desarrolló una notable actividad política y periodística al servicio de la Falange durante la guerra civil española. Impulsó desde Pamplona algunos proyectos culturales pioneros en la España franquista: el diario Arriba España y la revista Jerarquía. Franco le encumbró a la jefatura de prensa y propaganda de la Falange unificada, en mayo de 1937. Como clérigo, Yzurdiaga aspiró a conciliar catolicismo y falangismo. Pero sus superiores eclesiásticos le vieron con creciente recelo, por su incesante visibilidad política, por sus arengas y sermones, por sus habituales polémicas con católicos y por la incertidumbre sobre el rumbo totalitario del Estado al que Yzurdiaba servía. Su obispo Marcelino Olaechea exigió que renunciase a su protagonismo público: a la actividad política, a finales de 1937; y a la periodística, a fines de 1938

  10. Sacred messages for AIDS prevention. Principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, J

    1991-01-01

    In Brazil, alternative religious approaches are being used to spread the message of AIDs prevention. The concepts and practices of traditional Afro--Brazilian religion are being used in a newly released booklet for religious leaders of Candomble, a traditional spirit cult that traces its origins to the Yoruba of western Africa. There is a fusion of this spirit cult with Catholicism. The practice of all night dancing ceremonies where initiates appeal to orixas for guidance is coupled with private daily obligations. Orixas offer to cure the spirit and the body and are often used after Western medicine has failed to provide a cure. Candomble and Umbanda are the most widely observed religions in Brazil. There is a saying that everyone in Brazil is Catholic, but believers in Afro-Brazilian religion. Catholic parishes account for 19,000 places of worship throughout the country, but in 3 of the largest states, excluding the most "African" state Bahia, there are 55,000 Afro--Brazilian religious centers. 30,000 are in Rio de Janeiro, 16,00 in Sao Paulo, and 11,700 in Rio Grande do Sul. Although these religious centers are part of Brazilian identity and culture, government officials and the Catholic Church have repressed or looked unfavorably upon them. The group, Religious Support Against AIDS (ARCA), sponsored by the Institute for Religious Studies, provides education and consciousness raising through religious and social activities. ARCA hosted a meeting with Candomble religious leaders in May 1989 to explore options for dealing with AIDs, since their contact was with the poorer segments of the population and they possessed knowledge of traditional cures and medicinal plants. The meeting was successful, and ARCA was asked to provide educational materials. The problem was that ceremonial, rites were private and an AIDs stigma might emerge among the priests and priestesses, who were thought to be mainly homosexuals. With the expertise of anthropologist and a historian

  11. Luther als protestantischer Katechet

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    U. Kern

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Luther as protestant catechist Luther’s catechetical activity is based on the catechetic tradition already extant in the Early Church. He reverts to this tradition, and more especially to the catechetical instruction of the Middle Ages. Luther observed great negligence and deficiency with regard to the catechesis in the Roman Catholicism of his time. In Luther’s view, a catechism is a short summary of Holy Scrip-ture; it is a condensed and succinct expression of the teachings of the Christian faith. Along with his study on the unfree will (“De servo arbitrio” Luther considered his two catechisms, which developed out of his preaching activity, as his most im-portant written work. His “Small catechism”, which was very well received, was reissued more than 60 times – and translated into a variety of languages – up until the time of his death. According to Luther, catechesis (catechetical instruction is the means by which the catechism is to be learned. A vital part of this process is that the catechism must take root in the heart. The catechism is not a vehicle for objective, scientific faith, but rather defines a living, personal faith as trust in God. All Christians, including adults, must therefore know the catechism in such a way that it is engraved on their consciousness. This necessitates the attendance of catechetical sermons. There is much pneumatological profit to be had in the reading and discussion of the catechism, and in meditating on it, because the Holy Spirit is present in all these activities. All that is necessary for the Christian to know about his salvation is richly and thoroughly present in the catechism. In the light of this, the catechism is profoundly trinitarian and eschatological in orientation. The catechism teaches that the fulfilment of the Ten Commandments, the realisation of the good, is born out of true faith. Those who do not know the catechism are not allowed to partake in the sacrament of the

  12. Book reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Peter Borschberg (ed., Iberians in the Singapore-Melaka area and adjacent regions (16th to 18th century (Syed Muhd Khairudin Aljunied Katharine L. Wiegele, Investing in miracles; El Shaddai and the transformation of popular Catholicism in the Philippines (Greg Bankoff Jean Gelman Taylor, Indonesia; Peoples and histories (Peter Boomgaard Clive Moore, New Guinea; Crossing boundaries and history (Harold Brookfield Nathan Porath, When the bird flies; Shamanic therapy and the maintenance of worldly boundaries among an indigenous people of Riau (Sumatra (Cynthia Chou and Martin Platt Paul van der Grijp, Identity and development; Tongan culture, agriculture, and the perenniality of the gift (H.J.M. Claessen Tim Bunnell, Malaysia, modernity and the multimedia super corridor; A critical geography of intelligent landscapes (Ben Derudder L. Fontijne, Guardians of the land in Kelimado; Louis Fontijne’s study of a colonial district in eastern Indonesia (Maribeth Erb Karl-Heinz Golzio, Geschichte Kambodschas; Das Land der Khmer von Angkor bis zur Gegenwart (Volker Grabowsky Emmanuel Poisson, Mandarins et subalternes au nord du Viêt Nam; Une bureaucracie à l’épreuve (1820-1918 (Martin Grossheim Generale Missiven van Gouverneurs-Generaal en Raden aan Heren XVII der Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, Volume 10, 1737-1743 (Gerrit Knaap Aris Ananta and Evi Nurvidya Arifin (eds, International migration in Southeast Asia (Santo Koesoebjono Vladimir Braginsky, The comparative study of traditional Asian literatures; From reflective traditionalism to neo-traditionalism (G.L. Koster Fiona Kerlogue (ed., Performing objects; Museums, material culture and performance in Southeast Asia (Jennifer Lindsay Th.C. van der Meij, Puspakrema; A Javanese romance from Lombok (Julian Millie Robyn Maxwell, Sari to sarong; Five hundred years of Indian and Indonesian textile exchange -- Jasleen Dhamija, Woven magic; The affinity between

  13. CRENÇAS RELIGIOSAS, FANATISMO E SECULARIDADE NA AMÉRICA LATINA

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    João Batista Libânio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A trajetória da religiosidade na América Latina parte do catolicismo popular tradicional que se radicou no profundo do povo por obra da primeira evangelização. Caracterizou-se por valorizar os milagres, as promessas, a devoção a Nossa Senhora e aos santos, com traços penitenciais, de caráter leigo, familiar, com enorme tolerância moral. Depois a reforma romana no espírito do Concílio de Trento se fez valer a partir da 2ª metade do século XIX. Some-se um messianismo mágico que existe até hoje sob diversas formas. A renovação profunda veio com o Concílio Vaticano II. A versão latino-americana, original, da libertação se forjou em Medellín com continuidade moderada em Puebla. No momento atual, experimenta-se explosão religiosa polimorfa. E para fechar o itinerário, a V Conferência dos Bispos em Aparecida convoca os católicos para uma experiência de encontro pessoal com Cristo na Igreja na esperança de se converterem em discípulos missionários. No horizonte está a expectativa de uma Grande Missão Continental. ABSTRACT: Latin America religiosity begins with popular Catholicism which is rooted deep down in people’s soul by the work of the first evangelization. It characterizes by emphasizing miracles, vows, devotion to Our Lady and saints, with penitential traces, laity character, familial mindset, moral tolerance. In the spirit of the Trent council later in the second half of 19th century the Roman reform prevailed. Under many forms magic Messianic movements exist even today. A profound renovation arises with the second Vatican council. Its Latin America original version of liberation was forged in Medellín with moderate continuation in Puebla. In the current moment there is an explosion of multifaceted religious experience. And to close the journey, the 5th Conference of Bishops in Aparecida calls Catholics to have an experience of personal encounter with Christ in the Church in the hope of converting them into

  14. Consideraciones sobre la religión en la fenomenología del joven Heidegger

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    CÉSAR LAMBERT

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se ocupa de la tematización que Heidegger hace de la religión en su época de docente en Friburgo. Heidegger se encuentra en búsqueda de la fenomenología como ciencia originaria, y en ese contexto destaca tres dimensiones humanas de peculiar importancia: autobiografía, arte y religión. En ese contexto se muestra que lo que aquí interesa es la manera en que la vida táctica se expresa a sí misma. En el caso concreto de la religión, la vida religiosa y su expresión no operan como contenido y continente ajenos el uno del otro. A su vez, la ocupación heideggeriana con la filosofía de la religión tiene, ante todo, que ver con una descripción de las tendencias filosóficas imperantes en su tiempo. El artículo concluye con una somera referencia biográfica a la crisis personal del filósofo que lo lleva a abandonar el catolicismo.The present article is concerned with the themes that Heidegger addresses regarding religión during his time as a teacher in Freiburg. Here Heidegger is found searching for phenomenology as an original science, and in this context he highlights three human dimensions of singular importance: autobiography, art and religión. In this setting, it is shown that what is of interest is the way in which real life expresses itself. As for the concrete case of religión, religious life and its expression do not opérate as contained and container, distant from each other. At the same time, the heideggerian concern with philosophy of religión has to do with a description of the philosophical tendencies dominating in his day, before all else. The article concludes with a brief biographical reference to the personal crisis of the philosopher which leads him to abandon catholicism.onar el catolicismo.

