WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathodoluminescence

  1. Picosecond cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Merano, Michele; Ganière, Jean-Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an original time resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) set-up with temporal performances similar to those of conventional time resolved optical techniques, keeping the capability to get structural information through the secondary electron mode of an electron microscope (SEM). This system allows for performing ultrafast spectroscopy on nanostructures leading insight into phenomena like transport, carrier capture and carrier recombination. A traditional TRCL is based on the use...

  2. Picosecond cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Merano, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an original time resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) set-up with temporal performances similar to those of conventional time resolved optical techniques, keeping the capability to get structural information through the secondary electron mode of an electron microscope (SEM). This system allows for performing ultrafast spectroscopy on nanostructures leading insight into phenomena like transport, carrier capture and carrier recombination. A traditional TRCL is based on the use...

  3. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  4. Cathodoluminescence of Polysilanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Petr; Schauer, Petr

    Brno: Institute of Scientific Instruments AS CR, 2004 - (Müllerová, I.), s. 31 - 32 ISBN 80-239-3246-2. [Recent Trends /9./ in Charged Particle Optics and Surface Physics Instrumentation. Skalský Dvůr (CZ), 12.07.2004-16.07.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : polysilanes * PMPhSi * cathodoluminescence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  6. Parallel Detection of Cathodoluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John C. C.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A GEC P8600 Charge-coupled device has been used in the design and fabrication of a parallel detection system or optical multichannel analyser for the analysis of Cathodoluminescence Spectra. The P8600, whilst designed for video applications, is used as a linear array by merging entire rows of pixels together on the on-board output amplifier. A dual slope integration method of correlated double sampling has been used for noise reduction. An analysis of the performance of this system is given and the achieved noise level of 22 electrons is found to be in good agreement with that theoretically possible. A complete description of the circuits is given together with details of its use with a "Link 860" computer/analyser and a "Philips 400" electron microscope. To demonstrate the system, a study of the cathodoluminescent properties of Cadmium Telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been made. In particular the effect of dislocations, stacking faults and twins on luminescence has been studied. Dislocations are seen to cause a quenching of excitonic emission with no corresponding increase in any other emission. The effect of stacking faults was seen to vary between different samples with an enhancement of long wavelength emission seen in poor quality samples. This supports the premise that the faults are nucleated by surface impurities which are also responsible for the enhanced emission. Some twin defects have been found to cause enhanced excitonic emission. This is compatible with the existence of natural quantum wells at twin faults proposed by other workers. The speed with which the parallel detection system can acquire spectra makes it a valuable tool in the study of beam sensitive materials. To demonstrate this, measurements were made of the decay rates of the weak cathodoluminescence from the organic crystal Coronene. These rates were seen to have time constants less than two minutes and such

  7. Cathodoluminescence of cadmium diphosphide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation is made of the cathodoluminescence spectra of CdP2 crystals in the temperature range 6 to 300 K. A pulsing beam of high energy electrons (40 kV) is used in the experiment. The samples investigated are undoped, heat annealed in vacuum or saturated vapours of cadmium, and also doped with As and Bi, elements isoelectronic to phosphorus. The experimental results show that the fine structure present in the higher energywing (2.02 to 2.14 eV) depends on the concentration of the uncontrolled nitrogen impurity in CdP2. Atoms of nitrogen give rise to exciton-impurity complexes, leading to intense narrow peaks in the spectrum of cathodoluminescence. Their location and nature are shown in a table. (author)

  8. Photo-, electro- and cathodoluminescence of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The features of photoluminescence and electroluminescence in contact with oxide electrolyte as well as features of cathodoluminescence of porous silicon are investigated. The temporal evolution of electroluminescence of porous silicon is studied. We have also investigated cathodoluminescence from porous silicon at room temperature and the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The experimental results obtained confirm the presence of different radiation centers in porous silicon: with fast and slow kinetics

  9. Characteristics of Solid State Cathodoluminescence of PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲崇; 徐征; 滕枫; 徐叙瑢

    2003-01-01

    Based on our previous discovery [Chem. Phys. Lett. 325 (2000) 420] of the solid-state cathodoluminescence from organic luminescent materials in inorganic/organic heterojunction, we study characteristics of this new kind of electric-field-induced luminescence by means of examining its oscillogram. We prepared three devices with different structures in which PPV was used as luminescent layer, and SiO2 was used as accelerating layer. The experimental results might be understood only by means of the existence of solid-state cathodoluminescence.This new kind of luminescence makes it possible to produce new type of flat panel display.

  10. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Clara I; Brenny, Benjamin; Polman, Albert; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) allows characterizing light emission in bulk and nanostructured materials and is a key tool in fields ranging from materials science to nanophotonics. Previously, CL measurements focused on the spectral content and angular distribution of emission, while the polarization was not fully determined. Here we demonstrate a technique to access the full polarization state of the cathodoluminescence emission, that is the Stokes parameters as a function of the emission angle. Using this technique, we measure the emission of metallic bullseye nanostructures and show that the handedness of the structure as well as nanoscale changes in excitation position induce large changes in polarization ellipticity and helicity. Furthermore, by exploiting the ability of polarimetry to distinguish polarized from unpolarized light, we quantify the contributions of different types of coherent and incoherent radiation to the emission of a gold surface, silicon and gallium arsenide bulk semiconductor...

  11. Cathodoluminescence of oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tb, Ce, Eu activated oxyfluoride glass-ceramics with the composition SiO2 · Al2O3 · Li2O · LaF3 have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL). We compared CL intensities and decay times of the Tb, Ce, Eu activated glass-ceramic samples and observed that the Tb activated sample has the most intense luminescence, but the Ce activated sample has the shortest decay times. Induced optical absorption and thermostimulated luminescence have been observed after X-ray irradiation of samples. -- Highlights: ►We have studied Tb, Ce and Eu activated oxyfluoride glass-ceramics. ► Ce activated sample has the fastest cathodoluminescence decay times. ► X-ray excited luminescence shows, that Tb activated sample is the most intense. ► Intensity of Tb activated sample is 10 times smaller than intensity of CsI(Tl)

  12. LabVIEW controlled cathodoluminescence equipment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, J.; Schauer, Petr

    Graz : Verlag der Technischen Universität, 2009, Vol. 1: 55-56. ISBN 978-3-85125-062-6. [MC 2009 - Joint Meeting of Dreiländertagung and Multinational Congress on Microscopy /9./. Graz (AT), 30.08.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : cathodoluminescence * scintillator * elektron detektor * LabVIEW * GPIB Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://www.univie.ac.at/asem/Graz_MC_09/papers/20795.pdf

  13. Cathodoluminescence spectra of gallium nitride nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Chia-Chang; Li, Guan-Hua; Lin, Yuan-Ting; Chang, Ching-Wen; Wadekar, Paritosh; Chen, Quark Yung-Sung; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Julien, François Henri; Tu, Li-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Gallium nitride [GaN] nanorods grown on a Si(111) substrate at 720°C via plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were studied by field-emission electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence [CL]. The surface topography and optical properties of the GaN nanorod cluster and single GaN nanorod were measured and discussed. The defect-related CL spectra of GaN nanorods and their dependence on temperature were investigated. The CL spectra along the length of the individual GaN nanorod were also studie...

  14. Cathodoluminescence of boron nitride nanotubes doped by ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide band gap semiconducting material with super thermal and chemical stabilities, which make them an ideal nano-sized host for luminescent ions. In this work, we report an in situ synthesis of Ytterbium (Yb) doped BNNTs using a ball milling and annealing approach. Yb doped BNNTs show more red-light emissions in the cathodoluminescent (CL) spectrum in comparison with pure BNNTs. The light emission is due to the insertion of Yb ions into the nanotube wall as the BNNTs serve as a host and contribute directly to the light emission. The cathodoluminescent image demonstrates strong cathodoluminescent emission of whole Yb doped BNNTs.

  15. Cathodoluminescence of ZnSe(Bi) : Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on cathodoluminescence (CL) in the ZnSe crystals, annealed at the temperature of 1200 K in the Bi melt, containing aluminium admixture, are carried out. The spectra are taken at different levels of excitation and delay times by the t0 registration. With the t0 increase the orange band intensity with λmax = 630 nm (1.968 eV) in the CL spectrum decreases as compared to the intensity of the dominating yellow-green band with λmax = 550 nm (2.254 eV). It is shown that such a behaviour of the yellow-green band is conditioned by competition of two processes: recombination of donor-acceptor pairs and free electrons with holes localized on the acceptors. The first mechanism dominates at low temperatures and the second one - at high temperatures. The contribution of both mechanisms in the area of T ∼ 120 mK becomes equal

  16. Thermo- and cathodoluminescence properties of Sepiolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sepiolite, Si12Mg8O30(OH)4(OH2)4·8H2O, has been well studied from the chemical and structural point of view; however, studies on their luminescence properties have been scarcely reported. This work focuses on the thermoluminescence (Tl) and cathodoluminescence (Cl) response of a natural sepiolite from Madrid, Spain previously characterized by means of environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence (X RF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The complexity of the thermoluminescence glow curves of non-irradiated and irradiated samples suggests a structure of a continuous trap distribution involving multi-order kinetics. UV-IR Cl spectral emission shows five peaks centered at 330, 400, 440, 520 and 770 nm. Such emission bands could be due to (i) structural defects, [AlO4] or non bridging oxygen hole centers, and (II) the presence of point defects associated with Mn2+ and Fe3+. Sepiolite, which has different household applications such as: moisture control, containment of accidental liquid spillages, in ashtrays to avoid smoke odor, control of liquid leakages, and odours in dustbins and cat litters; is a good candidate for personal dosimetry in the case of radiation accident or radiological terrorism. in situations where knowledge of doses to individuals is required, but monitoring was not planned. (Author)

  17. Thermo- and cathodoluminescence properties of Sepiolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la cultura Amado Nervo s/n, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J., E-mail: yamilet.lazcano@uan.edu.mx [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Sepiolite, Si{sub 12}Mg{sub 8}O{sub 30}(OH){sub 4}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}·8H{sub 2}O, has been well studied from the chemical and structural point of view; however, studies on their luminescence properties have been scarcely reported. This work focuses on the thermoluminescence (Tl) and cathodoluminescence (Cl) response of a natural sepiolite from Madrid, Spain previously characterized by means of environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence (X RF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The complexity of the thermoluminescence glow curves of non-irradiated and irradiated samples suggests a structure of a continuous trap distribution involving multi-order kinetics. UV-IR Cl spectral emission shows five peaks centered at 330, 400, 440, 520 and 770 nm. Such emission bands could be due to (i) structural defects, [AlO{sub 4}] or non bridging oxygen hole centers, and (II) the presence of point defects associated with Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. Sepiolite, which has different household applications such as: moisture control, containment of accidental liquid spillages, in ashtrays to avoid smoke odor, control of liquid leakages, and odours in dustbins and cat litters; is a good candidate for personal dosimetry in the case of radiation accident or radiological terrorism. in situations where knowledge of doses to individuals is required, but monitoring was not planned. (Author)

  18. Radiation-induced cathodoluminescent signatures in calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At ambient temperatures, a permanent change due to neutron irradiation has been identified in the luminescent properties of the common mineral calcite. Calcite is one of many ubiquitous minerals that are known to exhibit luminescence under electron bombardment, a process known as cathodoluminescence (CL). The UV–Visible spectra of individual calcite grains were measured with CL spectroscopy before and after neutron irradiation. Exposure to neutrons causes additional crystal lattice defects (beyond those naturally-occurring) that leave a permanent, readily-measurable CL signature in the 515 nm region of the spectrum. Dose response results following irradiation have been measured and a spectroscopic signature is described that increases proportionately to neutron dose. The CL measurements are complicated by a dependence on the orientation relative to direction of excitation. When taken into account, the total dose to the crystal can be estimated, and possibly even the direction of the neutron source can be determined. This signature could potentially be developed into a nuclear forensics tool to help identify locations where special nuclear materials have been stored.

  19. Apparatus for temperature-dependent cathodoluminescence characterization of materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2014), 075601:1-7. ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cathodoluminescence * electron beam * cryostat * scintillator * YAG:Ce Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  20. Study of the photo and cathodoluminescent properties of the rubi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work are presented the results of the study of the photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of the rubi analysing its use in radiation dosimetry. The rubi presented a centered emission spectra in 697 nm when this was excited with UV at a wavelength 364 nm. X-ray analysis show a rhombohedric structure. While the analysis performed by EDS was obtained the composition (O= 63.13, Al= 36.75 and Cr= 0.12) weight percent, the cathodoluminescent spectra presented three peaks at 555, 600 and 630 nm, being the peak or maximum emission the 600 nm. The results showed the rubi is a promissory material for the radiations dosimetry. (Author)

  1. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of GaN doped with Tb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of the visible cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of Tb3+ ions implanted in GaN. The sharp characteristic emission lines corresponding to Tb3+ intra-4f8-shell transitions are resolved in the spectral range from 350 to 900 nm, and observed over the temperature range of 7-330 K. The luminescence shows transitions which originate in the 5D3 and 5D4 levels and terminated in the 7F manifolds. The cathodoluminescence emission is only weakly temperature dependent. The results indicate that Tb-doped GaN epilayers may be suitable as a material for visible optoelectronic devices. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  2. Harnessing transformation optics for understanding electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yu; Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    As the continual experimental advances made in Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) open the door to practical exploitations of plasmonic effects in metal nanoparticles, there is an increasing need for precise interpretation and guidance of such experiments. Numerical simulations are available but lack physical insight, while traditional analytical approaches are rare and limited to studying specific, simple structures. Here, we propose a versatile and efficie...

  3. Study of degradation and regeneration of silicon polymers using cathodoluminescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr; Horák, Petr; Schauer, F.; Kuřitka, I.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    Berlin : Springer, 2008, s. 789-790. ISBN 978-3-540-85225-4. [EMC 2008 - European Microscopy Congress /14./. Aachen (DE), 01.09.2008-05.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene] * polysilanes * PMPhSi * cathodoluminescence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  4. Cathodoluminescence characterization of ion implanted GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, M. L.

    1980-03-01

    The unique properties of GaAs make it possible to construct integrated circuit devices that are impossible in Si. The Air Force Avionics Laboratory/AADR has been developing this technology for a number of years. The difficulty of introducing dopants by diffusion has lead ion implantation to play an increasing role in the fabrication process. The present production technique for high performance devices is to fabricate large quantities and select those few that meet the desired specifications. Having a nondestructive technique that can be used to characterize the implantation process during fabrication of the device so as to reject faulty device structures can save valuable time as well as money. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence is a process that can be used for this purpose. This research develops and verifies a model of cathodoluminescence in ion implanted GaAs. This model can now be used as a tool for further study of ion implanted GaAs. This is the first step in developing cathodoluminescence as a tool for deducing the shape of the ion implanted depth profile in semiconductor materials.

  5. Usage of cathodoluminescence and Raman analyses in shock metamorphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of in this dissertation have focused on shock metamorphic and cathodoluminescence (combination with Raman spectroscopy) properties of experimentally and naturally shock-metamorphosed minerals, such as zircon, quartzite, a tektite, and impact glasses. The purpose of these investigations is to further investigate the capability of the Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) technique including BSE/CL images and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to document shock deformations and to determine whether specific CL or Raman effects in zircon/scheelite-structure, quartz, tektite and impact glasses can be utilised to determine particular shock pressure stages. The CL spectra of unshocked and shocked (20, 38, 40, 60 and 80 GPa) zircon samples are dominated by narrow emission lines and broad bands in the region of visible light and in the near-ultraviolet range. The emission lines result from rare earth element activators and the broad bands might be associated with lattice defects. Raman spectra revealed that the unshocked and 20 GPa samples represent zircon-structure material, whereas the 38, 40, 60, 80 GPa samples yielded additional peaks with relatively high peak intensities, which are indicative of the presence of the scheelite-type high-pressure phase. According to the Raman measurements, the naturally shock-deformed zircons from the Ries impact structure might be related to the low-shock regime (4 groups. According to the Raman spectra, the stretching (symmetric and antisymmetric) vibrational modes are characteristic for quartz in the unshocked and 12 GPa samples. In the 25 and 28 GPa samples, the background fluorescence is higher compared to the other samples. The energy diagrams of the cathodoluminescence emission centers confirm that recombination centers or traps are closely-spaced in the band gap between conduction and valance bands of quartz as a function of the increasing shock pressure causing non

  6. Pulsed cathodoluminescence and γ-luminescence of scintillation crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. A.; Ochkin, V. N.; Pestovskii, N. V.; Petrov, A. A.; Savinov, S. Yu; Zagumennyi, A. I.; Zavertyaev, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The spectra and decay time of pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) of a scintillating crystals excited by the electron beam is compared to the spectra and decay time of the luminescence of the same crystals initiated by γ-rays (GL). It is shown that spectra and decay time of PCL and GL are identical within the experimental errors. The explanation of these results is based on taking into account the physical processes within the crystal media under the irradiation by high-energy particles. The results of this study confirm that the PCL method may be used for the rapid analysis of the luminescent properties of scintillators.

  7. Nanoindentation, microindentation and cathodoluminescence of MgO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro and nano indentations were applied together with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), cathodoluminescence (CL), cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CLS) and computer graphics to obtain subsidiary information about peculiarities and regularities of plastic deformation in MgO. The movement of displaced material, production of dislocation structures, luminescent centres as well as the development of various slip traces and formation of cracks are discussed. Local CL spectrums were recorded and some peaks in the short wavelength part of the composite CL band were found and examined in an attempt to sort out the various defect contributions. The most intensive peak observed at λ=370 nm was attributed to oxygen-vacancy defects F+ centres, which have trapped one electron. The band in at λ=470 nm was identified as F2+ centres (i.e. aggregates of two anion vacancies that have trapped three electrons). Images at these wavelengths were displayed and the spatial distribution of the CL intensity correlates with concentration of selected oxygen-vacancy defects. It was demonstrated that a combination of different techniques allows a better understanding of the mechanical response and interpretation of defect behaviour around residual indentations in MgO single crystals when subjected to impose stresses. (authors)

  8. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Min; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Dong Hyuk; Jeon, Duk Young

    2011-07-01

    We elucidate that the luminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor excited by the electron collision can be modified on location near the metallic nanoparticles. The Eu3+-doped phosphor was fabricated on the nanoscaled Ag particles ranging of 5 nm to 30 nm diameter. As a result of the cathodoluminescence measurements, the phosphor films on the Ag particles showed up to twofold more than that of an isolated phosphor film. Enhanced cathodoluminescence originated from the resonant coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag nanoparticles and radiating energy of the phosphor. Cathodoluminescent phosphor for high luminous display devices can be addressed by locating phosphor near the surface of metallic nanoparticles. PMID:21747476

  9. APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.

    1987-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

  10. Cathodoluminescence of yttrium oxide and yttrium and zinc silicate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the cathodoluminescent properties of Y2SiO5:Ce, Zn2SiO4:Ti, Zn2SiO4:Mn, Y2O3:Eu thin films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering. Based on measurements of the luminescence spectra, we have shown that the films can be used as luminophores with blue emission (Y2SiO5:Ce, Zn2SiO4:Ti), green emission (Zn2SiO4:Mn), and red emission (Y2O3:Eu). We have studied the dependences of the luminescence intensity on the energy of the exciting electrons, the electron beam current density, and the exposure time. We hypothesize that the decrease in the luminescence intensity during electron bombardment is connected with formation of new oxide layers as a result of an electron-stimulated surface chemical reaction. (authors)

  11. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenny, B. J. M.; Osorio, C. I.; Polman, A., E-mail: polman@amolf.nl [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dam, D. van [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gómez Rivas, J. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-11-16

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  12. Luminescence characterisation of alumina substrates using cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycrystalline alumina (Al2O3) substrates, found in many electronic devices and proposed as dosemeters in emergency situations, were invstigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with cathodoluminescence (CL) and elemental analysis probes. The characteristics of the CL spectra, surface morphology, and impurity content of the Al2O3 substrates were examined and compared with those of single crystal dosimetry-grade Al2O3:C. Whereas the CL spectrum, measured from 250 to 800 nm, for the Al2O3:C, contained resolved bands located at ∼340 nm and at ∼410 nm, the spectrum measured with the Al2O3 substrate was significantly broader, extending from ∼250 to ∼450 nm, and also included a narrow band at 695 nm. While it is likely that the accepted model of recombination at F+ (∼340 nm) and F (∼410 nm) in Al2O3:C also applies to the substrate, it is suggested that the presence of impurities within the alumina give rise to additional recombination centres. The 695 nm emission has been assigned to a Cr3+ ion impurity in previous work on alumina and a band indicated at ∼300 nm may be associated with Mg2+ or Ca2+, the presence of which was confirmed by elemental mapping. Comparison of the spatial distribution of CL with the surface morphology and elemental composition of the samples indicates that the components of the emission spectrum can be qualitatively correlated with impurity content and morphological features of the samples. - Highlights: • Morphological (SEM) and elemental characterisation (EDS/WDs) of alumina substrates. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission spectroscopy of alumina substrates. • Close relationship of the CL emission with the SEM and EDs/WDS characteristics

  13. Multi-color correlative light and electron microscopy using nanoparticle cathodoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, David R; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Schalek, Richard; Lo, Peggy K; Trifonov, Alexei; Park, Hongkun; Lichtman, Jeff W; Walsworth, Ronald L

    2012-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy promises to combine molecular specificity with nanoscale imaging resolution. However, there are substantial technical challenges including reliable co-registration of optical and electron images, and rapid optical signal degradation under electron beam irradiation. Here, we introduce a new approach to solve these problems: multi-color imaging of stable optical cathodoluminescence emitted in a scanning electron microscope by nanoparticles with controllable surface chemistry. We demonstrate well-correlated cathodoluminescence and secondary electron images using three species of semiconductor nanoparticles that contain defects providing stable, spectrally-distinguishable cathodoluminescence. We also demonstrate reliable surface functionalization of the particles. The results pave the way for the use of such nanoparticles for targeted labeling of surfaces to provide nanoscale mapping of molecular composition, indicated by cathodoluminescence color, simultaneously acquired...

  14. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  15. Variations in Cathodoluminescent Intensity of Spacecraft Materials Exposed to Energetic Electron Bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Dekany, Justin; Christensen, Justin; Dennison, JR; Evans, Amberly; Wilson, Greg; Schneider, Todd; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Various highly insulating materials used in spacecraft construction can exhibit glow (electron-induced luminescence or cathodoluminescence) when exposed to the space plasma environment. Measurements of the absolute and relative cathodoluminescent intensity per incident electron flux of spacecraft materials are essential to predict and mitigate consequences for optical detection and for stray light contamination in space-based observatories. They also provide important information about the ...

  16. Deep UV imaging by spectrometric full-colour cathodoluminescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new deep-UV cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy is tried on studying design and fabrication of recent solid-state light-emitting (LE) devices that emit near 200 nm light. CL microscopy has enough energy for electronic excitation of deep-UV emitting devices and visualizes distribution map of their electronic structures. The deep-UV imaging system is constructed on our own spectrometric full-colour CL microscope that collects CL spectra at all pixel points of the specimen during regular SEM observation, and at the end of one frame scan, a set of CL spectra is accumulated in the control computer. One frame scan of 512x512 pixels needs 8 to 80 sec, which is unbeatable by any other commercial CL microscopes. Full-colour CL micrograph is constructed using the spectra. The detector, a 32-channel photoelectron multiplier array, has higher sensitivity in UV region than any solidstate linear sensors, and a grating of 300-nm blaze wavelength instead of one at 500-nm blaze wavelength for visible lights, provide CL micrographs of 180-700 nm lights for recent deep-UV LE devices. Some unforeseen light emissions between 200-350 nm regions are observed on various materials and they are discussed correlating with the structure observed in SEM micrographs.

  17. Cathodoluminescence of α-quartz after hot Ge ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication of Ge-doped light-emitting devices in single-crystal α-quartz without destroying its crystal structure via the dynamic solid phase epitaxial regrowth technique is being pursued. This paper presents results on the cathodoluminescence (CL) after 120 keV Ge implantation in α-quartz at 1173 K with fluences between 1 x 1014 and 1 x 1016 ions/cm2. Rutherford backscattering-channeling analysis showed that the Ge implantation up to 4 x 1014 ions/cm2 produced isolated damage zones. The transition to an amorphous layer is accompanied by a strong increase in the CL output. The CL spectra taken at 10-300 K show six bands located at 260 nm (4.9 eV, UV), 288 nm (4.3 eV, UV), 383 nm (3.1 eV, violet), 453 nm (2.7 eV, blue), 511 nm (2.4 eV, green) and 620 nm (2.0 eV, red). Only the violet band is associated with the Ge-related defects or the formation of Ge-clusters; it reaches its maximum intensity at 7 x 1014 Ge-ions/cm2. All the other bands are connected to various defect centers in the SiO2 network

  18. Quantitative cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of minerals: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence spectrum of a mineral contains complex information related to the intrinsic crystal and the defect structure. For quantitative analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) the spectra have to be deconvoluted by fitting and filtering procedures to identify and measure individual peaks. Peak-width, peak-position and transition probability of the luminescence centers are influenced by effects such as interactions within the defects themselves, and interaction between defects and the surrounding crystal lattice. For calcite and feldspar a linear correlation between the defect concentration of manganese and the Mn2+-activated CL-intensity is documented. Combined micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and CL-spectroscopy analyses of REE-doped synthetic calcite suggest a linear correlation between REE-activated CL intensity and REE-concentration at REE-concentration levels below approximately 500 ppm. Sensitizing and quenching by other REE are dominant effects yielding strong variations in the correlation between the REE-activated CL-intensity and the REE-content. (author)

  19. Cathodoluminescence and Electron-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kuniaki; Onuma, Tsubasa; Ueno, Ryosuke; Tamehiro, Katsuyuki; Minoda, Hiroki

    2016-02-18

    Becaues the spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy is not high enough to study the molecular level of relationship between the structure and function of biological specimens, correlative light and electron microscopy has been used for this purpose. Another possibility for a high-resolution light microscopy is cathodoluminescence microscopy. Here, we report a new phenomenon, the electron-induced activation of luminescence (cathodoluminescence) and electron-enhanced fluorescence for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). This was found using our recently developed hybrid fluorescence and electron microscopy. Contrary to the past reports, which showed a degradation of organic compounds by electron irradiation, stable cathodoluminescence emitted from an organic molecule, EGFP, has been observed using the hybrid microscopy. Addition of the glycerol promoted the fluorescence enhancement of EGFP probably due to the change in the electronic state density of excitation channels from the ground to the excited state or of relaxation channels from the excited to the emission state. Stable cathodoluminescence and enhanced fluorescence of the EGFP may introduce a cathodoluminescence microscopy, which will increase the variety of the imaging to investigate the biological compounds. PMID:26849242

  20. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at cycle input from mafic rocks and source variations for detritus from arid areas that has been affected by little feldspar alteration.

  1. Cathodoluminescence intensity dependence on excitation power density in gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gallium Nitride is used in the fabrication of short wavelength optoelectronic and high power electronic devices. Scanning cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and microanalysis is often used to assess the quality of GaN following growth and post-growth processing by measuring the ratios of the near band-edge to defect-related CL intensities. However, this ratio can be significantly influenced by (i) a non-linearity of the CL emission intensity due to saturation effects, (ii) electron beam induced CL emission phenomena and (iii) differences in the analysis depth as a result of self-absorption of the near-gap emission. Therefore these effects must be taken into account for correct appraisal of GaN quality using CL techniques. In the present work, CL spectra from doped and undoped wurtzite GaN have been collected under a wide range of excitation conditions: electron beam energy, electron beam current, magnification, scan speed, focussed spot diameter, defocused spot diameter, over and under focussing and specimen temperature. The results show that the measured CL emission intensities from GaN are highly dependent on the defect concentration as well as the electron-hole pair density and injection rate. Power-law analysis reveals a sublinear dependence of the defect-related CL emission peaks on excitation density and a superlinear dependence for the near band-edge. Moreover, variation of the focussed electron probe diameter leads to a large change in the relative intensities of the CL emission peaks in GaN. Hence SEM parameters such as the objective lens aperture size, astigmatism, the electron gun bias and the condenser lens setting must also be considered when conducting CL intensity measurements from GaN. A proper understanding of the influence of experimental parameters and saturation effects is essential for correct interpretation of CL emission spectra from GaN. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  2. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and microanalysis of nano-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nano-powders are widely used in a broad range of important technological applications of nanotechnology such as microelectronics, functional coatings, nano-composites as well as health and environmental products. The large surface area to volume ratio of these nano-particles leads to many new physical properties that can be exploited in the burgeoning field of nanotechnology. Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and microanalysis can be used to characterise the defect structure of these new materials. However, their new properties must be taken into account when interpreting the CL results. CL spectra have been collected from a number of nanopowders and compared with their bulk crystal counterparts as a function electron beam density and injection rate as well as specimen temperature. The main objectives of this study are to establish (i) whether the short minority carrier lifetime and diffusion length affects the CL behaviour, (ii) if previously unreported CL emission peaks are observed due to the significant increase in the surface-to-bulk defect concentration ratio and (iii) how the new physical properties of nanopowders affect CL emission. In the present analysis it is important to note that the electron interaction volume is considerably larger than the nano-particle diameter over all electron beam energies. Hence the excitation density within each nano-particle will vary significantly because the excitation density follows the electron energy loss profile throughout the interaction volume. Furthermore, major differences between the optical properties (absorption coefficient, refractive index and polarization) of nanopowders and their corresponding bulk crystals must be considered when comparing CL emission intensities. A number of innovative experimental techniques have been developed to interpret the CL measurements from these new materials. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  3. Origin and Characteristics of Blue Light Emission in Solid State Cathodoluminescence of MEH-PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Chong; XU Zheng; TENG Feng; QIAN Lei; YU Wen-Ge; QUAN Shan-Yu; XU Xu-Rong

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous study [Chin. Phys. Lett. 20 (2003) 1144] on the solid-state cathodoluminescence from organic luminescent materials, here we study the origin and characteristics of blue light emission in solid-state cathodoluminescence of Poly [(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinyene] (MEH-PPV) and the dependence of each spectral peak on electric field strength. The results demonstrate that the blue spectral shift benefits from field ionization of excitons, and three regions of electric field are found, in which there are pure exciton emission, coexistence of exciton emission and radiative recombination, and pure radiative recombination.

  4. Cathodoluminescence of diamond as an indicator of its metamorphic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Longo, Micaela; Ryder, John; Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa

    2010-05-01

    Diamond displays a supreme resistance to chemical and mechanical weathering, ensuring its survival through complex and prolonged crustal processes, including metamorphism and exhumation. For these reasons, volcanic sources and secondary and tertiary collectors for detrital placer diamonds, like Ural or Bingara diamonds, may be difficult to determine. If metamorphic processes leave their marks on diamond, they can be used to reconstruct crustal geologic processes and ages of primary diamondiferous volcanics. Four diamond suites extracted from metamorphic rocks have been characterized using optical CL, infrared and CL spectroscopy, and photoluminescence at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The studied diamonds are from the ~2.7 Ga sedimentary conglomerate and lamprophyric breccia metamorphosed in the greenschist facies (Wawa, Northern Ontario, Canada) during the 2.67 Ga Kenoran orogeny, and from the ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes of Kokchetav (Kazakhstan) and Erzgebirge (Germany) exhumated in the Paleozoic. Wawa diamonds (Type IaAB and Type II) displayed green, yellow, orange, and red CL colours controlled by the CL emittance at 520, 576 nm, and between 586 and 664 nm. The UHP terranes diamonds show much weaker CL; few luminescent stones display CL peaks at 395, 498, 528 nm and a broad band at 580-668 nm. In contrast, most common diamonds found in unmetamorphosed rocks, i.e. octahedrally grown Type IaAB stones, luminescence blue emitting light at ~415-440 nm and 480-490 nm. There is a noticeable difference between cathodoluminescence of these diamonds and diamonds in metamorphic rocks. The studied diamonds that experienced metamorphism show a shift of CL emission to longer wavelengths (above 520 nm) and to green, yellow and red CL colours. Photoluminescence has the high resolution necessary to assign luminescence to specific optical centers of diamond. Diamonds in metamorphic rocks contain H3 (pairs of substitutional nitrogen atoms separated by a vacancy) and NVo

  5. LabVIEW-based control and data acquisition system for cathodoluminescence experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2011), 113109:1-6. ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : cathodoluminescence (CL) * LabVIEW * data acquisition Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2011

  6. Influence of parameters of field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources on their technical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of the influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources on their lighting and electronic characteristics have been carried out. On the basis of the simplest model triode cathodoluminescence light source, the dependence of the electron stream configuration in such system versus its geometric and electrical parameters has been obtained. Based on the analysis of this dependence and on experimental data obtained by the authors earlier, the original design of the field-emission cathodoluminescence light source has been developed. Advantages of this design over existing analogs have been proven and optimal materials for its components have been selected. Conditions are described and geometrical and electrical parameters are determined at which this design operates in the most effective manner. In accordance with the design developed, field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources have been manufactured and tested. During the tests of the light sources, the uniformity of the luminous flux over working surfaces and the luminescence stability over time have been observed. A brightness value of 13,780 cd/m2 from the working area of 0.95 cm2 at the field-emission current of 300 μA and an accelerating voltage of 8.0 kV has been obtained during operation of the light sources

  7. Cathodoluminescence study of LuAG:CeGdGa single crystalline films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lalinský, Ondřej; Schauer, Petr; Kučera, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Hanuš, M.

    Beograd: Institut za nuklearne nauke, 2015. s. 125. ISBN 978-86-7306-134-4. [ICOM 2015. The 4TH International Conference on the Physics of Optical Materials and Devices. 31.08.2015-04.09.2015, Budva] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : multicomponent garnets * LuAG:CeGdGa * cathodoluminescence * temperature dependance * scintillator * SEM detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  8. Spatially and angularly resolved cathodoluminescence study of single ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyao; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Peng, Lian-Mao; Chen, Qing

    2010-11-01

    Single ZnO nanorods were studied with cathodoluminescence at high spatial and angular resolution. A newly developed luminescence detector consisting a fiber probe controlled by a nano-manipulator is attached to a scanning electron microscope to carry out the cathodoluminescence measurements. Excitonic emission from the sidewalls and redshifted near band edge emission guided along the nanorod axis are observed as the fiber probe axis is aligned to be perpendicular and parallel to the nanorod axis, respectively, demonstrating the angular resolving power of the experimental setup and waveguiding behavior of the nanorods. High spatial resolution cathodoluminescence measurement shows that the near band edge emission can propagate parallel and perpendicular to the nanorod axis and an increased propagation distance results in more redshift of the guided luminescence. In addition, the high spatial resolution and temperature dependent cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrate the important role of free exciton-longitudinal optical phonon interaction in the waveguiding behavior and the propagation of the near band edge emission in ZnO nanorods. PMID:21137887

  9. Simple collectors for cathodoluminescence in the SEM made from aluminium foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, A; Reid, S A

    1983-11-01

    Inexpensive cathodoluminescence collectors for scanning electron microscopes can easily be made from aluminium foil fashioned as tubes which abut against the window of the photomultiplier at one end and shroud the specimen at the other. Their use in the study of fluorescent labelled mineralized tissues is illustrated. PMID:6644803

  10. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic stud...

  11. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, B. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  12. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  13. Micro-PIXE and quantitative cathodoluminescence spectroscopy: Combined high resolution trace element analyses in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We combined high resolution Cathodoluminescence (CL)-spectroscopy and micro-PIXE to study the correlation of the activator concentration and the CL-intensity. Based on these results the Quantitative High Resolution Spectral analysis of Cathodoluminescence (QHRS-CL) is developed. Micro-PIXE and the new method (QHRS-CL) have been used to investigate trace elements in minerals. Using micro-PIXE and related methods the crystal lattice site and charge state of the analysed elements cannot be determined. This can be analysed exactly by using QHRS-CL. So the combination of micro-PIXE and QHRS-CL is a powerful tool for analysing trace element concentration above 100 ppb, the charge state and the lattice site of these elements in crystal structures

  14. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  15. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both

  16. Multi-color correlative light and electron microscopy using nanoparticle cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, David R.; Zhang, Huiliang; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Schalek, Richard; Lo, Peggy K.; Trifonov, Alexei; Park, Hongkun; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy promises to combine molecular specificity with nanoscale imaging resolution. However, there are substantial technical challenges including reliable co-registration of optical and electron images, and rapid optical signal degradation under electron beam irradiation. Here, we introduce a new approach to solve these problems: multi-color imaging of stable optical cathodoluminescence emitted in a scanning electron microscope by nanoparticles with controll...

  17. Correlative light and electron microscopy using cathodoluminescence from nanoparticles with distinguishable colours

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, D. R.; Zhang, H.; Kasthuri, N.; SCHALEK, R; Lo, P. K.; A. S. Trifonov; Park, H.; Lichtman, J. W.; Walsworth, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy promises to combine molecular specificity with nanoscale imaging resolution. However, there are substantial technical challenges including reliable co-registration of optical and electron images, and rapid optical signal degradation under electron beam irradiation. Here, we introduce a new approach to solve these problems: imaging of stable optical cathodoluminescence emitted in a scanning electron microscope by nanoparticles with controllable surface...

  18. Strong Calcite-Like Spectra Cathodoluminescence Emission from Allende Meteorite Cai Phases

    OpenAIRE

    García Guinea, Javier; Tornos Arroyo, Fernando; Azumendi García, Oscar; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Correcher Delgado, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of Allende CV3 chondrite were studied by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), Backscattering (BS), and Spectra Cathodoluminescence (CL). CAI minerals show spectra CL curves exceeding the 450,000 a.u. with a large homogeneity along the white inclusions. CL curve features fit perfectly with terrestrial patterns of stressed specimens of weathered marble and limestone in which hydroxyl gr...

  19. ESR and cathodoluminescence studies of radiation defects in clays and quartz fromsome U deposits

    OpenAIRE

    ブランディーヌ; 小室 光世; 中嶋, 悟; 永野 哲志; 正木 信行; 林 久人

    1992-01-01

    Rock samples from different world U deposits mainly in sedimentary rocks have been studied by Electron Spin Resonancc (ESR) spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement in order to characterize radiation damage centers in clays and quartz. The presence of kaolinite-like radiation centers ill ESR spectra in some of the samples containing kaolin group minerals suggests that this type of radiation damages can be used as an indicator of U behavior during supergene and hydrothermal altera...

  20. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and micro-PIXE: combined high resolution Mn-analyses in dolomites - First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of high resolution spectroscopy of cathodoluminescence emission (HRS-CL) and μPIXE is used to calibrate the correlation of the Mn-concentration and the Mn2+-activated CL-intensity in well-ordered and stoichiometric natural dolomites CaMg(CO3)2. In dolomite from sedimentary, diagenetic and hydrothermal origin, Mn2+ is dominantly built in Mg-position documented by data from CL-spectroscopy and ESR-spectroscopy

  1. LATERAL MAPPING OF ATOMIC SCALE INTERFACE MORPHOLOGY AND DISLOCATIONS IN QUANTUM WELLS BY CATHODOLUMINESCENCE IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Christen, J.; Bimberg, D.

    1989-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the atomic scale structural, chemical and electronic properties of semiconductor interfaces is inversely proportional to their importance for a whole generation of novel electronic and photonic quantum well devices. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate how wavelength- and time-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging (CLI) provides a one-to-one image of the crystallographic island structure of the heterointerfaces which are the boundaries of the quantum well. A ...

  2. Cathodoluminescence study of ArF excimer laser-induced planarization of large grain diamond films

    OpenAIRE

    Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, J.; Solís Céspedes, Javier

    1996-01-01

    Planarization of large grain diamond films has been induced by 193 nm excimer laser irradiation. Secondary emission images and cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope have been used to characterize the irradiated area. Irradiation causes changes in the structure of defects involving nitrogen and vacancies. Evolution of the CL signal with the number of pulses indicates that the luminescence intensity tends to stabilize when a smooth film surface is obtained. © 1996 America...

  3. Study of point defects in CdTe and CdTe:V by cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, U.; Piqueras de Noriega, Javier; Fernández Sánchez, Paloma; M.D. Serrano; Diéguez, E.

    1994-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope has been used to investigate the relationship of point defects in CdTe and CdTe:V with luminescence bands at 1.40 and 1.13 eV. V has been found to inhibit the 1.40 eV luminescence. Annealing experiments indicate that Cd and Te vacancies are involved in the mentioned emission bands.

  4. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander N. Obraztsov; Kleshch, Victor I.; Smolnikova, Elena A

    2013-01-01

    The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electr...

  5. Poly [Methyl (Phenyl) Silylene] LED Diodes – as Seen by Cathodoluminescence Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Petr; Schauer, Petr

    Brno: ISI AS CR, 2006 - (Müllerová, I.), s. 23-24 ISBN 80-239-6285-X. [Recent Trends in Charged Particle Optics and Surface Physics Instrumentation /10./. Skalský dvůr (CZ), 22.05.2006-26.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Poly[Methyl(Phenyl)Silylene] * cathodoluminescence * LED * degradation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. Modeling the Energy Dependent Cathodoluminescent Intensity of a Carbon Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Justin; Peterson, Kelby T.; Dekany, Justin; Dennison, JR

    2014-01-01

    When highly disordered insulating materials are subjected to energetic electron bombardment they can emit photons. This process is termed “cathodoluminescence.” This occurs in the space plasma environment and is an important phenomenon to understand when designing any object to be put into space. Light emitted from spacecraft materials can affect optical detection, and can cause stray-light contamination in space-based observatories. The Materials Physics Group at Utah State University uses a...

  7. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiation modified zinc oxide-porous silicon nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the room temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiated (130 MeV Nickel ion) porous silicon zinc oxide nanocomposites. The evolution of a broad and flat emission band from 1.5 to 3.5 eV is demonstrated. Annealing effect of irradiation is found to result in a relative increase in the band edge emission. Emission wavelength can be tuned in the complete visible range by changing the substrate characteristics.

  8. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiation modified zinc oxide-porous silicon nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Yogesh [CIICAp, UAEM, Av. Univ. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuer., Mor., C.P. 62209 (Mexico); CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Compl. Indus. Chih., Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Herrera, Manuel [CNyN-UNAM, Ensenada Apdo. Postal 14, CP. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Singh, Fouran [Inter University Accelarator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Olive-Mendez, S.F. [CIMAV, Av. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Compl. Indus. Chih., Chih., C.P. 31109 (Mexico); Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, Shiv [Inter University Accelarator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi-110067 (India); Agarwal, V., E-mail: vagarwal@uaem.mx [CIICAp, UAEM, Av. Univ. 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuer., Mor., C.P. 62209 (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    We report the room temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of swift ion irradiated (130 MeV Nickel ion) porous silicon zinc oxide nanocomposites. The evolution of a broad and flat emission band from 1.5 to 3.5 eV is demonstrated. Annealing effect of irradiation is found to result in a relative increase in the band edge emission. Emission wavelength can be tuned in the complete visible range by changing the substrate characteristics.

  9. Synthesis and cathodoluminescence characterization of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Hernández, A.; Guzmán-Mendoza, J. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); Rivera-Montalvo, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Guzmán-Olguín, J.C. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); García-Hipólito, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México, D.F., México (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Trivalent erbium doped zirconium oxide films were deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Films were deposited using zirconium tetrachloride octahydrate (ZrCl{sub 4}O·8H{sub 2}O) and erbium nitrate hexahydrate ((NO{sub 3}){sub 3}Er·6H{sub 2}O) as precursors and deionized water as solvent. The dopant concentrations in the spray solution were 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 at% in ratio to zirconium content. The films were deposited on corning glass substrates at different temperatures from 400 up to 550 °C. Films deposited at temperatures lower than 400 °C were amorphous, however, as substrate temperatures are increased, the ZrO{sub 2} films presented a better crystallinity and showed a tetragonal phase. Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission spectra showed bands centred at 524, 544 and 655 nm associated with the electronic transition of Er{sup 3+}. - Highlights: • The films of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} were obtained by spray pyrolysis. • Emission spectra of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films were reported. • Cathodoluminescence of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films was analyzed. • Cathodoluminescence of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films showed strong dependence on substrate temperature and electron voltage.

  10. Temperature-Dependent Cathodoluminescence of Disordered SiO2 Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Amberly; Dennison, J. R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin

    2013-03-01

    Optical coatings of disordered thin film SiO2/SiOx dielectric samples on reflective metal substrates exhibited electron-induced luminescence (cathodoluminescence) under electron beam irradiation. These experiments provided measurements of the absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux and power over a range of sample temperatures (300 K). The overall luminescent intensity increased linearly with increasing power, plateaued, then fell off approximately exponentially. Spectrometer data revealed four spectral bands. The structural defects associated with three of the four bands have been identified. Temperature dependence of the peak intensity and central position differs for the lower and higher energy bands. These results are interpreted with a model of the band structure of highly disordered trapped states within the band gap of SiO2, used to describe the excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band and subsequent relaxation into trapped states. The cathodoluminescence model describes these experimental observations, providing a fundamental basis for understanding the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time and accumulated charge, incident flux and energy, and sample thickness and temperature. This work was supported by funds from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, a NASA Space Technology Graduate Research Fellowship, and NRC Senior Research Fellowship at AFRL.