  15. VALIDACIÓN DE LA UNIDAD DIDÁCTICA LA IGLESIA CATÓLICA DE COSTA RICA EN LA HISTORIA NACIONAL: DESAFÍOS Y RESPUESTAS (VALIDITY OF COSTA RICA’S CATHOLIC CHURCH DIDACTIC UNIT THROUGH THE NATIONAL HISTORY: CHALLENGES AND ANSWERS

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    Gómez Figueroa Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Presento la validación de la unidad didáctica: Historia de la Iglesia Católica en Costa Rica: desafíos y respuestas de Miguel Picado Gatjens realizada con el alumnado del Centro Universitario Metropolitano de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia (UNED y un equipo interdisciplinario. La unidad se validó mediante un cuestionario escrito, diseñado por la Oficina del Programa de Materiales Impresos (PROMADE de la UNED y aplicado a estudiantes y profesionales. Se determinó cómo y qué enseñar acerca de la historia del catolicismo para promover la reflexión y la formación en el estudiante universitario a distancia. Con el diseño y la elaboración del texto didáctico se regularon los contenidos y se seleccionaron los objetivos básicos de aprendizaje, las pautas metodológicas y las experiencias del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje necesarios para perfeccionar, en un futuro, el proceso de elaboración de textos didácticos para la educación a distancia.Abstract:I present the validation of the book History of the Catholic Church of Costa Rica: Challenges and Answers (Historia de la Iglesia Católica de Costa Rica: desafíos y respuestas by Miguel Picado Gatjens made with the help of the students of the Metropolitan University Center of the State Distance University (Centro Universitario Metropolitano de la Universidad Estatal a Distancia, UNED and a team from different fields of study.This book was validated through a written survey designed by the Office of Program of Written Materials (La Oficina de Programa de Materiales Didácticos, PROMADE of UNED and it was given to the alumni and the faculty. It was concluded from the results of the survey, how and what to teach about the history of Catholicism in order to promote thought and good development in the students of the State University of Distance Learning (UNED. With the design and creation of this text, the contents, the learning objectives and activities and the methodology

  16. Polish Decadence: Leopold Staff's Igrzysko in the European Context

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    Julia Przybos

    2012-03-01

    expression. It is my hypothesis that taken out of its secular context, religious revisionism of the kind practiced by French decadents may be seen as shocking transgression in a fiercely catholic country like Poland. In the country that lost its independence in 1794 and was ever since seeking to regain it, Catholic Church was perceived as an essential ally in the struggle against main occupying powers: Orthodox Russia, and Protestant Prussia. In the course of the 19th century Catholicism and patriotism had been effectively fused in Polish national conscience. In this charged political context a Polish author revisiting Church dogma or tradition was at risk of being perceived not only as a religious outcast but also as a traitor to the cause of Polish independence. To test my hypothesis I propose to examine Igrzysko (Game, a forgotten play by Leopold Staff. Admired today chiefly as a poet, the young Staff wrote Igrzysko in Poland after a long sojourn in Paris where he had lived among the international crowd of fin de siècle writers and artists. The play was first produced in Lemberg in 1909 and after a few performances vanished forever from Polish theatrical repertoire. Leopold Staff's play is set in ancient Rome and depicts tribulations of an actor who, while impersonating a Christian awaiting crucifixion, converts to Christianity. In his play, Staff revives the legend of Saint Genesius, an actor in Arles who died a martyr's death in 286 under Diocletian. In Spain, Saint Genesius's legend inspired Lope de Vega who wrote Acting is Believing (Lo fingido verdadero, 1607. In France, it was the source for Jean Rotrou's Saint Genest (1646. All told, the legend of Genesius is a popular theme for artists who wish to explore the distinction between art and life. An important addition to this old tradition, Staff's play contains, however, a decadent and potentially scandalous twist. Unlike in Acting is Believing and Saint Genest, the protagonist's conversion is very short

  17. As irmandades de negros: resistência e repressão (The black brotherhoods: resistance and repression DOI 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n21p202

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    Ana Lúcia Eduardo Farah Valente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Igreja Católica legitimou prática e teoricamente o sistema colonial brasileiro e teve um caráter predominantemente leigo, por força da instituição do padroado. Pouco foi escrito sobre as irmandades de negros. As análises têm se restringido a observar que desempenharam um importante papel na manutenção das crenças religiosas africanas. Com a República, o processo de romanização empreendido pela Igreja teve por objetivo a desvalorização do catolicismo laico, com o desmantelamento das antigas irmandades e sua substituição por novas organizações leigas. Impõe-se caracterizar o papel desempenhado pela resistência, sem o quê seria difícil entender a existência atual da Irmandade Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, fundada em 1711, na região central da cidade. Sua história se confunde com a história das irmandades de negros em geral, mas oferece exemplo de como continuou a ser repositório da tradição popular, calcada em prática religiosa católica 'branca' e prática religiosa 'negra', pensada a partir do patamar da escravidão.Palavras-chave: religião; poder; laicidade. AbstractThe Catholic Church legitimized practical and theoretically the Brazilian colonial system and had a predominantly lay character by virtue of the institution of patronage. Little has been written about the brotherhoods among black people. The analysis have been restricted to noting that they have played an important role in maintaining the religious African beliefs. With the Republic, the romanization process undertaken by the Church  has aimed the devaluation of the laic Catholicism, with the dismantling of old brotherhoods and their replacement by new lay organizations. It is necessary to characterize the role played by resistance, without which it would be difficult to understand the actual existence of the Irmandade Nossa Senhora dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, founded in 1711, in the central region of the city

  18. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church.

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    Ruether, R R

    1993-01-01

    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  19. Inquisição, religiosidade e transformações culturais: a sinagoga das mulheres e a sobrevivência do judaísmo feminino no Brasil colonial - Nordeste, séculos XVI-XVII

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    Angelo Adriano Faria de Assis

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A visitação do Santo Ofício ao Nordeste açucareiro entre 1591e 1595 traria à tona os conflitos sociais e a disputa de interesses entre cristãos velhos e novos. Principais delatados, os neoconversos tornam-se figuras centrais das acusações feitas à mesa e vítimas em potencial das generalizações sobre seu suposto comportamento criptojudaico, acusados das mais diversas heresias. Dentre os delatados, chama a atenção o significativo número de mulheres, baluartes da resistência judaica, difusoras de sua cultura e tradições para as novas gerações. Responsáveis pelo ambiente doméstico, seriam as grandes propagadoras do judaísmo secreto e diminuto que se tornara possível após as proibições de livre crença no mundo português a partir de 1497, e a instauração da Inquisição, em 1536, quando os lares passaram a representar papel preponderante para a divulgação e sobrevivência das tradições dos filhos de Israel.The visit of the Holly Inquisition to the northeast of Brazil between 1591 and 1595 would expose social conflicts and disputes of interests among old and new Christians. The last were the potential victims and the main accused of maintaining a crypto-judaic behavior, performing several heresies. Among the accused, there was an impressive number of women, center of Jewish resistence, transmitting the culture and the tradition to the new generations. After the prohibition of any other faith than Catholicism in the Portuguese world in 1497 and the stablishment of the Inquisition in 1536, women would become responsible for the diffusion of secret Judaism. Homes became a central place to the survival of Jewish traditions.

  20. Bosnia: Migrations

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    Stjepan Pavičić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a reprint of a very informative review of migrations in Bosnia published almost 60 years ago. The author first notes that the [Slavic] population that first settled Bosnia spoke variants of the ikavian-ţakavian dialect spoken also in neighbouring parts of Croatia (although the interrogative ča itself was not common. From the 13th century the jekavian-štokavian dialect expanded from the Southeast, from areas in modern Montenegro. This change was greatly due to immigration of Vlachs, who had adopted jekavian-štokavian. Although earlier Vlach immigrants had adopted the indigenous ikavian idiom, as well as associating themselves with Catholicism or with the Patarene Bosnian Church, later arrivals spoke jekavian-štokavian and adhered to Eastern Orthodoxy. In the 14th century the former group, living on both sides of the Neretva valley and in the Dinaric range, expanded to areas of Croatia, whereas the Eastern Vlachs had already established themselves on the left bank of the Drina river. By 1450 all Vlachs in Bosnia spoke jekavian-štokavian. In the 15–16th centuries the Ottomans favoured the settlement of Vlachs in Bosnia. The Vlachs served in Ottoman military structures, provided transportation services and were useful in the integration of conquered western and northwestern lands. In general, the establishment of Ottoman rule in Bosnia induced major changes in the population and in migration flows. The author divides this history into three periods. The first lasted from the initial Ottoman conquests to the wars of 1683–1699. At its start in the 15th century almost all Patarenes adopted Islam, especially in areas where the Bosnian Church was strong, but also in areas where Catholicism dominated, where some Catholics embraced Islam. Conversions of Catholics to Islam intensified in the 16th century and throughout the 17th, to a different degree in various regions: a in Central Bosnia conversion was almost total, b along the Sava

  1. La Compañía de Jesús y la defensa de la monarquía hispánica

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    Burrieza Sánchez, Javier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the foundation of the Society of Jesus in 1540, there was identification between its spiritual aims and the task ascribed to the Spanish Monarchy. The article starts pointing out the traditional concept of the Jesuits as an army and the constant association that empowered them. It establishes how different people of the Society have been related with the government and the different ways of the Jesuits to get involved in politics, as well as the most important Jesuits who have taken part in these interventions. It is explained, later, some of the main political problems where the Society participated: the supposed Spanish identity of the Order, which was questioned after Francisco de Borja´s death in 1572; the conspiratory image associated to the desires of the Catholic Restoration in England; the defence of Catholicism in Europe while the war, during the first half of the XVII century; the Jesuits´ position in the crisis of the Monarchy in 1640, specially, during the independence of Portugal; and finally, the utopias and clashes of interests in the Spanish America, as well as the missionary plans proposed for China. So, the Jesuits weren’t unaware of the political life in the modern Spanish.Desde la fundación de la Compañía de Jesús en 1540, se produjo una identificación entre los objetivos espirituales de la misma y la misión atribuida a la Monarquía española. El artículo comienza matizando el concepto tradicional de los jesuitas como ejército y la continua asociación que se les ha realizado con el poder. Establece cómo diferentes individuos de la Compañía se han relacionado con los gobiernos y los distintos medios de intervención de los jesuitas en la política, así como los jesuitas más importantes que han protagonizado estas intervenciones. Se plantea, después, algunos de los principales problemas políticos en los que intervino la Compañía: la supuesta identidad española de la orden, cuestionada tras la

  2. Pela educação lutaremos o bom combate: a instrução operária como um campo de disputas entre católicos e anarquistas na primeira república brasileira - For education will fight the good combat: the workers' education as a field of disputes between catholic

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    Isabel Bilhão, Brasil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo aborda-se o contexto de transformações sócio-educacionais ocorridas ao longo da Primeira República brasileira, quando o crescimento urbano-industrial e o aumento da força organizativa e numérica do operariado começou a se fazer sentir, ensejando o crescimento de disputas de diferentes grupos em torno da educação dos trabalhadores. Observam-se as polêmicas travadas entre integrantes do clero católico e militantes anarquistas pela adesão operária às suas concepções educativas.Palavras-chave: movimento operário, educação, polêmicas, anarquismo, catolicismo. FOR EDUCATION WILL FIGHT THE GOOD COMBAT: THE WORKERS' EDUCATION AS A FIELD OF DISPUTES BETWEEN CATHOLICS AND ANARCHISTS IN THE FIRST BRAZILIAN REPUBLICAbstractThe article addresses the context of social and educational changes that occurred along the Brazilian First Republic, in which urban-industrial growth and increased the organizational and numerical strength of the workers began to be noticeable, increasing disputes of the distinct groups around the workers education. Will observe the polemics between members of the catholic clergy and anarchist militants by the adhesion of the working class to their educational conceptions.Key-words: labour movement, education, polemics, anarchism, catholicism.       POR LA EDUCACIÓN LUCHAREMOS EL BUEN COMBATE: LA INSTRUCCIÓN DE LOS TRABAJADORES COMO UN CAMPO DE DISPUTAS ENTRE LOS CATÓLICOS Y LOS ANARQUISTAS EN LA PRIMERA REPÚBLICA DE BRASILResumenEl artículo aborda el contexto de transformaciones socio educacionales ocurridas a lo largo de la Primera República en Brasil, en el cual el crecimiento urbano-industrial y el aumento de la fuerza organizativa y numérica de los obreros empezaba a ser sentida, intensificando las disputas de distintos grupos alrededor de la educación de los trabajadores. Se observan las polémicas trabadas entre miembros del clero católico y militantes anarquistas por la adhesi

  3. O coração como atributo hagiográfico de São Benedito do Rosário: hipótese sobre a sua origem e seu modelo subjacente da vida cristã (The heart as hagiographic attribute of Saint Benedict of the Rosary... - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n29p109

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    Helmut Renders

    2013-03-01

    attribute as its existence. The history of representations of St. Benedict is discussed and examples are given for the role and characteristics of the religio cordis for colonial Brazil within the fraternities and sororities that venerated St. Benedict. It is argued that the alternative hagiographic attributes of St. Benedict represent different emphases of the Christian faith in more or less proximity to the colonial project of religion. It is concluded that the confraternities of “‘black’ people” preferably did not use the figure of Benedict with the Jesus as a child, but the representations of Benedict of the Rosary. Thus not the experience of mystical union is emphasized as the center of their faith, but the model of shared solidarity, according to which the nearness of God is related to the proximity to those in need. We do not interpret the attribute of the heart as a return to the dominant discourse of the religio cordis of colonial Catholicism but as a critical rereading of the official discourse by the fraternities and sororities. Keywords: Benedict with Jesus as a child. St. Benedict of the Rosary. Religio cordis. Theologia cordis. Brotherhoods and confraternities of Our Lady of the Rosary.

  4. Crítica de cultura no feminino

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    Heloisa Pontes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as inflexões de gênero no campo intelectual brasileiro, em sua interface com a crítica de cultura e literária, entre os anos de 1920 e 1960, por meio das trajetórias sociais de três mulheres expressivas, que fizeram "nome" como críticas de cultura, ensaístas e escritoras: Lúcia Miguel Pereira, Patrícia Galvão e Gilda de Mello e Souza. As três pertencem a gerações distintas e cobrem o espectro político da época: do comunismo ao socialismo, no caso de Patrícia Galvão, passando pelos círculos dos intelectuais católicos, no caso de Lúcia Miguel Pereira, ou mantendo certa distância destas questões e firmando uma identidade intelectual de tipo acadêmico, como Gilda de Mello e Souza. Vistas em conjunto e em meio aos constrangimentos derivados das relações de gênero, elas delineiam alguns dos espaços possíveis para a atuação intelectual das mulheres na época. Para não essencializar marcadores sociais que só ganham vigor analítico quando postos em relação, o artigo se fecha com uma comparação entre o campo intelectual e teatral, com o propósito de contrastar as oportunidades de carreiras e as maneiras distintas de fazer um "nome" que se abriram para as intelectuais e as atrizes no período.The article analyses the inflections of gender upon the Brazilian intellectual field, in its interface with literary and cultural critique, from the 1920's to the 1960's. It focuses on the trajectory of three expressive women who achieved renown as critics of culture, essayists and writers: Lúcia Miguel Pereira, Patrícia Galvão and Gilda Mello e Souza. The three belong to distinct generations and cover the political spectrum of the time: from Communism to Socialism, for Patrícia Galvão, through the intellectual circles of Catholicism, for Lúcia Miguel Pereira, or else maintaining a certain distance from these issues and establishing an academic intellectual identity, in the case of Gilde de Mello e Souza

  5. Páginas iniciais

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    Ficha catalográfica e sumário bilíngue