  11. Cathodoluminescence (CL) features of the Anatolian agates, hydrothermally deposited in different volcanic hosts from Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two different types of multi-colored gem-quality agate samples were investigated. They are both found in the same area in the Cubuk-Ankara region of Turkey although the first group is morphologically and geologically distinct from the second, being nodular-shaped agates occurring in cavity-spaces of a rhyolite host rock with an acidic character. They generally do not have any macroscopic inclusions, but the second group of rather block-shaped agates occurs in the fracture-spaces of an andesite host rock with a more neutral character, i.e. of lower free silica content, and they may display pseudomorphic bar-like macroscopic inclusions. Cathodoluminescence results at room temperature were obtained using measurements with alternating current (AC) (at energies of 14 and 24 keV) as well as direct current (DC) (at 14 keV energy), and they display remarkably different patterns between the two types of agates. It reveals a relation between the CL emissions and the presence of some transition metal elements. It is obvious that all trace elements do not play a direct role. Gaussian fitting of the cathodoluminescence AC experimental data at 14 keV energy obtained from the agates of rhyolite host indicates that there are three major spectral emissions, the dominant one being in the longer-visible wavelength region (red region) at about 690 nm. Additionally, two lesser emission lines occur in the middle-visible wavelength region (yellow region) at about 590 nm, and in the smaller-visible wavelength region (blue region) at about 430 nm. In spite of these, the same data from the agates of andesite host indicate that there is only one remarkable spectral emission which is in the in the middle-visible wavelength region (yellow region) at about 590 nm. On the other hand, Gaussian fitting of the cathodoluminescence AC experimental data at 24 keV energy obtained from the agates of rhyolite host indicates that these initial spectral emissions shift from the red and yellow regions to

  12. Measuring temperature in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we performed a high-resolution measurement of channel temperature rise in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in the scanning electron microscope was used to probe the temperature rise with several tens of nanometers spatial resolution and accuracy better than ±8 °C. We also determined the temperature distribution and peak temperature change with the power density in active AlGaN/GaN HEMTs in the source–gate and gate–drain openings. The measured results agree reasonably well with physical 2D electrothermal simulations and Raman thermography. (paper)

  13. On cathodoluminescence of high temperature Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of data on cathodoluminescence of high-temperature ceramic superconductors (HTCS), Y-Ba-Cu-O, is presented. Luminescence of Y-Ba-Cu-O HTCS with Gd addition has been studied for the first time. Narrow bands of 33.36 eV and 3.31 eV, which have been previously observed in Y-Ba-Cu-O HTCS cathode luminescence, are caused by surface-adsorbed contaminations. Luminescence of freshly sheared HTCS samples is caused by inclusions of alien phases. Introduction of intensively luminescenting Gd ions can serve as indication of very small amounts of green phase in HTCS

  14. Microstructure and cathodoluminescence study of sprayed Al and Sn doped ZnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hichou, A.; Addou, M.; Bubendorff, J. L.; Ebothé, J.; El Idrissi, B.; Troyon, M.

    2004-02-01

    Here we report on the study of ZnS and X-doped ZnS (with 4 at% of X = Al, Sn) thin films, prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using chloride precursors. Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and spectrophotometry have been used for their characterization. Deposited at their optimal substrate temperature (Ts = 773 K), these films are polycrystalline and consist of mixed hexagonal (agr) and cubic (bgr) phases with a predominance of the cubic phase. Their growth is preferentially oriented along the (111)bgr direction and their optical bandgap always remains close to 3.56 eV regardless of the sample considered. The cathodoluminescence spectra of ZnS and Al-ZnS films are similar and are characterized by a blue emission peak at 407 nm (3.05 eV) and a broad blue-green one located at 524 nm (2.36 eV) due to the presence of chlorine. The insertion of Sn2+ ions in the ZnS material leads to the formation of the SnCl2 compound and to the disappearance of the blue-green emission associated with Cl ionized donors.

  15. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Harris, Paul G.; Ireland, Terry G., E-mail: terry.ireland@brunel.ac.uk; Fern, George R.; Silver, Jack

    2015-10-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. - Highlights: • Contrast enhancement are observed in secondary electron and cathodoluminescent images of phosphor particles sitting on top of others. • Backscattered electrons largely explain the observed contrast enhancement. • After glow effects in CL-micrographs of phosphors enable the determination of decay times. • Phosphor saturation can be used to determine the decay time of individual spectral transitions.

  16. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. - Highlights: • Contrast enhancement are observed in secondary electron and cathodoluminescent images of phosphor particles sitting on top of others. • Backscattered electrons largely explain the observed contrast enhancement. • After glow effects in CL-micrographs of phosphors enable the determination of decay times. • Phosphor saturation can be used to determine the decay time of individual spectral transitions

  17. Cathodoluminescence and Raman characteristics of CaSO4:Tm3+, Cu phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical characterization and phosphor emission spectra are presented for CaSO4 doped with Tm and Cu. All spectral wavelengths are related to electronic transitions of Tm3+ ions. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the compound exhibits orthorhombic structure and all reflections were indexed without any other secondary impurity phases. Chemical and structural properties of the samples have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (EDS). Group frequencies concept is essential point to the interpretation of the bands due to the main SO4 vibrational units and these displayed main characteristic intensive Raman bands including typical strong intensity at 1016 cm−1 that corresponds to ν1SO4 vibrational mode. From the spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum, main emission bands of Tm3+ centered at 346, 362, and 452 nm, due to the respective transitions of 3P0→3H4, 1D2→3H6, 1D2→3F4 were clearly identified. The study is novel as no such CL-ESEM data are available for this doped compound. - Highlights: • Characteristic and cathodoluminescence properties of CaSO4:Tm3+, Cu have been investigated. • Several sharp and strong CL emission bands due to rare earth ion were observed for rare earth doped sample. • The nature and limitation of the interaction between CaSO4 and the activator ions were discussed

  18. Enhanced ultraviolet-visible cathodoluminescence from Ar+ beam-induced nano-patterned silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) of 60 keV Ar ion beam-induced ripple patterned Si in a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) shows strong room temperature (RT) luminescence bands compared to a nonpatterned or patterned recrystallized Si. Site-specific CL spectroscopy and imaging data indicate while the top and front surface of ripples contribute predominantly to the red and near infra-red (IR) emission at ∼650 and 750 nm respectively, the back surface contributes mostly to ultraviolet (UV) emission at ∼365nm. When the patterned sample is recrystallized after high temperature annealing, one observes a blue shift of the red peak to a yellow peak at ∼575nm. Nanostructured Si of varying sizes (∼0.2-5nm) located around amorphous/crystalline (a/c)-interface and beyond it appears to be probable origin of luminescence observed in the present study. - Highlights: → Cathodoluminescence (CL) of Ar ion-induced ripple patterned porous Si in a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM). → Patterned amorphous Si strongly luminescent compared to its non-patterned amorphous or patterned recrystallized form. → Crest and front slope region of ripples contributes predominantly to the visible and near IR emission. → Rear slope region contributes mostly to UV emission.

  19. Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Blue Luminescence in Undoped Semi-insulating GaN and n-GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qi-Feng; WANG Xiao-Liang; XIAO Hong-Ling; WANG Cui-Mei; YANG Cui-Bai; YIN Hai-Bo; LI Jin-Min; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Yellow and blue luminescence in undoped GaN layers with different resistivities are studied by cathodoluminescence. Intense yellow and blue luminescence bands are observed in semi-insulating GaN, while in n-GaN the yellow luminescence and blue luminescence bands are very weak. The stronger yellow and blue luminescences in semi-insulating GaN are correlated to the higher edge-type dislocation density. The scanning cathodoluminescence image reveals strong defect-related luminescence at the grain boundaries where the dislocations accumulate.It is found that the relative intensity of the blue luminescence band to the yellow luminescence band increases with the cathodoluminescence beam energies and is larger in n-GaN with a lower density of edge-type dislocations. An approximately 3.35eV shoulder next to the near-band-edge peak is observed in n-GaN but not in semi-insulating GaN. A redshift of the near-band-edge peak with cathodoluminescence beam energy is observed in both samples and is explained by internal absorption.

  20. Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Blue Luminescence in Undoped Semi-insulating GaN and n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qi-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Xiao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Cui-Mei; Yang, Cui-Bai; Yin, Hai-Bo; Li, Jin-Min; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-03-01

    Yellow and blue luminescence in undoped GaN layers with different resistivities are studied by cathodoluminescence. Intense yellow and blue luminescence bands are observed in semi-insulating GaN, while in n-GaN the yellow luminescence and blue luminescence bands are very weak. The stronger yellow and blue luminescences in semi-insulating GaN are correlated to the higher edge-type dislocation density. The scanning cathodoluminescence image reveals strong defect-related luminescence at the grain boundaries where the dislocations accumulate. It is found that the relative intensity of the blue luminescence band to the yellow luminescence band increases with the cathodoluminescence beam energies and is larger in n-GaN with a lower density of edge-type dislocations. An approximately 3.35 eV shoulder next to the near-band-edge peak is observed in n-GaN but not in semi-insulating GaN. A redshift of the near-band-edge peak with cathodoluminescence beam energy is observed in both samples and is explained by internal absorption.

  1. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali–silica reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali–silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali–silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: ► ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). ► Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. ► ASR was attributed to aggregates. ► Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. ► Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

  2. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and petrographic image analysis of aggregates in concrete pavements affected by alkali-silica reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastna, A., E-mail: astastna@gmail.com [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Sachlova, S.; Pertold, Z.; Prikryl, R. [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Leichmann, J. [Department of Geological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 267/2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-03-15

    Various microscopic techniques (cathodoluminescence, polarizing and electron microscopy) were combined with image analysis with the aim to determine a) the modal composition and degradation features within concrete, and b) the petrographic characteristics and the geological types (rocks, and their provenance) of the aggregates. Concrete samples were taken from five different portions of Highway Nos. D1, D11, and D5 (the Czech Republic). Coarse and fine aggregates were found to be primarily composed of volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, as well as of quartz and feldspar aggregates of variable origins. The alkali-silica reaction was observed to be the main degradation mechanism, based upon the presence of microcracks and alkali-silica gels in the concrete. Use of cathodoluminescence enabled the identification of the source materials of the quartz aggregates, based upon their CL characteristics (i.e., color, intensity, microfractures, deformation, and zoning), which is difficult to distinguish only employing polarizing and electron microscopy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR in concrete pavements on the Highways Nos. D1, D5 and D11 (Czech Republic). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cathodoluminescence was combined with various microscopic techniques and image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ASR was attributed to aggregates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Source materials of aggregates were identified based on cathodoluminescence characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quartz comes from different volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic parent rocks.

  3. Ion beam induced charge and cathodoluminescence imaging of response uniformity of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; Galbiati, A; Maghrabi, M; Townsend, P D

    2002-01-01

    The uniformity of response of CVD diamond radiation detectors produced from high quality diamond film, with crystallite dimensions of >100 mu m, has been studied using ion beam induced charge imaging. A micron-resolution scanning alpha particle beam was used to produce maps of pulse height response across the device. The detectors were fabricated with a single-sided coplanar electrode geometry to maximise their sensitivity to the surface region of the diamond film where the diamond crystallites are highly ordered. High resolution ion beam induced charge images of single crystallites were acquired that demonstrate variations in intra-crystallite charge transport and the termination of charge transport at the crystallite boundaries. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the same crystallites shows an inverse correlation between the density of radiative centres and regions of good charge transport.

  4. Low limit of Mn 2+-activated cathodoluminescence of calcite: state of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, Dirk; Neuser, Rolf D.; Richter, Detlev K.

    1998-02-01

    In the literature, the lower limit for Mn 2+-activated cathodoluminescence (CL) of calcite is variously reputed to over a very wide range of values above 10 ppm Mn. Our spectroscopic investigations of the CL response in natural calcite reveal that below 10 ppm manganese content Mn 2+-activation is also present. Using the Quantitative High Resolution Spectral analysis of CL (QHRS-CL) an activation by Mn 2+ in the range of 700 ppb is proved, which cannot be determined visually. So, if not quenched, the minimum Mn 2+ content for Mn 2+-activation is one atom in the irradiated calcite crystal lattice volume. As the intrinsic (background blue) luminescence is used to determine non-altered biogenic calcite, the limit of Mn 2+-activation plays an important role in the interpretation of diagenetic processes. Our results of spectroscopic analyses require a revision of current opinions about the diagenesis of calcite as revealed by CL investigation.

  5. Unusual Cathodoluminescence in Diamonds: Evidence for Metamorphism or a Source Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, L. F.; Longo, M.; Kopylova, M.; Ryder, J.

    2009-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a useful means of diamond "fingerprinting". CL-active cratonic macrodiamonds usually cathodoluminesce blue or yellow, and always exhibit prominent wide CL emittance peaks at 430-450 nm and 480-490 nm. Exceptions to this norm are diamond suites recently discovered in the Archean rocks metamorphosed in the greenschist facies. These macrodiamonds cathodoluminesce red, orange and yellow, and invariably exhibit the most prominent CL peak at 520 nm. The diamond suites with the unusual CL are derived from two different locations within the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt (Southern Superior craton), near the town of Wawa (Ontario). One suite is extracted from the 2.68-2.74 Ga polymict volcanic breccias and lamprophyres and the other suite - from the 2.68 Ga sedimentary conglomerates grading into overlying sandstones of the Dore assemblage. The diamondiferous conglomerates are found in an area 8 km south of the breccias and 12 km northeast of Wawa. CL emittance of macrodiamonds (> 0.5 mm) extracted from the breccias consists of a broad band at 520 nm, a sharp peak at 575.5 nm, and several lines at 550-670 nm. The conglomerate macrodiamonds mostly show a dominant peak at 520 nm, whereas corresponding microdiamonds exhibit two peaks at about 576 and 600 nm. None of the diamonds show a maximum peak at 420 nm. Polycrystalline stones from conglomerates show distinct CL spectra and colours for all intergrown crystals in the same diamond. The relative abundances of the CL colors of the conglomerate diamonds are orange-red (46%), yellow (28%), orange-green (10%), green (6%), and non-uniform colors (10%). These colours are more diverse than mostly orange CL colours in the breccia diamonds; this results from a larger variety of positions and intensity of CL peaks in the conglomerate diamonds. We propose two models for explaining the presence of the 520 nm CL peak in the breccia and conglomerate diamonds in Wawa. The first model suggests metamorphism as the

  6. Synthesis, characterization and cathodoluminescence of nanostructured SnO2 using microwave plasma enhanced CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Tzu-Wang; Lin, Chun-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Jen; Chang, Ku-Ling; Shih, Han C.

    2007-05-01

    Nanostructured tin oxides have been synthesized in the form of nano-pins using SnCl2 · 2H2O as precursors in a short period of 2.5 min by microwave plasma enhanced CVD. The resulting nano-pins have square cross sections of 50-60 nm at the pin head, 10-20 nm at the pin proper and less than 5 nm at the pin tail; the full length of the pin is about several micrometres. The optical properties measured by cathodoluminescence show strong indigo emission at 404 and 460 nm. The nucleation and growth are dominated by a self-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, which has been studied in this work.

  7. High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heayoung P. Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a fast, versatile photocurrent imaging technique to visualize the local photo response of solar energy devices and optoelectronics using near-field cathodoluminescence (CL from a homogeneous quantum dot layer. This approach is quantitatively compared with direct measurements of high-resolution Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC using a thin film solar cell (n-CdS / p-CdTe. Qualitatively, the observed image contrast is similar, showing strong enhancement of the carrier collection efficiency at the p-n junction and near the grain boundaries. The spatial resolution of the new technique, termed Q-EBIC (EBIC using quantum dots, is determined by the absorption depth of photons. The results demonstrate a new method for high-resolution, sub-wavelength photocurrent imaging measurement relevant for a wide range of applications.

  8. Cathodoluminescence microcharacterization of forsterite in the chondrule experimentally grown under super cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) of laboratory forsterite chondrules has been characterized to clarify the formation process of chondrules and related mechanism of the crystal growth in a supercooled melt. Color CL image of the experimentally grown forsterite exhibits significant blue luminescence in the main branches of the interior structure of lab-chondrule, which reflects to the anisotropy of crystallization. A new CL band centered at 450–525 nm (2.76–2.36 eV) in blue to green region might be assigned to a microdefect-related center, which is a diagnostic peak for the forsterite that was formed due to the rapid growth as high as ∼10 mm/s or higher from a supercooled melt.

  9. Cathodoluminescence spectra of diamonds in UHP rocks from the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to investigate the diamonds from the Kokchetav Massif, northern Kazakhstan, which is the best example of diamond-eclogite facies metamorphism, using cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. CL spectra measurements of diamonds from garnet-pyroxene-quartz rocks and dolomitic marbles, made at 80 K, revealed peaks at 2.156, 2.463, and 3.188 eV and a broad band at 2.72-2.80 eV. Panchromatic and monochromatic diamond images analysed by CL reveal concentric zones of variable luminescence. This indicates that the diamond crystals grow during several metamorphic stages under ultra high pressure (UHP) metamorphism conditions. The inhomogeneous broadening and lower 2.156 eV ZPL peak suggests the presence of a higher concentration of defects and stresses in the rim compared to the core

  10. Cathodoluminescence spectra of diamonds in UHP rocks from the Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancu, O.G. [Department of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, University of Torino, Via Valperga Caluso, 35 10125 Torino (Italy); University ' Al. I. Cuza' of Iasi, B-dul Carol I 20A, 700505 Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: ogiancu@uaic.ro; Cossio, R. [Department of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, University of Torino, Via Valperga Caluso, 35 10125 Torino (Italy); Korsakov, A.V. [Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Koptyug Pr. 3, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Compagnoni, R. [Department of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, University of Torino, Via Valperga Caluso, 35 10125 Torino (Italy); Popa, C. [Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, 80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2008-10-15

    We propose to investigate the diamonds from the Kokchetav Massif, northern Kazakhstan, which is the best example of diamond-eclogite facies metamorphism, using cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. CL spectra measurements of diamonds from garnet-pyroxene-quartz rocks and dolomitic marbles, made at 80 K, revealed peaks at 2.156, 2.463, and 3.188 eV and a broad band at 2.72-2.80 eV. Panchromatic and monochromatic diamond images analysed by CL reveal concentric zones of variable luminescence. This indicates that the diamond crystals grow during several metamorphic stages under ultra high pressure (UHP) metamorphism conditions. The inhomogeneous broadening and lower 2.156 eV ZPL peak suggests the presence of a higher concentration of defects and stresses in the rim compared to the core.

  11. Influence of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L. Y.; Zhang, D.; Liu, B. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of as-synthesized and Cu ion implanted ZnS nanostructures with branched edges are studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement. Obvious crystalline deterioration has been observed in Cu-doped ZnS nanostructures due to the invasion of Cu ions into ZnS lattice. It was found that the optical emissions of ZnS nanostructures can be selectively modified through the control of Cu ion dose and subsequent heat treatment. An increase of Cu dopant content will lead to an apparent red-shift of the intrinsic band-gap emission in the UV range and the broadening of defect-related emission in visible range. The influences of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and related optical properties were discussed.

  12. Optical Defect in GaN-Based Laser Diodes Detected by Cathodoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lu-Bing; WU Jie-Jun; XU Ke; BAO Sui; YANG Zhi-Jian; PAN Yao-Bo; HU Xiao-Dong; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    @@ GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) with 399 nm wavelength are grown on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).Electroluminescence spectra of the fabricated LDs show that the LDs from some grown wafers failed to emit laser.The SEM and XRD results show the similar surface morphology and interface qualities of multi quantum wells (MQWs) and super-lattices between LDs that succeed and fail to emit laser.However, the cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements reveal a kind of optical defect rather than structural defect in un-emitted LDs.Further depth-dependent CL imaging observation indicates that such optical defects originate from the MQWs to the surface of LDs as a non-irradiative recombination centre that should cause the failure of laser emitting of LDs.

  13. Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-10-12

    We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Influence of defects on the cathodoluminescence in elongated microstructures of ZnO:Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: It is the behavior of the cathodoluminescence (CL) along elongated structures of ZnO with contamination of tea isoelectronic obtained by the technique of vapor - solid. The CL intensity varies throughout the microstructures obtained under the influence of defects. These defects were considered to be of two general types, or vacancies and Zn and the structural disorder. Each defect type has different influence on the intensity of the CL what can be seen in the study of selected typical structures. Presents the variation of the intensity of the CL as a function of the variance of each type of defect and determines its experimental mathematical behavior, which indicates the degree of influence of defects on the perfection of the material. (author)

  15. Dislocation related droop in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes investigated via cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's energy saving solutions for general illumination rely on efficient white light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the output efficiency droop experienced in InGaN based LEDs with increasing current injection is a serious limitation factor for future development of bright white LEDs. We show using cathodoluminescence (CL) spatial mapping at different electron beam currents that threading dislocations are active as nonradiative recombination centers only at high injection conditions. At low current, the dislocations are inactive in carrier recombination due to local potentials, but these potentials are screened by carriers at higher injection levels. In CL images, this corresponds to the increase of the dark contrast around dislocations with the injection (excitation) density and can be linked with droop related to the threading dislocations. Our data indicate that reduction of droop in the future efficient white LED can be achieved via a drastic reduction of the dislocation density by using, for example, bulk native substrates

  16. Intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence using the energy loss distribution of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Inami, Wataru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present an intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) excited with a focused electron beam in a luminescent thin film. The energy loss distribution is applied to the developed analysis method in order to determine the arrangement of the dipole locations along the path of the electron traveling in the film. Propagating light emitted from each dipole is analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. CL distribution near the film surface is evaluated as a nanometric light source. It is found that a light source with 30 nm widths is generated in the film by the focused electron beam. We also discuss the accuracy of the developed analysis method by comparison with experimental results. The analysis results are brought into good agreement with the experimental results by introducing the energy loss distribution. PMID:26550930

  17. Interface properties of Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 structure by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied formation of the SiO2-T2O5 interface in the Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 structure using Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy (CLS). Analyzing the evolution of CLS spectrum of the Si-SiO2 structure while depositing the Ta2O5 layer allowed to estimate an optical transmittance of the Ta2O5 layer and its band gap. Spectral features related to the formation of the SiO2-Ta2O5 interface were identified by comparison of the experimental CL spectrum of the Si-SiO2-Ta2O5 structure and its simulated counterpart. This formation involves a decomposition of silanol groups at the outer surface of the SO2 layer and creation of the SixTayO-type layer containing luminescence centers with the emission band centered at 3 eV photon energy

  18. Cathodoluminescence and Raman characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+}, Cu phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdal, E. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Guinea, J. Garcia [MuseoNacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Kelemen, A. [Centre for Energy Research, Radiation Safety Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Ayvacikli, M. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Canimoglu, A. [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Nigde (Turkey); Jorge, A. [MuseoNacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Karali, T. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoomail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    The physical characterization and phosphor emission spectra are presented for CaSO{sub 4} doped with Tm and Cu. All spectral wavelengths are related to electronic transitions of Tm{sup 3+} ions. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the compound exhibits orthorhombic structure and all reflections were indexed without any other secondary impurity phases. Chemical and structural properties of the samples have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (EDS). Group frequencies concept is essential point to the interpretation of the bands due to the main SO{sub 4} vibrational units and these displayed main characteristic intensive Raman bands including typical strong intensity at 1016 cm{sup −1} that corresponds to ν{sub 1}SO{sub 4} vibrational mode. From the spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum, main emission bands of Tm{sup 3+} centered at 346, 362, and 452 nm, due to the respective transitions of {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}F{sub 4} were clearly identified. The study is novel as no such CL-ESEM data are available for this doped compound. - Highlights: • Characteristic and cathodoluminescence properties of CaSO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+}, Cu have been investigated. • Several sharp and strong CL emission bands due to rare earth ion were observed for rare earth doped sample. • The nature and limitation of the interaction between CaSO{sub 4} and the activator ions were discussed.

  19. New Data On The Cathodoluminescence Of White Marbles: Interpretation Of Peaks And Relationships To Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guinea, J.; Crespo-Feo, E.; Correcher, V.; Iordanidis, A.; Charalampides, G.; Karamitrou-Mentessidi, G.

    This work focus on the Thermoluminescence (TL), the Spatially Resolved Spectral Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Raman spectroscopy (Raman) of white marble specimens collected from the archaeological park of Aiani (Greece) and from patterns of Iceland calcite and Macael marble for comparison purposes. The spectra CL were measured with a high sensitivity cathodoluminescence spectrometer MonoCL3 of Gatan (UK) attached to an FEI-ESEM microscope (CL-ESEM). The experimental set of spectra CL curves of Aiani white marbles suggest that the blue band is more resistant to weathering in comparison with the red band which drops down easily under weathering. The comparison among CL spectra of CaCO3 patterns give a slight difference between the small 330 nm peak, detected in marble and not observed in the monocrystal pattern of Iceland calcite. The Backscattering Electron Dispersed (BSED) images of the white marble are similar to the CL monochromatic plots at 330 nm which highlight the surfaces with remarkable clarity, suggesting a CL emission-defect associated to the marble crystal interfaces, such as protons or hydroxyls. Conversely, the 395 nm monochromatic mapping depicts a CL image emitting from bulk and not from interfaces attributable to point defects or cationic activators in Ca2+ positions. The blue band of the spectra luminescence of marble is composed by several peaks associated to very different types of luminescent defects. This statement is not inconsequential since in archaeological TL dating of marbles the regenerated luminescence in the blue region of the spectrum is a serious difficulty and further research on this topic is necessary.

  20. Characterization of kesterite thin films fabricated by rapid thermal processing of stacked elemental layers using spatially resolved cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Künecke, Ulrike; Hetzner, Christina; Möckel, Stefan [Materials Department 6, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Yoo, Hyesun; Hock, Rainer [Crystallography and Structure Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr, 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wellmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.wellmann@fau.de [Materials Department 6, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    We report on the microstructure analysis of kesterite (Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}) layers from rapid thermal processing of sequential elemental layers by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were carried out for the validation of the findings. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the occurrence of the secondary phases Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se, ZnSe and SnSe. - Highlights: • Spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} • Material analysis with a μm spatial resolution • Determination of secondary phases Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se, SnSe and ZnSe.

  1. Properties of Cathodoluminescence for Cryogenic Applications of SiO2-based Space Observatory Optics and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Amberly; Dennison, J.R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers Charles W.; Meloy, Robert; Heaney, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Disordered thin film SiO2SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high-energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet performance objectives of these advanced space-based observatories. Measurements of absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux, and power typical of space environments are presented for thin (60-200 nm) SiO2SiOx optical coatings on reflective metal substrates over a range of sample temperatures (40-400 K) and emission wavelengths (260-5000 nm). Luminescent intensity and peak wavelengths of four distinct bands were observed in UVVISNIR emission spectra, ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm. A simple model is proposed that describes the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time, incident flux and energy, sample thickness, and temperature.

  2. Red, green and blue low-voltage cathodoluminescence of rare-earth doped BaWO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. L.; Wang, Z. L.; Hao, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    Spherical phosphors BaWO4 doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu, Tb, Tm) were prepared by the polyol method. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy. The as-prepared BaWO4-based phosphors processed as low as 160 °C show mono-dispersive and highly crystalline nanostructure. The optical characteristics of the phosphors were investigated using low-voltage cathodoluminescence. Efficient energy transfer between the host and RE ions were revealed in the spectra. Red, green and blue cathodoluminescence were observed corresponding to sharp dominant emission peaks located at 616 nm, 545 nm and 473 nm for Eu3+, Tb3+ and Tm3+ doped phosphors, respectively. Those peaks are attributed to the characteristic emission from Eu3+ (5D0 - 7FJ transitions), Tb3+ (5D3 - 7FJ and 5D4 - 7FJ transitions) and Tm3+ (1D2 - 3F4 and 1D2 - 3H4 transitions) under low-voltage (<=5 kV) excitation of electron beam. Luminescent intensities in the annealed BaWO4-based phosphors were significantly enhanced. The characteristics of the phosphors are investigated in terms of luminance, chromaticity and color purity. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the low-voltage cathodoluminescence of BaWO4-based phosphors are discussed.

  3. Light-emitting nanocasts formed from bio-templates: FESEM and cathodoluminescent imaging studies of butterfly scale replicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocasts comprising of red-light-emitting cubic Y2O3:Eu phosphors were made from butterfly wing scale bio-templates. We report herein the first cathodoluminescent images made from such nanocasts and show that valuable insights into the nature of the internal structure of the casts can be gained by the use of this technique. The casts faithfully reproduced the fine sub-micrometre size detail of the scales, as was made evident by both FESEM and cathodoluminescent images that were collected from the same sample areas using a hyphenated FESEM-CL instrument. There was excellent agreement between the FESEM and cathodoluminescent images, the image quality of the latter indicating that the Eu3+ activator ions were evenly dispersed in the Y2O3:Eu phosphor on a sub-micrometre scale. The casts were made by infilling the natural moulds with a Y2O3:Eu precursor solution that was subsequently dried and fired to convert it into the phosphor material. This method provides a simple, low cost route for fabricating nanostructures having feature dimensions as small as 20 nm in size, and it has the potential to be applied to other metal oxide systems for producing nano-and micro-components for electronic, magnetic or photonic integrated systems

  4. Rare-earth-doped nanophosphors for multicolor cathodoluminescence nanobioimaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Taichi; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Niioka, Hirohiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Miyake, Jun; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    We describe rare-earth-doped nanophosphors (RE-NPs) for biological imaging using cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We report the first demonstration of multicolor CL nanobioimaging using STEM with nanophosphors. The CL spectra of the synthesized nanophosphors (Y2O3:Eu, Y2O3:Tb) were sufficiently narrow to be distinguished. From CL images of RE-NPs on an elastic carbon-coated copper grid, the spatial resolution was beyond the diffraction limit of light. Y2O3:Tb and Y2O3:Eu RE-NPs showed a remarkable resistance against electron beam exposure even at high acceleration voltage (80 kV) and retained a CL intensity of more than 97% compared with the initial intensity for 1 min. In biological CL imaging with STEM, heavy-metal-stained cell sections containing the RE-NPs were prepared, and both the CL images of RE-NPs and cellular structures, such as mitochondria, were clearly observed from STEM images with high contrast. The cellular CL imaging using RE-NPs also had high spatial resolution even though heavy-metal-stained cells are normally regarded as highly scattering media. Moreover, since the RE-NPs exhibit photoluminescence (PL) excited by UV light, they are useful for multimodal correlative imaging using CL and PL.

  5. A facile route to high-purity BN nanoplates with ultraviolet cathodoluminescence emissions at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We present a novel and simple approach to great-scale fabrication of BN nanoplates. • The as-synthesized products are extensively characterized. • The formation mechanism of BN nanoplates are elucidated based on experimental observations. • A growth model was proposed according to our experimental observations and analysis. • BN nanoplates’ CL performance envisions its applications such as UV emitters. - Abstract: We present a novel and notably simple approach to fabricate BN nanoplates in large scale employing ammonia borane as a single-source precursor. The structure and chemical composition of the as-synthesized products are extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). XRD analysis indicates that the products are hexagonal BN crystal. SEM images confirm that the BN nanoplates have an average diameter of about 200 nm and thickness of tens of nanometers. HRTEM results illustrate the BN nanoplates to be single-crystals. EELS result suggests the nanoplates are composed of boron and nitride elements. The formation mechanism of the BN nanoplates has been elucidated based on our experimental observations, and a growth model has been proposed accordingly. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopic analysis is performed and strong ultraviolet (UV) emissions are detected. Our method provides a simple route towards the large-scale fabrication of high-quality BN nanoplates, for which various promising applications such as compact UV emitters can be envisioned

  6. Pulsed Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Solid Oxides with Low Concentrations of Optically-Active Impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V A; Pestovskii, N V; Petrov, A A; Savinov, S Yu; Zavartsev, Yu D; Zavertyaev, M V; Zagumenniy, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) spectra of ultra-pure SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, TiO2, La2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, CaCO3 powders and {\\alpha}-quartz, Ca:YVO4, LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals were studied under the same experimental conditions. It was found that PCL spectra of SiO2, SnO2, GeO2, TiO2, La2O3 and CaCO3 powders contain a common band with maximum intensity at 500 nm, PCL spectra of samples Y2O3, Sc2O3, PbWO4 and Ca:YVO4 contain a common band at 490 nm and PCL spectra of LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals contain a common band at 507 nm. It was found that the average intensity of the PCL spectra and position of the maximum intensity of these common bands depend on the type of a band gap transition of the material. We suppose that these common bands have the same origin in PCL spectra of all the materials studied and are related to recombination of O2--O-oxygen complexes. These complexes appear in the vicinities of anionic and cationic vacancies, where the geometry and orientation of coordination polyhedrons are violated d...

  7. Surface charging of phosphors and its effects on cathodoluminescence at low electron energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the threshold for secondary electron emission and shifts of the carbon Auger line position have been used to deduce the surface potential of several common phosphors during irradiation by electrons in the 0.5--5.0 keV range. All of the insulating phosphors display similar behavior: the surface potential is within ±1 V of zero at low electron energies. However, above 2--3 kV it becomes increasingly negative, reaching hundreds of volts within 1 keV of the turn-on energy. The electron energy at which this charging begins decreases dramatically after Coulomb aging at 17 microA/cm2 for 30--60 min. Measurements using coincident electron beams at low and high electron energies to control the surface potential were made to investigate the dependence of the cathodoluminescence (CL) process on charging. Initially, the CL from the two beams is identical to the sum of the separate beam responses, but after Coulomb aging large deviations from this additivity are observed. These results indicate that charging has important, detrimental effects on CL efficiency after prolonged e-beam irradiation. Measurements of the electron energy dependence of the CL efficiency before and after Coulomb aging will also be presented, and the implications of these data on the physics of the low-voltage CL process will be discussed

  8. InGaN blue cathodoluminescence phosphors synthesized with long reaction time in a new reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    InGaN microcrystals were grown by two-stage growth method for 10 hours in a new reactor without clogging an exhaust tube by fine particles. Obtained InGaN showed double peaked cathodoluminescence spectra, violet peak at 385-389 nm and blue at 438-444 nm when excited at 5-15 kV. The uniformity of the blue emission spectra among the crystals were improved for those grown for the 10-hour reaction time. The yields of emissive GaN and InGaN crystals were not improved. The compatibility of the position of the violet band of the InGaN crystals to that of the GaN crystals and the resemblance of morphology of the GaN and InGaN crystals imply the growth of InGaN on GaN facets in two-stage growth. The cause of the deterioration of the CL efficiency of the grown InGaN crystals at a low acceleration voltage was discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Stable violet cathodoluminescence of α-quartz after Ge+ implantation at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doping single-crystalline α-quartz with 120 keV Ge+-ion implantation under the conditions of dynamic solid phase epitaxial regrowth has been studied as function of ion fluence and substrate temperature. In particular, the light emitting properties possibly suitable for optoelectronic devices have been investigated by measuring cathodoluminescence spectra for implantation temperatures from 300 to 1223 K and for analyzing temperatures from 10-300 K. Rutherford backscattering channeling analysis showed that the Ge implantation produced amorphous layers varying in depth with temperature. At a fluence of 7x1014 Ge-ions/cm2 and an implantation temperature of 1073 K, Ge implantation is accompanied by a strong increase in the luminescence intensity of a violet band, which we associate with Ge-related defects or Ge clusters. This violet band is very stable and has a long lifetime of 6 μs. All the other bands observed are connected to known oxygen defect centers in the SiO2 network

  10. [Cathodoluminescent characteristics of green-emitting ZnAl2O4:Mn thin film phosphors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhi-dong; Xu, Zheng; Yi, Lan-jie; Yang, Sheng-yi

    2008-06-01

    Green electroluminescence was obtained from thin films of ZnAl2O4: Mn prepared by rf magnetron sputtering onto thick insulating ceramic sheets. Photoluminescence and stress-stimulated luminescence was obtained for Mn-doped ZnAl2O4 powder synthesized by the solid phase reaction. Since it is extremely stable chemically and thermally, ZnAl2O4 may emerge as an alternative choice to sulphide-based phosphors. In the present paper, thin films of ZnAl2O4: Mn were grown on aluminosilicate ceramic plates using spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions. The cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of the films under low to medium excitation voltage (spinel structure. The chromaticity coordinates were x = 0.150 and y = 0.734 with a dominant wavelength of 525 nm and an 82% color purity. The CL luminance and efficiency depended on the excitation voltage and current density. Saturation effects were observed as the current density increased. A luminance of 540 cd x m(-2) and an efficiency of 4.5 lm x W(-1) were obtained at an excitation voltage of 4 kV with a current density of 38 microA x cm(-2). PMID:18800691

  11. Cathodoluminescence characteristics of sandstone and the implications for sandstone type No. 512 uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) technique, as a special petrologic tool, has been applied to the studies of uranium hosted sandstone from No. 512 uranium deposit located in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China. The detrital grains including quartz, feldspar, debris and cements display distinguishing CL properties. The quartz grains mainly demonstrate brown and dark blue CL, feldspar grains demonstrate blue and bright blue CL, calcite cement displays bright yellow-orange and orange-red CL with significant CL zoning, while the debris, mud and sand cements have dark red CL, multicolor CL or non-luminescence. The characteristics of overgrowth, fracture healing, and the original contact relations of detrital grains appear much more significant with CL than that with conventional visual methods. Much more information can be contributed by CL technique to decipher the provenance area, to explain the cementation, consolidation and other diagenesis processes of sandstone. The CL technique also provides and efficient tool for identifying detrital grains and cements, and for more precisely estimating the proportions of various detrital grains and cement components in sandstone. The CL emission of uranium hosted sandstone revealed the existence of radiation-damage rims of quartz grains at the places with a little or no uranium minerals nearby, which may imply a uranium-leaching episode during the diagenesis of sandstone

  12. Microscopy and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy Characterization of Quartz Exhibiting Different Alkali-Silica Reaction Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchařová, Aneta; Götze, Jens; Šachlová, Šárka; Pertold, Zdeněk; Přikryl, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Different quartz types from several localities in the Czech Republic and Sweden were examined by polarizing microscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy, spectroscopy, and petrographic image analysis, and tested by use of an accelerated mortar bar test (following ASTM C1260). The highest alkali-silica reaction potential was indicated by very fine-grained chert, containing significant amounts of fine-grained to cryptocrystalline matrix. The chert exhibited a dark red CL emission band at ~640 nm with a low intensity. Fine-grained orthoquartzites, as well as fine-grained metamorphic vein quartz, separated from phyllite exhibited medium expansion values. The orthoquartzites showed various CL of quartz grains, from blue through violet, red, and brown. Two CL spectral bands at ~450 and ~630 nm, with various intensities, were detected. The quartz from phyllite displayed an inhomogeneous dark red CL with two CL spectral bands of low intensities at ~460 and ~640 nm. The massive coarse-grained pegmatite quartz from pegmatite was assessed to be nonreactive and displayed a typical short-lived blue CL (~480 nm). The higher reactivity of the fine-grained hydrothermal quartz may be connected with high concentrations of defect centers, and probably with amorphized micro-regions in the quartz, respectively; indicated by a yellow CL emission (~570 nm). PMID:26790877

  13. Tunable photoluminescent and cathodoluminescent properties of ZnO and ZnO:Zn phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenling; Lin, Cuikun; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangzhi; Luo, Yan; Quan, Zewei; Xiang, Hongping; Lin, Jun

    2006-05-18

    ZnO and ZnO:Zn powder phosphors were prepared by the polyol-method followed by annealing in air and reducing gas, respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, respectively. The results indicate that all samples are in agreement with the hexagonal structure of the ZnO phase and the particle sizes are in the range of 1-2 microm. The PL and CL spectra of ZnO powders annealed at 950 degrees C in air consist of a weak ultraviolet emission band (approximately 390 nm) and a broad emission band centered at about 527 nm, exhibiting yellow emission color to the naked eyes. When the sample was reduced at the temperatures from 500 to 1050 degrees C, the yellow emission decreased gradually and disappeared completely at 800 degrees C, whereas the ultraviolet emission band became the strongest. Above this temperature, the green emission ( approximately 500 nm) appeared and increased with increasing of reducing temperatures. According to the EPR results and spectral analysis, the yellow and green emissions may arise from the transitions of photogenerated electron close to the conduction band to the deeply trapped hole in the single negatively charged interstitial oxygen ion (Oi(-)) and the single ionized oxygen vacancy (V.O) centers, respectively. PMID:16686492

  14. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas

  15. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas.

  16. Simultaneous cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy cytometry of cellular vesicles labeled with fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sounderya; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Fang, Chia-Yi; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi; Le Cam, Eric; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Kociak, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of both techniques. Here we propose an alternative in which the electron beam of a scanning TEM (STEM) is used to excite concomitantly the luminescence of nanoparticle labels (a process known as cathodoluminescence, CL), and image the cell ultrastructure. This CL-STEM imaging allows obtaining luminescence spectra and imaging ultrastructure simultaneously. We present a proof of principle experiment, showing the potential of this technique in image cytometry of cell vesicular components. To label the vesicles we used fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (nanodiamonds, NDs) of size ~150 nm coated with different cationic polymers, known to trigger different internalization pathways. Each polymer was associated with a type of ND with a different emission spectrum. With CL-STEM, for each individual vesicle, we were able to measure (i) their size with nanometric resolution, (ii) their content in different ND labels, and realize intracellular component cytometry. In contrast to the recently reported organelle flow cytometry technique that requires cell sonication, CL-STEM-based image cytometry preserves the cell integrity and provides a much higher resolution in size. Although this novel approach is still limited by a low throughput, the automatization of data acquisition and image analysis, combined with improved intracellular targeting, should facilitate applications in cell biology at the subcellular level.Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of

  17. Distinguishing the Asian dust sources based on cathodoluminescence analysis of single quartz grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, K.; Nishido, H.; Kayama, M.; Tada, R.; Isozaki, Y.; Sun, Y.; Igarashi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous tracers, such as mineralogical component, strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and neodymium (eNd(0)) isotopes (Liu et al., 1994; Biscaye et al.,1997; Bory et al., 2002, 2003; Kanayama et al., 2002, 2005), rare earth element composition (e.g., Svensson et al., 2000), oxygen isotope (Mizota et al., 1992; Hou et al., 2003) and ESR intensity of quartz (Ono et al., 1998; Sun et al., 2007), have been investigated to discriminate source areas of Asian dust. However, these analyses need large volume of samples (mostly more than 10 mg) and the applications to the dust samples are limited. Then, here we developed a provenance-tracing method by using a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectral of “single” quartz grain for applying it to small volume of aeolian dust samples, such as aeolian dust in the ice cores and marine sediments with the location of long distance from the Asian deserts. CL is the emission from a material which is excited by electron beam. Since CL spectroscopy and microscopy provide information on the existence and distribution of defects and trace elements in minerals, CL analyses have potential to characterize dust-source areas. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different patterns between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins (e.g., Zinkernagel, 1978; Götze et al., 2001), suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Then, here we conducted CL spectral analysis of silt size quartz in the surface samples from the major Asian deserts, such as the Taklimakan Desert and Gobi Desert in southern Mongolia (hereafter Mongolian Gobi). CL spectra were measured in the areas of approximately 4 micron square for each quartz grain by a Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) at the Okayama University of Science, a SEM (Jeol: JSM-5410) attached with a grating monochromator (Oxford Instruments: Mono CL2), where EDS system can be used in combination with SEM

  18. Cathodoluminescence mapping - optimising collection conditions and examples of applications to minerals and mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A Cathodoluminescence (CL) system has been developed at CSIRO Minerals that allows the simultaneous collection of X-ray, backscatter and multi-channel CL data on a JEOL 8900/8200 microprobe. This system offers significant benefits over traditional CL, X-ray and BSE techniques in that direct comparison with the elemental concentrations at the same pixel or over the same region is now possible. The CL signal is collected from a monocular eye-piece which is integrated into the electron optics on the electron microprobe. From here it is fed via a fibre optic to a grating spectrometer with a 2048-element linear charge-coupled device (CCD)-array. The CCD array is connected to a PCI A/D card in a PC. The PC also contains a digital I/O card that is connected to the microprobe to synchronise the CL capture with the X-ray capture. This paper looks at the various modifications we have made in order to improve the capturing and processing of the CL data. One of the first improvements we made was to fit a cooling device to stabilise the temperature of the CCD. Spectra acquired from a CCD has a 'dark noise' background which is dependent upon temperature, and CL maps acquired without the cooling device can show subtle variations in room temperature which lead to background banding or artefacts in the image. The removal of background drift due to thermal instability has enabled us to implement automatic background subtraction at every pixel. This has significantly improved peak to background ratios and enabled more subtle chemical and structural modifications within the CL image to be seen. We have also made a modification to allow the collection of CL maps in beam scan mode, as well as stage scan mode. Cathodoluminescence can offer very high spatial resolution; at low voltages resolutions of down to 20 nm have been recently achieved. Depending upon the region of interest, one can now select pixel sizes on this system down to 50 nm. When performing beam maps on larger

  19. Cathodoluminescence and green-thermoluminescence response of CaSO4:Dy,P films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein report on the cathodoluminescence (CL) and green-thermoluminescence (TL) emission of CaSO4:Dy,P films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures. The samples have been previously structurally and chemically characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The CL spectra show (i) a broad emission band centered at 374 nm that corresponds to the intrinsic emission of (SO4)2− and (ii) emission bands centered on 486, 574, 668, 758 nm assigned to the electronic transitions of the Dy3+ ions. The TL glow curves of the films showed three groups of components peaked at around of 98, 152 and 300 °C that exhibit a gradual and progressively linear shifting of the Tmax as function of Tstop. This TL behavior is related to a continuum in the trap distribution associated with general or multi-order kinetics and involving continuous processes of trapping–detrapping. The activation energy in the range of 0.97–1.53 eV has been estimated using the initial rise method. - Highlights: ► The CaSO4:Dy,P films were prepared by using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. ► Luminescence spectra of the CaSO4:Dy,P films display the emission bands of the ions (SO4)2− and Dy3+. ► The CaSO4:Dy,P films were irradiated with a 90Sr/90Y beta source. ► The TL intensity of the films depends on the temperature of deposit.