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available REDES, Santa Cruz do Sul, v. 18, nº 2, p. 1 - 273, maio/ago. 2013. ISSN: 1982-6745 Editores Virginia Elisabeta Etges Silvio Cezar Arend Sumário/Summary A EFETIVIDADE DA COLABORAÇÃO ENTRE ORGANIZAÇÕES DO ARRANJO PRODUTIVO LOCAL (APL: EXPERIÊNCIAS DOS PROCESSOS LOGÍSTICOS NAS INDÚSTRIAS DO VALE DA ELETRÔNICA DE MINAS GERAIS – BRASIL THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COLLABORATION INTER-COMPANIES: EXPERIENCES OF LOGISTIC PROCESSES IN THE INDUSTRIES OF THE ELECTRONIC VALLEY OF MINAS GERAIS – BRAZIL Ricardo Silveira Martins Osmar Vieira de Souza Filho IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE CLUSTERS INDUSTRIAIS: UMA APLICAÇÃO DE ÍNDICES DE ESPECIALIZAÇÃO E CONCENTRAÇÃO, E ALGUMAS CONSIDERAÇÕES IDENTIFICATION OF INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS: AN APPLICATION OF INDICES OF SPECIALIZATION AND CONCENTRATION, AND SOME CONSIDERATIONS Autenir Carvalho de Rezende Bernardo Palhares Campolina Diniz CAPACIDADES LOCAIS: POR UMA NOVA ECONOMIA DOS TERRITÓRIOS PRODUTIVOS LOCAL CAPACITIES: FOCUSING ON A NEW ECONOMY FOR PRODUCTIVE TERRITORIES Giancarlo Corò Paolo Gurisatti ANÁLISE CRÍTICA DA INFLUÊNCIA DO CAPITALISMO TRANSNACIONAL SOBRE AS INSTITUIÇÕES E ORGANIZAÇÕES CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF TRANSNATIONAL CAPITALISM ON INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS José G. Vargas-Hernández REDES SOCIAIS E GOVERNANÇA DEMOCRÁTICA: O CASO DE UMA INSTITUIÇÃO FEDERAL DE ENSINO SUPERIOR DE MINAS GERAIS – BRASIL NETWORKS AND DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: THE CASE OF A PUBLIC INSTITUTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION OF MINAS GERAIS – BRAZIL Edimilson Eduardo da Silva Fábio Costa Lasmar José Roberto Pereira DE MATRIZ CONSERVADORA A UMA POSTURA PROGRESSISTA: CATOLICISMO SOCIAL NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL (RS - BRASIL FROM A CONSERVATIVE MATRIX TO A PROGRESSIVE ATTITUDE: SOCIAL CATHOLICISM IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL (RS - BRAZIL Olgário Paulo Vogt Roberto Radünz DO PREJUÍZO À TRANSGRESSÃO: O DISCURSO SOBRE O MOVIMENTO GREVISTA NA IMPRENSA INJURY TO THE TRANSGRESSION: THE DISCOURSE ON STRIKE IN THE PRESS

  6. IGREJA CATÓLICA ROMANA EM CURITIBA (PR: ESTRUTURAS DA TERRITORIALIDADE SOB O PLURALISMO RELIGIOSO

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    Sylvio Fausto GIL FILHO

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas transformações do catolicismo brasileiro, o foco regional se relaciona com a análise da escala local e global como dimensões extremamente articuladas. Esta articulação caracteriza a Igreja local de Curitiba (PR com uma territorialidade de duas instâncias, influenciadas por tensões escalares de caráter global próprias da hierarquia universal da Igreja e tensões regionais específicas da Igreja local. Afora estas forças de caráter endógeno da estrutura eclesiástica, verificam-se também tensões exógenas à própria Igreja, representadas por instituições não-católicas e mesmo instituições seculares. O último quarto do século XX demonstrou uma crise da representação dominante da Igreja Católica Romana no Brasil. A conjuntura secular das cidades e a retração no espírito missionário da Igreja motivaram o diagnóstico de uma certa estagnação do domínio simbólico da Igreja. Com efeito, o pluralismo religioso dos grandes centros urbanos cunhou uma nova realidade, baseada em um crescente questionamento do mito do Brasil católico. O crescimento de movimentos religiosos pentecostais e neopentecostais representou nas décadas de 1980 e 1990 um impacto considerável na forma de a religiosidade popular fazer uma segunda identidade religiosa. Roman Catholic Church in Curitiba (PR: structures of territoriality under the religious pluralism Abstract In the transformation process of Brazilian Catholicism, the regional focus links with the analysis of the local and global scale as extremely articulated dimensions. This articulation characterizes the local Church of Curitiba (PR with a territoriality of two instances, influenced by scale tensions of global character peculiar to the head of the universal hierarchy of the Church and regional tensions specific of the local Church. Beyond these forces of endogenous character of the ecclesiastical structure, we also verified exogenous tensions of the Church itself, represented by

  7. Esperança e religião

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    David Lehmann

    2012-08-01

    and explains that all world religions' (Judaism, Christianity and Islam are built on the basis of a dialectic of the erudite and the popular. This exposition acts as an introduction to the analysis of Pentecostalism and neo-Pentecostalism, which represent unprecedented forms of religiosity in which the supernatural is present. But here the exchange is with the church itself and not with supernatural entities. The church operates more as a "Spiritual First Aid Centre" than as the foundation of a moral order or the place where human beings can make their peace with God. Pentecostalism is part of a tendency throughout the Western world which has left inclusive religions (like Catholicism and Anglicanism stagnating, while the more exclusionary, those which demand substantial sacrifice of their followers, are gaining ground.

  8. Bispos conservadores brasileiros no Concílio Vaticano II (1962-1965: D. Geraldo de Proença Sigaud e D. Antônio de Castro Mayer - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1010

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    Rodrigo Coppe Caldeira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde o século XIX o catolicismo foi assinalado por uma divisão interna advinda das demandas pastorais de como a Igreja Católica deveria se situar e responder aos novos desafios lançados pela modernidade. Uns entendiam que ela deveria dialogar com modernidade, abrindo-se àquelas perspectivas positivas do projeto moderno, outros negavam qualquer possibilidade de tal diálogo, vendo nos valores modernos apenas anticristianismo e perdição, defendendo o lançamento de anátemas aqueles que, possivelmente, se desviassem da ortodoxia. O Concílio Vaticano II (1962-1965 pode ser compreendido como um campo de lutas simbólico-normativas, no qual estas duas tendências colocaram-se frente a frente nos inúmeros debates. Este artigo tem como objetivo principal apresentar brevemente a atuação de dois bispos brasileiros conservadores no concílio: D. Antônio de Castro Mayer e D. Geraldo de Proença Sigaud (1962-1965. Para tanto, apresentaremos algumas das principais intervenções dos bispos na assembleia conciliar, chamando atenção para os temas em que travaram maior combate, como liberdade religiosa, liturgia e organização hierárquica da Igreja. AbstractSince the 19th century Catholicism has been marked by internal divisions arising from the pastoral demands of how the Catholic Church should position itself and deal with the new challenges launched by modern times. Some people understood that the Catholic Church was supposed to evolve with modern times and open itself to new perspectives related to the modern project. Others denied any possibility of dialogue with the modern times and believed that modern values would encourage scepticism and anti Christianity, defending also the excommunication of those who deviate from orthodoxy. The Second Vatican Council (1962-1965 can be understood as a symbolic-normative battle field, in which two divergent positions are in continuous confrontation. This article aims to briefly present the

  9. La identidad nacional y Calderón en la polémica teatral de 1762-1764

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    Bezhanova, Olga

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on contemporary theories about national identity, legitimacy and intellectual authority this article explores identitarian issues at stake during the 1762-1764 controversy on Spanish theater. Re-reading texts by Clavijo y Fajardo (El Pensador, Nicolás Fernández de Moratín (Desengaños al teatro español and other writings, Mariano José Nipho (Diario Estrangero and La nación española defendida and José Romea y Tapia (El escritor sin título we contend that what these authors are debating indeed is not theater but the legitimacy and authority they are claiming for, and ultimately opposing conceptions of national identity. Calderón becoming a cultural icon of such identity. Particularly significant is the role of autos sacramentales in this context. In effect, acrimony and irritation are part of this polemics because orthodox Catholicism is, from a conservative point of view, an essential component of what they consider Spanish national identity. The prohibition of the autos is just a sign of a temporary change in the relationship of forces.A partir de teorías actuales sobre la identidad nacional, la legitimidad y la autoridad intelectual, este artículo explora los puntos clave identitarios que se ponen en juego durante la polémica sobre el teatro español de los años 1762-1764. Mediante una re-lectura de los textos de Clavijo y Fajardo (El Pensador, Nicolás Fernández de Moratín (Desengaños al teatro español y otros escritos, Mariano José Nipho (Diario Estrangero y La nación española defendida y José Romea y Tapia (El escritor sin título, sostenemos que lo que estos autores discuten realmente no es sobre el teatro, sino sobre la legitimidad y autoridad que reclaman, y en último término concepciones enfrentadas sobre la identidad nacional, de la que Calderón parece convertirse en icono cultural. De particular significación es el papel de los autos sacramentales en este contexto. En efecto, la acritud y la irritaci

  10. A juventude da Teologia da Libertação (Youth of Liberation Theology - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n26p333

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    Flávio Munhoz Sofiati

    2012-06-01

    the back of Pentecostal movement to the catholic religious scenery, which has represented some drawbacks to the PJB articulation with the parish youth groups, as well as external factors, such as the arrival of the postmodern culture to the Brazilian society, which has brought the predominance for individualist practices, be it, without collective/communitarian basis, both contributed to these changes. Keywords: Religion. Youth. Catholicism. Liberation Theology. Youth Pastoral.

  11. Envolvimento religioso e fatores sociodemográficos: resultados de um levantamento nacional no Brasil Religious involvement and sociodemographic factors: a Brazilian national survey

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    Alexander Moreira-Almeida

    2010-01-01

    sociodemographic factors were assessed. RESULTS: Five percent of Brazilians reported having no religion, 83% considered religion very important in their lives, and 37% attended religious services at least once a week. The most frequent affiliations were Catholicism (68%, Protestant/Evangelicals (23%, and Kardecist Spiritism (2.5%. Ten percent reported attending more than one religion. In line with studies in other countries, older age and female gender were independently associated with higher levels of subjective and organizational religiousness after controlling for other sociodemographic factors. However, educational level, income and black race were not independently associated with religious involvement variables. DISCUSSION: This study shows high levels of religious involvement among Brazilians and suggests that religiousness may have different associations with other variables across different cultures. To better understand the influence of religion on health, it is necessary to expand this kind of survey to other cultures.

  12. Dios, Patria, Autoridad: la Iglesia Católica y la fascistización de los regímenes ibéricos, 1933-1945

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    Manuel Loff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis de los sistemas liberales ibéricos en la Europa de entreguerras es especialmente interesante por el papel específico que ocupa en ella el componente católico de laidentidad y de las coaliciones que sostuvieron los dos regímenes autoritarios. El catolicismo político tuvo un papel muy relevante en el proceso de modernización de las derechas españolas y portuguesas de la primera posguerra. Salazar y Franco presentaron los regímenes que ellosmismos construyeron y sobre los que gobernaron como siendo intrínsicamente católicos, y los católicos fueron actoresprincipales de las coaliciones políticas y sociales que sostuvieron ambos dictadores. En su lucha contra la Primera República Portuguesa (1910-26 y la Segunda República Española (1931-39, las fuerzas políticas conservadoras y de extrema derecha concedieron un papel estratégico a los católicos politicamente organizados en lo que se refiere a la movilización de las masas y en la constitución de un amplia coalición que pudiese crear una alternativa sólida a la democracia liberal y a un movimento obrero cada día más fuerte. En los años centrales de la «Era del Fascismo», las derechas católicas ibéricas y la jerarquía de la Iglesia sancionaron un giro muy notorio hacia una lectura crecientemente fascistizada del contexto político europeo posterior a la Revolución Soviética.The crisis of the Iberian liberal systems in inter-war Europe is especially interesting to study because of the specific role ofthe Catholic component of both the sustaining political coalition and the identity of these two of the European 20th century authoritarian regimes. Political Catholicism was a major actor in the modernisation process of Spanish and Portuguese post-World War I rightwing movements. Salazar and Franco presented the regimes they built up and ruled upon as being intrinsically catholic, and Catholics were major partners in the political and

  13. A CRISE DA IGREJA CATÓLICA: ALGUNS DADOS EMPÍRICOS E PERSPECTIVAS TEOLÓGICAS

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    Joaquín Silva Soler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa o resultado de pesquisa realizada, em 2012, pelo Centro de Políticas Públicas e o Instituto de Sociologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Chile sobre a Igreja Católica nesse país. Os dados do estudo mostram uma situação de crise do catolicismo chileno. Tal crise tem causas diversas, intra e extra eclesial: mudança cultural profunda, crise de identidade missionária da Igreja, crise de fé, crise de confiança, crise que convida a uma nova evangelização. A constatação dos limites da presença e influência da Igreja católica na era pós-moderna constitui desafio oportuno para se afirmar a importância da proposta do Cristianismo como caminho para a felicidade pessoal e para ajudar a construir uma sociedade onde reinem a justiça, a paz e a liberdade. O autêntico cristão vive a fé comprometido com a realidade integral do ser humano e da sociedade. Tal empenho se vincula ao sentido escatológico da fé e da vida eclesial. Os cristãos são chamados a manter viva a esperança, procurando superar a crise através da vivência da conversão e do perdão no seguimento de Jesus Cristo, sempre atentos aos sinais dos tempos. ABSTRACT: The article looks at the result of research carried out in 2012, by the Center for Public Policy and the Institute of Sociology of the Catholic University of Chile on the Catholic Church in that country. The data of the study show a crisis situation of Chilean Catholicism. This crisis has many causes, intra and extra ecclesial: a profound cultural change, a crisis of the Church’s missionary identity, a crisis of confidence, a crisis that calls for a new evangelization. The finding of the limits of the presence and influence of the Catholic Church in the post-modern era is a timely challenge to assert the importance of the proposal of Christianity as a path to personal happiness and to help build a society where justice, peace and freedom reign. The authentic Christian lives the

  14. Festa e Turismo Religioso: a procissão em louvor ao Nosso Senhor dos Passos na cidade de São Cristóvão (Sergipe - Brasil (Feast and Religious Tourism - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n20p96

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    Ivan Rêgo Aragão

    2011-05-01

    " of Brazilians. This present article seeks to address aspects of the Procession of "Nosso Senhor dos Passos" the city of São Cristóvão state of Sergipe. The methodology used was literature, with discussion in the theoretical field of Baroque, Devotional Feast, Tradition, Religion, Procession, Religious Tourism, Culture and Identity. We also carried out field research, with direct observation.With this study, it was noticeable that, as distant territory of Portugal, the religious feasties in Brazil have taken a very dynamic, absorbing the profane elements and reframing through popular appeal. Key words: Religious Tourism; Catholicism; Feast; Nosso Senhor dos Passos.

  15. Metropolitan Lima: area profile.

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    Hakkert, R

    1986-11-01

    This profile of metropolitan Lima, Peru, covers administrative divisions; population growth; age distribution; ethnicity and religion; housing and households; education and health care; economic activity, income, and consumption; transport and communication; and sources of information. Nearly 30% of Peru's entire population and 42% of its urban population live in Lima. The trend continues, yet Lima's urban primacy is waning due to the growth of some regional centers like Trujillo and Chimbote. Lima is still almost 10 times as large as the country's next ranking cities, Trujillo on the northern coast and Arequipa in the south. Peru's main administrative divisions are the 24 departments, of which the Department of Lima is one. These departments are further divided into 156 provinces. Greater Lima consists of 2 such provinces, the province of Lima and the constitutional province of Callao. Although the population of Lima continues to grow, its rate of growth slowed from about 5.5% during the 1960s to about 3.9% in the 1970s. Current projections estimate a metropolitan population of 6.7 million by 1990. On the whole, Lima's age structure is somewhat older than that of the rest of Peru. The median age of the population is 22.3 years, compared to a national figure of 20.4. The proportion of persons over age 65 is only 3.6%, lower than the national average of 4.1%, due to the tendency of in-migration to concentrate people of intermediate ages in the cities. Almost 400,000 inhabitants of greater Lima are bilingual in Spanish and an indigenous language. As elsewhere in Peru, the dominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Lima is a spread out city with few high rise buildings due to the danger of earthquakes. Only 12% of Lima's households are found in apartment buildings. As in other cities of Latin America, the formal housing market is beyond the reach of a major segment of the population. Consequently, much of the urban settlement has occurred through informal self

  16. Economy or chrematistics: Serbian case

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    Anđelković Petar M.

    2015-01-01

    Darwinism, disenfranchising the largest population, has created an entire class of poor, who are now struggling to realize their right to work, confirms the emptiness of neoliberal democracy. As a result of chrematistics in transit societis 'capitalism without capitalists' is created (Mladen Lazic in which the capital, grabed during social conflicts, mediated by political elites, by which the redistribution of accumulated social wealth ended up largely in private hands. If proved, and it is, that the current neo-liberal approach and form (paradigm does not give the expected, and so the required results, then the need to search for a new paradigm of development and more prominent. We need one another, a different view of society and especially its development, freed from the constraints and domination of the theory and methodology of the global powers imposed as the only desirable (required . So, we need a self-reflective approach to social issues especially in orthodox societies. It is a request that it turned to itself and see their potential and opportunities. This paper is an attempt to draw attention to the devastating consequences of chrematistics in the world, and especially in our society, but also to make an effort to search for the 'principle of hope' and point out the different possible directions of development of Serbian society. We are convinced that, as the basis of Western civilization with the neo-liberal development model is the social doctrine of Catholicism, Orthodox civilization, which can and should be the centerpiece and developer 'planetrly humanism' (Danilo Z. Marković (which in the present Russia partly realized, there should be the social doctrine of Orthodoxy at the basis of Orthodox ethics and domestic economics.