  20. The preparation and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► ZnS nanowires have been achieved by thermal evaporation. ► The nanowires were 20–50 nm in diameter and up to tens of nanometers in length. ► Single-crystalline wurtzite and sphalerite ZnS phase are coexist in the nanowires. ► The ZnS nanowires showed almost identical blue luminescence at room temperature. ► ZnS nanowires may be appropriate for use in UV/blue LED phosphor materials. - Abstract: Single crystal ZnS nanowires were successfully synthesized in large quantities on Si (1 0 0) substrates by simple thermal chemical vapor deposition without using any catalyst. The morphology, composition, and crystal structure were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. SEM observations show that the nanowires have diameters about 20–50 nm and lengths up to several tens of micrometers. XRD and TEM results confirmed that the nanowires exhibited both wurtzite and zinc blende structures with growth directions aligned along [0 0 0 2] and [1 1 1], respectively. The CL spectrum revealed emission bands in the UV and blue regions. The blue emissions at 449 and ∼581 nm were attributed to surface states and impurity-related defects of the nanowires, respectively. The perfect crystal structure of the nanowires indicates their potential applications in nanotechnology and in the fabrication of nanodevices.

  1. Cathodoluminescence and green-thermoluminescence response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Lopez, J., E-mail: holand_jeos@hotmail.com [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, D.F. 11500, Mexico, CIEMAT, Av., Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av., Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rivera, T.; Lozano, I.B. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, D.F. 11500 (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    We herein report on the cathodoluminescence (CL) and green-thermoluminescence (TL) emission of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures. The samples have been previously structurally and chemically characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The CL spectra show (i) a broad emission band centered at 374 nm that corresponds to the intrinsic emission of (SO{sub 4}){sup 2-} and (ii) emission bands centered on 486, 574, 668, 758 nm assigned to the electronic transitions of the Dy{sup 3+} ions. The TL glow curves of the films showed three groups of components peaked at around of 98, 152 and 300 Degree-Sign C that exhibit a gradual and progressively linear shifting of the T{sub max} as function of T{sub stop}. This TL behavior is related to a continuum in the trap distribution associated with general or multi-order kinetics and involving continuous processes of trapping-detrapping. The activation energy in the range of 0.97-1.53 eV has been estimated using the initial rise method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CaSO{sup 4}:Dy,P films were prepared by using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence spectra of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films display the emission bands of the ions (SO{sub 4}){sup 2-} and Dy{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films were irradiated with a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TL intensity of the films depends on the temperature of deposit.

  2. Red, green and blue low-voltage cathodoluminescence of rare-earth doped BaWO{sub 4} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H L; Wang, Z L [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Hao, J H, E-mail: apjhhao@polyu.edu.hk

    2009-02-01

    Spherical phosphors BaWO{sub 4} doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu, Tb, Tm) were prepared by the polyol method. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy. The as-prepared BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors processed as low as 160 {sup 0}C show mono-dispersive and highly crystalline nanostructure. The optical characteristics of the phosphors were investigated using low-voltage cathodoluminescence. Efficient energy transfer between the host and RE ions were revealed in the spectra. Red, green and blue cathodoluminescence were observed corresponding to sharp dominant emission peaks located at 616 nm, 545 nm and 473 nm for Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} doped phosphors, respectively. Those peaks are attributed to the characteristic emission from Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} - {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions), Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 3} - {sup 7}F{sub J} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} - {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions) and Tm{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2} - {sup 3}F{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} - {sup 3}H{sub 4} transitions) under low-voltage ({<=}5 kV) excitation of electron beam. Luminescent intensities in the annealed BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors were significantly enhanced. The characteristics of the phosphors are investigated in terms of luminance, chromaticity and color purity. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the low-voltage cathodoluminescence of BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors are discussed.

  3. Cathodoluminescence microscopy of superconducting and non-superconducting Tl2Ba2CuO6+x polycrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guerra, C.; Piqueras, J.; Opagiste, Christine

    1996-01-01

    International audience Luminescence properties of Tl2Ba2CuO6+x samples with different superconducting transition temperatures have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. Independent of the crystal structure, tetragonal or orthorhombic, the CL spectra show two resolved bands at about 430 nm (2.9 eV) and 540 nm (2.3 eV), respectively. The results show that the 2.3 eV emission is related to oxygen content and is more intense in low-oxygen content superco...

  4. In-situ optical transmission electron microscope study of exciton phonon replicas in ZnO nanowires by cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cathodoluminescence spectrum of single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires is measured by in-situ optical Transmission Electron Microscope. The coupling between exciton and longitudinal optical phonon is studied. The band edge emission varies for different excitation spots. This effect is attributed to the exciton propagation along the c axis of the nanowire. Contrary to free exciton emission, the phonon replicas are well confined in ZnO nanowire. They travel along the c axis and emit at the end surface. Bending strain increases the relative intensity of second order phonon replicas when excitons travel along the c-axis.

  5. Comparison of thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (ESEM-CL) properties between hydrothermal and metamorphic quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaksu, M., E-mail: mtopaksu@adiyaman.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Topak, Y. [Adiyaman University, Vocational High School, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Goeksu, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    This paper reports on the Thermoluminescence (TL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky quartz specimens from Hakkari in Turkey, labeled THQ, and Madrid in Spain, labeled SHQ, and metamorphic quartz from Madrid, in Spain, labeled SMQ. Both hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples display similar UV-IR CL spectra consisting of five groups of components centered at 330 nm and 380 nm linked to [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers, 420 nm due to intrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and impurities which modify the crystal structure, 480 nm associated with [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers of substitutional Al{sup 3+}, and a red broad band related to the hydroxyl defects in the quartz lattice as precursors of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) and substitutional point defects. The Turkish quartz specimen exhibits higher CL intensity in the UV region (up to 330 nm) than the Spanish specimens probably linked to the presence of Ca (0.95% in THQ and less than 0.1% in SHQ and SMQ). At wavelengths greater than 330 nm, SMQ (formed at high pressure 6000 bars and temperatures over 500-600 Degree-Sign C) shows higher intensity than the hydrothermal (growth at 2000 bars and temperatures 200-300 Degree-Sign C) samples associated with the formation process. The natural blue TL glow curves of both THQ and SHQ display a weaker TL intensity than the SMQ, attributable to the Al (0.32%), Ti (0.14%), K (0.01%) and Zr (76 ppm) content. It is shown that mineralogical formation, crystallinity index and the content of the impurities seem to be the main parameters of influence in the shape intensity of the CL and TL glow curve emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported on the TL and CL emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky and metamorphic quartz specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples displayed similar UV-IR CL spectra. Black

  6. Chondrule Rims in Murchison, Cathodoluminescence Evidence for In Situ Formation by Aqueous Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Jie, Lu; Benoit, P. H.

    1992-07-01

    The fine-grained rims on ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite chondrules are often regarded as accretionary, mainly because they are often volatile-rich (King and King, 1981). However, Sears et al. (1991) recently argued that some chondrule rims in CM chondrites may be the result of aqueous alteration. The rims, like many features in primitive chondrites, stand out especially clearly in cathodoluminescence (CL) imagery due to the distinctive bright red CL of their abundant fine-grained forsterite. Chondrules similarly stand out well in CL images. Group A chondrules show the strong red CL of Fe-free olivine, sometimes associated with the bright yellow CL of anorthite- normative mesostases, while group B chondrules containing Fe-rich olivines and quartz-normative mesostases do not produce CL (Sears et al., 1992). Using a CL mosaic, we measured chondrule and rim diameters for every chondrule in a 17x10 mm section of Murchison. 38% of the chondrules were group A, compared with 46% in the Semarkona (LL3.0) and 61% in the Dhajala (H3.8) ordinary chondrites. While both group A and group B chondrules have rims, those on group A chondrules are significantly thicker than those on group B chondrules, the rim-to-diameter ratios being 0.2-0.5 for group A chondrules and 0.1-0.2 for group B chondrules (Fig. 1). There are two reasonable explanations for the relationship between rim thickness and chondrule group. Either (1) the composition of chondrule mainly determines the thickness of the rim, e.g., the rims were produced by the aqueous alteration of the host chondrule, or (2) the two chondrule groups were formed in different environments, say a very dusty locale favoring thick rims versus a less favorable relatively dust-free location. We note that (a) both types of chondrule coexist in the same rock, (b) CL textures at the rim/matrix are sharp while at the rim/chondrule interface they are irregular (see Fig. 7d,e in Sears et al., 1991), (c) all faces on the objects in Murchison

  7. Blue Cathodoluminescence from Highly Er-Doped ZnO Thin Films Induced by the Phonon Bottleneck Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜田; 刘益春; 马剑刚; 吕有明; 申德振; 许武; 钟国柱; 范希武

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature blue cathodoluminescence (CL) from highly Er-doped ZnO thin films has been studied by using different electron beam currents (EBCs). The ZnO:Er thin films used in our experiment were prepared by simultaneous evaporation from two sources. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the thin films have a strong preferential c-axis (0002) orientation with a hexagonal crystalline structure. The blue emission at 455 nm originating from the intra-4 f shell transition (4F5/2.4I15/2) in Er3+ ions was observed at room temperature. The nonlinear dependence of the CL intensity on the EBC shows a more intense blue emission above the threshold EBC of 0. 6 μA, which is attributed to the phonon bottleneck effect.

  8. The origin of yellow band emission and cathodoluminescence of Au-catalyzed wurtzite GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. S.; Jiao, J. F.; Wu, X.

    2016-06-01

    GaN nanowires with large yield are directly synthesized by simply ammoniating the gallium oxide powders in the presence of ammonia gas at 1000 °C, under the assistance of Au nanocatalysts. The microstructure and crystallinity of as-synthesized GaN nanowires are well studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and some structural defects such as stacking faults are found in the GaN nano-crystal. Cathodoluminescence measurement shows that a strong near-band-edge (NBE) emission band centered at 384 nm and a broad yellow band in the range of 500-800 nm are observed. Finally, the growth mechanism and possible optical emission process of GaN nanowires are discussed.

  9. Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence in the Vicinity of Defects in the High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Blue Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh-Ha Doan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the standard 447 nm blue emission from the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, a high-energy shoulder is clearly observed in cathodoluminescence spectra of the high-efficiency InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Monochromatic cathodoluminescence images of the samples measured at low temperature reveal a competition between the two emissions in the vicinity of the dislocations. The high-energy emission is dominant at the regions near the dislocation cores, while the blue emission is enhanced around the dislocation edges. The high-energy emission region is considered as a potential barrier that prevents the carriers for the blue emission from nonradiatively recombining at the dislocations.

  10. Multi-stage emplacement of the Götemar Pluton, SE Sweden: new evidence inferred from field observations and microfabric analysis, including cathodoluminescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Friese, Nadine; Vollbrecht, Axel; Tanner, David; Fahlbusch, Wiebke; Weidemann, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    The emplacement of the Mesoproterozoic Götemar Pluton into Paleoproterozoic granitoid host rocks of the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt is re-examined by microfabric analysis, including cathodoluminescence microscopy. Field data on the pluton-host rock system are used to strengthen the model. The Götemar Pluton, situated on the Baltic Shield of SE Sweden, is a horizontally zoned tabular structure that was constructed by the intrusion of successive pulses of magma with different crystal/melt ra...

  11. Cathodoluminescence, laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis and electron paramagnetic resonance analyses of natural sphalerite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, M.; Hagni, R.D.; Koenig, A.; Ciftc, E.

    2008-01-01

    Natural sphalerite associated with copper, silver, lead-zinc, tin and tungsten deposits from various world-famous mineral deposits have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL), laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the relationship between trace element type and content and the CL properties of sphalerite. In general, sphalerite produces a spectrum of CL colour under electron bombardment that includes deep blue, turquoise, lime green, yellow-orange, orange-red and dull dark red depending on the type and concentration of trace quantities of activator ions. Sphalerite from most deposits shows a bright yellow-orange CL colour with ??max centred at 585 nm due to Mn2+ ion, and the intensity of CL is strongly dependent primarily on Fe2+ concentration. The blue emission band with ??max centred at 470-490 nm correlates with Ga and Ag at the Tsumeb, Horn Silver, Balmat and Kankoy mines. Colloform sphalerite from older well-known European lead-zinc deposits and late Cretaceous Kuroko-type VMS deposits of Turkey shows intense yellowish CL colour and their CL spectra are characterised by extremely broad emission bands ranging from 450 to 750 nm. These samples are characterised by low Mn (<10 ppm) and Ag (<1 ppm), and they are enriched in Tl (1-30 ppm) and Pb (80-1500 ppm). Strong green CL is produced by sphalerite from the Balmat-Edwards district. Amber, lime-green and red-orange sphalerite produced weak orange-red CL at room temperatures, with several emission bands centred at 490, 580, 630, 680, 745, with ??max at 630 nm being the strongest. These emission bands are well correlated with trace quantities of Sn, In, Cu and Mn activators. Sphalerite from the famous Ogdensburg and Franklin mines exhibited brilliant deep blue and orange CL colours and the blue CL may be related to Se. Cathodoluminescence behaviour of sphalerite serves to characterise ore

  12. Cathodoluminescence Phenomena of Treated Rubies%优化处理红宝石的阴极发光特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬敬

    2012-01-01

    使用阴极发光仪对热处理红宝石、染色处理红宝石、充填处理红宝石样品进行发光现象观察,并与天然红宝石、合成红宝石的阴极发光现象对比,得知优化红宝石的阴极发光现象与天然红宝石相近,而处理红宝石的发光强度比天然红宝石及合成红宝石要弱,但处理特征在阴极发光仪下清晰可见.%In this paper,experiments were made on series of rubies with the help of cathodoluminescence instrument;and luminous phenomena of heat-treated ruby,dyed ruby ,and filling processing ruby samples were discussed. Conclusions are drawn that luminous phenomenon of enhancing rubies is similar to that of natural rubies, yet luminous intensity of treated rubies is poorer than that of natural and synthetic rubies.

  13. Quantitative Determination of Grain Boundary Recombination Velocity in CdTe by Combination of Cathodoluminescence Measurements and Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanevce, Ana; Moseley, John; Kuciauskas, Darius; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    We developed a 2D numerical model simulating cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in CdTe. Using this model we analyze how various material parameters impact the CL contrast and intensity observed in the measured signal, and determine if and when we can accurately determine the value of grain boundary recombination rate. In addition to grain boundary (GB) recombination, the grain size and its ratio to the carrier diffusion length impact the results of the measurement. Holding the grain interior and GB recombination rates constant, we find that as the grain size increases and becomes larger than the diffusion length, the observed CL contrast is larger. In a small grain size material the surface recombination lowers the overall intensity of the signal, but does not impact the observed contrast significantly. In a large grain size material, high surface recombination velocity can lower the observed contrast in a measurement. This model in combination with an experiment is used to quantify the grain boundary recombination velocity in polycrystalline CdTe before and after the CdCl2 treatment.

  14. Trace elements and cathodoluminescence of detrital quartz in Arctic marine sediments – a new ice-rafted debris provenance proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The records of ice-rafted debris (IRD provenance in the North Atlantic – Barents Sea allow the reconstruction of the spatial and temporal changes of ice-flow drainage patterns during glacial and deglacial periods. In this study a new approach to characterisation of the provenance of detrital quartz grains in the fraction > 500 μm of marine sediments offshore of Spitsbergen is introduced, utilizing scanning electron microscope backscattered electron and cathodoluminescence (CL imaging, combined with laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Based on their micro-inclusions, CL and trace element characteristics the investigated IRD grains can be classified into five distinct populations. Three of the populations are indicative of potential IRD provenance provinces in the Storfjord area including Barentsøya and Egdeøya. The results imply that under modern (interglacial conditions IRD deposition along the western Spitsbergen margin is mainly governed by the East Svalbard Current controlling the ice-drift pattern. The presence of detrital quartz from local provinces, however, indicates that variations in IRD supply from western Spitsbergen may be quantified as well. In this pilot study it is demonstrated that this new approach applied on Arctic continental margin sediments, bears a considerable potential for the definition of the sources of IRD and thus of spatial/temporal changes in ice-flow drainage patterns during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  15. Cathodoluminescence degradation of SiO2:Ce,Tb powder phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the CL intensity degradation of SiO2:Cb,Tb powder phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process. The AES and the CL data were collected simultaneously when the powders were bombarded for 10 h with a beam of electrons of current density of 54 mA/cm2, accelerated by 2 kV in a vacuum chamber containing either 1x10-8 or 1x10-7 Torr O2. A decrease of CL intensity was simultaneous with desorption of oxygen (O) from the surface, i.e., there is a correlation between the degradation of CL intensity and desorption of O. The AES and the XPS data suggest that a nonluminescent oxygen-deficient layer of SiOx (x<2) that could decrease the CL intensity was formed on the surface. Mechanisms by which oxygen desorption leads to a reduction of the CL intensity are discussed

  16. Cathodoluminescence property of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in plasma circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) with energy-controlled electron beams was used to study the inner structure of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated by YAG laser ablation under oxygen gas and oxygen plasma circumstances. Varying accelerating voltages of electron beams from 1.0 to 3.0 kV, it was clearly seen that the CL spectrum in the case of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated under the oxygen gas background changed from a broad one centered at approximately 500 nm to a narrow one peaked at 380∼400 nm. This result indicates that there is an oxygen vacancy-rich shell in the surface area and a fine crystalline ZnO structure in the inner core region. Under the oxygen plasma circumstance at 500 Pa, however, we found that there is a crystalline structure in the surface layer of ZnO nano-phosphors due to the sufficient supply of oxygen ions and atoms and suppression of the formation of oxygen vacancy.

  17. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  18. Signatures of Fano interferences in the electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence of symmetry-broken nanorod dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Nicholas W; Vaschillo, Alex; Camden, Jon P; Masiello, David J

    2013-05-28

    Through numerical simulation, we predict the existence of the Fano interference effect in the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) of symmetry-broken nanorod dimers that are heterogeneous in material composition and asymmetric in length. The differing selection rules of the electron probe in comparison to the photon of a plane wave allow for the simultaneous excitation of both optically bright and dark plasmons of each monomer unit, suggesting that Fano resonances will not arise in EELS and CL. Yet, interferences are manifested in the dimer's scattered near- and far-fields and are evident in EELS and CL due to the rapid π-phase offset in the polarizations between super-radiant and subradiant hybridized plasmon modes of the dimer as a function of the energy loss suffered by the impinging electron. Depending upon the location of the electron beam, we demonstrate the conditions under which Fano interferences will be present in both optical and electron spectroscopies (EELS and CL) as well as a new class of Fano interferences that are uniquely electron-driven and are absent in the optical response. Among other things, the knowledge gained from this work bears impact upon the design of some of the world's most sensitive sensors, which are currently based upon Fano resonances. PMID:23594310

  19. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Friis, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic studies showed that the silica cementation occurred in five successive phases which can be distinguished by their luminescence pattern. The precipitations of two phases have predated the major compaction process while the other phases are younger. The successive phases represent a sequence of changes in silica supply which were classified as very early and early, derived from dissolved biogenic silica that precipitated as opal/microquartz, possibly pre-compactional and of non-luminescent quartz overgrowth type. This was followed by phases whose silica supply derived from pressure solution of quartz, dissolution of feldspar, and hydrothermal fluids related to major thrust fault event. These successive quartz cement phases showed an increase in luminescence and the development of complicated zonation pattern in late-stage quartz cementation.

  20. Carbonate cements and grains in submarine fan sandstones—the Cergowa Beds (Oligocene, Carpathians of Poland) recorded by cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszonka, Joanna; Wendorff, Marek

    2016-03-01

    The cathodoluminescence (CL) observations with cold cathode, supplemented by reconnaissance scanning electron microscope analyses, bring new data on petrology, provenance and diagenesis of the Oligocene-age Cergowa sandstones from the Outer Carpathians (SE Poland). The sandstones represent a variety of mass gravity flow sediments deposited on a submarine fan, which now forms a lenticular lithosome—a part of the Menilite Beds-Krosno Beds suite important for the hydrocarbons industry. The most common components of the Cergowa sandstones observed under the CL are carbonates—cement and grains that are mainly represented by lithoclasts. Carbonate cement is represented by five generations: brown (Cb), orange (Co), yellow (Cy), zoned (Cz) and black (Ck). Pore-filling Cb and Co calcite cements are interpreted as genetically related to eo- and mesodiagenetic phases. The mesodiagenetic phase is characterised by randomly distributed relatively large monocrystalline-zoned rhombs of dolomite cement (Cz) and ankerite/ferroan dolomite (Ck). The telodiagenetic phase is represented by pore-filling yellow calcite (Cy) that crystallised under the influence of suboxic meteoric waters. Lithoclasts represent six microfacies of carbonate rocks eroded in the source area, i.e. microbreccia, tectonised immature calcarenite/wacke, microsparite, sparite, biomicrosparite/packstone and dolostone. Pronounced indentations of terrigenous sand grains into intraclasts of packstone/biomicrosparite, coupled with commonly present similar packstone-type matrix, suggest that a significant part of matrix resulted from compaction of soft biomicrosparite grains. Terrigenous grains bound by calcite cement are commonly corroded by acidic diagenetic fluids, and partial or even complete replacement of silicates by calcite and clay minerals is illustrated here by feldspar grains. Substantial carbonate cementation has resulted in both the significant hardness and abrasion resistance of the Cergowa sandstones

  1. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li being the most abundant of the three. In most samples, Al is more abundant than the combined total of the monovalent cations; however, in the MVT sample, molar Al/Li ratios are ~0.8. Antimony is present in concentrations up to ~120 ppm in epithermal quartz (~200–300 °C), but is not detectable in MVT, Carlin, or porphyry-Cu quartz. Concentrations of Sb do not correlate consistently with those of other trace elements or with CL textures. Titanium is only abundant enough to be mapped in quartz from porphyry-type ore deposits that precipitate at temperatures above ~400 °C. In such quartz, Ti concentration correlates positively with CL intensity, suggesting a causative relationship. In contrast, in quartz from other deposit types, there is no consistent correlation between concentrations of any trace element and CL intensity fluctuations.

  2. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence of Tb-doped Al2O3-ZrO2 nanostructures obtained by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terbium-doped Al2O3-ZrO2 mixed oxides of 10 wt% zirconia content were prepared by the alkoxide sol-gel method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, thermal analysis, textural and TPR studies. The effect of thermal treatment of Tb-doped Al2O3-ZrO2 samples on photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra was investigated. It was found that the photoluminescence spectrum induced by UV excitation was characterized by a green luminescence pattern arising from the 5D4 → 7FJ (J=6-0) transitions of the Tb3+ ion. This photoluminescence became almost completely damped for the samples sintered at 1200 deg. C. However, these samples have demonstrated an intense cathodoluminescence under high electron accelerating potential (60 kV). Moreover, it was observed that apart of the green luminescence, the blue emission lines arising from 5D3 → 7FJ transitions of Tb3+ were observed. The nature of such behavior is discussed

  3. Investigation of the recombination dynamics in low In-content InGaN MQWs by means of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a detailed optical characterization of InGaN-based multiple QWs performed by combining time-resolved and time-integrated photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence techniques. The experimental results are well reproduced in the framework of a theoretical model where a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger-Poisson equations is coupled to a rate equation model to account for time-dependent effects of charge re-arrangement to determine the electronic states in the nanostructure. The theoretical model is demonstrated to describe in a common scenario either time-integrated and time dependent photoluminescence and finally cathodoluminescence, for samples having different well widths (i.e. different internal polarization fields). We demonstrate that, provided the correct material parameters of the InGaN/GaN alloys are considered in the model, including the bowing of the polarization fields and gap, the same theoretical approach previously reported for AlGaN/GaN systems applies. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Temperature and vacuum ambient effects on the cathodoluminescent degradation of sulfide-based thin film and powder phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Billie Lynn

    Changes in the cathodoluminescent (CL) brightness, surface chemistry and morphology of SiO2-coated and uncoated ZnS:Ag,Cl powder, and ZnS:Mn thin films have been investigated using scanning Auger electron spectrometry (AES), optical spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water partial pressure, surface coatings and temperature were controlled as parameters critical to degradation. In the case of an oxidizing ambient (i.e., high water partial pressure) a non-luminescent oxide layer formed on all materials. In the case of a reducing ambient (i.e., low water and high hydrogen) hydrogen removes S as H2S, leaving elemental Zn which evaporates due to its high vapor pressure. In the case of SiO2-coated ZnS:Ag,Cl, morphological changes were observed on the surface after extended electron beam exposure. This erosion of ZnS is more rapid at higher power densities. Uncoated ZnS:Ag,Cl phosphors exhibited no change in the surface morphology. The SEM images of SiO-coated samples after degradation and reaction rate data suggest that the SiO 2 particles acted as a catalyst for CL and morphological degradation. Temperature effects on degradation were isolated by measuring thermal quenching behavior. Upon heating, the CL intensity decreased, the spectral shape changed and shifted to higher wavelengths. This shift was attributed to band gap narrowing and copper contamination. Full recovery of the CL occurred upon cooling. Evaporation of Zn and degradation of ZnS is accelerated by elevated temperatures caused by electron beam heating. CL loss at high temperatures with constant electron beam exposure was less than that at RT for the same coulombic dose. This supports the predictions of the ESSCR model that elevated temperatures causes a decrease in the residence time of physisorbed species, reducing the rate of surface reactions. After elevated temperature degradation, morphological erosion occurred for uncoated ZnS. At the combined temperature due to electron beam

  5. Cathodoluminescence characterization of quartz grains from the Upper Cretaceous of dinosaur fossil localities in the Gobi desert, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, M.; Nishido, H.; Masuda, R.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Chinzorig, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous eolian sediments in Mongolia's Gobi desert are one of the most important occurrences of the dinosaurs in the world. Large numbers of confiscated dinosaur fossils illegally worked out by poachers has been stored in the Mongolian Paleontological Center at Ulaanbaatar. In most cases, their localities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify their localities by cathodoluminescence (CL) features of quartz grains attached to the dinosaur specimens by comparing to the quartz samples collected from the sediments of circumjacent resources in this area. This study focuses on the confiscated specimen which makes up the nest with the babies' Protoceratops. Most of all Protoceratops in every growth process, have been discovered from the Djadokhta Formation in the Gobi desert. This formation crops out at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak in the central part of the Gobi desert, and is derived from medium- to fine-grained sand mainly composed of quartz grains, of which sedimentary environments should be obvious to be eolian. The formation age of the sand beds at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak has been estimated to be Middle Campanian. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different features between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins, suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Therefore, we have applied the CL characterization of quartz grains to the evaluation of the provenance of the desert sediments. The quartz grains after sieving (#60-80 mesh size) were embedded in the brass holders with non-luminescent epoxy resin, and their surfaces were polished with 1 μm diamond abrasive. Color CL images obtained by the Luminoscope exhibit blue, violet and red emissions in the grains, suggesting various types of emission centers in the quartz. SEM-CL analysis was conducted using an SEM (JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Mono CL2) to measure

  6. Cathodoluminescence spectra measurement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr; Autrata, Rudolf

    Brno : Ústav přístrojové techniky Akademie věd České republiky, 2002 - (Frank, L.), s. 67 - 70 ISBN 80-238-8986-9. [Recent trends in charged particle optics and surface physics instrumentation. Skalský dvůr (CZ), 08.07.2002-12.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2065107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : cathodoluminscent (CL) properties Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. Spatially correlated structural and optical characterization of a single InGaAs quantum well fin selectively grown on Si by microscopy and cathodoluminescence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S.; Roque, J.; Rochat, N.; Bernier, N.; Piot, L.; Alcotte, R.; Cerba, T.; Martin, M.; Moeyaert, J.; Bogumilowizc, Y.; Arnaud, S.; Bertin, F.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.

    2016-05-01

    Structural and optical properties of InGaAs quantum well fins (QWFs) selectively grown on Si using the aspect ratio trapping (ART) method in 200 nm deep SiO2 trenches are studied. A new method combining cathodoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and precession electron diffraction techniques is developed to spatially correlate the presence of defects and/or strain with the light emission properties of a single InGaAs QWF. Luminescence losses and energy shifts observed at the nanoscale along InGaAs QWF are correlated with structural defects. We show that strain distortions measured around threading dislocations delimit both high and low luminescent areas. We also show that trapped dislocations on SiO2 sidewalls can also result in additional distortions. Both behaviors affect optical properties of QWF at the nanoscale. Our study highlights the need to improve the ART growth method to allow integration of new efficient III-V optoelectronic components on Si.

  8. Bias dependence and correlation of the cathodoluminescence and electron beam induced current from an InGaN/GaN light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micron-scale mapping has been employed to study a contacted InGaN/GaN LED using combined electroluminescence (EL), cathodoluminescence (CL), and electron beam induced current (EBIC). Correlations between parameters, such as the EBIC and CL intensity, were studied as a function of applied bias. The CL and EBIC maps reveal small areas, 2–10 μm in size, which have increased nonradiative recombination rate and/or a lower conductivity. The CL emission from these spots is blue shifted, by 30–40 meV. Increasing the reverse bias causes the size of the spots to decrease, due to competition between in-plane diffusion and drift in the growth direction. EL mapping shows large bright areas (∼100 μm) which also have increased EBIC, indicating domains of increased conductivity in the p and/or n-GaN.

  9. Cathodoluminescence study of radiative interface defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, Yuta; Chanthaphan, Atthawut; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji, E-mail: watanabe@mls.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-06-29

    Radiative defects in thermally grown SiO{sub 2}/4H-SiC(0001) structures and their location in depth were investigated by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that while luminescence peaks ascribed to oxygen vacancy and nonbridging oxygen hole centers were observed both from thermal oxides grown on (0001) Si-face and C-face surfaces as with thermal oxides on Si, intense yellow luminescence at a wavelength of around 600 nm was identified only from the oxide interface on the Si-face substrate regardless of the oxide thickness and dopant type. Possible physical origins of the radiative centers localized near an oxide interface of a few nm thick are discussed on the basis of visible light emission from Si backbone structures.

  10. Cathodoluminescence characterization of [11 anti 20]-oriented InGaN/GaN thin films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization of nonpolar [11 anti 20]-oriented InGaN/GaN thin films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The epitaxial GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates frequently show facet surface morphology. The CL peak wavelength and local indium composition of InGaN grown on them were gradually varied with the probed position from the facet summit to valley. In a-plane InGaN, the facet summit was In-rich area while the valley was In-poor area. This is due to the material transport issue during epitaxial growth. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Direct evidence of single quantum dot emission from GaN islands formed at threading dislocations using nanoscale cathodoluminescence: A source of single photons in the ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense emission from GaN islands embedded in AlN resulting from GaN/AlN quantum well growth is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Line widths down to 440 μeV are measured in a wavelength region between 220 and 310 nm confirming quantum dot like electronic properties in the islands. These quantum dot states can be structurally correlated to islands of slightly enlarged thicknesses of the GaN/AlN quantum well layer preferentially formed in vicinity to dislocations. The quantum dot states exhibit single photon emission in Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments with a clear antibunching in the second order correlation function at zero time delay

  12. Core-shell InGaN/GaN nanowire light emitting diodes analyzed by electron beam induced current microscopy and cathodoluminescence mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernycheva, M.; Neplokh, V.; Zhang, H.; Lavenus, P.; Rigutti, L.; Bayle, F.; Julien, F. H.; Babichev, A.; Jacopin, G.; Largeau, L.; Ciechonski, R.; Vescovi, G.; Kryliouk, O.

    2015-07-01

    We report on the electron beam induced current (EBIC) microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization correlated with compositional analysis of light emitting diodes based on core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays. The EBIC mapping of cleaved fully operational devices allows to probe the electrical properties of the active region with a nanoscale resolution. In particular, the electrical activity of the p-n junction on the m-planes and on the semi-polar planes of individual nanowires is assessed in top view and cross-sectional geometries. The EBIC maps combined with CL characterization demonstrate the impact of the compositional gradients along the wire axis on the electrical and optical signals: the reduction of the EBIC signal toward the nanowire top is accompanied by an increase of the CL intensity. This effect is interpreted as a consequence of the In and Al gradients in the quantum well and in the electron blocking layer, which influence the carrier extraction efficiency. The interface between the nanowire core and the radially grown layer is shown to produce in some cases a transitory EBIC signal. This observation is explained by the presence of charged traps at this interface, which can be saturated by electron irradiation.We report on the electron beam induced current (EBIC) microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization correlated with compositional analysis of light emitting diodes based on core/shell InGaN/GaN nanowire arrays. The EBIC mapping of cleaved fully operational devices allows to probe the electrical properties of the active region with a nanoscale resolution. In particular, the electrical activity of the p-n junction on the m-planes and on the semi-polar planes of individual nanowires is assessed in top view and cross-sectional geometries. The EBIC maps combined with CL characterization demonstrate the impact of the compositional gradients along the wire axis on the electrical and optical signals: the reduction of the EBIC

  13. Investigations on the low voltage cathodoluminescence stability and surface chemical behaviour using Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on LiSrBO3:Sm3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Stable orange-red cathodoluminescence observed from LiSrBO3:Sm3+ phosphor. → In situ Auger electron spectroscopy, while monitoring the CL output reduction, reveals surface concentration modification of Li, Sr, B and O atoms. → X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of SrO2 layer due to the electron stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs). This layer is possibly contributing to the surface chemical stability and prevents further degradation. -- Abstract: Orange-red emissive LiSrBO3:Sm3+ phosphors were synthesized through the solid-state reaction method. Under UV radiation (221 nm) and low-voltage electron beam (2 keV, 12 mA/cm2) excitation, the Sm3+ doped LiSrBO3 phosphor shows emission corresponding to the characteristic 4G5/2-6H7/2 transitions of Sm3+ with the strongest emission at 601 nm. A high stability of cathodoluminescence (CL) emission during prolong electron bombardment with low-energy electrons was observed. Surface sensitive diagnostic tools such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the surface chemistry. AES results revealed modifications in the surface concentrations of Li, Sr, B, O and C on the surface of the LiSrBO3:Sm3+ phosphor as indicated by the changes in their Auger peak to peak heights (APPH) as a function of electron dose. Observed changes in the high resolution XPS spectra of the LiSrBO3:Sm3+ surface irradiated with the low energy electron beam provide evidence of compositional and structural changes as a result of the electron beam stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs). Additional SrO2 was identified by XPS on the phosphor surface after it received an electron dose of 300 C/cm2 together with the increase in the concentrations of chemical species containing the B-C-O bonding. The new surface chemical species formed during electron beam bombardment are possibly responsible for the stability of the CL in the LiSrBO3:Sm3+ phosphor.

  14. Microscopic correlation of real structure and recombination kinetics in semipolar InGaN SQW using spatio-time-resolved cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly spatially, spectrally and time-resolved cathodoluminescence microscopy of an InGaN SQW grown on semipolar facets of 3D inverse pyramids formed by MOVPE on hexagonally masked c-plane GaN is presented. The spectra mapping of the SQW exhibits an emission at λ=400 nm at the center of the inverted pyramids and λ=530 nm at the hexagonal ridge. For a correlation with the recombination kinetics the same sample area was investigated by time-resolved CL using an electrostatic beam-blanking that switches ''on'' the electron beam, keeps it ''on'' for a selected time and turns it ''off'' extremely fast allowing a transient mapping in single-photon-counting mode. This gives the opportunity to evaluate time-delayed intensity images in order to generate an initial lifetime map by a digital box-car method. So, the high energy emission at the center exhibits initial lifetimes of τ=200 ps whereas the low energy emission at the ridge developes nearly two orders of magnitude more slowly in time (τ>13 ns). For different positions along a facet time-delayed spectra were recorded to study the spectral and temporal characteristics of the InGaN SQW observing the impact of localization and polarization fields.

  15. Nanometer scale correlation of optical and structural properties of individual InGaN/GaN nanorods by scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potential benefit of nanorods as light emitters, aside from their very high crystal quality, relies on better light extraction efficiency as compared to thin films, because of the high surface to volume ratio. In this study we present a direct nano-scale correlation of the optical properties with the actual crystalline structure of ordered InGaN/GaN nanorods using low temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL). Direct comparison of the high-angle annular dark field image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic CL mapping at 15 K reveals a weak luminescence from the bottom GaN layer. We observe the highest CL intensity in the middle of the InGaN region. The spectral position of the InGaN emission shifts continuously red from the GaN/InGaN interface (λ=409 nm) to the NR top (λ=446 nm) due to lattice pulling effects and InGaN partial decomposition. Additionally, optical active basal stacking faults in the GaN layer emitting at 366 nm can be found.

  16. The origin of bimodal luminescence of β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors as revealed by fluorescence microscopy and cathodoluminescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mao, Zhi-Yong [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zeng, Xiong-Hui [Electron Microscope Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Yu-Qiang [The Research Center of Structural Ceramic Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Yang [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xu, Fang-Fang, E-mail: ffxu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Ying-Chun [Inorganic Coating Materials Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Xue-Jian [Electron Microscope Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bimodal emission is originated from β-SiAlON grains with z ≥ 2. • Coexistence of two kinds of emission centers in the β-SiAlON phase is definite. • Fluorescence microscopy shows influence of the z value on emission of β-SiAlON. - Abstract: Eu{sup 2+}-doped SiAlON phosphors with the composition of Eu{sub x}Si{sub 6−z}Al{sub z}O{sub z}N{sub 8−z} (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 3) at a fixed x = 0.01 were synthesized by the gas pressure sintering method. Dependence of luminescence properties on the phase compositions in β-SiAlON:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors has been examined via fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with a cathodoluminescence spectrometer and an energy dispersive spectrometer. Bimodal emission (green and violet) from β-SiAlON phase is observed in the samples with z ≥ 2, indicating co-existence of two different kinds of coordination for Eu{sup 2+} ions in the host lattice.

  17. Correlation between the structural and cathodoluminescence properties in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with large number of quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Degang, E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, Desheng; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Jianjun; Liu, Zongshun; Le, Lingcong; He, Xiaoguang; Li, Xiaojing [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO BOX 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Hui; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Jahn, Uwe [Paul-Drude-Institut für Festkörperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5–7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics on 30-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell structures are investigated, revealing the relationship between optical and structural properties of the MQW structures with a large number of quantum wells. In the bottom MQW layers, a blueshift of CL peak along the growth direction is found and attributed to the decrease of indium content due to the compositional pulling effect. An obvious split of emission peak and a redshift of the main emission energy are found in the top MQW layers when the MQW grows above the critical layer thickness. They are attributed to the segregation of In-rich InGaN clusters rather than the increase of indium content in quantum well layer. The MQW structure is identified to consist of two regions: a strained one in the bottom, where the indium content is gradually decreased, and a partly relaxed one in the top with segregated In-rich InGaN clusters.

  18. Correlative near-infrared light and cathodoluminescence microscopy using Y2O3:Ln, Yb (Ln = Tm, Er) nanophosphors for multiscale, multicolour bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, S.; Furukawa, T.; Niioka, H.; Ichimiya, M.; Sannomiya, T.; Tanaka, N.; Onoshima, D.; Yukawa, H.; Baba, Y.; Ashida, M.; Miyake, J.; Araki, T.; Hashimoto, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new correlative bioimaging technique using Y2O3:Tm, Yb and Y2O3:Er, Yb nanophosphors (NPs) as imaging probes that emit luminescence excited by both near-infrared (NIR) light and an electron beam. Under 980 nm NIR light irradiation, the Y2O3:Tm, Yb and Y2O3:Er, Yb NPs emitted NIR luminescence (NIRL) around 810 nm and 1530 nm, respectively, and cathodoluminescence at 455 nm and 660 nm under excitation of accelerated electrons, respectively. Multimodalities of the NPs were confirmed in correlative NIRL/CL imaging and their locations were visualized at the same observation area in both NIRL and CL images. Using CL microscopy, the NPs were visualized at the single-particle level and with multicolour. Multiscale NIRL/CL bioimaging was demonstrated through in vivo and in vitro NIRL deep-tissue observations, cellular NIRL imaging, and high-spatial resolution CL imaging of the NPs inside cells. The location of a cell sheet transplanted onto the back muscle fascia of a hairy rat was visualized through NIRL imaging of the Y2O3:Er, Yb NPs. Accurate positions of cells through the thickness (1.5 mm) of a tissue phantom were detected by NIRL from the Y2O3:Tm, Yb NPs. Further, locations of the two types of NPs inside cells were observed using CL microscopy.

  19. Correlation between the structural and cathodoluminescence properties in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with large number of quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics on 30-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell structures are investigated, revealing the relationship between optical and structural properties of the MQW structures with a large number of quantum wells. In the bottom MQW layers, a blueshift of CL peak along the growth direction is found and attributed to the decrease of indium content due to the compositional pulling effect. An obvious split of emission peak and a redshift of the main emission energy are found in the top MQW layers when the MQW grows above the critical layer thickness. They are attributed to the segregation of In-rich InGaN clusters rather than the increase of indium content in quantum well layer. The MQW structure is identified to consist of two regions: a strained one in the bottom, where the indium content is gradually decreased, and a partly relaxed one in the top with segregated In-rich InGaN clusters

  20. The origin of bimodal luminescence of β-SiAlON:Eu2+ phosphors as revealed by fluorescence microscopy and cathodoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bimodal emission is originated from β-SiAlON grains with z ≥ 2. • Coexistence of two kinds of emission centers in the β-SiAlON phase is definite. • Fluorescence microscopy shows influence of the z value on emission of β-SiAlON. - Abstract: Eu2+-doped SiAlON phosphors with the composition of EuxSi6−zAlzOzN8−z (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 3) at a fixed x = 0.01 were synthesized by the gas pressure sintering method. Dependence of luminescence properties on the phase compositions in β-SiAlON:Eu2+ phosphors has been examined via fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with a cathodoluminescence spectrometer and an energy dispersive spectrometer. Bimodal emission (green and violet) from β-SiAlON phase is observed in the samples with z ≥ 2, indicating co-existence of two different kinds of coordination for Eu2+ ions in the host lattice

  1. Effect of Size-Dependent Thermal Instability on Synthesis of Zn2 SiO4-SiOx Core–Shell Nanotube Arrays and Their Cathodoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierre Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vertically aligned Zn2SiO4-SiOx(x < 2 core–shell nanotube arrays consisting of Zn2SiO4-nanoparticle chains encapsulated into SiOx nanotubes and SiOx-coated Zn2SiO4 coaxial nanotubes were synthesized via one-step thermal annealing process using ZnO nanowire (ZNW arrays as templates. The appearance of different nanotube morphologies was due to size-dependent thermal instability and specific melting of ZNWs. With an increase in ZNW diameter, the formation mechanism changed from decomposition of “etching” to Rayleigh instability and then to Kirkendall effect, consequently resulting in polycrystalline Zn2SiO4-SiOx coaxial nanotubes, single-crystalline Zn2SiO4-nanoparticle-chain-embedded SiOx nanotubes, and single-crystalline Zn2SiO4-SiOx coaxial nanotubes. The difference in spatially resolved optical properties related to a particular morphology was efficiently documented by means of cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy using a middle-ultraviolet emission at 310 nm from the Zn2SiO4 phase.

  2. Cathodoluminescence and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies for Deformation Behaviors of GaN Thin Films Under Berkovich Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng I-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, details of Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition-derived GaN thin films have been systematic investigated with the aid of the cathodoluminescence (CL and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM techniques. The multiple “pop-in” events were observed in the load-displacement (P–h curve and appeared to occur randomly by increasing the indentation load. These instabilities are attributed to the dislocation nucleation and propagation. The CL images of nanoindentation show very well-defined rosette structures with the hexagonal system and, clearly display the distribution of deformation-induced extended defects/dislocations which affect CL emission. By using focused ion beam milling to accurately position the cross-section of an indented area, XTEM results demonstrate that the major plastic deformation is taking place through the propagation of dislocations. The present observations are in support to the massive dislocations activities occurring underneath the indenter during the loading cycle. No evidence of either phase transformation or formation of micro-cracking was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy and XTEM observations. We also discuss how these features correlate with Berkovich nanoindentation produced defects/dislocations structures.

  3. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics.

  4. Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of the Distribution of defects induced in fused silica by UV laser pulses and after damage mitigation treatment with a CO2 laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Kalceff, M; Wong, J

    2004-03-10

    Point defects are induced in high quality optical-grade fused silica by high fluence (>30 J/cm{sup 2}) 355nm laser pulses. The microscopic depth distribution of laser irradiation induced defects has been nondestructively determined using Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis. CL emissions have been observed at 1.9eV, 2.2eV, 2.7eV and 4.4eV. In addition following CO{sup 2} laser treatment for damage mitigation an emission at 3.2eV is also observed. The CL emissions have been identified with the NBOHC (non-bridging oxygen hole center), the STE (self-trapped exciton), an ODC (oxygen-deficient center) and an aluminum impurity centre. The spatially resolved CL data is consistent with damage initiation at the exit surface. The concentration of 355 nm laser induced defects is greatest at the surface and monotonically decays to pre-irradiation levels at {approx}10 {micro}m depth below the surface. With CO{sup 2} processing to mitigate damage, the defect concentration and spatial distribution is reduced to a maximum depth of {approx}6{micro}m. CL microanalysis provides a sensitive and nondestructive method of assessing the magnitude and submicron distribution of irradiation induced damage in technologically important materials.

  5. Interface properties of Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A. P.; Dmitriev, V. A.; Drozd, V. E.; Prokofiev, V. A.; Filatova, E. O. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Samarin, S. N. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2016-02-07

    We studied formation of the SiO{sub 2}-T{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface in the Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure using Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy (CLS). Analyzing the evolution of CLS spectrum of the Si-SiO{sub 2} structure while depositing the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer allowed to estimate an optical transmittance of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer and its band gap. Spectral features related to the formation of the SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface were identified by comparison of the experimental CL spectrum of the Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure and its simulated counterpart. This formation involves a decomposition of silanol groups at the outer surface of the SO{sub 2} layer and creation of the Si{sub x}Ta{sub y}O-type layer containing luminescence centers with the emission band centered at 3 eV photon energy.

  6. Distinction between amorphous and healed planar deformation features in shocked quartz using composite color scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Maartje F.; Pennock, Gill M.; Herwegh, Marco; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-08-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are one of the most reliable and most widely used forms of evidence for hypervelocity impact. PDFs can be identified in scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images, but not all PDFs show the same CL behavior: there are nonluminescent and red luminescent PDFs. This study aims to explain the origin of the different CL emissions in PDFs. Focused ion beam (FIB) thin foils were prepared of specific sample locations selected in composite color SEM-CL images and were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FIB preparation technique allowed a direct, often one-to-one correlation between the CL images and the defect structure observed in TEM. This correlation shows that composite color SEM-CL imaging allows distinction between amorphous PDFs on one hand and healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins on the other: nonluminescent PDFs are amorphous, while healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins are red luminescent, with a dominant emission peak at 650 nm. We suggest that the red luminescence is the result of preferential beam damage along dislocations, fluid inclusions, and twin boundaries. Furthermore, a high-pressure phase (possibly stishovite) in PDFs can be detected in color SEM-CL images by its blue luminescence.

  7. Highly spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence microscopy of planar semipolar InGaN/GaN MQWs grown on pre-patterned sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of a 5-fold InGaN multiple quantum well (MQW) grown on planar semipolar (11 anti 22) GaN directly grown on pre-patterned r-sapphire substrate by MOVPE have been investigated using highly spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy. The sapphire was masked and structured via RIE generating grooves with c-plane-like sidewalls. Here the growth of GaN is initiated and single stripes are formed along the sapphire a-direction. The integral spectrum of the GaN substructure exhibits a dominant (D0,X) emission at 357,4 nm and a weak luminescence at about 361,7 nm related to basal plane stacking faults (BSFs). The BSF-CL was exclusively observed at the -c-wing of the stripes. Dark stripes in CL intensity image running from the c-plane-like sidewalls to the surface indicate bundles of dislocations acting as nonradiative recombination centers. In complete contrast, the area of the +c-wing exhibits a homogeneous CL distribution without any BSF contribution. The luminescence of the InGaN MQW shows three different emission wavelengths at 425 nm, 445 nm and 470 nm according to surface morphology.

  8. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  9. Nanometer scale correlation of optical and structural properties of individual InGaN/GaN nanorods by scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Petzold, Silke; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Albert, Steven; Bengoechea-Encabo, Ana Maria; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Calleja, Enrique [ISOM e Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A potential benefit of nanorods as light emitters, aside from their very high crystal quality, relies on better light extraction efficiency as compared to thin films, because of the high surface to volume ratio. In this study we present a direct nano-scale correlation of the optical properties with the actual crystalline structure of ordered InGaN/GaN nanorods using low temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL). Direct comparison of the high-angle annular dark field image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic CL mapping at 15 K reveals a weak luminescence from the bottom GaN layer. We observe the highest CL intensity in the middle of the InGaN region. The spectral position of the InGaN emission shifts continuously red from the GaN/InGaN interface (λ=409 nm) to the NR top (λ=446 nm) due to lattice pulling effects and InGaN partial decomposition. Additionally, optical active basal stacking faults in the GaN layer emitting at 366 nm can be found.

  10. Cathodoluminescence guided zircon Hf isotope depth profiling: Mobilization of the Lu-Hf system during (U)HP rock exhumation in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.

    2015-04-01

    Cathodoluminescence image guided Hf isotope depth profiling by laser ablation of zircons from two quartzofeldspathic host gneisses constrains the Lu-Hf system's behavior during rapid exhumation of (U)HP rocks in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea. Investigation of the depth profiling technique in individual and composite zircon standards demonstrates that it is possible to resolve ~ 8 μm thick domains in which εHf(present) differs by as little as 4 units. In a metasedimentary gneiss, 2.89 ± 0.29 Ma zircon overgrowths on Cretaceous aged inherited cores have radiogenic εHf(present) indicating growth in a medium that was originally in equilibrium with garnet undergoing recrystallization (the 'garnet effect' of Zheng et al., 2005). In a separate gneiss sample that originated as an exhumation related anatectic melt, 3.66 ± 0.13 Ma zircons lacking inheritance contain sub-domains that differ from each other by > 15 εHf(present). Some of these sub-domains are radiogenic and can be explained by the 'garnet effect', whereas others also contain highly elevated Lu and Yb in addition to their radiogenic Hf compositions, thus necessitating a medium derived from the complete breakdown of garnet. Zircons in this sample also contain non-radiogenic sub-domains that grew in the presence of Hf mobilized from the surrounding rocks of the subducted and metamorphosed remnants of the Australian continental margin. The results confirm that rapid exhumation of (U)HP rocks can result in the following: 1) transmission of radiogenic Hf (and sometimes Lu and the other HREE) from garnet bearing mafic lithologies into the quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and 2) mobilization and transport of unradiogenic Hf present within the quartzofeldspathic remnants of subducted continental crust.

  11. Cathodoluminescence of ZnO nanostructure arrays hydrothermally grown on the patterned seed layers using a polystyrene-sphere-based lithographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Shim, Ee; Kim, Jin Myong; Okhlopkova, A A; Kang, Chi Jung; Choi, Young Jin; Cho, Jin-Ho

    2013-12-01

    Periodically distributed ZnO nanostructure arrays were hydrothermally grown on silicon substrates. For the preferential, site-selective growth of the ZnO nanostructures, a seed layer was patterned using self-assembled monolayers of polystyrene spheres (PSs) lithography technique. The size of the seed layer was controlled by the size of PSs, which was determined by oxygen plasma etching time. Due to the existence of numerous nucleation sites, flower-like (FL) ZnO nanostructures grew on the large seed layer over 800 nm in diameter. By reducing the size of the seed layer, we could make a couple of ZnO nanowires grow on a single seed layer island. We examined the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of FL ZnO nanostructure arrays and coupled (CO) ZnO nanowire arrays. Since the dimension of the nanostructures is smaller than or comparable to the penetration depth of the incident electron, CL signal would be generated in the whole body of the nanostructures. So, the CL intensity might be proportional to the surface area through which the photons could escape. As a result, it is natural that the CL intensity from the FL ZnO nanostructure arrays should be stronger than that from the CO ZnO nanowire arrays. However, in spite of the smaller surface area, the CL intensity was strikingly enhanced in the CO ZnO nanowire arrays compared with the closely-packed ZnO nanowire arrays. It could be attributed to the suppression of the near-band-edge ultraviolet emission in the [0001] direction, which was observed in the monochromatic CL measurement. PMID:24266194

  12. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emission located at 615 nm was observed in all the samples. • The Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest PL properties. • The CIE chromaticity coordinate of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was (0.647,0.352). • The color purity of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was 92.8%. • Strong CL properties were observed in the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+}-activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as X-ray diffraction patterns were measured to characterize the fabricated samples. Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emissions located at ∼615 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+} ions were observed in all the samples. Compared with other Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Sr, Ba) phosphors, Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest red emission intensity with better Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinate and higher color purity. Furthermore, the CL results indicated that the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor had excellent luminescence properties.

  13. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence nanoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Coenen

    2014-01-01

    The field of microscopy is an important cornerstone of physical and biological sciences. The development of high-resolution microscopy/nanoscopy techniques has enabled a revolution in science and technology, greatly improving our understanding of the microscopic world around us, and forming the basi

  14. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    stockwork. One of them is the east-west-oriented 6th vein zone in the northern part of the deposit, which contains quartz-molybdenite veins and late quartz-galena-sphalerite veins. This is interpreted as a telescoping between porphyry and epithermal environments. It is supported by microscopic studies of mineral paragenesis, which reveal the presence of enargite and tennantite-tetrahedrite, luzonite, sphalerite, and galena, generally in a gangue of quartz, followed by a late carbonate and gypsum stage. On-going fluid inclusion studies are being carried out on quartz samples from the different mineralization stages. Five types of fluid inclusions were distinguished according to their nature, bubble size, and daughter mineral content: vapor-rich, aqueous-carbonic, brine, polyphase brine and liquid-rich inclusions. Cathodoluminescence images from the porphyry veins reveal four generations of quartz. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are associated with two different dark luminescent quartz generations, which contain typical brine, aqueous-carbonic and vapour-rich H2O fluid inclusions, with some of them coexisting locally as boiling assemblages. Epithermal veins are mainly characterized by liquid-rich H2O fluid inclusions. Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions reveal a major difference in homogenisation temperatures between the early quartz-molybdenite- chalcopyrite stage (Thtotal between 3600 and 4250C) and the late quartz-galena-sphalerite vein stage (Thtotal 300-2700C), which is attributed to the transition from a porphyry to an epithermal environment in the Kadjaran deposit.

  15. Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and Gd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} phosphor under continuous electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiro-yokota@hitachi-chem.co.jp [Tsukuba Research Laboratory, Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48, Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yoshida, Masato; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki [Tsukuba Research Laboratory, Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 48, Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan); Yano, Toyohiko [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hajime [School of Bionics, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1, Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kikkawa, Shinichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: > GSO:Ce is stable under continuous electron irradiation. > GSO:Ce has high luminescence efficiency. > GSO:Ce has rigid crystal structure. - Abstract: Cathodoluminescence was studied on well crystallized Ce-doped Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO:Ce) and Gd{sub 9.33}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} (GSAP:Ce) prepared by calcining the hydrolyzed alkoxides at 1573 K because GSO:Ce is easily contaminated with GSAP:Ce impurity in solid state reaction. The luminescence efficiency of GSO:Ce was much higher than that of GSAP:Ce, and Stokes shift of the former was smaller than that of the latter, due to the crystal structural difference between the compounds in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} binary chemical composition. The luminescence of GSO:Ce degraded much less than that of GSAP:Ce under the continuous electron irradiation (CL degradation). The CL degradation was related to the formation of the carbon overlayer on the phosphor particles from the vacuum ambient during the irradiation in the present manuscript. The amount of the deposited carbon was influenced by the luminescence efficiency.

  16. Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → GSO:Ce is stable under continuous electron irradiation. → GSO:Ce has high luminescence efficiency. → GSO:Ce has rigid crystal structure. - Abstract: Cathodoluminescence was studied on well crystallized Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 (GSO:Ce) and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 (GSAP:Ce) prepared by calcining the hydrolyzed alkoxides at 1573 K because GSO:Ce is easily contaminated with GSAP:Ce impurity in solid state reaction. The luminescence efficiency of GSO:Ce was much higher than that of GSAP:Ce, and Stokes shift of the former was smaller than that of the latter, due to the crystal structural difference between the compounds in Gd2O3 and SiO2 binary chemical composition. The luminescence of GSO:Ce degraded much less than that of GSAP:Ce under the continuous electron irradiation (CL degradation). The CL degradation was related to the formation of the carbon overlayer on the phosphor particles from the vacuum ambient during the irradiation in the present manuscript. The amount of the deposited carbon was influenced by the luminescence efficiency.

  17. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  18. Emission properties of hydrothermal Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods: upconversion, cathodoluminescence and assessment of waveguide behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Elixir William; Pujol, MarIa Cinta; DIaz, Francesc [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades c/ Marcel.lI Domingo s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Choi, Soo Bong; Rotermund, Fabian [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, 443-749 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Ho [Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center, 443-270 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Mun Seok [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cascales, Concepcion, E-mail: ccascales@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-18

    Yb{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} (Ln{sup 3+} = Er{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}) codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with cubic Ia3-bar symmetry have been prepared by low temperature hydrothermal procedures, and their luminescence properties and waveguide behavior analyzed by means of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Room temperature upconversion (UC) under excitation at 980 nm and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were studied as a function of the Yb{sup +} concentration in the prepared nanorods. UC spectra revealed the strong development of Er{sup 3+4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} 4I{sub 15/2} (red) and Tm{sup 3+1}G{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} (blue) bands, which became the pre-eminent and even unique emissions for corresponding nanorods with the higher Yb{sup 3+} concentration. Favored by the presence of large phonons in current nanorods, UC mechanisms that privilege the population of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} and {sup 1}G{sub 4} emitting levels through phonon-assisted energy transfer and non-radiative relaxations account for these observed UC luminescence features. CL spectra show much more moderate development of the intensity ratio between the Er{sup 3+4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (red) and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (green) emissions with the increase in the Yb{sup 3+} content, while for Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods the dominant CL emission is Tm{sup 3+1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 4} (deep-blue). Uniform light emission along Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} rods has been observed by using SNOM photoluminescence images; however, the rods seem to be too thin for propagation of light.

  19. Cathodoluminescence microcharacterization of ballen silica in impactites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ballen silica shows fairly weak (faint) CL with homogeneous feature in its grain exhibiting almost same spectral pattern with two broad band peaks at around 390 and 650 nm, which might be assigned to self-trapped excitons (STE) or an intrinsic and nonbridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC), respectively, recognized in amorphous and crystalline silica. In addition, ballen silica from Lappajaervi crater shows bright and heterogeneous CL with a broad band centered at around 410 nm, presumably attributed to [AlO4/M+]0 centers or self-trapped excitons (STE). Micro-Raman and micro-XRD analyses show that fairly homogeneous CL part is α-quartz and heterogeneous CL part is composed of α-cristobalite and α-quartz. These indicate that ballen silica could be formed in the quenching process from relatively high temperature.

  20. Cathodoluminescence Instrumentation for Analysis of Martian Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger; Barbin, Vincent; Ramboz, Claire; Thierkel, Laurent; Gille, Paul; Leveille, Richard; Ramseyer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The morphologic study of the surface of Mars reveals that liquid water existed during the first few hundred millions of years of the planet's history (e.g. Smith et al. 1999). The flow of water produced extensive erosion in some place, but also large sedimentary basins. With a long enough duration of the presence of liquid water and the oxidation of basalts, the emergence of biological activity may have eventually occurred, as on Earth. The detection of biomarkers at the surface of Mars is on...

  1. Cathodoluminescence investigation of relaxor-based ferroelectrics Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-0.3PT) single-crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Wanyin, E-mail: wanyinge@gmail.co [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Zhu Wenliang [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Pezzotti, Giuseppe, E-mail: pezzotti@kit.ac.j [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) possesses ultrahigh electromechanical coefficients near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this paper, the electro-stimulated emission characteristics of a [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-0.3PTsingle-crystal were studied using high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at room temperature. Four luminescence bands were observed in the range of 200-900 nm and they were assigned to polaron, nanometre cluster emission, interband emission and structure-related emission. Besides, it was found that the residual stress field ahead of a crack tip of a Vickers indentation had a considerable influence on these luminescence bands. The relationship between the intensities of CL bands and the residual stress field has been investigated and discussed in this paper.

  2. Calibration of Muon Detector for Coincidence Cathodoluminescence Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Zia, Kenneth; Dennison, JR

    2015-01-01

    A muon scintillation detector has been calibrated by measuring the magnitude and angular dependence of high energy cosmic background radiation events. Optimizing dark current as a function of voltage across the photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector was essential for accurate counting of current pulses as narrow as the counts in the PMT. Measurements of the crosssection zenith angle were also optimized by sweeping the detector across the horizon and from t...

  3. Near infrared cathodoluminescence of III-V heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral range of the existing CL spectrometer (∼ 300 nm - 850 nm) was extended to the near infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum by adding a liquid nitrogen-cooled germanium (Ge) diode detector. A special adapter was constructed in order to use both the existing and the near infrared apparatus in quick succession. The spectral range of the modified CL spectrometer was between ∼ 300 nm (4.13 eV) and ∼ 1800 nm (0.69 eV). The efficiency of the spectrometer was increased by ∼ 3 orders of magnitude by replacing the inefficient fibre-optic based connection with a more efficient aluminium mirror-based connection, by introducing a GaAs photomultipliers (PMT) and by carefully aligning the optical components. The efficiency of the near infrared CL spectrometer was increased by ∼ 3 orders of magnitude by adding a phase sensitive detection apparatus. The monochromator wavelength error was measured to be between ∼ -1.1 nm and +1.9 nm. The absolute response of the spectrometer was measured for the first time using a novel calibration procedure which correctly reproduced the throughput occurring during routine CL analysis. Using this spectrometer, quantitative measurements of CL intensity may be made with a precision of up to ∼ 7% in the near infrared region of the spectrum. The modified CL spectrometer had a spatial resolution of up to ∼ 200 nm and was able to detect up to ∼ 1 in 6300 photons/s in the near infrared region of the spectrum. This quantitative CL spectrometer was used to measure the black-body temperature of tungsten-strip lamps with a precision of ∼ 1-2%. The lamps may be used as tertiary radiance standards to measure the absolute response of spectrometers between ∼ 500 nm and ∼ 1050 nm. The CL spectrometer was used to study MOVPE grown InGaAsP/InP-based mesa overgrowths and InGaAsP/InP-based butt-coupled laser-waveguide devices, to be used for the fabrication of opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs). Growth induced defects (threading dislocations) produced by 'Grappe' defect clusters present in the substrate were identified in the overgrowths using spectral CL analysis. The measurements also showed that non-radiative recombination centres were present in the lasers and that significant compositional variation and significant elastic strain were present in the devices. These deleterious processes caused considerable light and carrier leakage in the butt-coupled structures. They were also thought to accelerate the operation-induced degradation mechanisms and to be responsible for high threshold currents in the laser structures. The modified CL spectrometer was used for the first time to estimate the quantum efficiency of heavily- dislocated bulk InP material: by comparing experimentally measured CL efficiencies with CL efficiencies calculated from Monte Carlo simulations. The quantum efficiency, which was as low as ∼ 0.05% was found to vary strongly with the beam energy. The estimated quantum efficiencies could be accounted for by the presence of a high dislocation density (Nd ∼ 1.5 x 109 cm-2) or by an absorption coefficient which was ∼ 10 times higher than the literature value. (author)

  4. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenny, B. J. M.; van Dam, D.; Osorio, C. I.; Rivas, Gomez; Polman, A.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InPnanowires by using cathodoluminescencepolarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rin

  5. Correlation between morphology and cathodoluminescence in porous III-V phosphides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Porosity is an effective tool for tailoring the basic properties of semiconductor materials. It has been demonstrated that nanoporous Si exhibits intense visible luminescence at wavelengths dependent on the dimensions of the porous skeleton [Cullis et al, 1997]. Anodic etching techniques have recently been used for fabricating porous structures in III-V compounds [Tiginyanu et al, 1997a]. Compared with porous Si, III-V materials have a number of important advantages including the potential for changing the chemical composition and further extending the applications of porous structures using properties specific to acentricity [Tiginyanu et al, 1997b]. The enhanced nonlinear optical response and intense luminescence reported for porous III-V compounds may enable the development of fully integrated light source and frequency converter sub-systems. This work shows that the luminescence intensity and porosity of Indium and Gallium Phosphides (InP and GaP) can be spatial modulated by varying the anodization conditions. Synchronous spatial modulation of porosity and cathodoluniinescence (CL) intensity is achieved in InP by periodically switching the dissolution current. Porous GaP exhibits increased photosensitivity, nonlinear optical response and luminescence efficiency. CL intensity increases in GaP, when current line oriented pores are introduced at high anodic current densities [Stevens-Kalceff et al, 2001]. We show that porosity induces a pronounced birefringence in GaP in the transparency region. In addition, voltage oscillations are observed to synchronously modulate the pore sizes and the CL intensity. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  6. Emission de bandes larges dans ZnSe : cathodoluminescence, thermoluminescence, transitions dues aux centres profonds

    OpenAIRE

    Hitier, G.; Curie, D.; Visocekas, R.

    1981-01-01

    Dans cet article nous étudions le comportement thermique des émissions de bandes larges sur des cristaux de ZnSe cubique dopés et self-activés. La bande rouge du cuivre (1,96 eV) s'élargit principalement du côté des basses énergies quand la température croît et la bande verte (2,33 eV) disparaît aux environs de la température ordinaire. Nous obtenons les énergies d'activation thermique. Nous étudions aussi les profondeurs des pièges par différentes techniques de thermoluminescence ainsi que l...

  7. Cathodoluminescence Characterization of Maskelynite and Alkali Feldspar in Shergottite (Dhofar 019)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhofar 019 is classified as an olivine-bearing basaltic shergottite and consists of subhedral grains of pyroxene, olivine, feldspar mostly converted to maskelynite and minor alkali feldspar. The CL spectrum of its maskelynite exhibits an emission band at around 380 nm. Similar UV-blue emission has been observed in the plagioclase experimentally shocked at 30 and 40 GPa, but not in terrestrial plagioclase. This UV-blue emission is a notable characteristic of maskelynite. CL spectrum of alkali feldspar in Dhofar 019 has an emission bands at around 420 nm with no red emission. Terrestrial alkali feldspar actually consists of blue and red emission at 420 and 710 nm assigned to Al-O--Al and Fe3+ centers, respectively. Maskelynite shows weak and broad Raman spectral peaks at around 500 and 580 cm-1. The Raman spectrum of alkali feldspar has a weak peak at 520 cm-1, whereas terrestrial counterpart shows the emission bands at 280, 400, 470, 520 and 1120 cm-1. Shock pressure on this meteorite transformed plagioclase and alkali feldspar into maskelynite and almost glass phase, respectively. It eliminates their luminescence centers, responsible for disappearance of yellow and/or red emission in CL of maskelynite and alkali feldspar. The absence of the red emission band in alkali feldspar can also be due to the lack of Fe3+ in the feldspar as it was reported for some lunar feldspars.

  8. Cathodoluminescence studies of defects and piezoelectric fields in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, S

    2002-01-01

    dislocations were observed to generate in-plane dislocation half-loops, which moved under the influence of the stress present. These dislocation half loops were shown to act as non-radiative recombination centres. observed in CL and photoluminescence (PL) experiments. It is suggested that separation across the well of charge carriers of opposite signs screened the piezoelectric field. The blue shift of the QW luminescence was observed to remain after high electron dose irradiation in the SEM. This effect was not observed in PL measurements after high laser power exposure. The CL blue shift could be removed by irradiation with a UV lamp. It was shown that the minority carrier diffusion length (MCDL) increased from 200nm at low electron beam irradiation doses to 330nm after higher dose irradiation in the SEM. It is proposed that the change in the MCDL and the prolonged nature of the blue shift of the QW CL peak can be explained by the filling of trap states in the vicinity of the QW. It is suggested that these ...

  9. Thermal growth and cathodoluminescence of Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods have been grown by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method with precursors containing either ZnO and Bi2O3 or ZnS and Bi2O3 powders. The use of ZnS as a precursor was found to lead to a higher density of nano- and microstructures at lower temperatures than by using ZnO. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the Bi content in the wires and rods is in the range 0.15-0.35 at%. Bi incorporation was found to induce a red shift of the near band gap luminescence but no quantitative correlation between the shift and the amount of Bi, as measured by EDS, was observed. The I-V curves of single Bi doped wires had linear behaviour at low current and non-linear behaviour for high currents, qualitatively similar to that of undoped wires.

  10. Thermal growth and cathodoluminescence of Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, B.; Hidalgo, P.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2009-11-01

    Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods have been grown by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method with precursors containing either ZnO and Bi2O3 or ZnS and Bi2O3 powders. The use of ZnS as a precursor was found to lead to a higher density of nano- and microstructures at lower temperatures than by using ZnO. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the Bi content in the wires and rods is in the range 0.15-0.35 at%. Bi incorporation was found to induce a red shift of the near band gap luminescence but no quantitative correlation between the shift and the amount of Bi, as measured by EDS, was observed. The I-V curves of single Bi doped wires had linear behaviour at low current and non-linear behaviour for high currents, qualitatively similar to that of undoped wires.

  11. Cathodoluminescence in doped CdP2 and CdSiP2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some general features of the behaviour of Cu, Zn, Bi, and Mn impurities in CdSiP2 and CdP2 crystals are studied by analyzing electron beam-excited luminescence spectra measured in a temperature range of 6 to 300 K, as well as by determining their electrical parameters. The impurities are established to substitute mainly the cadmium in the crystalline lattice and to promote the formation of complexes of defects, which are radiative recombination centers. Cadmium vacancies as well participate in the defect complex formation processes. A radiation ascribed to interstitial cadmium-type defects, is discovered in CdSiP2 crystals. (author)

  12. Cathodoluminescence of silicified trunks from the Permo-Carboniferous basins in eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matysová, Petra; Leichmann, J.; Grygar, Tomáš; Rössler, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2008), s. 217-231. ISSN 0935-1221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460510 Grant ostatní: GA AV(CZ) KJB301110704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : petrified stems * silicified wood * silica texture Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2008 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/ejm/2008/00000020/00000002/art00007

  13. Enhanced cathodoluminescence from an amorphous AlN:holmium phosphor by co-doped Gd+3 for optical devices applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sputter-deposited thin films of amorphous AlN:Ho (1 at. %) emits in the green (549 nm) region of the visible spectrum under electron excitation. The addition of Gd (1 at. %) in the film enhances the green emission linearly after thermal activation at 900 deg. C for 40 min in a nitrogen atmosphere. The luminescence enhancement saturates when the gadolinium concentration reaches four times the holmium concentration. The optical bandgap of amorphous AlN is about 210 nm, so that the film is transparent in the ultraviolet, allowing us to observe the ultraviolet emission at 313 nm from Gd. No significant quenching of the Gd emission is observed. Energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra confirm the increasing concentration of Gd. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows no peaks other than those arising from the Si (111) substrate, confirming that the films are amorphous. The enhanced luminescence can be used to make high-efficiency optical devices.

  14. Raman and cathodoluminescence (CL) study of zircon inclusions derived from Gföhl felsic rocks in the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayshi, T.; Hirajima, T.; Hiroi, Y.; Svojtka, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, 15 S1 (2007), A499-A499. ISSN 0046-564X. [Annual V. M. Goldschmidt Conference /17./. 19.08.2007-24.08.2007, Cologne] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300130701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : coesite * garnet peridotite * eclogite * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Mineralogy of diamonds from the Juina Kimberlite Province, SW Amazon Craton, Brazil: cathodoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen content, and carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of 234 primary and alluvial diamonds from the Juina kimberlite Province has been investigated. The majority of diamonds exhibit low CL intensity and typical blue-sky color. Internal features are rare. The spectra classification of diamonds yields 82% of Type II stones (N-free and a minor amount of highly aggregated Type I diamonds. δ13C in Type II diamonds varies from - 3 to - 26.3% and in Type I from -3.4% - 13.8%. δ15 N in Type I diamonds ranges from +2.2 to - 14.0% and the N content, from 3.85 to 613.74 at.ppm. C and N isotopic compositions are compared to worldwide occurrences and to deep diamond assemblages. The incorporation of N by deep diamonds and the contribution of subducted terrains of the SW border of the Amazon Craton on the formation of the light 13 C diamonds are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Comparative cathodoluminescence characterization of ultrathin InN wells/GaN matrix MQWs grown on bulk-GaN and MOVPE-GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One monolayer (1 ML) InN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown on bulk-GaN and MOVPE-GaN/ sapphire substrates with threading dislocation densities (TDDs) of about 106 cm-2 and 108 cm-2, respectively, were characterized by SEM-CL measurements to study the effects of TDs on structural quality of InN/GaN MQWs. For the sample grown on bulk-GaN substrate, step-flow surface morphology and quite uniform spatial emission were observed as compared to the sample grown on MOVPE-GaN/sapphire. CL peak energy at 86 K was observed at around 3.2 eV for both MQWs, but CL emission spectra from MQWs on bulk-GaN substrate were five times stronger with smaller peak energy distribution, and full width at half maximum than those on MOVPE-GaN substrate. This was caused by low-TDD of bulk-GaN substrate. Further, effects of growth temperature on 1 ML InN/GaN MQWs were investigated and it was found that CL peak energy tended to discretely shift to lower energy side, for e.g., from 3.18 eV to 2.9 eV when the growth temperature was decreased from 660 C to 620 C. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Origin of white color light emission in ALE-grown ZnSe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss light emission properties from thin films of ZnSe grown by atomic layer epitaxy on GaAs (1 0 0). White color emission is observed in photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence, due to the observation of three RGB emission bands. We demonstrate possibility of color tuning by either variation of film thickness or, in cathodoluminescence experiments, variation of an accelerating voltage

  18. ZnGa2 O4 and ZnGa2 O4: Mn2+ for potential use in vacuum fluorescent displays

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Zinc gallate and Mn2+ -activated zinc gallate were identified as potential low-voltage cathodoluminescent phosphors for use in vacuum fluorescent displays. The stability of these oxide phosphors in high-vacuum and absence of corrosive gas emission under electron bombardment, offer advantages over commonly used sulfide phosphors. A low-voltage cathodoluminescence spectrophotometer was _ developed for phosphor characterization. Sample brightness was measured as a function of ...

  19. Luminescent research of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ blue phosphor used for electron beam excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lan; YANG Ruixia; DU Zhong; ZOU Kaishun; ZHANG Xiaosong

    2003-01-01

    Eu2+-activated strontium choloro-phosphate has been used for lamp phosphor traditionally with high efficiency. In this paper, the cathodoluminescent properties of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ have been investigated for application in field emission display. The influence of Ba2+, Ca2+ impurities on the cathodoluminescent spectrum of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ has also been measured. When operate voltage varied from mid- to low-voltage, the relative brightness and saturation behavior of phosphor was observed at different current density.

  20. Identification of conduction and hot electron property in ZnS, ZnO and SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact excitation and ionization is the most important process in layered optimization scheme and solid state cathodoluminescence. The conduction property (semiconductor property) of SiO2, ZnS and ZnO is studied based on organic/inorganic electroluminescence. The hot electron property (acceleration and multiplication property) of SiO2 and ZnS is investigated based on the solid state cathodoluminescence. The results show that the SiO2 has the fine hot electron property and the conduction property is not as good as ZnO and ZnS

  1. Deterministic radiative coupling between plasmonic nanoantennas and semiconducting nanowire quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Jeannin, Mathieu; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Kheng, Kuntheak; Nogues, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the deterministic coupling between single semiconducting nanowire quantum dots emitting in the visible and plasmonic Au nanoantennas. Both systems are separately carefully characterized through microphotoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. A two-step realignment process using cathodoluminescence allows for electron beam lithography of Au antennas near individual nanowire quantum dots with a precision of 50 nm. A complete set of optical properties are measured before and after antenna fabrication. They evidence both an increase of the NW absorption, and an improvement of the quantum dot emission rate up to a factor two in presence of the antenna.

  2. Band alignment and defects of the diamond zinc oxide heterojunction; Bandstruktur und Defekte der Diamant-Zinkoxid-Heterostruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, Peter

    2008-09-12

    Zinc oxide films were grown on diamond single crystals by rf sputtering of zinc oxide. The valence and conduction band offset was determined by photoelectron spectroscopy. A deep defect occurring in the zinc oxide films on diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Scintillation response of Ce3+ doped GdGa-LuAG multicomponent garnet films under e-beam excitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, M.; Onderišinová, Z.; Bok, Jan; Hanuš, M.; Schauer, Petr; Nikl, Martin

    169 Part B, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 674-677. ISSN 0022-2313 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : multicomponent garnets * cathodoluminescence * LuAG:Ce * scintillation * liquidphaseepitaxy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.719, year: 2014

  4. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  5. Scanning electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1998-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy provides a description of the physics of electron-probe formation and of electron-specimen interations The different imaging and analytical modes using secondary and backscattered electrons, electron-beam-induced currents, X-ray and Auger electrons, electron channelling effects, and cathodoluminescence are discussed to evaluate specific contrasts and to obtain quantitative information

  6. 75 FR 29974 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    .... Instrument: Live Color Cathodoluminescence detector accessory for Scanning Electron Microscope. Manufacturer.... Docket Number: 10-013. Applicant: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 4000 Jones Bridge Road, Chevy Chase... Number: 10-014. Applicant: Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 4000 Jones Bridge Road, Chevy Chase, MD...

  7. Investigation of ageing characteristics and identification of surface chemical changes on SrGa2S4:Ce3+ display phosphor under electron beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescent ageing characteristics of SrGa2S4:Ce3+ under prolonged electron beam bombardment was studied and the data are presented. The cathodoluminescent intensity with an increasing Coulomb loading was observed to degrade under different primary electron beam voltages. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to monitor the surface chemical changes during electron beam bombardment and after the degradation process. Auger peak to peak heights monitored during the ageing process suggest a loss in S and C and an initial increase in oxygen concentration on the surface. XPS results indicate the formation of a SrO overlayer due to electron stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs).

  8. Coexistence of optically active radial and axial CdTe insertions in single ZnTe nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, P; Płachta, J; Zaleszczyk, W; Kret, S; Sanchez, Ana M; Rudniewski, R; Raczkowska, K; Szymura, M; Karczewski, G; Baczewski, L T; Pietruczik, A; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J

    2016-03-14

    We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis. PMID:26903109

  9. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-28

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  10. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  11. Spectral features in different sized InGaN/GaN micropyramids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyramidal GaN structures were deposited by selective metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) to create semipolar facets. On top of these pyramids InGaN was deposited as active region. We have studied the emission properties of these pyramids using low-temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The observed PL spectra revealed that changing the size of the pyramids and the Indium supply leads to variations in the emission wavelength of the ensemble. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) experiments were performed to analyze locally the emission properties all over the pyramidal structures. We have found that the Indium accumulates at the edges and the apex of the pyramids for small pyramids and high Indium flows. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Role of structural defects in the ultraviolet luminescence of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Aurélie; Nong, Hanond; Fossard, Frédéric; Loiseau, Annick, E-mail: annick.loiseau@onera.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures (LEM), ONERA-CNRS, BP 72, 92322 Châtillon cedex (France); Attal-Trétout, Brigitte [DMPH, ONERA, Chemin de la Hunière et des Joncherettes, BP 80100, 91123 Palaiseau (France); Xue, Yanming; Golberg, Dmitri [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan); Barjon, Julien, E-mail: julien.barjon@uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée, University of Versailles St-Quentin and CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78000 Versailles (France)

    2015-12-21

    BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are structurally similar to their carbon counterparts, though much less investigated. New synthesis methods have been recently reported, enabling the production of industrial quantities and stimulating the search of new applications for the BNNTs. In this paper, we investigate the luminescence of multiwall BNNTs. By performing cathodoluminescence experiments on single tubes at 10 K, we show that the tube luminescence is highly heterogeneous (i) from tube to tube and (ii) spatially along a single tube. By combining cathodoluminescence measurements with a nanometer excitation and transmission electron microscopy on the same tube, we correlate luminescence and structural features. We conclude that the near-band-edge luminescence of BNNTs (≈5.4 eV) is related to the presence of extended structural defects, such as dislocations or ruptures in the wall stacking.

  13. Stress variations and relief in patterned GaAs grown on mismatched substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence scanning electron microscopy studies reveal significant variations in stress across etched patterns of GaAs grown on both InP and Si substrates. The stress in the epilayer is relieved at convex corners and in patterned areas with dimensions on the order of 10 μm. The stress is uniaxial near the edge of a patterned region and changes to biaxial away from the edge, producing nonuniformities in the optical properties of patterned regions

  14. Le diamant dopé au bore pour la bioélectronique: Biocompatibilité et Fonctionnalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce electrodes for bioelectronic applications, polycrystalline and homoepitaxial (100) and (111) boron doped diamond films were synthesized. Those films were grown by plasma enhanced CVD and characterized by cathodoluminescence, Raman, and SEM. First, diamond biocompatibility was studied according to different parameters (doping, roughness and crystalline orientation), through the culture of two different cell lines: fibroblasts and pre-osteoblasts. Biotin was locally grafted ...

  15. Determinaci??n de las variaciones de la temperatura del agua marina en el L??as en la Cuenca Vasco-Cant??brica mediante la utilizaci??n de par??metros geoqu??micos (8180, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Idoia; Robles, Sergio; Quesada, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Early Jurassic (Lias) seawater paleotemperatures were determined through analysis of the oxygen isotopic composition of unaltered low-Mg calcitic belemnite rostras from the Basque Cantabrian basin, an area critically located in middle pajeolatitudes- between the Boreal and Tethyan realms. Using optical, cathodoluminescence, and chemical analysis; it has been possible to select very well preserved samples of Pliensbachian-Lower Toarcian belemnite rostra that retain the. original marine isotope...

  16. Luminescence spectroscopy of natural and synthetic REE-bearing minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and ionoluminescence (IL) of natural and synthetic minerals. The natural minerals (fluorapatite, leucophanite, meliphanite and zircon) are mostly from Ilímaussaq Alkaline Complex in South Greenland, Langesundsfjord in Norway and from different localities within Scotland. Synthetic fluorapatite (manufactured as part of the present study) and zircon doped with rare earth elements (REE) were used...

  17. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bertoni; Filippo Fabbri; Marco Villani; Laura Lazzarini; Stuart Turner; Gustaaf Van Tendeloo; Davide Calestani; Silvija Gradečak; Andrea Zappettini; Giancarlo Salviati

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO na...

  18. Preparation and characterization of ZnO low dimensional structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grym, Jan; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    Praha: MAXDORF, 2004 - (Nitsch, K.; Rodová, M.), s. 15-16 ISBN 80-7345-032-1. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2004 /14./. Lednice (CZ), 31.08.2004-03.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK1010104 Keywords : nanostructured materials * cathodoluminescence * ball milling * II-VI semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Near-Field Plasmonic Behavior of Au/Pd Nanocrystals with Pd-Rich Tips

    CERN Document Server

    Ringe, Emilie; Collins, Sean M; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Skrabalak, Sara E; Midgley, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Using nanometer spatial resolution electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping, we demonstrate that Au alloys containing a poor plasmonic metal (Pd) can nevertheless sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances and observe strong field enhancement at Pd-rich tips, where the composition is in fact least favorable for plasmons. These Au/Pd stellated nanocrystals are also involved in substrate and interparticle coupling, as unraveled by EELS tilt series.

  20. Identification of the 0.95 eV luminescence band in n-type GaAs:Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence band at 0.95 eV has been identified as originating from the transition within (SiGaVGaSiGa) complexes by comparing cathodoluminescence and positron annihilation spectra. The upper and lower energy levels of the molecule-like defect complexes are suggested to lie at 22 meV below the conduction band and at about 0.5 eV above the valence band, respectively

  1. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kraft, Matthias; Luo, Yu; Pendry, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation...

  2. Decay Time Optimization of YAG:Ce Scintillator for S(T)EM Electron Detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr

    Sapporo : Japanese Society of Microscopy , 2006, s. 655. [IMC16 - International Microscopy Congress /16./. Sapporo (JP), 03.09.2006-08.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/04/2144 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : scintillation detector * electron microscope * cathodoluminescence * YAG:Ce * single crystal scintillator * decay time * afterglow * kinetic model * SEM * STEM Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. SYNTHÈSE ET MAÎTRISE DE LA CROISSANCE DE NANOCRISTAUX : APPLICATIONS AUX COMPOSANTS A BASE DE SEMI-CONDUCTEURS A GRANDE BANDE INTERDITE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandana, Eric Vinod

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to grow, study & control the properties of ZnO thin films & nanostructures. Three growth processes were studied: Metal-Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD), Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) & Physical Vapour Transport (PVT). The substrates used were: c-Al2O3; Si, ZnO, steel, mylar & paper. The ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence , cathodoluminescence , X-ray diffraction & optical reflectivity. A very wide range of ZnO n...

  4. Development of capability in the SEM-CL of carbonates

    OpenAIRE

    Bouch, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes investigations into methodologies that can be applied to overcome imaging problems associated with carbonate minerals on scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) systems. The problem arises due to the persistent nature of luminescence from carbonate minerals, which causes ghosting or streaking across SEM-CL images. Two methodologies were tested: • The first methodology (Lee 2000) applied very long image acquisition times that, in certain situati...

  5. Luminescence Study of Structural-Changes Induced by Laser Cutting in Diamond Films

    OpenAIRE

    Cremades Rodríguez, Ana Isabel; Piquiras, J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of laser cutting on the structure of a chemical vapor deposited diamond film has been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. The variation of particle morphology and CL spectra as a function of the distance to the cutting edge is described and possible laser induced structural changes are discussed. At the damaged region total CL emission increases and nitrogen-vacancy centers are detected.

  6. Gallium nitride and GaN:Eu nanocrystalline luminescent powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, G.A.H. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ensenada, Baja California, C.P. 22860 (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we report on the fabrication and luminescent properties of pure and europium-doped gallium nitride (GaN) powders obtained by means of two different chemical methods. Firstly, GaN and GaN:Eu microcrystalline powders were successfully prepared by using the combustion synthesis of metallic nitrates as the precursors (method A). By using a second processing route, GaN and (Ga{sub 1-x}Eu{sub x})N powders are synthesized from metallic oxides (method B) yielding directly nanocrystalline-phase gallium nitride and Eu-doped gallium nitride luminescent materials. In the present work, we report two excellent methods to produce nanocrystalline or microcrystalline gallium nitride (GaN) and Eu-doped GaN powders with different Eu concentrations. The GaN:Eu materials were characterized by photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showing strong luminescence due to f-f transition lines within Eu{sup 3+}({sup 4}f {sub 6}) electron emission configuration. Furthermore we present a crystallographic characterization conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD), luminescence properties including photoluminescence and local cathodoluminescence spectra and monochromatic imaging at low-temperature to detect the areas from where the emission is originated within the GaN:Eu grains. Our results show that (Ga {sub 0.95}Eu{sub 0.05})N powders are cathodoluminescent with the main emission occurring at {lambda}=611 nm which is originated from the {sup 5}D{sub 0}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 2} transitions within the Eu {sup 3+} electronic levels. Low-temperature monochromatic cathodoluminescence images taken on microcrystalline powders (produced by method A), indicate that the main emission at {lambda}=611 nm is originated within nanocrystalline areas of the GaN:Eu{sup 3+} microcrystalline grains. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Spectroscopy of gadolinium ion and disadvantages of gadolinium impurity in tissue compensators and collimators, used in radiation treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Maqbool, M.; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2007-01-01

    Intense ultraviolet emission from gadolinium doped amorphous aluminum nitride thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate is studied with cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence. The purpose of the study is to find the merits or demerits of gadolinium ions if added intentionally or present as unintentionally added impurity in tissue compensators or collimators in radiation treatment planning. These films are deposited by reactive sputtering at liquid nitrogen temperature, using 100–200 W RF ...