  17. A visibilidade e representação social das religiões nos selos postais brasileiros (The visibility and social representations of religions in Brazil postage stamps.DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n25p233

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    Diego Andres Salcedo

    2012-03-01

    stamps. From the observation and identification of religious recurrences 222 commemorative stamps were compiled. The study correlated the recurring religious theme with the historical Brazilian context, taking into account the decline of the Catholicism as the major religion in Brazil and also the representations of the religious practices in the media. The conclusion of this paper indicates the influence of the National Conference of the Bishops of Brazil regarding the Ministry of the Communications, establishing and enforcing the visibility of Brazilian personalities, events, and also of catholic practices taken as special and superior in comparison with other religious practices.Key-words: Brazil; Religion; Postage Stamps; Social Representation; Visibility.

  18. A evolução da Igreja Católica no Brasil à luz de pesquisas recentes (The evolution of the Catholic Church in Brazil at the light of recent research - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1208

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    Johan Konings

    2012-12-01

    e religião na região metropolitana (Values and religion in the metropolitan region, which was carried out in 2012. The reading proposed by this article focuses especially on what the data from these investigations says about the Catholic Church. After commenting briefly on some elements presented by the research, the text proposes some interpretive keys. The first is a socio-religious reading, showing that the steep decline in rates of belonging to Catholicism is the result of the shift from an “environmental” and “natal” type of religion to a religion of “conviction,” with a “confessional” nature. Secondly, the article presents some roots of this way of understanding faith in the New Testament and in the Second Vatican Council’s reading of the nature and mission of the Church. Finally, it concludes with some pastoral considerations, pointing not so much to solutions regarding the decline in Catholic belonging, but rather to the attitudes that a “confessional” church should have in our time. Key-words: IBGE Census 2010. Census data on religions. Catholic Church in Brazil. Theological reading

  19. Diversificación y competencia religiosa en Guatemala: entre pentecostalismo y cultos "neotradicionales" Diversification and religious competence in Guatemala: between Pentecostalism and "neotraditional" cults

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    Sylvie Pédron Colombani

    2008-01-01

    traditional movements - or so defined by themselves. This is the case, for example, of the cult of Maximón - also known as San Simón (Saint Simon - whose appearance is the result of a long syncretic process that combines Catholicism and Mayan religion. In the present time, in spite of being continually considered a "traditional," "Mayan" cult, with a strong ethnic dimension, it also encompasses a number of adaptations and syncretic conformation between aboriginal and ladinos peoples. Moreover, the cult to Maximón is in the process of adapting to the new context of internationalization and competency of the religious universe.

  20. Dos interesses weberianos dos sociólogos da religião: um olhar perspectivo sobre as interpretações do pentecostalismo no Brasil

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    Paulo Gracino Júnior

    2009-05-01

    review the sociological production, seeking to establish a parallel between representations of Brazilian society and culture evident in the way researchers consider and analyze the Pentecostal phenomenon. We focus our attention on the works that follow Cândido Procópio de Camargo's theory, which can be expressed schematically as: conversion, breaking with the traditional past (represented here by belonging thoughtlessly to a religion - Catholicism; disenchantment of beliefs, which would lead to individuation and rational action; and, finally, the modernization of Brazilian society. The conclusion points out that Camargo's thought and that of his followers are inserted into a broader intellectual framework, which dates back to the 1930s and is concerned with the reasons behind Brazilian underdevelopment and the chances of overcoming it. Key words: Max Weber; Pentecostalism; Disenchantment; Secularization; Modernization.

  1. Ochrona kultury narodowej w koncepcjach współczesnej prawicy narodowej w Polsce

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    Grzegorz Radomski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of natural culture in concepts of the contemporary National Right Wing in Poland In the centre of the system of values of the National Right Wing which revived after 1989 there are still nation, family and religion. The nation as community of culture is in opinion of the said parties exposed to dangers. The main risks are in their opinion as follows: cosmopolitism, Communist ideology, individualism, liberalism; secularization.In Poland, such ideas are, in the opinion of the National Right Wing, propagated by the liberal and post-communist circles. In the beginning they demanded that the communist activists are brought to justice. Some columnists refer to antisemitism. They perceive also the fall of the literary output. They assess critically the novels of Czesław Miłosz, Stanisław Barańczak or Olga Tokarczuk. Similar assessments regard the works of Polish historians. As preventive measures the following is mentioned: appropriate educational activity, statutory protection of national heritage, broadening of Catholicism, promotion of national culture. They attach great importance to the national branding. Its components are history, language, political regime, architecture, literature, art, religion, icons landscape, music. They would probably accept the opinion of Michael Porter: “Many contemporary discussions of international competition stress global homogenization and a diminished role for nations. But, in truth, national differences are at the heart of competitive success.”   Ochrona kultury narodowej w koncepcjach współczesnej prawicy narodowej w Polsce W centrum systemu wartości odrodzonego po 1989 roku ruchu narodowego pozostają naród, rodzina i religia. Naród, traktowany jako wspólnota kultury, narażony jest w ocenie wspominanych wyżej środowisk na liczne zagrożenia. Za najgroźniejsze uznają one: kosmopolityzm, ideologię komunistyczną, indywidualizm, liberalizm, sekularyzację. W Polsce wspomniane idee

  2. La cristianización de los chinos en el Perú: integración, sumisión y resistencia

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    1992-01-01

    , ¿la comunidad china del Perú estaría hoy en día tan bien organizada? THE CHRISTIANIZATION OF CHINESE IN PERU: INTEGRATION, SUBMISSION AND RESISTANCE. For the chinese coolies who arrived to Peru between 1849-1874, and afterwards for the merchants that followed them, the adoption of Catholicism was one of the most important elements of their integration strategy to the national society. Two religious orders fought to be in charge of this community. Starting in 1870, the Jesuits took the initiative in training Chinese clergy and they were followed by the Franciscans whose efforts began at the end of the 19th century and continue to the present day. Similarly, these same people participated in the official creation of the Beneficencia China in 1885, and the members of the clergy were present in almost all of the Chinese movements and institutions. It is the Spanish priests that up to the present time accompany, orient, and advise Chinese Catholics, who each day are more numerous and powerful in the contemporary Peruvian community. The influence of the Spanish clergy has been so important that we can ask ourselves whether the Chinese community of Peru would have been so well organized without their intervention.

  3. Representações sociais sobre qualidade de vida para idosos Representaciones sociales sobre la calidad de vida para la tercera edad Social representations of elders' quality of life

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    Luípa Michele Silva

    2012-03-01

    apoyar a los profesionales en la comprensión de la adhesión de las prácticas preventivas de la política y el fortalecimiento de los ancianos dirigidos a este grupo poblacional.This study aimed to identify elders' social representations of quality of life. This is an exploratory study with a sample of 240 elders, of both sexes. For data collection we used a Free Association Test with Words, using the inductive stimulus "quality of life" and sociodemographic variables. The interviews were analyzed with the software Alceste. Of the 240 studied eslders, 167 were women, with the dominant age from 60 to 69 years, income between two and three minimum wages, most of the married and with catholicism as the predominant religion. The results from Alceste pointed towards seven hierarchical classes: accessibility, work, activity, support, affection, care and interactions. Social representations of quality of life by elders can support professionals in understanding the adhesion to preventive practices for the elderly and in strengthening policies directed to this population.