  8. Alteración diagenética en conchas de rudistas Monopleúridos del Complejo Urgoniano de Ereño (Aptiense – Albiense Inferior, Bizkaia)

    OpenAIRE

    Damas Mollá, Laura; Aranburu Artano, Arantza; García Garmilla, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence and microprobe analysis in monopleurid shells from Aptian – Lower Albian limestones in Ereño (Bizkaia) has allowed to us to realize that different rudist shells show different diagenetic responses in front of a similar degree of diagenetic alteration. Monopleurid shells show a relatively high diagenetic degree when compared to that of requienids. Early neomorphism processes were dissimilar for different shells. The relatively thin monopleurid prisms could allow...

  9. Analysis of Electron Beam Degraded poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Petr; Schauer, Petr

    Prague: Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2007 - (Nebesářová, J.; Hozák, P.), s. 157-258 ISBN 978-80-239-9397-4. [Multinational Congress on Microscopy /8./. Prague (CZ), 17.06.2007-21.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : poly[methyl(phenyl)silylene] * polysilanes * PSi * cathodoluminescence * electron beam degradation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of erbium doped GaSb crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Alcalde, Pedro; Méndez Martín, Bianchi; Piqueras de Noriega, Javier; Plaza, J.L.; Dieguez, E.

    1999-01-01

    Er doped GaSb single crystals have been studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) in a combined scanning electron microscope-scanning tunnelling microscope system. The surface band gap in doped samples has been found to be about 0.5 eV while in undoped crystals the gap is close to the bulk value. Inhomogeneities in the local electronic properties of the doped crystals are studied by a correlation of the CL images and STS data.

  11. Growth and Structure of Pure ZnO Micro/Nanocombs

    OpenAIRE

    Tengfei Xu; Pengfei Ji; Meng He; Jianye Li

    2012-01-01

    Comb-shaped ZnO micro/nanostructures were grown on copper substrate using a highly repeatable catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition method. The structure of the ZnO micro/nanocombs was analyzed, and the necking-down phenomena of the comb teeth was explained. The cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum was measured on an individual ZnO comb, and a strong deep-level emission centered at about 520 nm was observed.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of lunar regolith from the Sea of Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshin, M. K.; Ilin, N. P.; Spivak, G. V.

    1974-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used in studying the morphology and cathodoluminescence of lunar regolith particles. Surface and structure of two groups of particles are differentiated: (1) Crystalline with well defined facets and spalling surfaces, which are grains of minerals and rock fragments: and (2) amorphous, fused, and partially or entirely glazed particles. Local melting of particles and the round openings on their surfaces are attributed to secondary influence on the regolith of factors of lunar weathering and above all micrometeoric impacts.

  13. A new doping method using metalorganics in chemical vapor deposition of 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Sakuma, E.; Misawa, S.; Gonda, S.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum doping was performed using triethylaluminum as the dopant in chemical vapor deposition of 6H-silicon carbide (SiC). Measurements on the electrical and cathodoluminescent properties of the epilayers indicate that the doping concentration of aluminum can be easily controlled by the flow rate of metalorganics. Electroluminescence was also observed for the pn junctions prepared by the successive growth of a nondoped n layer and a p layer doped with aluminum using metalorganics.

  14. Fluid circulation in the depths of accretionary prisms: an example of the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Vacelet, Maxime; Ramboz, Claire; Famin, Vincent; Augier, Romain; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Kimura, Gaku

    2015-01-01

    Accretionary prisms constitute ideal targets to study fluid circulation and fluid-rock interactions at depths beyond the reach of active margin deep drilling. The highest-grade rocks from the Shimanto Belt on Kyushu were buried under 3-5 kbars at ~ 300°C (Toriumi and Teruya, 1988). They contain abundant quartz veins, formed throughout burial and exhumation and variably affected by brittle and ductile deformation.Cathodoluminescence (CL) reveals the existence of two distinct types of quartz, c...

  15. Rare-Earth Doped Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Field Emission Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Psuja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The cathodoluminescence properties of rare-earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Tb doped nanocrystalline phosphors (Y2O3, Y3Al5O12 were investigated. Their structure and morphology were determined and correlated with optical properties. The effect of grain sizes on emission yield of RE doped nanophosphors has been investigated. A possibility of application of RE doped nanophosphors for efficient field emission display (FED devices has been discussed.

  16. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  17. Innovation possibilities of scintillation electron detector for SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Petr; Bok, Jan

    Praha : Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2014. ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [International Microscopy Congres /18./. Praha (CZ), 07.09.2014-12.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electron detector * scintillator * cathodoluminescence * single crystal * SEM * DQE * MTF Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Performance of YAG:Ce Scintillators for Low-Energy Electron Detectors in S(T)EM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lalinský, Ondřej; Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr; Frank, Luděk

    Praha: Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2014. ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [International Microscopy Congres /18./. Praha (CZ), 07.09.2014-12.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk EE.2.3.20.0103 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : scintillator * YAG:Ce * single crystal * electron detector * SEM * STEM * low- energy electron * cathodoluminescence Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Luminescence and tenebrescence of natural sodalites: a chemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Teresa; Friis, Henrik; Marks, Michael A. W.

    2016-04-01

    Sodalite (Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2) shows a wide range of colours and may exhibit a variety of optical properties including cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence and tenebrescence. These optical peculiarities are not yet fully understood but are of key interest for industry. We provide a detailed study on the photochromic properties of natural sodalite, and we show that S is crucially influencing luminescence of sodalites. A reduced intensity in cathodoluminescence was observed at high S contents for some samples, showing that S can act as cathodoluminescence quencher. Photoluminescent sodalites are generally enriched in S compared to non-photoluminescent samples, although few samples being very low in S still show photoluminescence. Additionally, S was found to enlarge the unit cell in natural sodalites which might have a crucial impact on their photochromic properties. The most efficient tenebrescent samples were found to be low in Fe, Mn and S. They showed the smallest unit-cell dimensions, and a strong link between the atomic structure and the formation of F-centres is proposed. Tenebrescence in natural sodalites appears to be enhanced (1) by S but saturated at too high S concentrations and (2) by a stoichiometry and structure close to the ideal sodalite composition. In contrast to the term self-quenching for luminescence, we propose a saturation of F-centres to explain tenebrescence at different S contents.

  20. Luminescent characteristics of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, C.D.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Alvarez-Fregoso, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, M.A. [Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Ramos-Brito, F. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DIDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    In this research, we report the cathodoluminescence (CL) and preliminary photoluminescence (PL) properties of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Pr powders were synthesized by a very simple chemical process. X-ray diffraction spectra indicated a cubic spinel crystalline structure with an average crystallite size of 15 nm. CL properties of the powders were studied as a function of the praseodymium concentration and electron-accelerating potential. In this case, all the cathodoluminescent emission spectra showed main peaks located at 494, 535, 611, 646, and 733 nm, which were associated to the electronic transitions {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 2}, and {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 4} of the Pr{sup 3+} ions, respectively. A quenching of the CL, with increasing doping concentration, was observed. Also, an increment on cathodoluminescent emission intensity was observed as the accelerating voltage increased. The PL emission spectrum showed similar characteristics to those of the CL spectra. The chemical composition of the powders, as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is also reported. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the powders are shown. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Luminescence and tenebrescence of natural sodalites: a chemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Teresa; Friis, Henrik; Marks, Michael A. W.

    2016-07-01

    Sodalite (Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2) shows a wide range of colours and may exhibit a variety of optical properties including cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence and tenebrescence. These optical peculiarities are not yet fully understood but are of key interest for industry. We provide a detailed study on the photochromic properties of natural sodalite, and we show that S is crucially influencing luminescence of sodalites. A reduced intensity in cathodoluminescence was observed at high S contents for some samples, showing that S can act as cathodoluminescence quencher. Photoluminescent sodalites are generally enriched in S compared to non-photoluminescent samples, although few samples being very low in S still show photoluminescence. Additionally, S was found to enlarge the unit cell in natural sodalites which might have a crucial impact on their photochromic properties. The most efficient tenebrescent samples were found to be low in Fe, Mn and S. They showed the smallest unit-cell dimensions, and a strong link between the atomic structure and the formation of F-centres is proposed. Tenebrescence in natural sodalites appears to be enhanced (1) by S but saturated at too high S concentrations and (2) by a stoichiometry and structure close to the ideal sodalite composition. In contrast to the term self-quenching for luminescence, we propose a saturation of F-centres to explain tenebrescence at different S contents.

  2. Normal-incidence Electron Gun alignment method for negative ion analysis on insulators by magnetic sector SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We developed a method to visually align and optimize the electron gun. ► We found GaN is an ideal cathodoluminescence material for electron gun alignment. ► We lowered sample high voltage to observe cathodoluminescence via viewing scope. -- Abstract: On Cameca magnetic sector SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer) instruments, detection of negative secondary ions during analysis of insulating materials represents one of the more challenging uses of the instrument. This is because the highest sensitivity is achieved using a positive Cesium primary ion beam to sputter a sample held at a negative potential. The combination of positive charge from the primary beam and the acceleration of negative ions from the sample surface results in the build-up of positive charge in the sputtered area. The Normal-incidence Electron Gun (NEG) is used to deliver electrons to neutralize the positive charge build-up. At typical conditions, the electron beam diameter is rather small (∼150 μm), so it is critical to align the NEG to overlay the analysis area as closely as possible. A new method has been developed to utilize cathodoluminescence of gallium nitride (GaN) to visually align the electron gun. This approach is shown to result in reproducible analyses of insulating phases, including depth profiling of oxide on semiconductor materials, bulk analyses for hydrogen, and oxygen isotope ratio microanalyses

  3. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  4. Direct correlations of structural and optical properties of three-dimensional GaN/InGaN core/shell micro-light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Müller, Marcus; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Waag, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) core–shell light emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising candidate for the future solid state lighting. In this contribution, we study direct correlations of structural and optical properties of the core–shell LEDs using highly spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Temperature-dependent resonant photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been performed to understand recombination mechanisms and to estimate the internal quantum efficiency (IQE).

  5. Synthesis and features of the structure and luminescence of monodisperse SiO2/(Lu1 - x Eu x )2O3 ( x = 0.07) core-shell heteroparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Yu. V.; Masalov, V. M.; Gruzintsev, A. N.; Yakimov, E. E.; Zver'kova, I. I.; Barthou, C.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Emel'Chenko, G. A.

    2010-08-01

    Monodisperse SiO2/Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 core-shell heteroparticles have been obtained using a method developed previously for the synthesis of spherical colloidal particles of silicon dioxide with a size spread of 2-2.5%, followed by the coprecipitation of europium-doped lutetium oxide nanocoating on these spheres. The structure of heteroparticles was studied and their photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra were analyzed. The luminescence decay time in heteroparticles is almost twice that in Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 phosphor powder prepared and treated under the same thermal conditions.

  6. Plasmonic behavior of gold nanorod heterodimers with free-electron feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasmon coupling between metal nanostructures can lead to huge local electric field enhancement and new plasmon modes. Here, we study the effect of the close proximity of two gold nanorod particles on the modification of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes of the individual on gold nanorod in spectral and spatial domain using cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and imaging in a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significantly enhanced resonant emission is observed from the nanorod dimers when the electron beam is injected around the junction between the rods, where the local density of electromagnetic states is raised

  7. Nitrogen-Doped Chemical Vapour Deposited Diamond: a New Material for Room-Temperature Solid State Maser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. A. Poklonski; N. M. Lapchuk; A. V. Khomich; LU Fan-Xiu; TANG Wei-Zhong; V. G. Ralchenko; I. I. Vlasov; M. V. Chukichev; Sambuu Munkhtsetseg

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) in polycrystalline diamond films grown by dc arc-jet and microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is studied. The films with nitrogen impurity concentration up to 8 × 1018 cm-3 are also characterized by Raman, cathodoluminescence and optical absorption spectra. The ESR signal from P1 centre with g-factor of 2.0024 (nitrogen impurity atom occupying C site in diamond lattice) is found to exhibit an inversion with increasing the microwave power in an H102 resonator. The spin inversion effect could be of interest for further consideration of N-doped diamonds as a medium for masers operated at room temperature.

  8. Acceptors in cadmium telluride. Identification and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that electronic properties of CdTe are determined by impurities more than by intrinsic defects like vacancies or interstitials in Cd or Te contrary to classical theories. These results are based on annealing, diffusion, implantation and electron irradiation at 4 K. Centers appearing in treated samples are accurately identified by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence infra-red absorption, electrical measurements and magneto-optic properties. Acceptors identified are Li, Na, Cu, Ag and Au impurities in Cd and N, P and As in Te. Energy levels of all acceptors and fine structure of excitons are determined

  9. Self-assembled tin-doped ZnO nanowire and nanoplate structures grown by thermal treatment of ZnS powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Y.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2009-05-01

    Sintering of a ZnS-SnO 2 mixture under argon flow leads to the growth of columnar nanoplate arrays as well as arrays of nanowires, nanorods and nanoplates with six-fold symmetry. The six-fold nanoplate structures correspond to a more advanced stage of growth than the nanowire structures. Cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the structures contain Sn, but the amount of this element is normally under the detection limit of X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The formation of branches in the hierarchical structures depends on the presence of Sn and on defects in the mixture powder.

  10. Spectral-kinetic investigation of whiskers and macrocrystals of A1B7 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra and kinetics of cathodoluminescence of NaCl, KCl, KBr, KI whiskers and NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, CsBr, KI single crystals, excited by μs electron pulses (1-10 keV) has been investigated at 67, 80 and 300 K in a oil-free high vacuum system. The luminescence of singlet and triplet self-trapped excitons, as well as emission due to bombardment-induced defects in anion and cation sublattices has been observed under electron excitation. In KI crystals the edge emission of unrelaxed excitons at 5.75 eV has been revealed

  11. Black luminescent silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologie, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Kups, Thomas [FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, Mike [FG Mikromechanische Systeme, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, Michael [FG Elektroniktechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Black silicon is a fascinating multipurpose modification of bulk silicon which can be fabricated in a selforganized structure formation process during dry etching of bare silicon wafer leading to the formation of a high density of silicon needles. The smallest dimension of the tips approaches values between 1 and 2 nm. The silicon nanostructure exhibits an extremely low diffuse reflectivity. The nanosized tips and their coating with fluorine doped nonstoichiometric silicon dioxide are responsible for cathodoluminescence in the blue-green and red regions of the visible spectra (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. In situ growth of blue-emitting thin films of cerium-doped barium chloride hydrate at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hao; LOU, Z; Cocivera, M

    2003-01-01

    Blue emission was observed from thin films of barium chloride hydrate doped with cerium. The films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions with substrate temperatures between 250 and 450°C. The cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum consists of two peaks at 443 and 485 nm due to 4f-5d transitions of cerium ion. The dependence of the emission band on deposition temperature and Ce/Ba ratio is discussed. The CL luminance and luminous efficiency at 5 kV were 120 cd/m² and 0.48 lm/W, res...

  13. Improved interface quality and luminescence capability of InGaN/GaN quantum wells with Mg pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interface modification of high indium content InGaN/GaN quantum wells was carried out by Mg pretreatment of the GaN barrier surface. The indium in the Mg-pretreated InGaN layer was homogeneously distributed, making the interfaces abrupt. The improved interface quality greatly enhanced light emission capacity. The cathodoluminescence intensity of the Mg-pretreated InGaN/GaN quantum wells was correspondingly much stronger than those of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells without Mg pretreatment. (orig.)

  14. Novel divalent europium doped MgAlON transparent ceramic for shortwave ultraviolet erasable windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel divalent europium ion doped UV erasable MgAlON (Mg0.27Al2.58O3.73N0.27) transparent ceramic in which Eu/Al atom ratio is 0.25% was fabricated by pressureless sintering. The ceramic was highly dense with high transmittance in visible and infrared region and good mechanical properties. Due to the MgAlON host absorption and 4f–5d energy transfer of Eu2+, a broad absorption band occurred in ultraviolet light region. The cathodoluminescence (CL) image revealed that the Eu2+ ions were uniformly distributed in grain boundary

  15. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of GaN and GaN-Mn Blue Nanocrystalline Thin-film Phosphor for FED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Kucharsky, I Y; Chakhovskoi, A G

    2003-04-09

    The technologies of fabrication of thin film phosphors based on gallium nitride using rf-magnetron sputtering are developed and structural properties of films are studied. Luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of GaN and GaN-Mn thin films have been studied. The correlation between cathodoluminescence intensity and conductivity of GaN films has been found. The nature of emission centers in GaN and GaN-Mn thin films is discussed as well as mechanism of luminescence in these films is proposed.

  16. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera

  17. Effect of low-energy electron irradiation on the optical properties of structures containing multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the temperature dependence of the cathodoluminescence intensity in multiple InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures in the temperature range 80–300 K are reported. Unirradiated structures and structures irradiated with electrons with subthreshold energy are studied. It is shown that, upon irradiation, the temperature dependence becomes weaker. From analysis of the results obtained in this study and previously, it can be suggested that electron irradiation initiates the relaxation of strains produced in quantum wells due to the InGaN-GaN lattice mismatch

  18. Research on Y2O3:Eu Phosphor Coated with In2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Y2O3:Eu red phosphor for FED application was prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction. The In2O3 coating by precipitation method to the phosphor was applied and the analyses of XRD, Zeta potential, SEM, EDS and low voltage cathodoluminescence (CL) were conducted for investigating the coating effect. The results showed that In2O3 coating promoted the low voltage CL of the phosphor efficiently. The promotion was possibly due to the enhancement of the surface conductivity of the phosphor grains.

  19. Improved interface quality and luminescence capability of InGaN/GaN quantum wells with Mg pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhengyuan; Shen, Xiyang; Xiong, Huan; Li, Qingfei; Kang, Junyong; Fang, Zhilai [Xiamen University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Semiconductors and Efficient Devices, Department of Physics, Xiamen (China); Lin, Feng; Yang, Bilan; Lin, Shilin [San' an Optoelectronics Co., Ltd, Xiamen (China); Shen, Wenzhong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Tong-Yi [Shanghai University, Shanghai University Materials Genome Institute and Shanghai Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    Interface modification of high indium content InGaN/GaN quantum wells was carried out by Mg pretreatment of the GaN barrier surface. The indium in the Mg-pretreated InGaN layer was homogeneously distributed, making the interfaces abrupt. The improved interface quality greatly enhanced light emission capacity. The cathodoluminescence intensity of the Mg-pretreated InGaN/GaN quantum wells was correspondingly much stronger than those of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells without Mg pretreatment. (orig.)

  20. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  1. Grain boundaries in CdTe thin film solar cells: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jonathan D.

    2016-09-01

    The current state of knowledge on the impact of grain boundaries in CdTe solar cells is reviewed with emphasis being placed on working cell structures. The role of the chemical composition of grain boundaries as well as growth processes are discussed, along with characterisation techniques such as electron beam induced current and cathodoluminescence, which are capable of extracting information on a level of resolution comparable to the size of the grain boundaries. Work which attempts to relate grain boundaries to device efficiency is also assessed and gaps in the current knowledge are highlighted.

  2. ZnO-Based Microcavities Sculpted by Focus Ion Beam Milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsu-Chi; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Lai, Ying-Yu; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Wang, Shing-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-12-01

    We reported an easy fabrication method to realize ZnO-based microcavities with various cavity shapes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The optical characteristics of different shaped microcavities have been systematically carried out and analyzed. Through comprehensive studies of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra, the whispering gallery mode (WGM) was observed in different shaped microcavities. Up further increasing excitation, the lasing action was dominated by these WGMs and matched very well to the simulated results. Our experiment shows that ZnO microcavities with different shapes can be made with high quality by FIB milling for specific applications of microlight sources and optical devices. PMID:27364999

  3. Light-emitting diode based on mask- and catalyst-free grown N-polar GaN nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert, G; Freund, W; Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Figge, S; Hommel, D [Institute of Solid State Physics-Semiconductor Epitaxy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schowalter, M; Rosenauer, A [Institute of Solid State Physics-Electron Microscopy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Kalden, J; Sebald, K; Gutowski, J [Institute of Solid State Physics-Semiconductor Optics-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Feneberg, M; Tischer, I; Fujan, K; Thonke, K, E-mail: kunert@ifp.uni-bremen.de [Institute of Quantum Matter-Semiconductor Physics-University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of a light-emitting diode based on GaN nanorods containing InGaN quantum wells. The unique system consists of tilted N-polar nanorods of high crystalline quality. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations consistently show quantum well emission around 2.6 eV. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements reveal a truncated shape of the quantum wells with In contents of (15 {+-} 5)%.

  4. Preparation and optical properties of GA(x)IN(1-x)P alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodot, H.; Horak, J.; Rouy, G.; Bourneix, J.

    1986-01-01

    The solution crystallization method was used to obtain Ga(z)In(1-x)P alloys for all values of x desired between zero and 1. The method of preparation makes it possible to crystallize the solid at a constant temperature. The points obtained by cathodoluminescence are nearly in straight lines. The optical absorption thresholds are confirmed in the results and make it possible to define the nature of the transitions except when x is in the neighborhood of 0.65. These determinations agree with those of Hilsum and Porteus (1968), but are not in agreement with those obtained by Lorenz et al, (1968).

  5. Luminescence of high-doped calcium sulfide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium sulfide crystals grown by high-temperatur mineralization tecnique have been studied. Bands peaked at 2.12 and 2.5-2.7 eV are considered the most invariable features of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra. It has been found that the 2.12 eV band is conditioned by optical electronic transitions in Mn2+ ions substituted for Ca2+ ions in the host lattice. The exciton mechanism of energy transfer to centers, that are responsible for the high-energy luminescence band, is discussed

  6. Micro-analysis of light emission properties of GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal S. Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland); Bozek, R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Miasojedovas, S.; Jursenas, S.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Building III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Phillips, M.R. [Microstructural Analysis Unit, UTS, Sydney (Australia); Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M. [Institute of High Pressure Physics (Unipress), Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Boettcher, T.; Figge, S.; Hommel, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    In-depth and in-plane changes of emission intensity from GaN-based laser diode structures were studied using cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL and a Kelvin probe (potential fluctuations). We show that even at high excitation density potential fluctuations are not screened in active layers of laser diode structures. Potential fluctuations are enhanced in p-type doped layers. We also found that dislocations are formed there, which can penetrate to active region of LD devices. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Obtainment and characterization of pure and doped gadolinium oxy ortho silicates with terbium III, precursor of luminescent silicates with sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicate and sulfide lattices are uniquely efficient luminescent materials to excitation by cathodic rays and furthermore the cathodoluminescence study of these compounds have been few investigated. In this work it has been prepared, characterized and investigated some spectroscopic properties of pure and Tba+ - activated Gd2 Si O3 system and it has been tried to substitute oxygen by sulphur in order to obtain this or sulfide-silicate lattices. Products were characterized by vibrational infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction patterns and electronic emission in UV-VIS region. (author)

  8. Wurtzite-type faceted single-crystalline GaN nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Chengchun; Shen, Guozhen; Golberg, Dmitri; Xu, Fangfang

    2006-02-01

    We report on the direct fabrication of single-crystalline wurtzite-type hexagonal GaN nanotubes via a newly designed, controllable, and reproducible chemical thermal-evaporation process. The nanotubes are single crystalline, have one end closed, an average outer diameter of ˜300nm, an inner diameter of ˜100nm, and a wall thickness of ˜100nm. The structure and morphology of the tubes are characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The cathodoluminescence of individual nanotubes is also investigated. The growth mechanism, formation kinetics, and crystallography of GaN nanotubes are finally discussed.

  9. Luminescence behavior of turquoise [CuAl{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 8}.4H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Feo, E., E-mail: ecrespo@geo.ucm.e [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, V.; Prado-Herrero, P. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    We, herein, study the thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL-SEM) emissions of a commercial turquoise to determine its possible use as an emergency dosimeter. CL spectrum of bulk sample displays an intense broad emission from {approx}260 to {approx}650 nm together with a weaker narrow band at {approx}710 nm. Through EDS and EMPA chemical analyses, an important amount of rare earth elements (REE) such as Ce, La, Y, Nd, Dy, Yb, Er, Pr, Sm, Gd, Ho, Tb, and Tm have been identified associated with phosphate phases as well as in turquoise itself. Apatite [Ca{sub 5}[OH(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

  10. Note: Portable rare-earth element analyzer using pyroelectric crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fuyuno, Naoto; Hanasaki, Kohei; Kawai, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    We report a portable rare-earth element analyzer with a palm-top size chamber including the electron source of a pyroelectric crystal and the sample stage utilizing cathodoluminescence (CL) phenomenon. The portable rare-earth element analyzer utilizing CL phenomenon is the smallest reported so far. The portable rare-earth element analyzer detected the rare-earth elements Dy, Tb, Er, and Sm of ppm order in zircon, which were not detected by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. We also performed an elemental mapping of rare-earth elements by capturing a CL image using CCD camera.

  11. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  13. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels

  14. Dispersive ground plane core-shell type optical monopole antennas fabricated with electron beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hakkı; Coenen, Toon; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, Laurens Kobus

    2012-09-25

    We present the bottom-up fabrication of dispersive silica core, gold cladding ground plane optical nanoantennas. The structures are made by a combination of electron-beam induced deposition of silica and sputtering of gold. The antenna lengths range from 300 to 2100 nm with size aspect ratios as large as 20. The angular emission patterns of the nanoantennas are measured with angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and compared with finite-element methods. Good overall correspondence between the the measured and calculated trends is observed. The dispersive nature of these plasmonic monopole antennas makes their radiation profile highly tunable. PMID:22889269

  15. Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 lithium triborate crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastable optical absorption and luminescence of LiB3O5 (LBO) nonlinear crystals in visible and ultraviolet ranges of spectrum were studied, the results are presented. By the method of absorption optical spectroscopy it was ascertained that short-lived optical absorption of LBO is brought about by optical transitions in hole centers. It is shown that kinetics of pulsed cathodoluminescence of LBO is controlled by recombination process involving two competing hole centers, interacting via valence zone, and small electronic centers of B2+. Radiative recombination dictates characteristic σ-polarized LBO luminescence in the range of 4.0 eV

  16. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enachi, Mihai [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Stefan cel Mare av. 168, Chisinau, MD-2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Sarua, Andrei [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ursaki, Veaceslav [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Tiginyanu, Ion, E-mail: tiginyanu@asm.md [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Stefan cel Mare av. 168, Chisinau, MD-2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-12-21

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO{sub 2} NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes.

  17. The nature of the edge emission bands of n-CdSe/mica epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spectra of the boundary cathodoluminescence of n-CdSe undoped epilayers grown in a quasi-closed system on mica crystals. It was established that in the layers obtained at the evaporation temperature of 650 degrees Celsius substrate temperature of 480 degrees Celsius and the density of the excitation current j = 0.5 A/cm2 on the long wave wing of the edge emission bands appear equidistant lines associated with LO - phonon replicas non-phonon line, due to the radiative capture of the band electrons by acceptor Vcd - center of the CdSe crystals. (authors)

  18. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Yanagihara; Takayuki Tsuji; Mohd Zamri Yusop; Masaki Tanemura; Shingo Ono; Tomohito Nagami; Kentaro Fukuda; Toshihisa Suyama; Yuui Yokota; Takayuki Yanagida; Akira Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3) thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Mor...

  19. Defect segregation and optical emission in ZnO nano- and microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, W. T.; Johansen, K. M.; Leedy, K. D.; Look, D. C.; von Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.; Farlow, G. C.; Brillson, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial distribution of defect related deep band emission has been studied in zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microwires using depth resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) in a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) mode within a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three sets of wires were examined that had been grown by pulsed laser deposition or vapor transport methods and ranged in diameter from 200 nm-2.7 μm. This data was analyzed by developing a 3D DRCLS simulation and using it to estimate the segregation depth and decay profile of the near surface defects. We observed different dominant defects from each growth process as well as diameter-dependent defect segregation behavior.The spatial distribution of defect related deep band emission has been studied in zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microwires using depth resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) in a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) mode within a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three sets of wires were examined that had been grown by pulsed laser deposition or vapor transport methods and ranged in diameter from 200 nm-2.7 μm. This data was analyzed by developing a 3D DRCLS simulation and using it to estimate the segregation depth and decay profile of the near surface defects. We observed different dominant defects from each growth process as well as diameter-dependent defect segregation behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR08248J

  20. Controlling the visible luminescence in hydrothermal ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence spectra have been measured in hydrothermal and hydrogen-doped ZnO at different excitation densities and temperatures to investigate the emission efficiencies of near-band-edge (NBE), green and yellow luminescence bands. The NBE intensity depends linearly on the electron beam excitation as expected for excitonic recombination character. The intensities of the green and yellow bands are highly dependent not only on the excitation density but also on temperature. At high excitation densities ZnO exhibits dominant green emission at room temperature; the intensity of the green band can be further controlled by doping ZnO with hydrogen, which passivates green luminescence centers. Conversely at small excitation densities (< 0.1 nA) and low temperatures the visible luminescence from ZnO is predominantly yellow due to the abundance of Li in hydrothermal ZnO. The results are explained by differences in the recombination kinetics and the relative concentrations of the green and yellow centers, and illustrate that single-color emission can be achieved in ZnO by adjusting the excitation power and temperature. - Highlights: • Hydrothermal ZnO crystals are analyzed by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. • Intensities of luminescence bands are highly dependent on excitation density. • Visible luminescence is influenced by temperature and hydrogen dopants. • Emission efficiencies are explained by recombination kinetics of defects

  1. Luminescence from Ce in sol-gel SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Nagpure, I.M.; Gusowski, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The sol-gel process provides an attractive low temperature alternative to the melt process for producing Ce-doped silica, but reports of the emission wavelength have not been consistent. In this paper, luminescence measurements using a variety of excitation methods, including cathodoluminescence not yet reported by other researchers, are compared and evaluated in the light of previously published data. Several papers report luminescence around 350 nm but emission near this wavelength was not found from our samples. This luminescence originates from Ce that has not yet been incorporated in the silica and is found in samples that have not undergone high temperature annealing. Our photoluminescence results from samples annealed in a reducing atmosphere suggest that emission from Ce incorporated in the silica lattice occurs near 455 nm, and some indication of the emission from Ce in amorphous clusters at 400 nm is also found. However, our results also confirm earlier indications that intrinsic defects in silica can create photoluminescence near both these wavelengths, which can make identification of the luminescence due to Ce difficult. Finally, it has been found that samples which have been annealed in air, and therefore display poor photoluminescence because most of the Ce occurs in the tetravalent form, are luminescent under electron beam excitation. It is suggested that during cathodoluminescence measurements Ce{sup 4+} ions capture electrons to form excited Ce{sup 3+} ions from which the luminescence originates.

  2. GaN tubes with coaxial non- and semipolar GaInN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the position-controlled growth of GaN nanotubes with coaxial GaInN quantum wells by using ZnO nanowires grown on top of GaN pyramids as templates. High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy allows us to perform a detailed structural analysis of individual tubes. In particular, we report about structural properties like indium incorporation, thickness, and homogeneity of quantum wells realized on nonpolar m-plane side facets or on semipolar tips. Additionally, high resolution spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy performed at low temperature enables us to clearly identify the quantum well luminescence contributions for different kinds of facets on a single tube. The luminescence of the quantum wells deposited at variable temperatures shows a clear spectral shift in the cathodoluminescence signal, yielding an activation energy for the indium desorption from the m-plane side facets of about 1.6 eV. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. GaN tubes with coaxial non- and semipolar GaInN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Dominik; Fikry, Mohamed; Meisch, Tobias; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Aschenbrenner, Timo [Institute of Solid State Physics/Semiconductor Epitaxy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas [Institute of Solid State Physics/Electron Microscopy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Madel, Manfred; Huber, Florian; Hocker, Matthias; Frey, Manuel; Tischer, Ingo; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institute of Quantum Matter/Semiconductor Physics Group, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics/Semiconductor Epitaxy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    We present the position-controlled growth of GaN nanotubes with coaxial GaInN quantum wells by using ZnO nanowires grown on top of GaN pyramids as templates. High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy allows us to perform a detailed structural analysis of individual tubes. In particular, we report about structural properties like indium incorporation, thickness, and homogeneity of quantum wells realized on nonpolar m-plane side facets or on semipolar tips. Additionally, high resolution spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy performed at low temperature enables us to clearly identify the quantum well luminescence contributions for different kinds of facets on a single tube. The luminescence of the quantum wells deposited at variable temperatures shows a clear spectral shift in the cathodoluminescence signal, yielding an activation energy for the indium desorption from the m-plane side facets of about 1.6 eV. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Nanoscale structure study of boron nitride nanosheets and development of a deep-UV photo-detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M; Feng, Peter

    2014-05-01

    In this communication, we report on the synthesis of few atomic-layer boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) and their application for deep ultraviolet photo-detection. Synthesis of BNNSs is carried out by using the short-pulse plasma beam deposition technique. High-resolution tunneling electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and photo-stimulated measurements are conducted and linked to characterize the BNNS morphology. The obtained BNNSs are flat with a typical size of 50 × 50 μm(2) and are optically transparent down to 210 nm. Nanoscale studies by transmission electron microscopy revealed that these nanosheets are composed of a densely packed honeycomb crystal lattice structure of covalently bonded boron and nitrogen atoms. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of these nanosheets revealed a single sharp excitonic peak centered at 233 nm at 300 K. The synthesized BNNSs are used to demonstrate applicability of BNNSs for detecting ultraviolet photons. The initial experimental tests of the developed prototype BNNSs based deep-ultraviolet photo-detector show that it is blind to photons with an energy less than 4 eV. The calculated output power of the detector is approximately 2 μW and the ratio between the output electrical power and the input optical power is ∼1%. PMID:24686984

  5. A stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Soo; Zirkle, Thomas E.; Schroder, Dieter K.

    1992-07-01

    We have demonstrated a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide (GaAs) using cathodoluminescence (CL), thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC), and low temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cathodoluminescence shows a local gettering effect around dislocation cores in bulk semi-insulating GaAs qualitatively. This gettering result was confirmed by low temperature FTIR data, which show absorption features resulting from the transition of electrons from the valence band to copper levels. The energy level of each absorption shoulder corresponds to the various copper levels in GaAs. After gettering, the absorption depth at each shoulder decreases. Thermally stimulated current measurements show changes after copper doping. The characteristic returns to that of uncontaminated GaAs after gettering. On the basis of these qualitative and quantitative data, we conclude that copper was gettered, and we propose a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated GaAs on the basis of dislocation cores acting as localized gettering sites.

  6. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  7. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks

  8. Thermal and electron stimulated luminescence of natural bones, commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Lopez, J; Correcher, V; Garcia-Guinea, J; Rivera, T; Lozano, I B

    2014-01-01

    The luminescence (cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence) properties of natural bones (Siberian mammoth and adult elephant), commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen were analyzed. Chemical analyses of the natural bones were determined using by Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EMPA). Structural, molecular and thermal characteristics were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Differential Thermal and Thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG). Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of natural bones and collagen showed similar intense broad bands at 440 and 490 nm related to luminescence of the tetrahedral anion [Formula: see text] or structural defects. A weaker luminescence exhibited at 310 nm could be attributed to small amount of rare earth elements (REEs). Four luminescent bands at 378, 424, 468 and 576 nm were observed in the commercial hydroxyapatite (HAP). Both natural bones and collagen samples exhibited natural thermoluminescence (NTL) with well-defined glow curves whereas that the induced thermoluminescence (ITL) only appears in the samples of commercial hydroxyapatite and collagen. Additional explanations for the TL anomalous fading of apatite, as a crucial difficulty performing dosimetry and dating, are also considered. PMID:24210921

  9. Structure and optical properties of cubic gallium oxynitride synthesized by solvothermal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberländer, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.oberlaender@ikts.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Kinski, Isabel [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zhu, Wenliang; Pezzotti, Giuseppe [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Michaelis, Alexander [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Cubic gallium oxynitride was synthesized using a solvothermal processing route. Crystal structure, chemical composition, optical properties and the influence of heat treatment in either reactive or inert atmospheres have been investigated. Despite a strongly distorted lattice revealed using X-ray diffraction, the Raman active modes of a cubic gallium oxynitride structure could be observed. With diffusive reflectance UV–Vis spectroscopy a band gap at around 4.8 eV has been observed. Additionally, cathodoluminescence spectroscopy exhibited observable luminescence caused by defect-related transitions within the optical gap. Cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra collected after heat treatments showed significant changes in the defect structure. In particular, for annealing in ammonia the main spectral modifications were related to the substitution of oxygen by nitrogen on anion sites. - Graphical abstract: CL spectra of gallium oxynitride: As-prepared and heat-treated at temperatures of 500 °C in different atmospheres. Highlights: ► Raman spectrum of cubic gallium oxynitride. ► Experimental determination of optical band gap. ► Shift of band gap energy due to heat treatment. ► Nitrogen incorporation leads to deep level acceptor states. ► Red shifted luminescence spectrum.

  10. Effect of the barrier growth mode on the luminescence and conductivity micron scale uniformity of InGaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a combined cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron beam induced current (EBIC) study of the optical and electrical properties of InGaN light emitting diodes grown using different active region growth methods. In one device, both the quantum wells and quantum barriers were deposited at their optimum temperatures (2 T), whereas in the other device, each barrier was grown in a two step process with the first few nanometers at a lower temperature (Q2T). It was found that in the Q2T sample, small micron scale domains of lower emission intensity correlate strongly to a lower EBIC signal, whereas in the 2 T sample which has a more uniform emission pattern and an anti-correlation exists between CL emission intensity and EBIC signal

  11. Spatially localised luminescence emission properties induced by formation of ring-shaped quasi-potential trap around V-pits in InGaN epi-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between surface structural and luminescence properties of InGaN epi-layers grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition has been investigated. Ring-shaped regions with high In-content are observed around V-pits by spatial resolved cathodoluminescence and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. These ring-shaped regions are found to form a potential energy well with depth about 300 meV with respect to the ordinary regions, which can attract carriers and suppress non-radiative recombination. The causes of the formation of high-In-content region are discussed. This localised characteristic of carriers is supported further by power and temperature dependent photoluminescence results. The understanding of the spatially emission characteristics might be helpful to improving the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Impact of Mg content on native point defects in MgxZn1−xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the densities, energy levels, and spatial distributions of zinc/magnesium cation and oxygen vacancies in isostructural, single-phase, non-polar MgxZn1−xO alloys over a wide (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) range. Within this wide range, both defect types exhibit strong Mg content-dependent surface segregation and pronounced bulk density minima corresponding to unit cell volume minima, which can inhibit defect formation due to electrostatic repulsion. Mg in ZnO significantly reduces native defect densities and their non-polar surface segregation, both major factors in carrier transport and doping of these oxide semiconductors

  13. V-pits as Barriers to Diffusion of Carriers in InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Dae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Shim, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Woon

    2015-11-01

    The luminescence characteristics of V-pits in InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW) correlated directly with the microstructure of the V-pits, as studied by use of transmission electron microscopy with cathodoluminescence. {10-11}-Faceted V-pits, formed in the QW, produce more intense blue-shifted emission than {0001}-plane QW. A dead emission center seems to be present at the corner of the V-pit which connects the R-plane and C-plane QW. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of indium-deficient QW at the corners of the V-pits. High potential barriers occur because of the lack of indium around the hexagonal V-pit; this effectively blocks diffusion of carriers into the threading dislocations known to be non-radiative recombination centers. V-pits thus have promise for improving the internal quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes.

  14. The investigation on strain relaxation and double peaks in photoluminescence of InGaN/GaN MQW layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two emission peaks were observed in the low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectra of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structure before and after nanopillar fabrication. After nanopillar fabrication it is found that among the two peaks the longer wavelength peak exhibits a clear blue shift and has a much stronger enhancement in LTPL intensity than the shorter one. Combined with x-ray diffraction and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence analyses, the difference induced by nanopillar fabrication is ascribed to different strain relaxation states in the lower and upper quantum well layers. It is found that the lower QW layers of the as-grown MQW which causes the longer wavelength PL peak are more strained, while the upper ones are almost fully strain-relaxed. Therefore, the nanopillar fabrication induces much less strain relaxation in the upper part of the MQW than in the lower one.

  15. Position-, size-, and shape-controlled highly crystalline ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Azusa N; Ono, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hidekazu, E-mail: a-hattori@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: h-tanaka@sanken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Center, Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, 8-1, Mihoga-oka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2011-10-14

    Highly ordered ZnO nanoboxes and nanowire structures with a width of {approx} 20 nm have been successfully fabricated by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and pulsed laser deposition utilizing a glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique. The periodicity, size, and shape of the ZnO nanoboxes and nanobelts can be easily controlled over a large area by changing the molds and deposition conditions. At the initial stage of growth by GLAD, nanonucleation led to nanopillar structures, which agglomerated to form nanobox and nanobelt structures at room temperature (RT). The ZnO nanostructures have a c-axis orientation along the nanopillar direction after postannealing and exhibit an intense cathodoluminescence peak around 380 nm at RT.

  16. Local analysis of Eu2+ emission in CaAlSiN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the local luminescence properties of Eu-doped CaAlSiN3 by using low-energy electron beam (e-beam) techniques. The particles yield broad emission centered at 655 nm with a shoulder at higher wavelength under light excitation, and a broad band around 643 nm with a tail at 540 nm under e-beam excitation. Using cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), we have observed small and large particles, which, although with different compositions, exhibit Eu2+-related emissions at 645 and 635 nm, respectively. Local CL measurements reveal that the Eu2+ emission may actually consist of several bands. In addition to the red broad band, regularly spaced sharp peaks have been occasionally observed. These luminescence variations may originate from a variation in the composition inside CaAlSiN3. (paper)

  17. Size effect on efficiency droop of blue light emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Y.B.; Chen, Z.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Wang, S.Y.; Zhang, G.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Z.; Xie, E.Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Zhang, Y.F.; McKendry, J.; Massoubre, D.; Gu, E.D. [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Rae, B.R.; Henderson, R.K. [Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    In this paper, the size effects on the efficiency droop (ED) in blue InGaN/GaN quantum well light emitting diode are investigated. The smaller size LEDs can work well under much higher power density, especially when the size is reduced to under 40 micro-meters. It shows a weaker ED in these small LEDs. Time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurements show a longer electroluminescence lifetime for smaller size LEDs, which implicates the nonradiative recombination is reduced. It is likely due to Auger recombination reduction by quantum well (QW) band flattened with the device size decreasing. Cathodoluminescence results indicates that the strain in QWs is relaxed both in the whole pillar and along radial direction of the pillar. The better performance of the smaller size LED is likely attributed to strain relaxation (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Nonstoichiometric Low-Temperature Grown GaAs Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Álvarez, Adrian; Xu, Tao; Tütüncüoglu, Gözde; Demonchaux, Thomas; Nys, Jean-Philippe; Berthe, Maxime; Matteini, Federico; Potts, Heidi A; Troadec, David; Patriarche, Gilles; Lampin, Jean-François; Coinon, Christophe; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Ebert, Philipp; Grandidier, Bruno

    2015-10-14

    The structural and electronic properties of nonstoichiometric low-temperature grown GaAs nanowire shells have been investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy, pump-probe reflectivity, and cathodoluminescence measurements. The growth of nonstoichiometric GaAs shells is achieved through the formation of As antisite defects, and to a lower extent, after annealing, As precipitates. Because of the high density of atomic steps on the nanowire sidewalls, the Fermi level is pinned midgap, causing the ionization of the subsurface antisites and the formation of depleted regions around the As precipitates. Controlling their incorporation offers a way to obtain unique electronic and optical properties that depart from the ones found in conventional GaAs nanowires. PMID:26339987

  19. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  20. Resonances of nanoparticles with poor plasmonic metal tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie; Desantis, Christopher J.; Collins, Sean M.; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    The catalytic and optical properties of metal nanoparticles can be combined to create platforms for light-driven chemical energy storage and enhanced in-situ reaction monitoring. However, the heavily damped plasmon resonances of many catalytically active metals (e.g. Pt, Pd) prevent this dual functionality in pure nanostructures. The addition of catalytic metals at the surface of efficient plasmonic particles thus presents a unique opportunity if the resonances can be conserved after coating. Here, nanometer resolution electron-based techniques (electron energy loss, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) are used to show that Au particles incorporating a catalytically active but heavily damped metal, Pd, sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) that are narrow and strongly localized at the Pd-rich tips. The resonances also couple with a dielectric substrate and other nanoparticles, establishing that the full range of plasmonic behavior is observed in these multifunctional nanostructures despite the presence of Pd.

  1. Selective area epitaxy of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate selective-area-epitaxy (SAE) as a tool for selectively controlling the physical and optical properties of quantum-dots (QDs), aiming at integration of QD devices. MOCVD growth of InGaAs/lnAs QDs on GaAs wafers patterned with pairs of SiO2 stripes is studied. Atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence are used for characterisation of these QDs. We show that InGaAs QD luminescence can be tuned over a range of 100nm by varying the dimensions of and/or spacings between the SiO2 stripes. Growth of InGaAs quantum-well and QDs on different parts of the same wafer, without using etch and regrowth techniques is also demonstrated. Results for the InAs/GaAs system are also presented. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  2. Phosphor-free nanopyramid white light-emitting diodes grown on (101¯1) planes using nanospherical-lens photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a high-efficiency and low-cost nano-pattern method, the nanospherical-lens photolithography technique, to fabricate a SiO2 mask for selective area growth. By controlling the selective growth, we got a highly ordered hexagonal nanopyramid light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on nanofacets, demonstrating an electrically driven phosphor-free white light emission. We found that both the quantum well width and indium incorporation increased linearly along the (101¯1) planes towards the substrate and the perpendicular direction to the (101¯1) planes as well. Such spatial distribution was responsible for the broadband emission. Moreover, using cathodoluminescence techniques, it was found that the blue emission originated from nanopyramid top, resembling the quantum dots, green emission from the InGaN quantum wells layer at the middle of sidewalls, and yellow emission mainly from the bottom of nanopyramid ridges, similar to the quantum wires

  3. Mechanical responses of single-crystal ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkovich nanoindentation-induced deformation in single-crystal ZnO was investigated by using cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) techniques. The load-displacement curves exhibit the clear features of multiple 'pop-ins', albeit somewhat randomly, in the load increasing segment. The XTEM results reveal that the primary plastic deformation is the propagation of dislocations with no evidence of either phase transformation or formation of micro-cracking. The CL images of nanoindentation show the rosette structures typical of the hexagonal system. However, unlike those displayed in similar studies using spherical indenters, the distribution of deformation-induced extended defects/dislocations appears to be more localized for the current Berkovich indentations. Furthermore, the CL spectra recorded at room temperature showed progressive degradation in the near band-edge luminescence intensity with increasing nanoindentation load, indicating severe lattice damages might have occurred.

  4. Optical Properties of GaN Nanorods Containing a Single or Multiple InGaN Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yi D.; Lis, Szymon; Bruckbauer, Jochen; O'Kane, Simon E. J.; Shields, Philip A.; Edwards, Paul R.; Sarma, Jayanta; Martin, Robert W.; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.

    2013-08-01

    Measurements of light emission from GaN nanorods of diameter between 80 and 350 nm, containing either a three-well multiple InGaN quantum well or a single quantum well, have been performed by photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging. The PL underwent a Stark shift to the blue as the nanorod diameter was reduced, indicating substantial relaxation of the compressive strain in the quantum wells. The intensity of the nanorod emission per unit area can exceed that of the planar starting material. The CL measurements revealed that the wavelength of the quantum well emission varied with radial position in the nanorod. Simulations by a modal expansion method revealed that the light extraction efficiency varies with radial position and the variation is dependent on nanorod diameter. Finite difference time domain simulations showed that Bloch mode formation in the buffer layer below the nanorods impacts on the light extraction.

  5. Combined CL/EBIC/DLTS investigation of a regular dislocation network formed by Si wafer direct bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical levels of the dislocation network in Si and recombination processes via these levels were studied by means of the combination of grain-boundary deep level transient spectroscopy, grain-boundary electron beam induced current (GB-EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL). It was found two deep level traps and one shallow trap existed at the interface of the bonded interface; these supply the recombination centers for carriers. The total recombination probability based on GB-EBIC data increased with the excitation level monotonically; however, the radiative recombination based on D1-D2 CL data exhibited a maximum at a certain excitation level. By applying an external bias across the bonded interface, the CL signal of D-lines was enhanced dramatically. These results are consistent with our models about two channels of recombination via the trap levels

  6. Carbon-doped SiO x nanowires with a large yield of white emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of SiO x nanowires (NWs) with intense white emission is reported. Due to carbon monoxide gas being used as a dopant precursor, carbon-doped under-stoichiometric silicon dioxide NWs are obtained. The doping of the NWs is studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which allows to assess the presence of carbon atoms in the silicon oxide amorphous structure. The light emission properties are studied by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows three main emission bands set at 2.7 eV (blue), 2.3 eV (green) and 1.9 eV (red), resulting in the white emission. (papers)

  7. Radiation resistance diagnostics of wide-gap optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbach, Eduard; Tõldsepp, Eliko; Kirm, Marco; Lushchik, Aleksandr; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki

    2016-05-01

    Novel approach in the detection of radiation damage created by ion beams in optical materials was demonstrated. Protons of the energy of 100 keV and fluence of 1017 cm-2 create sufficient amount of crystal lattice defects in the thin surface layer for testing of optical materials needed for future fusion reactors. These structural defects can be detected and analysed using the spectra of cathodoluminescence excited in the irradiated layer by an electron beam with adjustable energy. The method was verified by the enhanced intensity of F-type luminescence that reflects the creation of radiation-induced oxygen vacancies in MgO and Al2O3 crystals. Low radiation resistance of nominally pure (Lu1-xGdx)2SiO5 crystals was demonstrated by almost total suppression of intrinsic luminescence after the same irradiation.

  8. Diffraction-unlimited optical imaging of unstained living cells in liquid by electron beam scanning of luminescent environmental cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Hideki T; Kasaya, Takeshi; Takemura, Taro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Yasuda, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-11-18

    An environmental cell with a 50-nm-thick cathodoluminescent window was attached to a scanning electron microscope, and diffraction-unlimited near-field optical imaging of unstained living human lung epithelial cells in liquid was demonstrated. Electrons with energies as low as 0.8 - 1.2 kV are sufficiently blocked by the window without damaging the specimens, and form a sub-wavelength-sized illumination light source. A super-resolved optical image of the specimen adhered to the opposite window surface was acquired by a photomultiplier tube placed below. The cells after the observation were proved to stay alive. The image was formed by enhanced dipole radiation or energy transfer, and features as small as 62 nm were resolved. PMID:24514332

  9. Phosphorus Doping of Polycrystalline CdTe by Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Albin, David S.; Guthrey, Harvey; Harvey, Steve; Burst, James; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    Phosphorus diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline CdTe material is explored using various methods. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to determine 1D P diffusion profiles. A 2D diffusion model is used to determine the expected cross-sectional distribution of P in CdTe after diffusion anneals. Time of flight SIMS and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence corroborates expected P distributions. Devices fabricated with diffused P exhibit hole concentrations up to low 1015 cm-3, however a subsequent activation anneal enabled hole concentrations greater than 1016 cm-3. CdCl2 treatments and Cu based contacts were also explored in conjunction with the P doping process.

  10. Probing plasmons in three dimensions in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Mouti, Anas; Mayo, Daniel; Marvinney, Claire; Mu, Richard; Haglund, Richard; Pennycook, Stephen; Chisholm, Matthew; Pantelides, Sokrates

    2015-03-01

    The optical behavior of nanostructured materials is of significant interest across many fields. Surface plasmons and their interactions with emitters in nanoscale devices allow us to control light below the coherence limit. By understanding the nature of plasmonics at the local level we can move towards unlocking the full potential of photonic devices. To this end, we examine plasmonic Ag nanoparticles suspended on insulating nanowires by combining cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and high resolution annular dark field imaging in a scanning transmission electron microscope. The complementary nature of CL and EELS allow us to extract optical data from a randomly shaped and oriented nanoparticle, and understand its plasmonic behavior in all three spatial dimensions. This work was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, as well as NSF-EPS-1004083 and NSF-TN-SCORE.

  11. Characterization of GaN Nanorods Fabricated Using Ni Nanomasking and Reactive Ion Etching: A Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Large thermal mismatch between GaN surface and sapphire results in compressive stress in Gallium Nitride (GaN layer which degrades the device performance. Nanostructuring the GaN can reduce this stress leading to reduction in Quantum Confined Stark Effect. Aligned GaN nanorods based nanodevices have potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. This paper describes the fabrication of GaN nanorods using Ni nanomasking and reactive ion etching. The morphology of GaN nanorods was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of GaN nanorods were studied by Cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy. CL results revealed the existence of characteristic band-edge luminescence and yellow band luminescence.

  12. Luminescence emission of natural fluorite and synthetic CaF2:Mn (TLD-400)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaksu, Mustafa; Correcher, Virgilio; Garcia-Guinea, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The luminescence properties of natural white fluorite indicate that it could be employed as radiation dosimeter similarly to synthetic CaF2:Mn (TLD-400). The cathodoluminescence emission of the natural sample (two maxima) meanwhile TLD-400 (one peak) exhibits a different behaviour associated with the chemical composition. The mineral sample displays (i) a significant UV-blue emission associated with different structural defects (negligible in the synthetic sample) and (ii) a shift of the green emission to higher wavelengths respect to the TLD-400. The green induced TL emission also shows significant differences in intensity (higher in TLD-400) and sensitivity. Both samples display a complex induced green TL glow curve that could not be analysed assuming the model based on the discrete trap distribution. The Tm-Tstop method indicates the presence of close overlapping groups of components linked probably to a continuum in the trap distribution rather than a single trapping level.

  13. A combined study of SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace element and mineral inclusions on high-pressure metamorphic overgrowth zircon in eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuli; LI Shuguang; HOU Zhenhui1; HONG Jian; YANG Wei1

    2005-01-01

    Methods recently advanced for discrimination on the genesis of metamorphic zircon, such as analysis of mineral inclusions and trace elements, provide us powerful means to distinguish zircon overgrowth during high-pressure metamorphism. Zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane were studied by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in combining with trace element and mineral inclusion analyses. No inherited core was identified in the analyzed zircons by means of cathodoluminescence images. The occurrence of high-pressure metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircon, such as garnet, omphacite, rutile, and the flat HREE pattern in zircon indicate that the zircon formed at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Therefore, a weighted average U-Pb age of 227.4 ± 3.5 Ma obtained from such a kind of zircon is interpreted to represent the timing of peak metamorphism for the Qinglongshan eclogite.

  14. Morphological dependent Indium incorporation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells structure grown on 4° misoriented sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epitaxial layers of InGaN/GaN MQWs structure were grown on both planar and vicinal sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By comparing the epitaxial layers grown on planar substrate, the sample grown on 4° misoriented from c-plane toward m-plane substrate exhibited many variations both on surface morphology and optical properties according to the scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy results. Many huge steps were observed in the misoriented sample and a large amount of V-shape defects located around the boundary of the steps. Atoms force microscopy images show that the steps were inclined and deep grooves were formed at the boundary of the adjacent steps. Phase separation was observed in the CL spectra. CL mapping results also indicated that the deep grooves could effectively influence the localization of Indium atoms and form an In-rich region.

  15. Evaluation of multiple-quantum-well structure on InGaN template using (11 anti 22) facet growth and mass transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Miyatake, Takaaki; Shinagawa, Taku; Abe, Yuki; Murakami, Kazuma; Li, Bocheng; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Satoru; Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8611 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    We succeeded in the fabrication of a thick InGaN template by (11 anti 22) facet growth and mass transport. Thick InGaN was grown on a GaN (11 anti 22) facet with a stable facet structure. After 20 min annealing under a flow of NH3 and N2, the InGaN with the (11 anti 22) facet was perfectly embedded owing to mass transport. Subsequently, a multiple-quantum-well structure was fabricated on the InGaN template and characterized using monochromatic cathodoluminescence measurement. As a result, we found that there were two regions with peak emission wavelengths of 420 and 500 nm because of the compositional pulling effect. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of multiple-quantum-well structure on InGaN template using (11 anti 22) facet growth and mass transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We succeeded in the fabrication of a thick InGaN template by (11 anti 22) facet growth and mass transport. Thick InGaN was grown on a GaN (11 anti 22) facet with a stable facet structure. After 20 min annealing under a flow of NH3 and N2, the InGaN with the (11 anti 22) facet was perfectly embedded owing to mass transport. Subsequently, a multiple-quantum-well structure was fabricated on the InGaN template and characterized using monochromatic cathodoluminescence measurement. As a result, we found that there were two regions with peak emission wavelengths of 420 and 500 nm because of the compositional pulling effect. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Impact of Mg content on native point defects in Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J.; Foster, G. M. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Myer, M.; Mehra, S. [Columbus School for Girls, 56 S. Columbia Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43209 (United States); Chauveau, J. M. [Centre de Recherche sur l’Hetero-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06102 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Hierro, A. [Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica and ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Dpto. Física Aplicada y Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Windl, W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road N., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Brillson, L. J., E-mail: brillson.1@osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the densities, energy levels, and spatial distributions of zinc/magnesium cation and oxygen vacancies in isostructural, single-phase, non-polar Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloys over a wide (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) range. Within this wide range, both defect types exhibit strong Mg content-dependent surface segregation and pronounced bulk density minima corresponding to unit cell volume minima, which can inhibit defect formation due to electrostatic repulsion. Mg in ZnO significantly reduces native defect densities and their non-polar surface segregation, both major factors in carrier transport and doping of these oxide semiconductors.

  18. Impact of Mg content on native point defects in MgxZn1−xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Perkins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the densities, energy levels, and spatial distributions of zinc/magnesium cation and oxygen vacancies in isostructural, single-phase, non-polar MgxZn1−xO alloys over a wide (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56 range. Within this wide range, both defect types exhibit strong Mg content-dependent surface segregation and pronounced bulk density minima corresponding to unit cell volume minima, which can inhibit defect formation due to electrostatic repulsion. Mg in ZnO significantly reduces native defect densities and their non-polar surface segregation, both major factors in carrier transport and doping of these oxide semiconductors.

  19. CL from ZnO nanowires and microneedles Co-doped with N and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) was used to study the luminescence emission of ZnO : N, Mn nanowires and microneedles grown by thermal evaporation. CL spectra acquired at room temperature showed the presence of near band edge and defect-related emissions. The defect related emission comprised two bands centered at 2.28 and 2.5 eV. The first component was attributed to the formation of spinel ZnMn2O4 and the second to the well-known ZnO green emission. CL spectra acquired at 100 K showed two emissions centered at 3.22 and 3.25 eV that were attributed to donor–acceptor pair (DAP) and FA transitions, respectively. It was proposed that substitutional nitrogen (NO) and zinc interstitial (Zni) were acceptor and shallow-donor centers in the DAP transition. (paper)

  20. CL from ZnO nanowires and microneedles Co-doped with N and Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M.; Morales, A.; Díaz, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) was used to study the luminescence emission of ZnO : N, Mn nanowires and microneedles grown by thermal evaporation. CL spectra acquired at room temperature showed the presence of near band edge and defect-related emissions. The defect related emission comprised two bands centered at 2.28 and 2.5 eV. The first component was attributed to the formation of spinel ZnMn2O4 and the second to the well-known ZnO green emission. CL spectra acquired at 100 K showed two emissions centered at 3.22 and 3.25 eV that were attributed to donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and FA transitions, respectively. It was proposed that substitutional nitrogen (NO) and zinc interstitial (Zni) were acceptor and shallow-donor centers in the DAP transition.

  1. Intensity dependent photoluminescence studies on zinc oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzolov, Marian; Epps, Andrew; Driscoll, Eric; Barcikowski, Zachary

    2012-02-01

    The ZnO nanowires were grown by the chemical vapor transport method using a thin gold film as a catalyst. Their light emission in the visible and near UV spectral range was studied using excitation sources with large variation of the pump intensity, e.g. Xenon lamp, UV LEDs, nitrogen laser. The photoluminescence spectrum consists typically of the exciton emission band and a defect related band in the green spectral range. We have observed drastic change in the photoluminescence spectrum at high pump intensities with drastically decreased intensity of the defect related band. The results have been interpreted within a model accounting for the surface effects and associated band banding at the surface. Cathodoluminescence measurements of ZnO nanowires and bulk films were performed, which support the proposed model.

  2. Thermal annealing of selected individual quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence spectra of single InAs/GaAs quantum dots were recorded before and after consecutive thermal annealing steps. The annealing process leads to an overall blueshift of the spectra indicating In/Ga interdiffusion. Excitonic fine-structure splitting and binding energies of charged and neutral excitonic complexes were monitored. A drastic reduction of the fine-structure splitting from 170 μeV to less than 20 μeV can be observed accompanied by a change of the character of the biexciton from anti-binding to binding with respect to the exciton. Tailoring the fine-structure splitting is especially important for the use of single quantum dots in opto-electronic devices for quantum key distribution where a degeneracy of the exciton ground state (i.e. a fine-structure splitting below the homogeneous linewidth) is required for the on-demand production of entangled photon pairs

  3. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M; Christiansen, Silke H; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  4. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachtel, J A; Marvinney, C; Mouti, A; Mayo, D; Mu, R; Pennycook, S J; Lupini, A R; Chisholm, M F; Haglund, R F; Pantelides, S T

    2016-04-15

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications. PMID:26934391

  5. On the luminescence of freshly introduced a-screw dislocations in low-resistance GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, O. S., E-mail: o.s.medvedev@spbu.ru; Vyvenko, O. F.; Bondarenko, A. S. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Using scanning electron microscopy in the cathodoluminescence mode, it is shown that straight segments of a-screw dislocations introduced by plastic deformation at room temperature into unintentionally doped low-resistance gallium nitride luminesce in the spectral range 3.1–3.2 eV at 70 K. The spectral composition of dislocation luminescence shows a fine doublet structure with a component width of ∼15 meV and splitting of ∼30 meV, accompanied by LO-phonon replicas. Luminescent screw dislocations move upon exposure to an electron beam and at low temperatures, but retain immobility for a long time without external excitation. Optical transitions involving the quantum-well states of a stacking fault in a split-dislocation core are considered to be the most probable mechanism of the observed phenomenon.

  6. On the luminescence of freshly introduced a-screw dislocations in low-resistance GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning electron microscopy in the cathodoluminescence mode, it is shown that straight segments of a-screw dislocations introduced by plastic deformation at room temperature into unintentionally doped low-resistance gallium nitride luminesce in the spectral range 3.1–3.2 eV at 70 K. The spectral composition of dislocation luminescence shows a fine doublet structure with a component width of ∼15 meV and splitting of ∼30 meV, accompanied by LO-phonon replicas. Luminescent screw dislocations move upon exposure to an electron beam and at low temperatures, but retain immobility for a long time without external excitation. Optical transitions involving the quantum-well states of a stacking fault in a split-dislocation core are considered to be the most probable mechanism of the observed phenomenon

  7. Dense vertical nanoplates arrays and nanobelts of indium doped ZnO grown by thermal treatment of ZnS-In 2O 3 powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, B.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2010-10-01

    Dense vertical arrays of indium doped ZnO nanoplates have been grown by thermal treatment of compacted ZnS-In 2O 3 powders with 0.35 at% of In. The distribution of nanoplates is related to the grain structure of the substrate. Only a small content of In has been detected in the plates by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, but comparison with previous works shows that its presence in the precursor determines the growth of the nanoplates. Increase in the amount of In in the precursor leads to the growth of long indium doped ZnO nanobelts. Cathodoluminescence spectra of the nanobelts show a 23 meV blue shift of the band edge emission.

  8. Fe solubility, growth mechanism, and luminescence of Fe doped ZnO nanowires and nanorods grown by evaporation-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Belén; Ortega, Yanicet; García, José Ángel; Fernández, Paloma; Piqueras, Javier

    2011-07-01

    Fe doped ZnO nanowires, nanorods, and urchin-like nanostructures have been grown using an evaporation-deposition method with compacted mixtures of ZnS and Fe2O3 powders, with different Fe contents as precursors. Treatments at 950 °C under argon flow lead to the growth of iron doped nanowires, nanorods, and other nanostructures on the surface of the compacted sample. The incorporation of iron into the nanostructures has been investigated via energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as by cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence in an optical microscope. The iron content in the structures is limited to the range of 0.5-0.7 at.% and does not depend on the content in the precursor. Bright and dark field imaging and twist contour analysis via transmission electron microscopy support the possibility of a dislocation driven growth of the nanowires.

  9. Current path in light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using ensembles of free-standing (In, Ga)N/GaN nanowires (NWs) grown on Si substrates in the self-induced growth mode by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron-beam-induced current analysis, cathodoluminescence as well as biased μ-photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements indicate that the electroluminescence of such LEDs is governed by the differences in the individual current densities of the single-NW LEDs operated in parallel, i.e. by the inhomogeneity of the current path in the ensemble LED. In addition, the optoelectronic characterization leads to the conclusion that these NWs exhibit N-polarity and that the (In, Ga)N quantum well states in the NWs are subject to a non-vanishing quantum confined Stark effect. (paper)

  10. Growth and characterization of ZnMgSrO thin films lattice-matched to ZnO and with deep-UV energy band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaternary Zn1-x-yMgxSryO films were grown and characterized in detail, which were observed to be lattice matched to the ZnO by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cathodoluminescence measurement showed that near-band UV emission peaks of the samples move toward higher energy as concentration of Mg and Sr increases, to 3.67 eV for the Zn0.87Mg0.08Sr0.05O and to 4.02 eV for the Zn0.72Mg0.17Sr0.11O. It was also observed by the scanning electron microscopy and the XRD that the films are single crystalline. It is believed that the ZnMgSrO films would be one of the important candidate materials for the high quality deep-UV optoelectronic devices.

  11. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, M., E-mail: mihcu@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Pedersen, H., E-mail: henke@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Högberg, H., E-mail: hanho@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Filippov, S., E-mail: stafi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); O' Connel, J., E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A., E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp{sup 2}-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  12. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp2-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  13. Effect of Mn doping on the thermoluminescence of CaF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence (TL) of undoped and Mn doped CaF2 crystals is studied. Results indicate that like colour centre formation wide diver-gencies exist in TL properties as well, with temperature of irradiation and the types of ionising radiation used (X-rays or cathode rays). In undoped crystals, while TL is observed with X-rays at all temperatures of irradiation upto 250degC, no TL is observed above 150degC when cathode rays are used. Mn doping inhibits TL emission even at lower temperatures - 50degC in the case of 1% Mn and 100degC in the case of 5% Mn doped crystals respectively. Utilising the information on the cathodoluminescence spectra and colour centre formation in Mn doped crystals, the TL behaviour of these doped crystals is explained in the light of the present ideas of the understanding of the electronic properties of this system. (author)

  14. Some applications of ion beam techniques in earth science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques at GNS are used to (1) analyse for elemental compositions of rock powders and minerals including coal, (2) determine fine-scale elemental distributions in glass, individual minerals and whole rocks using imaging, line-scanning or point analyses and (3) probe compositions of buried structures in polished rock sections such as fluid and melt inclusions including daughter minerals in fluid inclusions. Apart from these, IBA techniques are also used (1) for standard-independent hydrogen detection and profiling at ppm levels (e.g. elastic recoil detection analysis or ERDA) and elemental depth profiling (Rutherford backscattering or RBS), (2) to probe lattice residence of major and minor trace elements and (3) to map zonation of certain ions, such as REE, in minerals using ionoluminescence (IL) or a combination of cathodoluminescence and PIXE. (author). 82 refs., 9 figs

  15. Some applications of ion beam techniques in earth science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques at GNS are used to (1) analyse for elemental compositions of rock powders and minerals including coal, (2) determine fine-scale elemental distributions in glass, individual minerals and whole rocks using imaging, line-scanning or point analyses and (3) probe compositions of buried structures in polished rock sections such as fluid and melt inclusions including daughter minerals in fluid inclusions. Apart from these, IBA techniques are also used (1) for standard-independent hydrogen detection and profiling at ppm levels (e.g. elastic recoil detection analysis or ERDA) and elemental depth profiling (Rutherford backscattering or RBS), (2) to probe lattice residence of major and minor trace elements and (3) to map zonation of certain ions, such as REE, in minerals using ionoluminescence (IL) or a combination of cathodoluminescence and PIXE. (author). 84 refs., 9 figs

  16. Reduction in the concentration of cation vacancies by proper Si-doping in the well layers of high AlN mole fraction Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}N multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chichibu, S. F., E-mail: chichibulab@yahoo.co.jp; Ishikawa, Y.; Furusawa, K. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Miyake, H. [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan); Hiramatsu, K. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu 514-8507 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Appropriate-amount Si-doping in the well layers significantly improved the luminescence efficiency of Al{sub 0.68}Ga{sub 0.32}N/Al{sub 0.77}Ga{sub 0.23}N multiple quantum wells. To understand the mechanisms, spatio-time-resolved cathodoluminescence measurements and self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations were carried out. The increase in the luminescence lifetime at room temperature, which reflects the decrease in the concentration of nonradiative recombination centers (NRCs), was correlated with increased terrace width of Si-doped wells. The results suggest the importance of H{sub 3}SiNH{sub 2} doping-reactant formation that gives rise to enhanced decomposition of NH{sub 3} and provides wetting conditions by surface Si-N bonds, which reduce the total energy and concentration of NRCs composed of cation vacancies.

  17. Present State of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Prospective Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, R A; Field, D P; Adams, B L; Kumar, M; Schwartz, A J

    2008-10-24

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), when employed as an additional characterization technique to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), enables individual grain orientations, local texture, point-to-point orientation correlations, and phase identification and distributions to be determined routinely on the surfaces of bulk polycrystals. The application has experienced rapid acceptance in metallurgical, materials, and geophysical laboratories within the past decade (Schwartz et al. 2000) due to the wide availability of SEMs, the ease of sample preparation from the bulk, the high speed of data acquisition, and the access to complementary information about the microstructure on a submicron scale. From the same specimen area, surface structure and morphology of the microstructure are characterized in great detail by the relief and orientation contrast in secondary and backscatter electron images, element distributions are accessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), or cathodoluminescence analysis, and the orientations of single grains and phases can now be determined, as a complement, by EBSD.

  18. In situ monitoring of stacking fault formation and its carrier lifetime mediation in p-type 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin, E-mail: chenbinmse@gmail.com; Chen, Jun; Yao, Yuanzhao; Sekiguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Okumura, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Using the fine control of an electron beam (e-beam) in scanning electron microscopy with the capabilities of both electrical and optical imaging, the stacking fault (SF) formation together with its tuning of carrier lifetime was in situ monitored and investigated in p-type 4H-SiC homoepitaxial films. The SFs were formed through engineering basal plane dislocations with the energy supplied by the e-beam. The e-beam intensity required for the SF formation in the p-type films was ∼100 times higher than that in the n-type ones. The SFs reduced the minority-carrier lifetime in the p-type films, which was opposite to that observed in the n-type case. The reason for the peculiar SF behavior in the p-type 4H-SiC is discussed with the cathodoluminescence results.

  19. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using an environmental cell with silicon nitride membrane windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We applied hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to a sample under ambient pressure conditions using an environmental cell with an approximately 24 nm-thick SiNx membrane window. As a model chemical substance, europium (II) iodide (EuI2) sealed in the cell with argon gas was investigated with HAXPES to identify the chemical species present inside the cell. The optical and morphological properties of the sample within the cell were measured with optical and fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. We confirmed the effectiveness of the gas barrier properties of the cell with the SiNx window and demonstrated its applicability to various other optical and electron measurements as well as HAXPES

  20. Decoration of ZnO Nanorods with Coral Reefs like NiO Nanostructures by the Hydrothermal Growth Method and Their Luminescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.

  1. Effect of nanoscaled SnO2 coating on ZnS:Mn phosphors under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence properties of SnO2-coated ZnS:Mn phosphors are investigated. In the case of photoluminescence, emission intensities show little change when SnO2 is coated on the surface of ZnS:Mn, while in the case of cathodoluminescence (CL), emission intensities vary depending on excitation energies. In order to determine the luminescence behaviors, surface analyses of the phosphors were performed. Auger electron spectroscopy showed that the width of the SnO2 layer on the ZnS:Mn phosphor was saturated at approximately 120nm. Also, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the SnO2 layers are well formed and saturated when the molar ratios of Sn/Zn are larger than 0.005. These results suggest that the changes in the CL emissions can be attributed to a lowering of the junction barrier

  2. Short-living centers of color and luminescence in LiNbO3 crystals irradiated by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents data on investigation into spectra of short-living optical absorption (SOA) and of luminescence inducted in lithium niobate crystals under pulsed electron irradiation (0.25 MeV, 20 ns, 15-160 mJ/Cm2) within 80-350 K temperature range. Within SOA spectra one distinguished anisotropic band with maximums at 1.6 and 4.0 eV resulting from capture of one or two conduction electrons for bunches (NbNb - NbLi) respectively as well as, slightly polarized bands at 2.5 and 3.3 eV caused by holes localized in Li and Nb vacancies. Cathodoluminescence (CL) of lithium niobate crystals is characterized by quick (τ < 4 ns) dying down. Variation of initial defect nature of crystal via their regeneration under 830 K is shown to result in similar for CL and for SOA variation of spectra

  3. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  4. Characterization of submonolayer film composed of soft-landed copper nanoclusters on HOPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preformed Copper nanoclusters are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at very low energy. For the study of chemical composition X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is performed for a wide range of binding energy without exposing the sample in the ambient. Morphological aspects of the supported clusters are characterized employing high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different types of morphology are observed depending on the nature of the substrate surface. Big fractal islands are formed on terraces while at the step edges small islands are found to form. Ex-situ cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement shows peak at 558 nm wavelength which corresponds to the band gap of 2.22 eV which is due to Cu2O nanocrystals formed due to oxidation of the deposited film in ambient

  5. Origin of the visible emission of black silicon microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronics, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications due to its indirect electronic band gap that limits its efficiency as light emitter. Here, we univocally determine at the nanoscale the origin of visible emission in microstructured black silicon by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging. We demonstrate the formation of amorphous silicon oxide microstructures with a white emission. The white emission is composed by four features peaking at 1.98 eV, 2.24 eV, 2.77 eV, and 3.05 eV. The origin of such emissions is related to SiOx intrinsic point defects and to the sulfur doping due to the laser processing. Similar results go in the direction of developing optoelectronic devices suitable for silicon-based circuitry

  6. Strongly enhanced ultraviolet emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO plasmonic hybrid nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Mao, Shengcheng; Wu, Hua; Guo, Xia; Ji, Yuan; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    We present the surface plasmon polariton (SPP)-enhanced ultraviolet (UV) emission of an Au@SiO2/ZnO hybrid nanostructure. We achieved approximately 20- and 8-fold enhancements of the UV-emitting intensities from Au-SPP coupled nanometre- and micrometre-scaled ZnO wires through an optimized 5 nm-thick SiO2 spacer compared to that obtained from bare ZnO on a Si substrate without SPP coupling. Cathodoluminescence measurements and simulations demonstrated that the plasmonic hybrid nanostructure enables the strong localization of the SPP field, resulting in significantly enhanced UV emission. This plasmonic structure paves the way to nanoscale UV-optical lasers and sensors.

  7. Investigation of manganese in salt- and freshwater pearls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trace element distribution in natural and cultured pearls is analysed by micro-PIXE, cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to develop a new method to distinguish cultured from natural pearls. These different kinds of pearls can be identified by their manganese content and its distribution in aragonite and calcite structure, respectively. Manganese content of natural freshwater pearls from Persian Gulf was compared to that of natural freshwater pearls from the Mississippi river (USA). Moreover manganese content of tissue-graft freshwater pearls from Chansu (China) was compared to that of natural freshwater pearls from the Mississippi river (USA). It was proved that the Chinese freshwater tissue-graft cultured pearls generally contain domains of calcite, emitting orange Mn2+-activated CL which are almost absent in the natural freshwater pearls from the Mississippi river. Freshwater pearls showing much higher Mn concentrations build in calcitic and aragonitic parts compared to saltwater pearls

  8. Diverse Electron-Induced Optical Emissions from Space Observatory Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J.R.; Jensen, Amberly Evans; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (electron currents and arcing-as well as light emission absolute intensity and frequency-depend on electron beam energy, power, and flux and the temperature and thickness of different bulk (polyimides, epoxy resins, and silica glasses) and composite dielectric materials (disordered SiO2 thin films, carbon- and fiberglass-epoxy composites, and macroscopically-conductive carbon-loaded polyimides). We conclude that electron-induced optical emissions resulting from interactions between observatory materials and the space environment electron flux can, in specific circumstances, make significant contributions to the stray light background that could possibly adversely affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  9. Excitonic localization in AlN-rich AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN multi-quantum-well grain boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.

    2014-09-22

    AlGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells (MQW) with AlN-rich grains have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The grains are observed to have strong excitonic localization characteristics that are affected by their sizes. The tendency to confine excitons progressively intensifies with increasing grain boundary area. Photoluminescence results indicate that the MQW have a dominant effect on the peak energy of the near-bandedge emission at temperatures below 150 K, with the localization properties of the grains becoming evident beyond 150 K. Cathodoluminescence maps reveal that the grain boundary has no effect on the peak intensities of the AlGaN/AlGaN samples.

  10. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, Jacopo; Tchernij, Sviatoslav Ditalia; Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Traina, Paolo; Degiovanni, Ivo; Moreva, Ekaterina; Brida, Giorgio; Grilj, Veljko; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Genovese, Marco; Olivero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10^15-10^17 cm^{-2} fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Moreover, the PL emission lines disappeared i...

  11. Investigation of InGaN/GaN laser degradation based on luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pengyan; Zhang, Shuming; Liu, Jianping; Li, Deyao; Zhang, Liqun; Sun, Qian; Tian, Aiqin; Zhou, Kun; Zhou, Taofei; Yang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Degradation of InGaN/GaN laser diode (LD) is investigated based on the luminescence properties. Gradual degradation of the LD is presented with the threshold current increase and the slope efficiency decrease. The cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence characterizations of the LD show a dislocation independent degradation of the active region under the ridge. Detailed studies on the temperature-dependent micro-photoluminescence and the electroluminescence indicate that the degradation of the LD is attributed to the generation of non-radiative recombination centers in the local multiple quantum well regions with lower indium content. The activation energy of the non-radiative recombination centers is about 10.2 meV.

  12. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  13. Signature of a Fano-resonance in a plasmonic meta-molecule's local density of optical states

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements on plasmonic meta-molecules under local excitation using cathodoluminescence which show a spatial redistribution of the local density of optical states (LDOS) at the same frequency where a sharp spectral Fano-feature in the extinction cross section has been observed. Our analytical model shows that both near- and far-field effects arise due to interference of the same two eigenmodes of the system. We present quantitative insights both in a bare state, and in a dressed state picture that describe plasmonic Fano interference either as near-field amplitude transfer between three coupled bare states, or as interference of two uncoupled eigenmodes in the far field. We identify the same eigenmode causing a dip in extinction to strongly enhance the radiative LDOS, making it a promising candidate for spontaneous emission control.

  14. BN-coated Ca1−xSrxS:Eu solid-solution nanowires with tunable red light emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the controlled growth of novel BN-coated Ca1−xSrxS:Eu nanowires via a solid–liquid–solid process. The Ca1−xSrxS solid solution forms as one-dimensional nanowires and has been coated with homogeneous protective BN nanolayers. The structure and luminescence properties of this new nanocomposite have been systematically investigated. High-spatial-resolution cathodoluminescence investigations reveal that effective red color tuning has been achieved by tailoring the composition of the Ca1−xSrxS nanowires. Moreover, codoping of Ce3+ and Eu2+ in the CaS nanowire can induce energy transfer in the matrix and make it possible to obtain enhanced orange color in the nanowires. The BN-coated Ca1−xSrxS:Eu solid-solution nanowires are envisaged to be valuable red-emitting nanophosphors and useful in advanced nanodevices and white LEDs. (paper)

  15. Emission spectra from AlN and GaN doped with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent properties of GaN and AlN based semiconductors containing rare earth metals of Gd and Dy are studied. Cathodoluminescent spectra from AlGdN show a clear and sharp peak at 318 nm following LO phonon satellites. Photoluminescence spectra from GaDyN by the above-gap excitation also show several peaks in addition to the broad luminescence band emission. For GaGdN, the sharp PL peaks are also observed at 650 and 670 nm, and they are assigned to the intra-f orbital transitions by their time decay measurements. The broad band at around 365 nm for AlGdN, 505 nm for GaGdN and GaDyN are commonly observed. The origin of these broad bands is discussed

  16. UV laser controlled quantum well intermixing in InAlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of surface irradiation of GaAs with a KrF excimer laser on the magnitude of the quantum well intermixing (QWI) effect has been investigated on GaAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs/InAlGaAs QWs heterostructures. The selective area irradiation through a SiOx mask was carried out in an atmospheric environment. Following the 1000 pulses irradiation at 100 mJ/cm2, the samples were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing furnace at 900 deg. C. Photoluminescence mapping and cathodoluminescence measurements show that significant laser-induced suppression of the QWI process can be achieved with lateral resolution of the order of 1μm

  17. Cathodo- and photoluminescence increase in amorphous hafnium oxide under annealing in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Yelisseyev, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Cathodo- and photoluminescence of amorphous nonstoichiometric films of hafnium oxide are studied with the aim to verify the hypothesis that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence. To produce oxygen vacancies, hafnium oxide was enriched in surplus metal during synthesis. To reduce the oxygen concentration, the film was annealed in oxygen. A qualitative control of the oxygen concentration was carried out by the refractive index. In the initial, almost stoichiometric films we observed a 2.7-eV band in cathodoluminescence. Annealing in oxygen results in a considerable increase in its intensity, as well as in the appearance of new bands at 1.87, 2.14, 3.40, and 3.6 eV. The observed emission bands are supposed to be due to single oxygen vacancies and polyvacancies in hafnium oxide. The luminescence increase under annealing in an oxygen atmosphere may be a result of the emission quenching effect.

  18. Origin of the visible emission of black silicon microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Lin, Yu-Ting; Bertoni, Giovanni; Rossi, Francesca; Smith, Matthew J.; Gradečak, Silvija; Mazur, Eric; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2015-07-01

    Silicon, the mainstay semiconductor in microelectronics, is considered unsuitable for optoelectronic applications due to its indirect electronic band gap that limits its efficiency as light emitter. Here, we univocally determine at the nanoscale the origin of visible emission in microstructured black silicon by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging. We demonstrate the formation of amorphous silicon oxide microstructures with a white emission. The white emission is composed by four features peaking at 1.98 eV, 2.24 eV, 2.77 eV, and 3.05 eV. The origin of such emissions is related to SiOx intrinsic point defects and to the sulfur doping due to the laser processing. Similar results go in the direction of developing optoelectronic devices suitable for silicon-based circuitry.

  19. Carbon-doped SiO(x) nanowires with a large yield of white emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Rossi, Francesca; Negri, Marco; Tatti, Roberta; Aversa, Lucrezia; Dhanabalan, Sathish Chander; Verucchi, Roberto; Attolini, Giovanni; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    The growth of SiOx nanowires (NWs) with intense white emission is reported. Due to carbon monoxide gas being used as a dopant precursor, carbon-doped under-stoichiometric silicon dioxide NWs are obtained. The doping of the NWs is studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which allows to assess the presence of carbon atoms in the silicon oxide amorphous structure. The light emission properties are studied by means of cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows three main emission bands set at 2.7 eV (blue), 2.3 eV (green) and 1.9 eV (red), resulting in the white emission. PMID:24736107

  20. Structural point defects in 'Iceland spar' calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element concentrations by micro-PIXE, cathodoluminescence (CL) emission spectra and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Mn2+ in 'Iceland spar' calcite have been measured. The average rare earth elements (REE) abundances of the Iceland spar calcite revealed a concave shape with positive Eu and Tb anomalies. All samples show comparable average REE abundances compared to average chondrites standard. The REE signal in hydrothermal solution seems to be similar for the different locations and age of formation although the absolute REE concentration in the solution was certainly different. The CL-properties of investigated Iceland spar varied from orange to green. The orange luminescence is based on Mn2+ in Ca-position of calcite while this uncommon green luminescence is most likely attributed to UO22+ complex ions associated with electron-hole centres

  1. Comparison of luminescence spectra of natural spodumene under KrCl laser and e-beam excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral characteristics of pulsed photoluminescence (PL) and pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) of a natural spodumene were investigated. PL was excited by laser radiation at 222 nm with pulse duration of 10 ns at FWHM. PCL was excited by electron beams with pulse duration from 0.1 up to 4 ns and with current densities of 40-200 A/cm2. There was a dominant broad band at 600 nm due to the manganese impurity in PCL spectra. But in PL spectra, the orange band had the intensity comparable with intensities of intrinsic defect bands. At sample cooling by liquid nitrogen, the intensity of orange band in the PCL spectrum increased by two times and the short-wave shoulder of the band reduced

  2. The influence of annealing conditions on the luminescent and photoelectric properties of pure and Mn2+ activated ZnGa2O4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescent and photoelectric properties of ZnGa2O4 and ZnGa2O4:Mn thin films deposited by high-frequency ion-plasma sputtering have been investigated depending on conditions and atmosphere of heat treatment. It is found that the annealing at 750 C in the reducing atmosphere leads to an increase of the luminescence intensity and electrical conductivity of the films. It has been shown that after the annealing in the reducing atmosphere ZnGa2O4:Mn thin films show a photoconductivity effect with a maximum at 400 nm, which is associated with electronic transitions from deep levels of Mn2+ to the conduction band. ZnGa2O4:Mn thin film conductivity increasing after the annealing in the reducing atmosphere is associated with the creation of high concentration of oxygen vacancies and interstitial cation defects, which leads to the appearance of n-type conductivity. (author)

  3. Red-emitting SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} : Eu{sup 3+} phosphor powders for applications in solid state white lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Garcia, C E [Physics of Materials Graduate Program, CICESE-UNAM, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B. C., 22860 (Mexico); Perea-Lopez, N; Hirata, G A [Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology-UNAM, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, B. C., 22860 (Mexico); Baars, S P den [Solid State Lighting and Energy Center, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: ghirata@engineering.ucsb.edu

    2008-05-07

    Red-emitting phosphor powders of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} activated with Eu{sup 3+} ions were fabricated by high pressure assisted combustion synthesis. X-ray diffraction analysis of these oxide phosphors revealed the formation of single-phase orthorhombic SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} for concentrations up to 4 at% Eu. A detailed photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence study showed bright red emission originated within the {sup 5} D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub J} intra-shell transitions of Eu{sup 3+}. Furthermore, PL excitation spectroscopy revealed that an efficient energy transfer from the SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4} host lattice onto the Eu ions is accomplished in addition to the excitation band peaked at 396 nm that directly excites the Eu ions, making this material an excellent candidate for applications in solid state white lamps. (fast track communication)

  4. Role of Ga3+ in SrTiO3:Pr,Ga phosphor studied through its aging behavior under low-dose electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the role of Ga3+ ions in SrTiO3:Pr,Ga phosphor through its aging behavior. At the early stage of electron irradiation with a charge dose rate of 100 μC/cm2 per second, the cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity of SrTiO3:Pr,Ga phosphor drops. On the other hand, it is found that SrTiO3:Pr,Ga phosphor shows different aging characteristics from SrTiO3:Pr as the electron irradiation proceeds. However, from a reduced beam current density irradiation with a charge dose rate of 1.2 μC/cm2 per second, it is determined that the Ga3+ ion acts as a hole-keeping center and increases the luminescence by providing a hole to the activator Pr3+ ion in the luminescence process. (author)

  5. Physical structure and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and optical properties of cobalt-doped zinc oxide (Co-doped ZnO) nanoparticles have been investigated. The nanopowder with Co concentrations up to 5 at% was synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The physical structure and the chemical states of the Co-doped ZnO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Visible reflectance and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The results show that cobalt ions predominantly occupy Zn2+ sites in the wurtzite crystal lattice and possess a valence state of 2+. CL analysis revealed that the incorporation of Co2+ creates a new emission band at 1.85 eV, but quenched the near-band-edge luminescence

  6. Blue-emitting LaAlO{sub 3}:Tm{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+} phosphors for field emission displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Wenyu [Innermongolia University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Baotou (China); University of Science and Technology Beijng, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, Beijing (China); An, Shengli [University of Science and Technology Beijng, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, Beijing (China); Innermongolia University of Science and Technology, School of Material and Metallurgy, Baotou (China); Fan, Bin; Li, Songbo [Innermongolia University of Science and Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Baotou (China)

    2014-09-15

    Tm{sup 3+} and In{sup 3+} co-doped LaAlO{sub 3} phosphors were prepared by a Pechini sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and cathodoluminescence spectrum. The phosphor is composed of slightly aggregated particles with approximately spherical shape and a narrow size range of 1.0-1.5 μm. Under voltage electron beam excitation, the phosphor shows the characteristic emissions of Tm{sup 3+}. All the color purity, radiant efficiency, luminous efficiency, and stability of the optimum LaAlO{sub 3}:0.01Tm{sup 3+}, 0.04In{sup 3+} phosphor are superior to these of commercial ZnS:Ag,Cl phosphor. These tests suggest that it could be a potential candidate as a blue phosphor for field emission displays. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of defect luminescence in Ga-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenliang; Kitamura, Shoichiro; Boffelli, Marco; Marin, Elia; Gaspera, Enrico Della; Sturaro, Marco; Martucci, Alessandro; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

    2016-04-14

    We applied cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy to evaluate the defect-induced luminescence within ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) nanoparticles. The observed emissions from defect sites present in the GZO lattice exhibited a strong dependence on both dopant content and synthesis methods. The strong and broad defect-induced emissions and inhomogeneous population of intrinsic defects in nano-sized ZnO particles could effectively be suppressed by Ga doping, although large dopant amounts caused the generation of negatively-charged defects, VZn and Oi, with a subsequent increase of the luminescence. Upon deconvolution of the retrieved CL spectra into individual sub-bands, the physical origin of all the sub-bands could be clarified, and related to sample composition and synthesis protocol. This study lays the foundation of quantitative CL evaluation of defects to assess the quality of GZO optoelectronic devices. PMID:26996752

  8. Ferroan dolomite cement in Cambrian sandstones: burial history and hydrocarbon generation of the Baltic sedimentary basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliaupa, S.; Cyziene, J.; Molenaar, Nicolaas;

    2008-01-01

    The conditions and timing of carbonate cementation in Cambrian sandstones of the Baltic sedimentary basin were determined by oxygen and carbon stable isotope and chemical data in combination with optical and cathodoluminescence petrographic studies. Studied samples represent a range in present...... burial depth from 340 to 2150 m. The carbonate cement is dominantly ferroan dolomite that occurs as dispersed patches of poikilotopic crystals. Temperatures of dolomite precipitation, based on delta O-18 values, range from 27 degrees C in the shallow buried to 95 degrees C in the deep buried sandstones....... The burial history modelling points to development of most of the dolomite cement during rapid Silurian-Devonian subsidence and Carboniferous-early Permian uplift. A wide range of precipitation temperatures indicate that temperature was not a major factor in triggering the carbonate cementation. Dolomite...