  4. La Biblioteca del Monasterio de Fitero a fines del Renacimiento e inicio del Barroco

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    Ostolaza Elizondo, Maria Isabel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the time of the creation of library of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero (Navarre. Over the years it became one of the most important in the kingdom, until its decline trougth secularisations and confiscations of property suffered by the convent in the 19th century. The data on its initial phase come from the books of the abbots Fray Marcos de Villalva and Fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, both originally from Castile, who were appointed abbots vy virtue of the righ to royal patronage exercised by King Philip II. Although most of the books belong, as could be expected to an ecclesiastical library, a surprising case inthat of Abbot Ibero for the wide range of subjets he covers and the high quality of the editions, often accompanied by engravings and musical notes. Through these books, which are either identified through the exlibris or references ot notarial list, one can perceive the important ecclesiastical issues of the day: the reform of the monasteries and the practice of Orthodox Catholicism, and also secular issues that came to the knowledge of the monastery related to the two great powers of the Catholic world, the monarchy and the papacy.El artículo recoge los momentos de la creación de la biblioteca del monasterio cisterciense de Fitero (Navarra, que sería con el tiempo una de las más importantes de ese reino, hasta su mengua por causa de las distintas exclaustraciones y desamortizaciones que sufrió el convento en el s. XIX. Los datos de estos primeros tiempos corresponden a las librerías de fray Marcos de Villalva y fray Ignacio Fermín de Ibero, ambos procedentes de Castilla y nombrados abades fiterenses en virtud del derecho de patronato real ejercido por Felipe II. Aunque la mayoría de los libros corresponden a lo que se entendería como lógico en una biblioteca eclesiástica, sorprende en el caso de la del abad Ibero la amplitud de la temática y la calidad de las ediciones, en muchos casos con grabados

  5. Novo Mapa das Religiões (New Map of Religions - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n23p637

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    Marcelo Cortes Neri

    2011-12-01

    religious studies. However, these statistics are today only available until 2000. Microdata from national Family Expenditure Surveys (POF/IBGE allow us to measure the recent Brazilian religious evolution by detailing religious subgroups  and also by exploring  a richer array of correlated variables. This study processes microdata from POF in 2003 and 2009 when the economic context differs from the previous decades. It allows us to study the relation between economy and religion during a boom. This article aims to show that: i The speed of the fall in Catholicism in Brazil is two times faster than the one observed in 1990, although similar to the one observed in the 1990s; the destinies of the Catholics however are less the Pentecostal Evangelicals and more the Traditional Protestants. ii In contrast to major European Catholic countries that are facing a recession, the Brazilian localities with a catholic population have experienced an economic expansion. iii Brazilians are on the World median in terms of attendance to religious activities.  iv Although females are more religious than males, they are less catholic. v There is a faster reduction of Catholics among the youth in Brazil.Key words: Religion. Economy. Max Weber. Maps of Religions in Brazil.

  6. Ser mãe: o amor materno no discurso católico do século XIX

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    Raquel dos Santos Sousa Lima

    2009-05-01

    natural and unconditional. With basis on the contribution of cultural history and gender studies, it demonstrates how that Church attributed male and female characteristics to the distinction not merely biological between men and women, associating the latter with the idea of motherhood and natural love for their children. It concludes that, through time, the Church has changed its misogyny discourse - refusing the female sex - into one that incorporates women as essential to support Catholicism in facing the laicization of contemporary western society. Key words: Women; Catholic discourse; Motherhood; Gender.

  7. La jerarquía católica española en perspectiva comparada. La confrontación política entre la Iglesia y el Gobierno socialista a comienzos del siglo XXI

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    Aguilar, Susana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Catholic church (SCC conforms a multi-issue interest group with a heterogeneous political record: unlike finance and education, two key areas which are covered by the 1979 Agreements with the Vatican, moral policies need not be negotiated with public authorities. Responding to the liberalization of abortion and approval of same-sex marriage by the Zapatero government, the SCC, in contrast with other churches under similar political circumstances, has embarked upon a confrontation strategy in alliance with conservative Catholic groups and like-minded political parties. Its monopoly position in a society that still defines itself as predominantly Catholic (sociological argument, the inextricable link between Catholicism and national identity (historical argument and its privileged relationship with the state, as a result of the 1979 Agreements with the Vatican state and its partially-established constitutional status (institutional argument help understand this strategy. The Episcopal Conference (EC is the main responsible for confrontation at the state level while the bishops, at the regional one, have set out to defend church interests, and minimize the inflicted “damage”, by means of a number of agreements with regional authorities. Thus, the EC might end up losing political power in favour of regional EC, promoted not only by local nationalist churches but also by the increasing relevance of the regional level for church interests.La Iglesia católica española (ICE constituye un grupo de interés multi-issue con distintos resultados en su actividad política: la financiación y la educación son asuntos clave en los que está protegida por los Acuerdos de 1979, pero los poderes públicos no tienen la obligación de negociar con esta institución políticas de contenido moral. Como respuesta a la liberalización del aborto y a la aprobación del matrimonio de personas del mismo sexo, promovidas por el Gobierno de Rodr

  8. ЧЕРНІВЕЦЬКА ЄВАНГЕЛЬСЬКА РЕЛІГІЙНА ГРОМАДА ЯК СКЛАДОВА РЕЛІГІЙНОЇ ПАЛІТРИ БУКОВИНИ: СТАНОВЛЕННЯ, РОЗВИТОК, ЗНАЧЕННЯ У КУЛЬТУРНОМУ РОЗМАЇТТІ РЕГІОНУ / CHERNOVITS EVANGELICAL RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY AS A COMPONENT OF BUKOVYNEAN RELIGIOUS PALETTE FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPORTANCE IN CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF THE REGION

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    Наталія МАСІЯН

    2017-11-01

    Bukovyna: orthodoxy, catholicism, old believer, judaism and other. The migration movement to Bukovyna, first of all for people of Germans originally, which was initiated by Austrian government in the end ХVIII of century by a grant to them of certain rights and freedoms, in particular in using protestant religion, resulted in a volume, that in the second half of ХІХ of century protestantism became the third after Orthodoxy and catholicism because of importance by the constituent of religious palette of Bukovyna. Evangelical religious community contributed to the spread of the reformation achievements in multi-ethnic community in Bukovina. By its activity community contributed to the implementation of initiatives to open and develop educational, commercial, industrial, religious and healthcare institutions, which had a positive impact on the development of the region in general.

  9. Auscultar los signos del tiempo presente e la situación latinoamericana: Esbozo de algunos fenómenos a considerar para una interpretación teológica del presente

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    Eduardo Silva Arévalo

    2005-01-01

    possibilities that Catholicism offers this modernity and Latin America are analyzed in particular, which would not be possible without a Christianity that rises to the occasion and a modernity with the religious depth that this continent offers (III

  10. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    1994-07-01

    . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993. xxii + 322 pp. -Robert Fatton, Jr., Brian Weinstein ,Haiti: The failure of politics. New York: Praeger, 1992. ix + 203 pp., Aaron Segal (eds -Uli Locher, Michel S. Laguerre, The military and society in Haiti. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993. x + 223 pp. -Paul E. Brodwin, Leslie G. Desmangles, The faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992. xiii + 218 pp. -Marian Goslinga, Enid Brown, Bibliographical guide to Caribbean mass communication. John A. Lent (comp.. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1992. xi + 301 pp.''Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles: An annotated English-language bibliography. Metuchen NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992. xi + 276 pp. -Jay B. Haviser, F.R. Effert, J.P.B. de Josselin de Jong, curator and archaeologist: A study of his early career (1910-1935. Leiden: Centre of Non-Western studies, University of Leiden, 1992. v + 119 pp. -Hans van Amersfoort, Anil Ramdas, De papegaai, de stier en de klimmende bougainvillea. Essays. Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1992. -Ineke van Wetering, Deonarayan, Curse of the Devtas. Paramaribo: J.J. Buitenweg, 1992. v + 103 pp. -Ineke van Wetering, G. Mungra, Hindoestaanse gezinnen in Nederland. Leiden: Centrum voor Onderzoek Maatschappelijke Tegenstellingen, Rijksuniversiteit Leiden, 1990. 313 pp. -J.M.R. Schrils, Alex Reinders, Politieke geschiedenis van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba 1950-1993. Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1993. 430 pp. -Gert Oostindie, G.J. Cijntje ,Stemmen OK, maar op wie? Delft: Eburon, 1991. 150 pp., A. Nicatia, F. Quirindongo (eds -Genevieve Escure, Donald Winford, Predication in Caribbean English Creoles. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993, viii + 419 pp. -Jean D'Costa, Lise Winer, Trinidad and Tobago. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. xi + 369 pp. (plus cassette

  11. A “geograficidade” das formas simbólicas: o santuário de Fátima da Serra Grande em análise Le « géographicité » des formes symboliques: analyse du sanctuaire de Fatima da Serra Grande

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    José Arilson Xavier de Souza

    2010-07-01

    do trabalho, são apresentadas as características que expressam Fátima da Serra Grande como uma forma simbólica modelar do catolicismo mariano, conciliador de tradições e inovações e gestor de um turismo religioso sob a liderança da Igreja regional.The “geograficity” of symbolic forms: The Sanctuary of Fatima da Sierra Grande in analysis.This paper discusses the geographical basis of symbolic forms, choosing the culture as an essential element for such research. The Sanctuary of Fátima da Serra Grande, located in St. Benedict city, Northern of the Ceará State, is analyzed in a geographical and phenomenological perspective, considering it as a symbolic form of tourist attraction. The article considers the concept of geographic originally proposed by Eric Dardel, as fundamental for thinking the relationship between motivation and appreciation of the devotees in search of new Catholic shrines. Then, a recovery is made as large sanctuaries influenced the cultural geography of this small and dynamic center of pilgrimage has been developing in northeastern Brazil. At the end of the paper presents the characteristics expressing Fátima da Serra Grande as a symbolic model of Catholicism Marian conciliator of traditions and innovations and manager of a religious tourism under the leadership of the regional church.