  9. Ionoluminescence (IL) of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of natural and synthetic diamonds have been extensively characterized in the past by absorption and luminescence. The use of such techniques as cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, photoluminescence excitation and electron spin and paramagnetic resonance has resulted in the identification of many impurity and defect related optical centres in diamond. Of the impurities found in diamond, nitrogen is by far the most abundant and hence responsible for most of the optical properties. The development of diamond synthesis methods has resulted in the discovery of a number of a new optically active impurities and defects which are introduced during the growth process. These include Si, O, Ni and B. In this study we identify a number of defect and impurity related centres in two commercially produced synthetic diamond samples by using the novel technique of ionoluminescence. The results are consistent with previous studies which have shown that Ni impurities segregate in [111] growth sector. (authors)

  10. Nano-scale distribution of ZnO free exciton luminescence in ZnO:Zn microcrystals and its modification under electron beam excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependences of cathodoluminescence (CL) from ZnO:Zn phosphor powder upon local space, accelerating voltage and beam current have been investigated at room temperature. Ultraviolet (UV) luminescence, which is hard to be observed in photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature, has been clearly observed in CL as well as green luminescence. The intensity ratio of the UV luminescence to the green one varies from point to point. From the comparison with PL, the UV luminescence is attributed to the recombination of ZnO free excitons. The UV luminescence is little observed at low accelerating voltage where, similar to the excitation light for PL measurement, the electron beam penetrates into only the surface depletion layer where free excitons are unstable due to the surface electric field. However, the UV luminescence from the depletion layer becomes observable at large beam current because of the suppression of the electric field in the depletion layer caused by injected electrons

  11. Surface and near-surface passivation, chemical reaction, and Schottky barrier formation at ZnO surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a combination of depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, electronic transport, and surface science techniques, we have demonstrated the primary role of native defects within ZnO single crystals as well as native defects created by metallization on metal-ZnO Schottky barrier heights and their ideality factors. Native defects and impurities resident within the ZnO depletion region as well as defects extending into the bulk from the intimate metal-ZnO interface contribute to barrier thinning of, carrier hopping across, and tunneling through these Schottky barriers. Chemical reactions at clean ZnO-metal interfaces lead to metal-specific eutectic or oxide formation with pronounced transport effects. These results highlight the importance of bulk crystal quality, surface cleaning, metal interaction, and post-metallization annealing for controlling Schottky barriers

  12. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yanagihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3 thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Moreover, application of an acceleration voltage effectively increased the emission intensity. These results contribute to the performance enhancement of the lamp operating in the VUV region.

  13. Red-emitting SrIn2O4 : Eu3+ phosphor powders for applications in solid state white lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red-emitting phosphor powders of SrIn2O4 activated with Eu3+ ions were fabricated by high pressure assisted combustion synthesis. X-ray diffraction analysis of these oxide phosphors revealed the formation of single-phase orthorhombic SrIn2O4 for concentrations up to 4 at% Eu. A detailed photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence study showed bright red emission originated within the 5 D0 → 7FJ intra-shell transitions of Eu3+. Furthermore, PL excitation spectroscopy revealed that an efficient energy transfer from the SrIn2O4 host lattice onto the Eu ions is accomplished in addition to the excitation band peaked at 396 nm that directly excites the Eu ions, making this material an excellent candidate for applications in solid state white lamps. (fast track communication)

  14. S-induced modifications of the optoelectronic properties of ZnO mesoporous nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Nasi, Lucia; Fedeli, Paolo; Ferro, Patrizia; Salviati, Giancarlo; Mosca, Roberto; Calzolari, Arrigo; Catellani, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of ZnO porous nanobelts with high surface-to-volume ratio is envisaged to enhance the zinc oxide sensing and photocatalytic properties. Yet, controlled stoichiometry, doping and compensation of as-grown n-type behavior remain open problems for this compound. Here, we demonstrate the effect of residual sulfur atoms on the optical properties of ZnO highly porous, albeit purely wurtzite, nanobelts synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of ZnS hybrids. By means of combined cathodoluminescence analyses and density functional theory calculations, we attribute a feature appearing at 2.36 eV in the optical emission spectra to sulfur related intra-gap states. A comparison of different sulfur configurations in the ZnO matrix demonstrates the complex compensating effect on the electronic properties of the system induced by S-inclusion.

  15. Junction temperature, spectral shift, and efficiency in GaInN-based blue and green light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The junction temperature of homoepitaxial green and blue GaInN/GaN quantum well light emitting diode (LED) dies is analyzed by micro-Raman, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence mapping, and forward-voltage methods and compared to finite element simulations. Dies on GaN substrate and sapphire were analyzed under variable drive current up to 200 mA (246 A/cm2). At 100 mA, dies on bulk GaN remain as cool as 355 K (83 oC) while dies on sapphire heat up to 477 K (204 oC). The efficiency droop and spectral line shift in green LEDs with increasing current density can now be separated into electrical and thermal contributions.

  16. Depth profile of donor-acceptor pair transition revealing its effect on the efficiency of green LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes are the primary choice for efficient green light emitters, yet their performance limiting factors have yet to be identified. Here we perform a low-temperature luminescence study in depth-resolved cathodoluminescence. A series of LEDs with a combination of blue and green light emitting quantum wells exhibiting low and high electroluminescence output power were compared. In all samples, a band of donor-acceptor pair recombination was identified at 77 K. In the samples with lowest performance, such transitions located within the active region of the quantum wells had a particular strong contribution to the spectrum. In LEDs of higher performance, such luminescence was substantially suppressed within those layers. We argue that the higher performance of LEDs without such donor acceptor transition bands may be associated with the absence of corresponding dopant impurities and indicate a higher epitaxial perfection within the active quantum well region.

  17. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  18. Influence of the spray pyrolysis seeding and growth parameters on the structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Juan, E-mail: jrodriguez@uni.edu.pe [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Feuillet, Guy [CEA Grenoble/LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Donatini, Fabrice [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Onna, Diego [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, Luis [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Candal, Roberto [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, 3iA, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen N° 3100 (1650), San Martín, Pcia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marchi, M. Claudia [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CMA, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bilmes, Sara A. [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chandezon, Frédéric [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-02-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates at low temperatures (90 °C) from Zn{sup 2+} precursors in alkaline media previously seeded with ZnO nanoparticles. These were deposited onto the FTO substrate heated at 350 °C by spray pyrolysis of a Zn acetate solution in a water ethanol mixture. The structure of seeds was tuned by the ethanol to water ratio, Γ, which controls the solvent evaporation rate of drops impinging the substrate. From a detailed characterization using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies, the dependence of the morphology and optical properties of the ZnO NRs on the seeding conditions was demonstrated. NRs grown on seeds deposited from solutions with Γ in the 0.03–0.06 range – i.e. when the surface excess of ethanol in the water–ethanol mixture has a maximum – show thinner average diameters and stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains embedded into an overall wurtzite NR. They furthermore exhibit blue-shifted near band edge emission peak and a high deep level emission in cathodoluminescence. All these findings support the use of spray pyrolysis as a simple and reproducible way to control the seeds deposition, influencing the growth, the structure and the optical properties of the final ZnO NRs. - Highlights: • ZnO pyrolytic seeds tuned by the rate of solvent evaporation. • ZnO NRs grown from tuned pyrolytic seed's structure shows diameter dependence. • ZnO NRs show stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains.

  19. Influence of the spray pyrolysis seeding and growth parameters on the structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates at low temperatures (90 °C) from Zn2+ precursors in alkaline media previously seeded with ZnO nanoparticles. These were deposited onto the FTO substrate heated at 350 °C by spray pyrolysis of a Zn acetate solution in a water ethanol mixture. The structure of seeds was tuned by the ethanol to water ratio, Γ, which controls the solvent evaporation rate of drops impinging the substrate. From a detailed characterization using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies, the dependence of the morphology and optical properties of the ZnO NRs on the seeding conditions was demonstrated. NRs grown on seeds deposited from solutions with Γ in the 0.03–0.06 range – i.e. when the surface excess of ethanol in the water–ethanol mixture has a maximum – show thinner average diameters and stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains embedded into an overall wurtzite NR. They furthermore exhibit blue-shifted near band edge emission peak and a high deep level emission in cathodoluminescence. All these findings support the use of spray pyrolysis as a simple and reproducible way to control the seeds deposition, influencing the growth, the structure and the optical properties of the final ZnO NRs. - Highlights: • ZnO pyrolytic seeds tuned by the rate of solvent evaporation. • ZnO NRs grown from tuned pyrolytic seed's structure shows diameter dependence. • ZnO NRs show stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains

  20. 碳酸盐岩常用分析技术和方法综述%The Overview of the Techniques of Carbonatite Which Are Commonly Used

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴章志; 胡静; 何塞

    2016-01-01

    with the development of science and technology .The technique of the study of the carbonatite is manifold .This article present some techniques which are commonly used , include: x -ray diffraction analysis , cathodoluminescence microscope, electron probe microanalysis, rare earth elements analysis, stable isotopic analysis, etc.this article emphatically introduces x -ray diffraction analysis , cathodoluminescence microscope , electron probe microanalysis .not only their principles but also their apply and relative merits ,and present some solutions that is combining various technique to analysis carbonatite .In this way the result are more reliable .this article also present the principles and apply of rare earth elements analysis and stable isotopic analysis .%随着科技的发展,对于碳酸盐岩的研究技术和方法也多种多样。本文介绍了几种目前常用的分析技术和方法,包括:x射线衍射分析、阴极发光分析、电子探针分析、稀土元素分析、稳定同位素分析等。其中重点介绍了x射线衍射分析、阴极发光分析、电子探针分析这三种技术的原理,应用及其各自的优缺点。针对其缺点提出了一些解决办法,即将多种技术结合起来综合对碳酸盐岩进行分析。这样可以确保分析结果的准确性和可靠性。对于稀土元素分析和稳定同位素分析,本文简要阐述了其原理及应用。

  1. Microwave plasma chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline carbon film structures and study their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, N.; Yafarov, R.; Timoshenkov, V.; Orlov, S.; Starykh, D.

    2015-08-01

    The self-organization effect of diamond nanocrystals in polymer-graphite and carbon films is detected. The carbon materials deposition was carried from ethanol vapors out at low pressure using a highly non-equilibrium microwave plasma. Deposition processes of carbon film structures (diamond, graphite, graphene) is defined. Deposition processes of nanocrystalline structures containing diamond and graphite phases in different volume ratios is identified. The solid film was obtained under different conditions of microwave plasma chemical synthesis. We investigated the electrical properties of the nanocrystalline carbon films and identified it's from various factors. Influence of diamond-graphite film deposition mode in non-equilibrium microwave plasma at low pressure on emission characteristics was established. This effect is justified using the cluster model of the structure of amorphous carbon. It was shown that the reduction of bound hydrogen in carbon structures leads to a decrease in the threshold electric field of emission from 20-30 V/m to 5 V/m. Reducing the operating voltage field emission can improve mechanical stability of the synthesized film diamond-graphite emitters. Current density emission at least 20 A/cm2 was obtained. Nanocrystalline carbon film materials can be used to create a variety of functional elements in micro- and nanoelectronics and photonics such as cold electron source for emission in vacuum devices, photonic devices, cathodoluminescent flat display, highly efficient white light sources. The obtained graphene carbon net structure (with a net size about 6 μm) may be used for the manufacture of large-area transparent electrode for solar cells and cathodoluminescent light sources

  2. Models for intrinsic and extrinsic fracto-mechanoluminescence of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, B.P., E-mail: bpchandra4@yahoo.co.in [Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482001 (India); Chandra, V.K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Shivaji Nagar, Kolihapuri, Durg 491001 (C.G.) (India); Jha, Piyush [Department of Postgraduate Studies and Research in Physics and Electronics, Rani Durgavati University, Jabalpur 482001 (India)

    2013-03-15

    A large number of noncentric and centric organic and inorganic crystals exhibit intrinsic and extrinsic fracto-mechanoluminescence (ML) due to the electron bombardment and electron-trapping mechanisms, and only a few crystals show ML due to the chemically induced fracto-ML and other possible mechanisms. The charged surfaces produced during fracture of solids owing to piezoelectrification, defective-phase piezoelectrification, movement of charged dislocations, baro-diffusion of defects near the crack-tip, and many other processes may cause production of very high electric field near the charged surfaces. In the case of non-photoluminescent and non-cathodoluminescent materials, the high energy electrons may be emitted from the charged surfaces and the electron bombardment (EB) mechanism may excite the molecules of surrounding gases and subsequently the gas discharge ML may be produced. In photoluminescent and cathodoluminescent solids, the electron bombardment may cause cathodoluminescence. In certain photoluminescent crystals, the light of gas discharge may excite photoluminescence. In many solids, the free electrons produced at fracture may be captured in the traps and consequently the electron-trapping (ET) mechanism may give rise to the light emission. Few solids may exhibit chemiluminescence because of the chemical reactions at the newly created surfaces. Some solids may exhibit black body radiations because of the high temperature produced near the tip of the moving cracks. Infrared radiation may also be emitted during the fracture of certain crystals. In certain solids, the gas discharge fracto-ML and the photoluminescence excited by the gas discharge disappear when the solids are fractured inside liquids; however, in certain solids the solid state fracto-ML appears even inside the liquids if they are not based on the processes involving gas discharge. Overall, depending on the prevailing conditions the ML spectra consist of either the gas discharge spectra or

  3. Enigmatic diamonds in Archean calc-alkaline lamprophyres of Wawa, southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Stefano, Andrea; Lefebvre, Nathalie; Kopylova, Maya

    2006-02-01

    A suite of 80 macrodiamonds recovered from volcaniclastic breccia of Wawa (southern Ontario) was characterized on the basis of morphology, nitrogen content and aggregation, cathodoluminescence (CL), and mineral inclusions. The host calc-alkaline lamprophyric breccias were emplaced at 2.68-2.74 Ga, contemporaneously with voluminous bimodal volcanism of the Michipicoten greenstone belt. The studied suite of diamonds differs from the vast majority of diamond suites found worldwide. First, the suite is hosted by calc-alkaline lamprophyric volcanics rather than by kimberlite or lamproite. Second, the host volcanic rock is amongst the oldest known diamondiferous rocks on Earth, and has experienced regional metamorphism and deformation. Finally, most diamonds show yellow-orange-red CL and contain mineral inclusions not in equilibrium with each other or their host diamond. The majority of the diamonds in the Wawa suite are colorless, weakly resorbed, octahedral single crystals and aggregates. The diamonds contain 0-740 ppm N and show two modes of N aggregation at 0-30 and 60-95% B-centers suggesting mantle storage at 1,100-1,170°C. Cathodoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy shows that emission peaks present in orange CL stones do not likely result from irradiation or single substitutional N, in contrast to other diamonds with red CL. The diamonds contain primary inclusions of olivine (Fo92 and Fo89), omphacite, orthopyroxene (En93), pentlandite, albite, and An-rich plagioclase. These peridotitic and eclogitic minerals are commonly found within single diamonds in a mixed paragenesis which also combines shallow and deep phases. This apparent disequilibrium can be explained by effective small-scale mixing of subducted oceanic crust and mantle rocks in fast “cold” plumes ascending from the top of the slabs in convergent margins. Alternatively, the diamonds could have formed in the pre-2.7-2.9 Ga cratonic mantle and experienced subsequent alteration of syngenetic inclusions

  4. Optical investigations on the wide bandgap semiconductors diamond and aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilov, Nikolai

    2007-07-01

    In the context of this thesis, new results about optical defects and intrinsic properties of diamond, AlN and AlGaN alloys have been obtained. The main experimental techniques used were low temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectroscopy. First, different aspects of intentional and background doping of diamond were discussed. Thus, the most commonly observed green luminescence emission from boron doped HPHT diamonds has been studied by means of temperature dependent CL in a wide temperature range from 10 K to 450 K. One further subject, addressing deep defect nitrogen related luminescence was a study of nitrogen addition in combustion flame grown CVD diamond layers. Two further topics concern intrinsic excitations in diamond, free excitons and electron-hole drops. Several important parameters like the critical density, the critical temperature, and the low-temperature density inside the drops were evaluated. The ground state density of the electron-hole condensate in diamond is about {approx} 42 times larger than that in Si, and the critical temperature takes very high values in the range of 165K.. 173K. Cathodoluminescence investigations on epitaxial wurtzite AlN layers grown on sapphire, SiC, and Si substrates, have shown that although the material is generally of good optical quality, deep level luminescence are still dominating the spectra. Relatively sharp near-band-edge transitions have been observed in all three samples that exhibit significantly reduced line widths for the AlN/sapphire and the AlN/SiC samples. Much broader emission lines in the near band-gap region have been observed for the first time from the AlN sample grown on Si (111) substrate. Temperature dependent CL measurements and numerical line decompositions reveal complicated substructures in the excitonic lines. The temperature dependence of the energy positions and broadening parameters of the transition have been studied and compared with the other materials. Epitaxial Al

  5. Effects of detrital influx in the Pennsylvanian Upper Freeport peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Stanton, R.W.; Blaine, Cecil C.; Eble, C.F.; Dulong, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Quartz cathodoluminescence properties and mineralogy of three sets of samples and vegetal and/ or miospore data from two sets of samples from the Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, show that detrital influence from a penecontemporaneous channel is limited to an area less than three km from the channel. The sets of samples examined include localities of the coal bed where (1) the coal is thin, split by partings, and near a penecontemporaneous fluvial channel, (2) the coal is relatively thick and located approximately three km from the channel, and (3) the coal is thick and located approximately 12 km from the channel. Samples from locality 1 (nearest the channel) have relatively high-ash yields (low-temperature ash average = 27.3% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis) and high proportions of quartz and clay minerals. The quartz is primarily detrital, as determined by cathodoluminescent properties, and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is low. In addition, most of the plant remains and miospores indicate peat-forming plants that required low nutrient levels for growth. In contrast, samples from localities 2 and 3, from the more interior parts of the bed, contained predominantly authigenic quartz grains nd yielded low-temperature ash values of less than 14% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis. The low-temperature ash contains low concentrations of quartz and clay minerals and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is relatively high. Although intact core was not available for paleobotanical analyses, another core collected within 1 km from locality 3 contained plant types interpreted to have required high nutrient levels for growth. These data indicate that mineral formation is dominated by authigenic processes in interior parts of the coal body. Some of the authigenic quartz may have been derived from herbaceous ferns as indicated by patterns in the palynological and paleobotanical data. In contrast, detrital processes appeared to be limited to in areas

  6. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.; Li, H.; Kusch, G.; Zhao, C.; Ooi, B.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Holmes, J. D.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD

  7. Effects of Polytypism on Optical Properties and Band Structure of Individual Ga(N)P Nanowires from Correlative Spatially Resolved Structural and Optical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolsky, Alexander; Persson, Per O Å; Sukrittanon, Supanee; Kuang, Yanjin; Tu, Charles W; Chen, Weimin M; Buyanova, Irina A

    2015-06-10

    III-V semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have gained significant interest as building blocks in novel nanoscale devices. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure architecture allows one to extend band structure engineering beyond quantum confinement effects by utilizing formation of different crystal phases that are thermodynamically unfavorable in bulk materials. It is therefore of crucial importance to understand the influence of variations in the NWs crystal structure on their fundamental physical properties. In this work we investigate effects of structural polytypism on the optical properties of gallium phosphide and GaP/GaNP core/shell NW structures by a correlative investigation on the structural and optical properties of individual NWs. The former is monitored by transmission electron microscopy, whereas the latter is studied via cathodoluminescence (CL) mapping. It is found that structural defects, such as rotational twins in zinc blende (ZB) GaNP, have detrimental effects on light emission intensity at low temperatures by promoting nonradiative recombination processes. On the other hand, formation of the wurtzite (WZ) phase does not notably affect the CL intensity neither in GaP nor in the GaNP alloy. This suggests that zone folding in WZ GaP does not enhance its radiative efficiency, consistent with theoretical predictions. We also show that the change in the lattice structure have negligible effects on the bandgap energies of the GaNP alloys, at least within the range of the investigated nitrogen compositions of light emitters within the desirable amber-red spectral range. PMID:25988267

  8. Low-voltage cross-sectional EBIC for characterisation of GaN-based light emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam induced current (EBIC) characterisation can provide detailed information on the influence of crystalline defects on the diffusion and recombination of minority carriers in semiconductors. New developments are required for GaN light emitting devices, which need a cross-sectional approach to provide access to their complex multi-layered structures. A sample preparation approach based on low-voltage Ar ion milling is proposed here and shown to produce a flat cross-section with very limited surface recombination, which enables low-voltage high resolution EBIC characterisation. Dark defects are observed in EBIC images and correlation with cathodoluminescence images identify them as threading dislocations. Emphasis is placed on one-dimensional quantification which is used to show that junction delineation with very good spatial resolution can be achieved, revealing significant roughening of this GaN p-n junction. Furthermore, longer minority carrier diffusion lengths along the c-axis are found at dislocation sites, in both p-GaN and the multi-quantum well (MQW) region. This is attributed to gettering of point defects at threading dislocations in p-GaN and higher escape rate from quantum wells at dislocation sites in the MQW region, respectively. These developments show considerable promise for the use of low-voltage cross-sectional EBIC in the characterisation of point and extended defects in GaN-based devices and it is suggested that this technique will be particularly useful for degradation analysis

  9. Quartz And Zircon as markers of the magmatic-hydrothermal evolution of the Antônio Vicente Granite, Velho Guilherme Intrusive Suite, Carajás Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Nery Lamarão

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available the Antônio Vicente Granite, Carajás Province, by scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL images. In the lessevolved rocks, containing amphibole and biotite, well developed anhedral to subhedral, luminescent and intensely fractured crystalsdominate, named Qz1. Hydrothermal fluids that percolated the granite modified the magmatic quartz (Qz1 into Qz2 and Qz3 throughprocesses of alteration, dissolution and recrystallization, with these changes much more evident in the intensely altered syenograniterocks. Qz4 constitute medium-to-coarse grained crystals, usually luminescent and comparatively little fractured. Its occurrence is restrictedto strongly hydrotermalized syenogranite rocks and bodies of greisens, suggesting the beginning of the greisenization process.In the greisens, medium-to-coarse grained euhedral, concentrically zoned quartz crystals dominate, with typical features of hydrothermalorigin (Qz5. Fine crystals of zoned cassiterite (≤ 100 μm are common and fill cavities in the types Qz4 and Qz5. Zircon crystalsdominantly anhedral, corroded, with the highest contents of Hf and the lower Zr/Hf ratios belong to more evolved and hydrothermallyaltered rocks and to associated greisens, both carriers of Sn mineralization. This fact suggests that the geochemical signature of zircon,especially Zr/Hf ratio, can be used for the preliminary assessment of metallogenic potential of tin granites.

  10. Structural and optical properties of disc-in-wire InGaN/GaN LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lifan; Jahangir, Shafat; Wight, Scott A; Nikoobakht, Babak; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Millunchick, Joanna M

    2015-03-11

    This study examines the role of the microstructure and optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanowire LED structures on Si(111) having different nanowire coverages. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show that all samples exhibit broad emission around the intended energy, 1.95 eV (635 nm). While the absolute emission intensity is hard to compare for CL measurement, the bandgap emission (∼3.4 eV) coming from the GaN root is more pronounced as coverage of nanowires decreases, which has less coalescence formation. The width of the emission peak is likely due to variations in the morphology of the InGaN discs within the wires, as faceted layers with different thicknesses and quantum dots are observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nonepitaxial six-fold symmetric lateral branching, called "nanocrowns," emanate from stacking faults within the active regions. These features likely reduce optical emission as a result of grain boundaries between the nanocrown and nanowire. PMID:25658444

  11. Multi-Stage Silicification of Pliocene Wood: Re-Examination of an 1895 Discovery from Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Viney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1895 discovery of a petrified tree near Clover Creek in south-central Idaho, USA, attracted worldwide attention and resulted in the naming of a new species of ancient oak, Quercinium pliocaenicum Schuster. For more than a century, the discovery has largely been forgotten, even though specimens reside in reputable museums. Reinvestigation of the locality in 2014/2015 resulted in newly-collected specimens and a wealth of new data. Optical microscopy confirms the cellular anatomy used for the original taxonomic study. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence microscopy reveal details of the mineralization, showing the presence of opal-CT as the primary component, with chalcedony as a lesser constituent. This mineralogy suggests petrifaction occurred in at least two stages, beginning with opalization of cellular tissue, leaving open vessels that became filled with chalcedony during a later mineralization episode. Clover Creek oak represents relict flora growing in a wetter climate before the uplift of the Cascade Range created a rain shadow that caused profound desertification of the inland Pacific Northwest.

  12. Hollow-anode plasma source for molecular beam epitaxy of gallium nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using a hollow-anode nitrogen plasma source. The source was developed to minimize defect formation as a result of contamination and ion damage. The hollow-anode discharge is a special form of glow discharge with very small anode area. A positive anode voltage drop of 30 endash 40 V and an increased anode sheath thickness leads to ignition of a relatively dense plasma in front of the anode hole. Driven by the pressure gradient, the open-quote open-quote anode close-quote close-quote plasma forms a bright plasma jet streaming with supersonic velocity towards the substrate. Films of GaN have been grown on (0001) SiC and (0001) Al2O3 at 600 endash 800 degree C. The films were investigated by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering, and particle-induced x-ray emission. The film with the highest structural quality had a rocking curve width of 5 arcmin, the lowest reported value for MBE growth to date. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  13. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  14. Spongy-like porosity in peritidal carbonates: An interaction of cyclic sea-level oscillations, fresh water supply and sediment texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, S.; Hollis, C.; Di Stefano, P.

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses upon the analysis of a complex paleokarstic system recorded within uppermost Triassic peritidal cycles in northwestern Sicily. Besides documenting spectacular karstification at the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, it provides an example of stratabound 'spongy' or 'swiss-cheese' dissolution. On the base of field observations, microfacies analysis, transmitted-light and cathodoluminescence petrography and stable-isotope analyses we put forward an original model for the formation of this peculiar stratabound dissolution. It implies a complex interaction of several controlling factors at the interface between the marine and meteoric diagenetic realms during the relative cyclic oscillations of sea-level. The presence of a fresh water supply from an adjacent emerged area is the key for the periodic formation of a mixing water lens during the relative sea level lowstand that brought about the subaerial exposure of the platform. The resulting dissolution pattern in the subtidal unit of a specific cycle is strongly controlled by the textural features of the sediments. In the case of bioturbated wackestones the 'spongy' or 'swiss-cheese' pattern develops, while in mollusk-rich beds biomoldic porosity occurs. In well-sorted subtidal members, such as algal grainstones, the dissolution originates as randomly distributed vuggy porosity. During periodic flooding of the platform, a new subtidal unit is formed and the dissolution stops as fully marine phreatic conditions are re-established.

  15. TL and radiocarbon dating of neolithic sepultures from Sudan: intercomparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescence dating of a set of 29 pottery sherds excavated at the neolithic sites of El Kadada and El Ghaba (near Shendi, Central Sudan) was carried out at Bordeaux University. The archaeological dose was measured using the fine grain technique. The annual dose was determined by analytical techniques (neutron activation analysis, ICP spectrometry, XRF, low background gamma spectrometry) and by ''on-site'' measurements of the environmental radioactivity (gammametry). The crystalline inclusions of the samples were characterized by optical microscopy and cathodoluminescence: the TL minerals mainly consist of quartz and K-feldspar crystals. In some cases, radioactive inclusions of zircons and monazites are observed. The TL and the radiocarbon dates show a good agreement, verifying the validity of the radiocarbon ages which were suspected to be too old because of the nature of the dated material (shells). Taking into account all the chronological data, it is shown that El Ghaba and El Ghaba necropolis were used respectively within the 4800-3300 B.C. and 4200-3000 B.C. date-ranges for neolithic cultures, the occupation of El Kadada starting five or six centuries later than El Ghaba. (Author)

  16. Electron beam induced green luminescence and degradation study of CaS:Ce nanocrystalline phosphors for FED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green luminescence and degradation of Ce3+ doped CaS nanocrystalline phosphors were studied with a 2 keV, 10 μA electron beam in an O2 environment. The nanophosphors were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Cubic CaS with an average particle size of 42 ± 2 nm was obtained. PL emission was observed at 507 nm and a shoulder at 560 nm with an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to monitor the changes in the surface composition of the CaS:Ce3+ nanocrystalline phosphors during electron bombardment in an O2 environment. The effect of different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 x 10-8 to 1 x 10-6 Torr on the CL intensity was also investigated. A CaSO4 layer was observed on the surface after the electron beam degradation. The CL intensity was found to decrease up to 30% of its original intensity at 1 x 10-6 Torr oxygen pressure after an electron dose of 50 C/cm2. The formation of oxygen defects during electron bombardment may also be responsible for the decrease in CL intensity.

  17. Position-controlled MOVPE growth and electro-optical characterization of core-shell InGaN/GaN microrod LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Lugauer, H.-J.; Avramescu, A.; Varghese, T.; Koller, A.; Hartmann, J.; Ledig, J.; Waag, A.; Strassburg, M.

    2016-03-01

    Today's InGaN-based white LEDs still suffer from a significant efficiency reduction at elevated current densities, the so-called "Droop". Core-shell microrods, with quantum wells (QWs) covering their entire surface, enable a tremendous increase in active area scaling with the rod's aspect ratio. Enlarging the active area on a given footprint area is a viable and cost effective route to mitigate the droop by effectively reducing the local current density. Microrods were grown in a large volume metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on GaN-on-sapphire substrates with a thin, patterned SiO2 mask for position control. Out of the mask openings, pencil-shaped n-doped GaN microrod cores were grown under conditions favoring 3D growth. In a second growth step, these cores are covered with a shell containing a quantum well and a p-n junction to form LED structures. The emission from the QWs on the different facets was studied using resonant temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The crystal quality of the structures was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing the absence of extended defects like threading dislocations in the 3D core. In order to fabricate LED chips, dedicated processes were developed to accommodate for the special requirements of the 3D geometry. The electrical and optical properties of ensembles of tens of thousands microrods connected in parallel are discussed.

  18. Precision UV laser scribing for cleaving mirror facets of GaN-based laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, O.; Kang, J.-H.; Spevak, M.; Zeimer, U.; Einfeldt, S.

    2016-04-01

    Laser scribing with a nanosecond-pulsed UV laser operating at 355 nm was used to create precise perforation for die separation of GaN-based laser diodes. Machining depth of single- and multiple-pass scribing was investigated. For pulse energies between 1 and 45 µJ at a pulse repetition frequency of 20 kHz and single scan at 100 mm/min, scribe depths from 15 to 180 µm were obtained. Processing parameters were adjusted to minimize the formation of microcracks due to laser-induced local heating. By using the laser skip-and-scribe technique, the propagation of the cleavage plane could be controlled, irregular breaking could be minimized, and die yield could be improved. Smooth mirror facets with low density of terraces were formed by cleaving. In the vicinity of the laser-treated zone, no detrimental effects on the crystal quality of the multi-quantum wells could be detected by cathodoluminescence. The electro-optical characteristics of broad-area laser diodes fabricated by the laser-assisted process were similar to the ones fabricated using the conventional diamond-tip edge-scribing technique that suffers from low die yield. Our results demonstrate that nanosecond-pulsed UV laser scribing followed by cleaving is a powerful technique for the formation of mirror facets of GaN-based laser diodes.

  19. Optical and structural properties of microcrystalline GaN on an amorphous substrate prepared by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  20. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  1. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS and enhanced visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-09-11

    Doped-graphene has attracted considerable attention in many fields because doping element can alter the electrical properties of graphene. In this paper, we synthesized ZnSe·xN2H4/graphene (ZnSe·xN2H4/GS) and ZnSe/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnSe/N-GS) nanocomposites with p-n junctions via one-pot solvothermal process. The structure, morphologies and catalytic performance of the ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS are characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cathodoluminescence spectrum (CL), respectively. Our experiments show that the as-prepared nanocomposites ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation. Even importantly, ZnSe/N-GS would make this degradation process more effective. Overall, this facile and catalyst-free synthesize method in this work could provide new insights into the fabrication of other composites based on doped graphene with high performance photocatalysts, which show their potential applications in producing of hydrogen through water splitting, environmental protection issues. PMID:23945131

  2. Peculiarities of luminescence of nanostructured aluminum oxide with chromium impurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative study of Cr3+ ions photo-, X-ray- and cathodoluminescence in R-lines region in monocrystal and nanostructural aluminium oxide samples with different phase composition is conducted. Peculiarities of chromium impurity inclusion into Al2O3 nanocrystal lattices at high-temperature thermal treatment of Al2O3 and Cr2O3 nanopowders mixture are revealed. It is shown that aluminium oxides nanostructuring can result in formation of complicated aggregate complexes which include anion vacancies and impurity cations. It is marked that the most likely cause of quenching of R-lines luminescence and their broadening at Al2O3 crystal symmetry decrease in α → θ → δ → γ series is anion sublattice disordering while action of crystal field is responsible for levels displacement. It is established that thermal treatment at 1200 deg C doesn't result in complete transformation of nanostructural Al2O3 into α-form as it takes place in macro state

  3. Origin of zoning within dedolomite and calcitized gypsum of the Mississippian Arroyo Penasco Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mississippian Arroyo Penasco Group carbonates are the oldest Paleozoic rocks present in north-central New Mexico. These supratidal to shallow,subtidal sediments exhibit complex diagenetic fabrics produced by periods of pre-Pennsylvanian subaerial exposure. Both extensive recrystallization of the Espiritu Santo carbonates and brecciation of the overlying Macho Member of the Tererro Formation resulted from an extended period of Mississippian subaerial exposure of broad, low-relief tidal flats. Cathodoluminescent petrography indicates that the recrystallized limestones consist of calcite pseudomorphs of dolomite and gypsum. Dedolomite and calcitized gypsum crystals, with /sup 13/C//sup 12/C ratios of -2 to +1.5% PDB, range from highly zoned to uniformly luminescent. Electron microprobe analyses reveals variable Mn and Fe contents across the pseudomorphs which are responsible for differences in observed luminosity. These features are interpreted to reflect a period of subaerial exposure after deposition of Macho Member sediments, which caused dissolution of gypsum and dolomite by sulfate and Mg depleted meteoric fluids and produced the collapse breccia. Preservation of zoning within some pseudomorphs required simultaneous dissolution of gypsum and dolomite and precipitation of calcite. C-isotope data indicates a meteoric to mixed phreatic origin for pore fluids which precipitated calcite; repetitive zoning within dolomite and gypsum pseudomorphs is indicative of interactions between marine and meteoric phreatic fluids in the intertidal environment.

  4. Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Akhil; Rogers, David J.; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhu, Liangchen; Phillips, Matthew R.; Sundaram, Suresh; Gautier, Simon; Moudakir, Tarik; El-Gmili, Youssef; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Sandana, Vinod E.; Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Bove, Philippe; Prior, Kevin A.; Djebbour, Zakaria; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling.

  5. Bias-voltage dependent ultraviolet photodetectors prepared by GaO{sub x} + ZnO mixture phase nanocrystalline thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rongxin, E-mail: rxwang2008@sinano.ac.cn [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, Lechen [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Shijie [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Physics and HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Xiaodong; Dong, Xue; Zhao, Yingchun; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Baoshun; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: •GaO{sub x} + ZnO thin films sputtered and annealed exhibit interesting and unique optical properties, especially deep UV photo response. •GaO{sub x} + ZnO thin films can be used to fabricate efficient deep UV photodetectors. •The mixture phase nature of GaO{sub x} + ZnO thin films is revealed to be responsible for the unique characteristics of the photodetectors. •Two bands in UV range can be adjusted by a applied voltage when the PDs were fabricated using the mixture phase nature of GaO{sub x} + ZnO thin films. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were prepared by using the GaO{sub x} + ZnO mixture phase thin films sputtered on sapphire as the photoresponse layer. The devices show good photoresponse in UV range. More interestingly, the device responsivity in the wavelength less than 280 nm range rapidly increases with increasing the applied voltage and becomes dominant for the bias ⩾3.0 V. X-ray diffraction, absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements firmly reveal the mixture phases in the thin films. Electric field dependent detrapping of photo-excited carriers in nanocrystals in the films shall be responsible for the observed bias-voltage dependent deep UV photoresponse of the devices.

  6. Phosphor-free nanopyramid white light-emitting diodes grown on (101{sup ¯}1) planes using nanospherical-lens photolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kui [State Key Laboratory of Solid-State Lighting, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology/State Key Lab on Integrated Optoelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wei, Tongbo, E-mail: tbwei@semi.ac.cn; Wei, Xuecheng; Zheng, Haiyang; Chen, Yu; Lu, Hongxi; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin [State Key Laboratory of Solid-State Lighting, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Lan, Ding [National Microgravity Laboratory, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Huang, Kai [Platform of Characterization and Test, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215000 (China); Luo, Yi [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology/State Key Lab on Integrated Optoelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-09

    We reported a high-efficiency and low-cost nano-pattern method, the nanospherical-lens photolithography technique, to fabricate a SiO{sub 2} mask for selective area growth. By controlling the selective growth, we got a highly ordered hexagonal nanopyramid light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on nanofacets, demonstrating an electrically driven phosphor-free white light emission. We found that both the quantum well width and indium incorporation increased linearly along the (101{sup ¯}1) planes towards the substrate and the perpendicular direction to the (101{sup ¯}1) planes as well. Such spatial distribution was responsible for the broadband emission. Moreover, using cathodoluminescence techniques, it was found that the blue emission originated from nanopyramid top, resembling the quantum dots, green emission from the InGaN quantum wells layer at the middle of sidewalls, and yellow emission mainly from the bottom of nanopyramid ridges, similar to the quantum wires.

  7. Spectral and surface investigations on SrZnO2:Tb3+ nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SrZnO2: Tb3+ nanophosphor was synthesized through a combustion process using metal nitrates as precursors and urea as fuel. The nanocrystals have sizes ranging from 25 nm to 30 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were utilized to characterize the present samples. Under UV excitation, it shows several bands centered at 487, 544, 588 and 624 nm, which result from 5D4→7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4 and 3) transitions of Tb3+, and the green emission band (5D4→7F5) located at 544 nm is dominant. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used to study oxygen related defects and the surface chemical composition. Surface chemical study suggests that oxygen vacancies may be generated by surface shrinkage due to the size reduction. A surface sensitive analytical technique namely time of flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), respectively was used for imaging which shows an uniform distribution of Tb3+ in the SrZnO2. (author)

  8. Study of the Distribution of Radiative Defects and Reabsorption of the UV in ZnO Nanorods-Organic Hybrid White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Soomro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG method was employed to synthesized ZnO nanorods to process-organic hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs on glass substrate. Electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid white LEDs demonstrate the combination of emission bands arising from radiative recombination of the organic and ZnO nanorods (NRs. Depth resolved luminescence was used for probing the nature and spatial distribution of radiative defects, especially to study the re-absorption of ultraviolet (UV in this hybrid white LEDs structure. At room temperature the cathodoluminescence (CL spectra intensity of the deep band emission (DBE is increased with the increase of the electron beam penetration depth due to the increase of defect concentration at the ZnO NRs/Polyfluorene (PFO interface and probably due to internal absorption of the UV. A strong dependency between the intensity ratio of the UV to the DBE bands and the spatial distribution of the radiative defects in ZnO NRs has been found. The comparison of the CL spectra from the PFO and the ZnO NRs demonstrate that PFO has a very weak violet-blue emission band, which confirms that most of the white emission components originate from the ZnO NRs.

  9. Defect Band Luminescence Intensity Reversal as Related to Application of Anti-Reflection Coating on mc-Si PV Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, H.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is widely used to identify defective regions within mc-Si PV cells. Recent PL imaging investigations of defect band luminescence (DBL) in mc-Si have revealed a perplexing phenomenon. Namely, the reversal of the DBL intensity in various regions of mc-Si PV material upon the application of a SiNx:H anti-reflective coating (ARC). Regions with low DBL intensity before ARC application often exhibit high DBL intensity afterwards, and the converse is also true. PL imaging alone cannot explain this effect. We have used high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and electron beam induced current (EBIC) techniques to elucidate the origin of the DBL intensity reversal. Multiple sub-bandgap energy levels were identified that change in peak position and intensity upon the application of the ARC. Using this data, in addition to EBIC contrast information, we provide an explanation for the DBL intensity reversal based on the interaction of the detected energy levels with the SiNx:H ARC application. Multiple investigations have suggested that this is a global problem for mc-Si PV cells. Our results have the potential to provide mc-Si PV producers a pathway to increased efficiencies through defect mitigation strategies.

  10. Observations of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling and exciton-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Au, Ag, and Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    The coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in Au-, Ag-, and Al-coated InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) was studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and CL wavelength imaging techniques. Excitons were generated in the metal-coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures which are opaque to laser/light excitation. The Purcell enhancement factor (Fp) at low temperatures was obtained by the direct measurement of changes in the carrier lifetime caused by the SQW excitonSPP coupling. The deposition of thin films of Al, Ag, and Au on an InGaN/GaN QW enabled a comparison of excitonSPP coupling for energy ranges in which the surface plasmon energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the QW excitonic transition energy. We investigated the temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors for exciton-to-LO phonon coupling for the metal-covered and bare samples. CL imaging and spectroscopy with variable excitation densities are used to examine the spatial correlations between CL emission intensity, carrier lifetime, QW excitonic emission energy, and the Huang-Rhys factor, all of which are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the In composition and formation of InN-rich centers.

  11. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  12. Nanoselective area growth and characterization of dislocation-free InGaN nanopyramids on AlN buffered Si(111) templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S.; El Gmili, Y. [CNRS, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Puybaret, R.; Li, X.; Bonanno, P. L.; Voss, P. L.; Ougazzaden, A., E-mail: abdallah.ougazzaden@georgiatech-metz.fr [CNRS, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, GT Lorraine, 57070 Metz (France); Pantzas, K.; Patriarche, G. [CNRS, UPR LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Salvestrini, J. P. [Universite de Lorraine, Centrale Supelec, LMOPS, EA 4423, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz (France)

    2015-09-14

    We report the metal organic chemical vapor deposition growth of dislocation-free 100 nm thick hexagonal InGaN nanopyramid arrays with up to 33% of indium content by nano-selective area growth on patterned AlN/Si (111) substrates. InGaN grown on SiO{sub 2} patterned templates exhibit high selectivity. Their single crystal structure is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscope combined with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, which also reveals the absence of threading dislocations in the InGaN nanopyramids due to elastic strain relaxation mechanisms. Cathodoluminescence measurements on a single InGaN nanopyramid clearly show an improvement of the optical properties when compared to planar InGaN grown under the same conditions. The good structural, morphological, and optical quality of the InGaN nanostructures grown on AlN/Si indicates that the nano-selective area growth technology is attractive for the realization of site-controlled indium-rich InGaN nanostructure-based devices and can also be transferred to other highly mismatched substrates.