  12. ДО ІСТОРІЇ МІСЬКОГО СВЯТА (УКРАЇНСЬКО-НІМЕЦЬКІ ПАРАЛЕЛІ / To the History of Urban Holidays (Ukrainian-German Parallels

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    Курочкін Олександр

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Курочкин Олександр. К истории городского праздника (украинско-немецкие параллели. Долгое время украинская народоведческая наука занималась преимущественно изучением культуры и быта сельского населения. Преодолевая устаревшую тенденцию, автор обращает внимание на проблемы организации и функционирования массовых праздников в пространстве большого города. В этой связи прослеживается динамика праздничных традиций Украины и Германии в процессе перехода общества от тоталитаризма к демократии. Ключевые слова: Украина, Германия, город, праздник, фестиваль, карнавал, идеологическая пропаганда, культурная традиция. Kurochkin Оlexandr. To the History of Urban Holidays (Ukrainian-German Parallels. For a long time the Ukrainian science of ethnology primarily engaged in the study of culture and life of the rural population. Breaking the out of time tradition, the author draws attention to the problems of the organization and functioning of mass celebrations in the city arial. In this context, dynamics of holiday traditions Ukraine and Germany is traced back to the periods of transition of society from totalitarianism to democracy. The paper describes the carnival in the Rhine cities of Cologne, Düsseldorf, Mainz, Bonn. Locals are committed to this tradition for eight centuries. Traditional carnival is a synthesis of Western European and particularly the Roman-Germanic civilization and Catholicism. Organization of carnivals in Germany is

  13. Rezar para sanar: el recurso mágico-religioso en la búsqueda de la salud (Praying for healing: the magical-religious resort in the search for health

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    Carmen Castilla-Vázquez

    2011-12-01

    anthropological fieldwork conducted by the author in the field of popular Catholicism in Andalusia (Spain, work funded by the Commission of Ethnology of the Andalucian government for the realization of her thesis PhD. In order to fight and end disease, different cultural systems offer both empirical and supernatural answers, especially in situations where scientific medicine lacks one. In those circumstances, people resort to metaphysical explanations in an attempt to propitiate supernatural beings so that they apply their healing powers. In traditional catholic societies –Andalusia for the case that concerns us– people have used, and still do, a magical-religious model based on the belief that supernatural beings (God, the Virgin or the saints possess enough power to interrupt the course of any disease. In addition, this model comprises a ritual to invoke the participation of the supernatural beings in the rearrangement of some fact in exchange for a votive offering. My aim in this paper is to present this religious ritual whose main motivation is the resolution of health-related problems. The votive offering is the last link in a ritual process that begins with a situation of disease, accident or risk suffered by a subject; this circumstance is followed by an invocation and a promise to be fulfilled by the subject or another person in her name, requesting the intervention of the supernatural being to end that threat. When the request is granted to the petitioner’s satisfaction, it commits her to fulfill the promise. Here is where the votive offering plays its part –a material object of lasting character that appears as the materialization of the miraculous fact.

  14. Book Review: Bakich,O. M. (2015. Valerii Pereleshin: Life of a Silkworm Toronto: University of Toronto Press

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    Kyoko I. Davis

    2016-07-01

    noble roots of the Salatko-Petrishche family, its relocation to Siberia amidst the chaos of revolution and horrors of civil war, education under the tsarist Russian system in Harbin, and most importantly his growing love for poetry and philosophy.The personal events of Pereleshin’s early years document the still understudied but rich history of Russian Orthodox Ecclesiastical Mission in the Far East. Pereleshin, being sensitive and deeply religious, enrolled in the Mission’s Theological Faculty in 1937, was ordained a Monk Herman(in honour of St. Herman of Kazan’ and Sviiaga in 1938, and a Priest-Monk Herman in 1941.Harbin émigré literary circle “Churaevka” and the lively interaction among its intellectuals also add new cultural dimensions to the study of Russian émigré society in Asia. Pereleshin began publishing his books of poetry in 1937.The poet, however, was rather a dissonance in his own conservative community. For example, as a monk, his participation in public poetic activities was limited. Moreover, he was inclined toward Catholicism and admired St. Francis of Assisi and St. Thérèse of Lisieux- a liberal expression of his spiritual interest. He began to travel and preach in Chinese cities with foreign concessions such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin with a determination to live his life to the fullest by serving God. But Pereleshin had difficulty finding inner peace with his vow of celibacy. While his poetry is infused with divine inspiration, passion and kindness, he was often tormented by the social stigma of his sexuality. In addition, the volatile political situation in the Far East made Pereleshin mistaken at times for a Japanese spy, a Fascist spy, a Soviet spy, and a Communist. Adversity, however, ignited his poetic creativity, especially after his departure to a third home, Brazil. Part Two consists of seven chapters covering 39 years of Pereleshin’s life in Brazil during the period 1953-1992. The main focus shifts towards his

  15. Pühaduse performatiivsus ja kristlik teater / The Performativity of Sacrality and Christian Theatre

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    Madis Kolk

    2015-06-01

    art. The theological and aesthetic differences between Catholicism and the Orthodox church are also reflected today in the theologically-inclined reception of works with religious content. For example, based on the lively theological feedback to Mel Gibson’s 2004 film, The Sufferings of Christ one might claim that the judgments of Catholics mostly concern the m e s s a g e of the work, the appropriateness of its content, that is the referential pole; Orthodox theologians rather place more emphasis on the appropriateness of the m e d i u m to theological goals, that is, the performative effect of the work of art. Besides differences in pure artistic representation, it is also worth examining such questions as Catholic and Orthodox interpretations of the Trinity or the teaching of Gregorius Palamas (1296–1359 on divine energies, which were later declared to be heretical. Thus Orthodox liturgical practice seems to contradict many of the stereotypes that eastward-turning seekers of sacred theatre have attributed to Western sacral culture as a whole, overlooking aspects of dynamism that can be found in the Eastern Christian church. This topic has been discussed in several recent accounts of iconography, which examine the performativity of the icon, distinguishing its processes of creation and perception from the Western representation-oriented concept of the picture (eg Bissera V. Pencheva, Adrian Gorea. Granted, one should be careful when drawing parallels between the strictly rule-bound theology of the icon and aesthetics of performativity focused on the sensory aspect of art. However, this article takes the position that what should be emphasized are the differences between Orthodox and Catholic views of art, by means of which one can elucidate the points of departure of the Western quest for sacred theatre and the performative level to which it aspires.

  16. ЖАНР КРИПТОІСТОРІЇ ЯК КРОК ДО НЕОМОДЕРНОГО РОМАНУ (НА МАТЕРІАЛІ ТВОРІВ В. КОЖЕЛЯНКА «ЕФІОПСЬКА СІЧ» ТА «ЛЖЕNOSTRADAMUS» / Secret history genre as a start of newmodern novel (by the works of V. Kozhelanko “Ethnoplan sitch” and “Falsenostradams”

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    Аністраненко Антоніна

    2015-12-01

    тоистория, Василий Кожелянко, роман, «Эфиопская Сеч», «ЛжеNostradamus», фентези, неомодернизм, историческая проза. Аnistratenko Antonina. Secret history genre as a start of newmodern novel (by the works of V. Kozhelanko “Ethnoplan sitch” and “Falsenostradamus” The article is devoted to the genre and stylistic features of two V. Kozhelyanko secret historycal novels "Ethiopian Sitch" and "FalseNostradamus". The article tries to determine the identity and the way of newmodern novel in Ukraine and its comparative position in the stage of foreign novel in this genre. The novel "Ethiopian Sitch" has three part’s classical composition: the prologue, twelve chapters and an epilogue. By geography of novel events we can see three parts there: the first is realized in the Ukrainian Zaporiska Sitch. Young man from Volyn` district went into Zaporiska Sitch for easy money. That was the first point of divergence. After it comes the second point of divergence (events in Ethiopia. Peter Pavlo Lazarenko turns personal lifestory (Story to the Big State history (History.And the third point of divergence never happens in the novel. The process of repentance and catharsis is left for readership. Secret history is a fiction genre, based on the fantastic change of the real history; its way is different from the known, but it has been forgotten, hidden or falsified. The historical element of the secret history novel as a kind of alternative history is made by protagonist from Cossack army Pavlo Lazarenko in the field of real facts of Ethiopia history. It is about the times of reign of Emperor Sysyniy (1607 - 1632, who tried to instill his population to Catholicism. However, alternative history lacks historical background, its next alternative change -a point of divergence - is described in the middle of the novels plot, when the Turkish galley fated "throws" Pavlo Lazarenko to Ethiopia. At ones, novel is constructed