  13. Strain Loading Mode Dependent Bandgap Deformation Potential in ZnO Micro/Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewen; Liao, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ren; Lin, Fang; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Liu, Yingkai; Guo, Wanlin; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-12-22

    The electronic-mechanical coupling in semiconductor nanostructures under different strain loading modes can modulate their photoelectric properties in different manners. Here, we report the systematic investigation on the strain mode dependent bandgap deformation potential of ZnO micro/nanowires under both uniaxial tensile and bending strains at room temperature. Uniaxial stretching-photoluminescence results show that the deformation potential of the smaller ZnO nanowire (with diameter d = 260 nm) is -30.6 meV/%, and is close to the bulk value, whereas it deviates the bulk value and becomes to be -10.6 meV/% when the wire diameter is increased to d = 2 μm. This unconventional size dependence stems from surface effect induced inhomogeneous strain in the surface layer and the core of the ZnO micro/nanowires under uniaxial tension. For bending load mode, the in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis reveals that the local strain distributes linearly in the bending cross section. Further cathodoluminescence measurements on a bending ZnO microwire (d = 1.8 μm) demonstrate that the deformation potential is -27 meV/%, whose absolute value is much larger than that of the ZnO microwire under uniaxial tension. Further analysis reveals that the distinct deformation potentials originate from the different deforming modes in ZnO micro/nanowires under bending or uniaxial tensile strains. Our results should facilitate the design of flexible optoelectronic nanodevices. PMID:26517647

  14. Characterization of novel powder and thin film RGB phosphors for field emissions display application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral response, brightness and outgassing characteristics of new, low-voltage phosphors for application in field-emission flat-panel displays, are presented. The tested phosphor materials include combustion synthesized powders and thin films prepared by RF-diode or magnetron sputtering, laser ablation and molecular beam epitaxy. These cathodoluminescent materials are tested with e-beam excitation at currents up to 50 μA within the 200-2000V (e.g. open-quotes low-voltageclose quotes) and 3-8 kV (e.g. open-quotes medium voltageclose quotes) ranges. The spectral coordinates are compared to commercial low-voltage P22 phosphors. Phosphor outgassing, as a function of time is measured with a residual gas analyzer at fixed 50 μA beam current in the low-voltage range. We find that levels of outgassing stabilize to low values after the first few hours of excitation. The desorption rates measured for powder phosphor layers with different thickness are compared to desorption from thin films

  15. Bright, water-soluble CeF3 photo-, cathodo-, and X-ray luminescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, water-soluble CeF3 nanoparticles with small size and narrow size distribution have been synthesized using a simple co-precipitation method without any ligands. Size control of nanoparticles from 13 ± 2 to 9 ± 2 nm was achieved by varying the reaction time. Colloidal properties have been found to vary with pH and, independently, with dilution. The photoluminescence of the as-synthesized nanoparticles shows a highly photostable UV/Visible fluorescence band due to allowed 5d–4f transitions, also observed in the X-ray luminescence spectrum. This band is suitable for X-ray excitation of a range of photosensitizers. The photoluminescence quantum yield of nanoparticles was also determined to be 31 %. Using the measured fluorescence decay time of 25 ns, the radiative lifetime of Ce in CeF3 was found to be 80.6 ns. Both photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence emission are affected by the reaction time and measurement temperature. Electron-beam-induced defect annealing is also observed

  16. Behaviour of the spontaneous polarisation field in polar and nonpolar GaInN/GaN quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous and piezoelectric fields in wurtzite GaN-based quantum well structures induce the quantum confined Stark effect(QCSE). The QCSE causes a decrease in the effective bandgap and a reduction of the oscillator strength in the polar c-direction. Unlike in case of the polar direction, the electric fields and the QCSE vanishes in the nonpolar directions, like m-plane. We use GaInN quantum wells as a sensitive probe for the magnitude and changes of the spontaneous field. By using cathodoluminescence in an UHV environment we were able to investigate field induced effects in the polar direction and the absence of these effects in a nonpolar direction. The complex dynamics are observed as a shift of spectral position and a intensity variation. Various samples grown on polar and nonpolar substrates were investigated. By variation of the sample structure like cap thickness and doping level we study the different time dependent behaviour in screening and descreening of the spontaneous field at different electron beam penetration depth. In this contribution we present measurements on nonpolar heterostructures which clearly shows no electric field induced effects, like emission energy and intensity shifts. Compared to the strong effects on polar samples, these measurements prove the absence of the spontaneous field in nonpolar directions.

  17. Records of magmatic change as preserved in zircon: examples from the Yellowstone Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Zircon crystals have been used as proxies for their host magmatic composition and as records of the evolution and differentiation of silicic magma systems through the use of integrated techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging, LA-ICPMS trace element analysis, thermometry, and high-precision CA-IDTIMS U/Pb dating. This petrochronologic approach can aid in identifying crystal populations arising from discrete pulses of magmatism, reconstructing the growth histories of those populations, quantifying the chemical evolution of the host magma, and determining the timing and tempo of that chemical evolution. The Yellowstone Volcanic Field hosts both large and small volume silicic eruptions whose zircon records can provide insights to magmatic processes using a petrochronologic approach. Morphological and thermochemical trends preserved in zircon grains extracted from the three Yellowstone super-eruptions and a small volume precursory eruption indicate that magmatism in the volcanic field is punctuated, characterized by numerous pulses of melting, differentiation, and solidification occurring prior to eruption. U/Pb zircon dating constrains magma assembly to geologically short timescales, with populations of earlier solidified zircon incorporated into the nascent magma just prior to eruption. This requires punctuated intervals of high magmatic flux be superimposed on longer durations of a much lower background flux. Thus super-eruptions within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field result from rapid production and evolution of magma, and preceded by periods of smaller volume magma production that undergo similar differentiation processes over comparable timescales.

  18. Fault deformation mechanisms and fault rocks in micritic limestones: Examples from Corinth rift normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolotto, M.; Benedicto, A.; Moen-Maurel, L.; Invernizzi, C.

    2015-08-01

    A multidisciplinary study investigates the influence of different parameters on fault rock architecture development along normal faults affecting non-porous carbonates of the Corinth rift southern margin. Here, some fault systems cut the same carbonate unit (Pindus), and the gradual and fast uplift since the initiation of the rift led to the exhumation of deep parts of the older faults. This exceptional context allows superficial active fault zones and old exhumed fault zones to be compared. Our approach includes field studies, micro-structural (optical microscope and cathodoluminescence), geochemical analyses (δ13C, δ18O, trace elements) and fluid inclusions microthermometry of calcite sin-kinematic cements. Our main results, in a depth-window ranging from 0 m to about 2500 m, are: i) all cements precipitated from meteoric fluids in a close or open circulation system depending on depth; ii) depth (in terms of P/T condition) determines the development of some structures and their sealing; iii) lithology (marly levels) influences the type of structures and its cohesive/non-cohesive nature; iv) early distributed rather than final total displacement along the main fault plane is the responsible for the fault zone architecture; v) petrophysical properties of each fault zone depend on the variable combination of these factors.

  19. Influence of Rare Earth Elements on Luminescent Properties of Y2SiO5:Tb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Huan; Liao Fuhui; Zhou Jingjing; Jing Xiping

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescent(PL) and cathodoluminescent(CL) properties of rare earths (Sc3+, La3+, Gd3+ and Lu3+) doped (Y0.97Tb0.03)2SiO5 were studied. Rare earth doping clearly influences PL and CL properties of Y2SiO5:Tb. For La3+ doped system, PL intensity increases nearly 10% at x=0.05 whereas for Lu3+ doped system, the intensity increases about 20% at x=0.20. Gd3+ doping and Sc3+ doping reduce the intensity; at x=0.3, it is reduced about 30% for Gd3+ doped system and about 15% for Sc3+ doped system, respectively. Quenching concentration of activator became higher in rare earth doped samples, which may be understood by that the rare earth dopants might dilute the concentration of the activator. Additionally, doping also influences the color saturation of Y2SiO5:Tb. Sc3+, La3+, and Gd3+ doping improve the color saturation, whereas Lu3+ doping decreases the color saturation. CL measurements show that CL intensity increases for all rare earths doped systems. The energy transfer from Gd3+ to Tb3+ was discussed.

  20. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  1. Excitation dependent Fano-like interference effects in plasmonic silver nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean M.; Nicoletti, Olivia; Rossouw, David; Ostasevicius, Tomas; Midgley, Paul A.

    2014-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles are an emerging technology platform for nano-optics applications from sensing to solar energy conversion. The electromagnetic near field associated with these resonances arises from modes determined by the shape, size, and composition of the metal nanoparticle. When coupled in the near field, multiple resonant modes can interact to give rise to interference effects offering fine control of both the spectral response and spatial distribution of fields near the particle. Here, we present an examination of experimental electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of silver nanorod monomer surface plasmon modes and present an explanation of observed spatial amplitude modulation of the Fabry-Pérot resonance modes of these silver nanorods using electrodynamics simulations. For these simulations, we identify differences in spectral peak symmetry in light scattering and electron spectroscopies (EELS and cathodoluminescence) and analyze the distinct near-field responses of silver nanorods to plane-wave light and electron beam excitation in terms of a coupled oscillator model. Effects of properties of the material and the incident field are evaluated, and the spatially resolved EELS signals are shown to provide a signature for assessing Fano-like interference effects in silver nanorods. These findings outline key considerations and challenges for interpreting electron microscopy data on plasmonic nanoparticles for understanding nanoscale optics and for characterization and design of photonic devices.

  2. Bias-voltage dependent ultraviolet photodetectors prepared by GaOx + ZnO mixture phase nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •GaOx + ZnO thin films sputtered and annealed exhibit interesting and unique optical properties, especially deep UV photo response. •GaOx + ZnO thin films can be used to fabricate efficient deep UV photodetectors. •The mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films is revealed to be responsible for the unique characteristics of the photodetectors. •Two bands in UV range can be adjusted by a applied voltage when the PDs were fabricated using the mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were prepared by using the GaOx + ZnO mixture phase thin films sputtered on sapphire as the photoresponse layer. The devices show good photoresponse in UV range. More interestingly, the device responsivity in the wavelength less than 280 nm range rapidly increases with increasing the applied voltage and becomes dominant for the bias ⩾3.0 V. X-ray diffraction, absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements firmly reveal the mixture phases in the thin films. Electric field dependent detrapping of photo-excited carriers in nanocrystals in the films shall be responsible for the observed bias-voltage dependent deep UV photoresponse of the devices

  3. Characterization of thick GaN films directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire by HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick GaN films of high quality are directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire in a vertical hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The optical and structural properties of GaN films are studied using scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Test results show that initial growth of hydride vapour phase epitaxy GaN occurs not only on the mesas but also on the two asymmetric sidewalls of the V-shaped grooves without selectivity. After the two-step coalescence near the interface, the GaN films near the surface keep on growing along the direction perpendicular to the long sidewall. Based on Raman results, GaN of the coalescence region in the grooves has the maximum residual stress and poor crystalline quality over the whole GaN film, and the coalescence process can release the stress. Therefore, stress-free thick GaN films are prepared with smooth and crack-free surfaces by this particular growth mode on wet-etching patterned sapphire substrates. (authors)

  4. Characterization of Thick GaN Films Directly Grown on Wet-Etching Patterned Sapphire by HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick GaN films of high quality are directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire in a vertical hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The optical and structural properties of GaN films are studied using scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Test results show that initial growth of hydride vapour phase epitaxy GaN occurs not only on the mesas but also on the two asymmetric sidewalls of the V-shaped grooves without selectivity. After the two-step coalescence near the interface, the GaN films near the surface keep on growing along the direction perpendicular to the long sidewall. Based on Raman results, GaN of the coalescence region in the grooves has the maximum residual stress and poor crystalline quality over the whole GaN film, and the coalescence process can release the stress. Therefore, stress-free thick GaN films are prepared with smooth and crack-free surfaces by this particular growth mode on wet-etching patterned sapphire substrates

  5. Luminescence and electron transport properties of GaN and AlN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport properties of free charge carriers, photo- and cathodo-luminescence (CV) in GaN and AlN films obtained by MOCVD technique on sapphire and Si substrates, are investigated. The concentration of free charge carriers in GaN is of order 1017-1019 cm-3 whereas AlN thin films are insulating. The Hall mobility of electrons are 80-140 cm2/V s). In undoped GaN films the spectral composition of CL is close to photoluminescence (PL) when excited in the region of band-band transitions. The decay time constant of the 3.44 eV UV emission attributed to the bound exciton is considerably less than 1 ns, whereas the 3.26 eV violet (VI) band shows a slow hyperbolical decay over about 1 μs. The known yellow band appears at 2.25 eV due to transitions via localised states. In AlN the spectral composition of the broad CL band is close to that from bulk materials attributed to charge transfer transitions in deep oxygen-related donor-acceptor centres

  6. Effect of interaction between sub-herbicide concentration of 2,4 D and high temperatures on the activities of some stress defence enzymes in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence observations of 36 belemnite rostra from the Toarcian (3.25 m thick succession) near the village of Beledie Han (about 26 km north of Sofia, Western Balkan Mountains) were performed to test their use as a paleocenographic indicators. The test reveals that only the non-luminescent areas of belemnites retain their primary marine geochemical composition after diagenesis. According to ICP measurements, well-preserved (non-luminescent) belemnite shells have high-Sr concentration (between 1075 and 1501 μg/ml). These values are comparable with modern marine low-Mg calcite precipitated in equilibrium with seawater. The samples with Sr/Mn rations > 80 are reliable indicators of primary geochemical and isotopic values. Seven whole rock samples of the host limestones were also analyzed. In contrast to belemnites they contain low-Sr (from 226 to 367 μh/ml), high-Fe (from 18920 to 72270 μg/ml) and high-Mn (from 345 to 981 μg/ml) concentrations. The isotopic data obtained from the non-luminescent areas of the Toarcian belemnite rostra and host limestones will be presented in a further publication

  7. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH3– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH3 and α-AlH3 irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH3 and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers

  8. Self-Catalyzed Growth of Vertically Aligned InN Nanorods by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarek, C; Fladischer, S; Dieker, C; Sarau, G; Hoffmann, B; Bashouti, M; Göbelt, M; Heilmann, M; Latzel, M; Butzen, E; Figge, S; Gust, A; Höflich, K; Feichtner, T; Büchele, M; Schwarzburg, K; Spiecker, E; Christiansen, S

    2016-06-01

    Vertically aligned hexagonal InN nanorods were grown mask-free by conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy without any foreign catalyst. The In droplets on top of the nanorods indicate a self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mode. A systematic study on important growth parameters has been carried out for the optimization of nanorod morphology. The nanorod N-polarity, induced by high temperature nitridation of the sapphire substrate, is necessary to achieve vertical growth. Hydrogen, usually inapplicable during InN growth due to formation of metallic indium, and silane are needed to enhance the aspect ratio and to reduce parasitic deposition beside the nanorods on the sapphire surface. The results reveal many similarities between InN and GaN nanorod growth showing that the process despite the large difference in growth temperature is similar. Transmission electron microscopy, spatially resolved energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy have been performed to analyze the structural properties. Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations are carried out to verify the optical activity of the InN nanorods. The InN nanorods are expected to be the material of choice for high-efficiency hot carrier solar cells. PMID:27187840

  9. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts. PMID:27124605

  10. Opto-Electronic Characterization CdTe Solar Cells from TCO to Back Contact with Nano-Scale CL Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Paudel, Naba; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Kuciauskas, Darius; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Duenow, Joel; Yan, Yanfa; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2015-06-14

    We used cathodoluminescence (CL) (spectrum-per-pixel) imaging on beveled CdTe solar cell sections to investigate the opto-electronic properties of these devices from the TCO to the back contact. We used a nano-scale CL probe to resolve luminescence from grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) locations near the CdS/CdTe interface where the grains are very small. As-deposited, CdCl2-treated, Cu-treated, and (CdCl2+Cu)-treated cells were analyzed. Color-coded CL spectrum imaging maps on bevels illustrate the distribution of the T=6 K luminescence transitions through the depth of devices with unprecedented spatial resolution. The CL at the GBs and GIs is shown to vary significantly from the front to the back of devices and is a sensitive function of processing. Supporting D-SIMS depth profile, TRPL lifetime, and C-V measurements are used to link the CL data to the J-V performance of devices.

  11. Bandgap engineering of the amorphous wide bandgap semiconductor (SiC)1-x(AlN)x doped with terbium and its optical emission properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous wide bandgap semiconductor thin films of the pseudobinary compound (SiC)1-x(AlN)x doped with terbium were grown by trial rf magnetron sputtering on CaF2 and glass substrates. The optical bandgap of the films in dependence of the composition x has been determined from transmission measurements using the (αhν)2 versus energy plot and the Tauc-plot. The bandgap varies from 2.2 eV for x = 0 (SiC) to 4.7 eV for x = 0.94 (almost pure AlN) and can be described by Vegard's law using the bowing parameter (3.18 ± 1.01) eV. Cathodoluminescence measurements show the typical terbium emission pattern. Thermal activation of the thin films with isochronical annealing from 300 deg. C to 1150 deg. C leads to strong increase of the emission with an optimal annealing temperature of 1100 deg. C.

  12. Contrasts in sillimanite deformation in felsic tectonites from anhydrous granulite- and hydrous amphibolite-facies shear zones, western Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, S. R.; Mahan, K. H.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Dumond, G.

    2015-02-01

    The deformation behavior of crustal materials in variably hydrated metamorphic environments can significantly influence the rheological and seismic properties of continental crust. Optical observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses are used to characterize sillimanite deformation behavior in felsic tectonites from two deformation settings in the Athabasca granulite terrane, western Canadian Shield. Under estimated conditions of 0.8-1.0 GPa, 725-850 °C in the Cora Lake shear zone, the data suggest that sillimanite deformed by dislocation creep with slip in the [001] direction accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization. Where sillimanite locally remained undeformed, strain was concentrated in surrounding weaker phases. Under hydrated conditions of 0.4-0.6 GPa, 550-650 °C in the Grease River shear zone, textures and cathodoluminescence imaging point to dissolution-precipitation creep as the major deformation mechanism for sillimanite, resulting in synkinematic growth of foliation-parallel euhedral sillimanite in a preferred orientation with [001] parallel to the lineation. The results suggest that temperature, fluid content, and modal mineralogy of the surrounding phases may all have significant influence on sillimanite deformation but that preferential alignment of sillimanite [001] parallel to the lineation persists regardless of contrasts in the conditions or mechanisms of deformation.

  13. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  14. Calcite veins as an indicator of fracture dilatancy and connectivity during strike-slip faulting in Toarcian shale (Tournemire tunnel, Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Mélody; Guglielmi, Yves; Henry, Pierre; Dick, Pierre; Gout, Claude

    2016-02-01

    The reactivation of faults induced by natural/human induced fluid pressure increases is a major concern to explain subsurface fluid migration and to estimate the risk of losing the integrity of reservoir/seal systems. This study focusses on paleo-fluid migration in a strike slip fault with >100 m long, affecting a Toarcian shale (Causses Basin, France). A high calcite concentration is observed in a 5 cm thick zone at the boundary between the fault core and damage zone. Cumulated displacements in this zone are of millimeter-to-centimeter-scale offsets and different dilatant deformation textures are observed. The zone is affected by thin slip planes containing gouge. Cathodo-luminescence observations indicate that two phases of vein formation occurred. The first phase coincides with the fluid migration along this centimeter thick dilatant zone. The second one is associated to re-shear along the millimeter thick slip planes that results in more localized mineralization, but also in a better hydrologic connection through the shale formation. These results show that in shales fluids may migrate off a slipping surface in centimeter scale dilatant volumes, at first controlled by the intact shale anisotropy related to bedding and then favored by brecciating, structures re-orientation and strengthening processes induced by calcite sealing effects.

  15. Giant coercivity in ferromagnetic Co doped ZnO single crystal thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The origin of ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with transition metal impurities has been discussed extensively and appeared to be a highly controversial and challenging topic in today's solid state physics. Magnetism observed in this system is generally weak and soft. We have grown Co:ZnO up to 30 at% Co in single crystal thin film form on c-plane sapphire. A composition dependent coercivity is observed in this system which reaches peak value at 25 at% Co, the values are 860 Oe and 1149 Oe with applied field along parallel and perpendicular to the film substrate interface respectively. This giant coercivity might pave the way to exploit this material as a magnetic semiconductor with novel logic functionalities. The findings are explained based on defect band itinerant ferromagnetism and its partial interaction with localized d electrons of Co through charge transfer. Besides large coercivity, an increase in the band gap with Co concentration has also been observed along with blue emission peak with long tail confirming the formation of extended point defect levels in the host lattice band gap. - Highlights: • Co doped ZnO ferromagnetic single crystal thin film. • Giant coercivity in Co:ZnO thin film which may help to turn this material into application. • Cathodoluminescence (CL) data showing increase in band gap with Co concentrations. • A theoretical proposal is made to explain the observed giant coercivity

  16. Schottky-contacted vertically self-aligned ZnO nanorods for hydrogen gas nanosensor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically well aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on Si(100) substrate using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Scanning electron microscopy images confirms uniform distribution of NRs on 2 in. wafer with average diameter, height and density being ∼75 nm, ∼850 nm, and ∼1.5 × 1010 cm−2, respectively. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO NRs are grown along c-axis direction with wurtzite crystal structure. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, which shows a single strong peak around 3.24 eV with full width half maxima 130 meV, indicates the high crystalline and optical quality of ZnO and very low defect density. Vertically aligned nanosensors were fabricated by depositing gold circular Schottky contacts on ZnO NRs. Resistance responses of nanosensors were observed in the range from 50 to 150 °C in 1% and 5% hydrogen in argon environment, which is below and above the explosive limit (4%) of hydrogen in air. The nanosensor's sensitivity increases from 11% to 67% with temperature from 50 to 150 °C and also shows fast response time (9–16 s) and moderate recovery time (100–200 s). A sensing mechanism is proposed based on Schottky barrier changes at heterojunctions and change in depletion region of NRs

  17. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions

  18. Optical and mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose: Toward a robust platform for next-generation green technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Claudia D; Reparaz, Juan S; Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Kreuzer, Martin; Ruiz-Blanco, Yasser B; García, Yamila; Malho, Jani-Markus; Goñi, Alejandro R; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2015-08-01

    Nanofibrillated cellulose, a polymer that can be obtained from one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature, is being increasingly explored due to its outstanding properties for packaging and device applications. Still, open challenges in engineering its intrinsic properties remain to address. To elucidate the optical and mechanical stability of nanofibrillated cellulose as a standalone platform, herein we report on three main findings: (i) for the first time an experimental determination of the optical bandgap of nanofibrillated cellulose, important for future modeling purposes, based on the onset of the optical bandgap of the nanofibrillated cellulose film at Eg≈275 nm (4.5 eV), obtained using absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements. In addition, comparing this result with ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure the exciton binding energy is estimated to be Eex≈800 meV; (ii) hydrostatic pressure experiments revealed that nanofibrillated cellulose is structurally stable at least up to 1.2 GPa; and (iii) surface elastic properties with repeatability better than 5% were observed under moisture cycles with changes of the Young modulus as large as 65%. The results obtained show the precise determination of significant properties as elastic properties and interactions that are compared with similar works and, moreover, demonstrate that nanofibrillated cellulose properties can be reversibly controlled, supporting the extended potential of nanofibrillated cellulose as a robust platform for green-technology applications. PMID:25933520

  19. Global correlation for strontium isotope curve in the Late Cretaceous of Tibet and dating marine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Sijing; SHI; He; SHEN; Licheng; ZHANG; Meng; WU; Wen

    2005-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of marine carbonate samples collected from a sedimentary section of the Late Cretaceous in the south of Tibet were measured. Based on the absence of cathodoluminescence and a very low Mn/Sr ratio (average 0.06) of the samples, it is thought that they contain information on the original seawater strontium isotope composition. The strontium isotope evolution curve of the Late Cretaceous in Tibet we established here, is consistent with other coeval curves from Europe, North America and Antarctica, supports the notion that the strontium isotope composition of seawater is governed by global events, which provides a new approach for the inter-continental and inter-basinal correlations of Late Cretaceous in the area and is a complementarity for biostratigraphy. In addition, we attempt to determine the age of the boundaries for Campanian/Santonian and Maastrichtian/Campanian by 87Sr/86Sr ratios for Gamba section in southern Tibet. The two boundaries are located in the thickness of 217 m (83.5 Ma) and 291 m (71.3 Ma), respectively.

  20. Effect of Au/SiO2 substrate on the structural and optical properties of gallium nitride grown by CVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ramos-Carrazco; R Garcia-Gutierrez; M Barboza-Flores; R Rangel; O E Contreras; D Berman-Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    The improvement of the growth of thick GaN films using a fused silica wafer covered with a thin gold layer by chemical vapour deposition at 800 °C is reported. In order to compare the surface properties, crystalline quality, micromilling performance and luminescence, the characterization of a GaN film grown on a silicon wafer is presented as well. The different morphologies of the surface observed on the GaN films are compared on each substrate and the resulting microstructures are presented in detail. High resolution TEM images of the GaN films show the main crystallographic planes characterizing these structures. The wurtzite structure was determined for each sample using the substrates of Au/SiO2 and Si (100) from the XRD patterns. Also, the re-deposition effect after ion milling of the GaN films is reported. The performance of ionic beam on the surface of the GaN thick films for the geometries patterning of rectangular, circular and annular with two different ion doses was compared. Cathodoluminescence spectra showed that the top surfaces of the samples emit strong UV emissions peaked at 3.35 and 3.32 eV which are related to the Y4 and Y6 transitions.

  1. Integrated single crystal laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital accessory minerals - Proof-of-concept studies of titanites and zircons from the Fish Canyon tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Alexandra M.; van Soest, Matthijs C.; Hodges, Kip V.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2016-04-01

    Excimer laser technologies enable a rapid and effective approach to simultaneous U/Pb geochronology and (U-Th)/He thermochronology of a wide range of detrital accessory minerals. Here we describe the 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) method and demonstrate its viability by applying it to zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff. We found that LADD dates for Fish Canyon zircon (206Pb/238U - 28.63 ± 0.11 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 28.38 ± 0.73 Ma) are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained through established, traditional methods of single-crystal dating. The same is true for Fish Canyon titanite LADD dates: 206Pb/238U - 28.08 ± 0.90 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 27.98 ± 0.86 Ma. As anticipated, given that LADD involves the analysis of smaller amounts of material than traditional methods, it yields dates with higher analytical uncertainty. However, this does not substantially reduce the utility of the results for most applications to detrital datasets. An important characteristic of LADD is that it encourages the chemical characterization of crystals by backscattered electron, cathodoluminescence, and/or Raman mapping prior to dating. In addition, by permitting the rapid and robust dating of crystals regardless of the degree of their abrasion during sedimentary transport, the method theoretically should yield dates that are more broadly representative of those of the entire population of detrital crystals in a natural sample.

  2. Surface chemical changes of CaTiO3:Pr3+ upon electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface chemical changes of CaTiO3:Pr3+ phosphor material and their effect on the red emission intensity of the 1D2→3H4 transition of Pr3+, upon electron beam irradiation are presented. Red emission at 613 nm was obtained upon probing the surface with a 2 keV electron beam. The surface chemical changes and Pr3+ red emission were monitored using an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometer, respectively. The CL intensity decreased with a decrease in O on the surface at 1×10−8 Torr base pressure and decreased with an increase in O on the surface at 1×10−6 Torr O2. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that CL degradation at 1×10−6 Torr O2 is due to the formation of CaO and CaOx as well as TiO2/Ti2O3 non-luminescent species on the surface.

  3. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meško, Marcel; Ou, Qiongrong; Matsuda, Takafumi; Ishikawa, Tomokazu; Veis, Martin; Antoš, Roman; Ogino, Akihisa; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2009-06-01

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 µm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  4. ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on ZnO nanopowder induced light scattering for improved visualization of emission sites in carbon nanotube films and arrays. We observed a significant reduction of the internal multiple light scattering phenomena, which are characteristic for ZnO micropowders. The microsized grains of the commercially available ZnO:Zn (P 15) were reduced to the nanometre scale by pulsed laser ablation at an oxygen ambient pressure of 10 kPa. Our investigations show no crystalline change and no shift of the broad green emission peak at 500 nm for the ZnO nanopowder. For the application in field emission displays, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving cathodoluminescence with a fine pitch size of 100 μm of the patterned pixels without requiring additional electron beam focusing and without a black matrix. Moreover, the presented results show the feasibility of employing ZnO nanopowder as a detection material for the phosphorus screen method, which is able to localize emission sites of carbon nanotube films and arrays with an accuracy comparable to scanning anode field emission microscopy.

  5. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from the Xugou UHP eclogite, Sulu terrane, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Liou, J.G.; Zhang, R.Y.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Eclogites, together with garnet clinopyroxenites, occur as lenses within the Xugou garnet peridotite body in the southern Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane. Combined cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon from two Xugou mafic eclogites provide added constraints on the timing of UHP metamorphism in this area. Zircons from both samples show subrounded to rounded shapes and patchy CL patterns without inherited igneous cores, indicating that they are metamorphic zircons. SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of these zircons yielded apparent U-Pb ages of 214-280 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 237 ?? 8 Ma, which is consistent with previous reported UHP metamorphic ages from eclogite pods and country-rock gneisses. The Xugou mafic lenses may have formed by partial melting of the enclosing peridotites in the mantle before subduction (Zhang et al., 2003); then these eclogites, together with the host peridotites, were tectonically emplaced into the subduction zone and subjected to UHP metamorphism at 237 ?? 8 Ma. Copyright ?? 2005 by V. H. Winston & Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotemplating of BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} for X-ray storage phosphor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, M.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Batentschuk, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Goetz-Neunhoeffer, F. [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Gruber, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Greil, P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Zollfrank, C., E-mail: cordt.zollfrank@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Department of Materials Science and Engineering - Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen - Nuremberg, Martensstr. 5, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    The design of hierarchically patterned novel structures by replicating the cellular tissue of wood has recently attained increasing interest. X-ray storage phosphor BaFBr:Eu{sup 2+} is manufactured via vacuum assisted repeated infiltration of wood tissue (Pinus sylvestris). A submicrometer precipitate is formed via wet chemical reaction of NH{sub 4}F, BaBr{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and EuCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O in methanol. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), the original wood cell walls are filled with the precipitate and completely transformed into BaFBr struts after sintering at 800 deg. C. The optical properties of the biomorphous phosphor microstructure are determined by photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) at room temperature, photo-stimulated luminescence spectroscopy (PSL) and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) in the SEM. A broadening of the PSL peak is observed and ascribed to the incorporation of calcium impurities present in the pine wood tissue. The potential of biotemplates for generating highly oriented and optically isolated {mu}m- and sub-{mu}m matrix of X-ray storage phosphor material is illustrated.

  7. Synthesis and luminescent properties of Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2}:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Meidan; Ci, Zhipeng, E-mail: cizhp@lzu.edu.cn; Wang, Yuhua, E-mail: wyh@lzu.edu.cn; Zhu, Ge; Shi, Yurong; Xin, Shuangyu

    2013-12-15

    A new Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} (CLGO) compound has been synthesized via solid-state reaction process for the first time. The crystal structure of CLGO was refined and determined by Maud Program. The photoluminescence spectra (PL), cathodoluminescence spectra (CL), and lifetimes as well as temperature dependence of photoluminescence of CLGO:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}) were investigated in detail. Under the excitation of ultraviolet, CLGO:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}) show red, green, yellow, orange, violet emission, respectively. -- Highlights: • A new Ca{sub 2}La{sub 8}(GeO{sub 4}){sub 6}O{sub 2} (CLGO) compound has been synthesized for the first time. • The crystal structure of CLGO has been refined by Maud refinement method. • Photoluminescence spectra of CLGO:RE{sup 3+} were firstly investigated.

  8. Structural, magnetic and luminescent characteristics of Pr3+-doped ZrO2 powders synthesized by a sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural, magnetic and luminescence properties of praseodymium-doped zirconia powders of compositions Pr0.03Zr0.97O2 and Pr0.05Zr0.95O2 synthesized by a sol-gel process have been investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that these materials crystallize in a tetragonal fluorite-type structure. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the powders exhibit an agglomerated microcrystalline structure and the grain size may be in the order of 5-20 μm. The study of the magnetic properties of these doped metal oxides indicates a Curie-Weiss behaviour in the temperature range (100-300) K that allow us to estimate an effective magnetic moment of 3.51 μB, which indicates the presence of Pr3+ in the grown samples. Cathodoluminescence spectra recorded at temperatures between 85 and 295 K show emission peaks that can be attributed to transitions between different states within the 4f2 configuration of Pr3+ ions incorporated in the zirconia crystal lattice. Thermoluminescence measured at temperatures ranging from 373 to 773 K and at 550 nm wavelength show an intense and broad peak around 653 K for the Pr-doped zirconia which is not observed in the undoped material.

  9. The effect of substrate on high-temperature annealing of GaN epilayers: Si versus sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the effects of rapid thermal annealing at 1300 deg.C on GaN epilayers grown on AlN buffered Si(111) and on sapphire substrates. After annealing, the epilayers grown on Si display visible alterations with craterlike morphology scattered over the surface. The annealed GaN/Si layers were characterized by a range of experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, optical confocal imaging, energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis, Raman scattering, and cathodoluminescence. A substantial Si migration to the GaN epilayer was observed in the crater regions, where decomposition of GaN and formation of Si3N4 crystallites as well as metallic Ga droplets and Si nanocrystals have occurred. The average diameter of the Si nanocrystals was estimated from Raman scattering to be around 3 nm. Such annealing effects, which are not observed in GaN grown on sapphire, are a significant issue for applications of GaN grown on Si(111) substrates when subsequent high-temperature processing is required

  10. Luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-activated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshabalala, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Cho, S.-H.; Park, J.-K. [Nano-Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I.M.; Kroon, R.E.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+} co-activated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 Degree-Sign C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5} transitions of Tb{sup 3+}. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  11. Luminescence enhancement of ZnGa 2O 4:Mn 2+ by Ge 4+ and Li + doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Park, H. L.; Kim, G. C.; Kim, T. W.; Hwang, Y. H.; Kim, H. K.; Mho, S. I.; Han, S. D.

    2003-05-01

    Structural and optical properties of ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+ and ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The XRD patterns show that Ge-doped ZnGa 2O 4 has a spinel phase and its lattice constant increases with respect to ZnGa 2O 4. Emission wavelength shifts from 400 to 360 nm in comparison with ZnGa 2O 4 when Ge is doped in ZnGa 2O 4 and a peak related with oxygen defect was observed in Ge-doped ZnGa 2O 4. The CL luminance of ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors is seven times brighter than that of ZnGa 2O 4:Mn 2+. This drastic luminance improvement can be attributed to Ge doping in ZnGa 2O 4 acting as donor ion and Li doping resulting in increasing conductivity of ZnGa 2O 4. These results indicate that ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors hold promise for potential applications in field-emission display devices with high brightness operating in green spectral regions.

  12. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabalala, K. G.; Cho, S.-H.; Park, J.-K.; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I. M.; Kroon, R. E.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce3+-Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 °C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl2O4. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce3+ and Tb3+ show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  13. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce3+–Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 °C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl2O4. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce3+ and Tb3+ show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  14. Intrinsic and impurity luminescence and multiplication of excitations in complex oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission bands at 5.1 and 5.0 eV have been detected at 9 K in the cathodoluminescence spectra of pure and doped with Eu2+ ions BaMgAl10O17 and SrMgAl10O17 phosphors, respectively. A comparison of these emissions with the spectra of pure and doped MgO, α-Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 crystals allowed to interpret the VUV emissions of phosphors as the recombination of conduction electrons with the holes localized at oxygen ions near Mg2+ substituting Al3+ in spinel blocks. The creation regions of two or three electron-hole pairs by one photon of 22-32 eV that causes the ionization of the 2p6 or 2s2 shells of oxygen in spinel blocks, has been separated in the excitation spectra of blue and UV emissions of BaMgAl10O17 at 9 K. Besides thoroughly investigated 4f7→ 4f65d1 electron transitions in Eu2+ centres (absorption at 3.5-6.2 eV), the creation region of the electronic excitations connected with the excitation and ionization of oxygen ions nearby Eu2+ or Mg2+ ions (6.6-7.8 eV) can be tentatively separated in the excitation spectra of steady luminescence and recombination phosphorescence of SrMgAl10O17:Eu

  15. Ultraviolet emission and Fano resonance in doped nano-alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Oliveira, Samuel L.; Rand, Stephen C.; Azurdia, Jose A.; Hinklin, Tom R.; Marchal, Julien C.; Laine, Richard M.

    2007-03-01

    Emission properties of Al2O3 nanopowders, synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with Mg, Cr, and Sc dopants, are investigated, principally in the protein lysing range of 250-290nm (UV-C band). As expected, point defect densities depend on crystal phase and irradiation history and strongly influence emission properties at short wavelengths. Ultraviolet and visible emission intensities of aggregated point defect centers change upon electron beam exposure at high current densities, but ultraviolet emission from point defects is persistently enhanced over a narrow range of Mg-doped Al2O3 compositions slightly off spinel stoichiometry. At 40% Mg concentration, emission intensities at 320nm rise by over an order of magnitude after beam exposure. Quantum efficiency for cathodoluminescence in the 250-300nm range nevertheless remains low. Point defect ionization at high currents shifts the emission of Al2O3 nanopowders to the infrared and is shown to be correlated with a ubiquitous Fano resonance in ionized Cr-vacancy complexes. This base line spectroscopy permits us to attribute the very high quantum efficiency of UV-C luminescence in annealed Sc3+:Al2O3 primarily to the formation of α-phase Al2O3.

  16. Systematic Tuning of the Luminescent Properties of Self-Activated ZnGa 2O 4 Phosphors by Cd Ion Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Ming; Chen, Y.-W.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of host compositions on the luminescent properties of spinel-type ZnGa2O4 phosphors was investigated by systematic substitution of Cd2+ for Zn2+ in the host lattice. A continuous solid solution with the composition (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 (0≤x≤1.0) was synthesized at 950°C as self-activated phosphors, as indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. With increasing substitution of Cd2+ the emission and excitation wavelengths (λem and λexc) of self-activated (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 were observed to exhibit a red shift, as indicated by photoluminescence spectral analysis. Similar results were also confirmed by cathodoluminescence data. Our observations are attributed to the systematic narrowing of the energy gap of the host attributed to expanding lattice dimensions induced by Cd2+ substitution. A CIE chromaticity diagram manifests the effect of Cd2+ doping on variation of hue for the (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 gallate phosphors.

  17. CL from impurities and point defects in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A.; Herrera, M.

    2013-03-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is used to investigate the nature of defects and impurities generated in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method. The incorporation of Mn in the ZnO nanorods generated an increase in the surface roughness and the formation of an Mn complex-compound of spinel ZnMn2O4. CL measurements acquired at room temperature revealed two emissions at 3.2 and 2.3 eV, associated with the ZnO near-band-edge emission and the luminescence of spinel ZnMn2O4, respectively. CL spectra at 100 K recorded the Mn2+ ion d-d transitions as a broad CL emission, with energies between 2.6 and 3.1 eV. The well-known ZnO yellow emission (2.0 eV) was also present in the samples, recording a relative intensity ratio I2.0/I2.33 that increased when the temperature was dropped at 100 K. A thermal annealing of the samples at 400 °C, in Ar atmosphere, generated strong decreases in the intensity of the defects and Mn-related emissions, recording an intensity ratio Iband-edge/Idefects of about 15. Diffusion of Mn from the ZnO surface to the bulk is proposed to explain this effect.

  18. Manganese-activated luminescence in ZnGa2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Feng; Lin, Pang

    1996-05-01

    Manganese-activated ZnGa2O4, prepared at a sintering temperature of 1375 °C with 0.1% MnO dopant, emitted red and green light with peaks at 666 and 508 nm when excited with a laser source (325 nm). The luminescence centers of red emission were ascribed to Mn4+ ions in the octahedral (B) sites of spinel-structure zinc gallate. Monitored at these two peaks, the sample exhibited absorption bands at 342 and 464 nm (for red) and 245 and 290 nm (for green) when excited with radiation from a xenon discharge lamp, indicating an excitation process occurring in Mn4+ ions distinct from that of Mn2+ ions (in A sites) which were known to be responsible for the green emission. Cathodoluminescence spectra showed that the integrated intensity of an UV band (peak at 349 nm) increased steadily with beam current while the green light intensity saturated at high current ranges. Several possible saturation mechanisms were discussed. The variation of the intensities versus current was interpreted and formulated based on an energy process between Ga-O groups and Mn2+ ions. Good fittings between the calculated curves and measured intensity data were attained with appropriate parameter values in the calculation. Assuming a resonant transfer process with electric dipole-dipole interaction prevailing between the Mn2+ and Ga3+ ions, a critical interaction distance of ˜9.9 Å for the ions was derived from an associated relation and the parameters used.

  19. Comparative study of radiation-induced damage in magnesium aluminate spinel by means of IL, CL and RBS/C techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Iwona; Jagielski, Jacek; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Jozwik, Przemyslaw; Ratajczak, Renata; Panczer, Gerard; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Wajler, Anna; Sidorowicz, Agata; Thomé, Lionel

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study of damage accumulation in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) has been conducted using ionoluminescence (IL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry/channeling (RBS/C) techniques. MgAl2O4 single crystal and polycrystalline samples were irradiated with 320 keV Ar+ ions at fluencies ranging from 1 × 1012 to 2 × 1016 cm-2 in order to create various levels of radiation damage. RBS/C measurements provided quantitative data about damage concentration in the samples. These values were then compared to the luminescence measurements. The results obtained by IL and RBS/C methods demonstrate a two-step character of damage buildup process. The CL data analysis points to the three-step damage accumulation mechanism involving the first defect transformation at fluencies of about 1013 cm-2 and second at about 1015 cm-2. The rate of changes resulting from the formation of nonluminescent recombination centers is clearly nonlinear and cannot be described in terms of continuous accumulation of point defects. Both, IL and CL techniques, appear as new, complementary tools bringing new possibilities in the damage accumulation studies in single- and polycrystalline materials.

  20. ZnO-Sn:ZnO core-shell nanowires and ZnO-Zn2SnO4 comb-like nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Chi; Hung, Jian-Shiung

    2010-09-01

    Novel single-crystalline ZnO-Sn:ZnO (SZO) core-shell nanowires and ZnO-Zn2SnO4 (ZTO) comb-like nanocomposites were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 650 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show the diameters and lengths of the core-shell nanowires are in ranges of 25-60 nm and 300-500 nm, respectively. The atomic ratios of Sn to (Zn + Sn) in the central and shell parts of the nanowire are 0.4 at.% and 6.1 at.%, respectively. The ZnO-ZTO comb-like nanocomposites possess ZnO nanocombs with ZTO nano-layers deposited on both sides of them. The ZnO branches and ZTO layers are single-crystalline wurtzite and spinel structures growing along the [0002] and [111] directions, respectively. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence measurements show the nanocomposites exhibit strong ultraviolet (UV) emissions at 300, 384 nm, and a broad green emission. The novel luminescence shows promising singularity for opto-electronic applications. PMID:21133084

  1. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Photoluminescence Imaging and Characterization of a Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Defect Area: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Li, J.; Romero, M. J.; Al-Jassim, M.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-07-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is used to detect areas in multi-crystalline silicon that appear dark in band-to-band imaging due to high recombination. Steady-state PL intensity can be correlated to effective minority-carrier lifetime, and its temperature dependence can provide additional lifetime-limiting defect information. An area of high defect density has been laser cut from a multi-crystalline silicon solar cell. Both band-to-band and defect-band PL imaging have been collected as a function of temperature from ~85 to 350 K. Band-to-band luminescence is collected by an InGaAs camera using a 1200-nm short-pass filter, while defect band luminescence is collected using a 1350-nm long pass filter. The defect band luminescence is characterized by cathodo-luminescence. Small pieces from adjacent areas within the same wafer are measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). DLTS detects a minority-carrier electron trap level with an activation energy of 0.45 eV on the sample that contained defects as seen by imaging.

  3. Ion beam characterization of advanced luminescent materials for application in radiation effects microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, J.V., E-mail: jvbrans@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Hattar, K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Rossi, P. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Department of Physics of the University of Padua and INFN, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padua (Italy); Vizkelethy, G.; Powell, C.J. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States); Hernandez-Sanchez, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1349, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1349 (United States); Doyle, B.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800 MS 1056, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1056 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The ion photon emission microscope (IPEM) is a technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to study radiation effects in integrated circuits with high energy, heavy ions, such as those produced by the 88' cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). In this method, an ion-luminescent film is used to produce photons from the point of ion impact. The photons emitted due to an ion impact are imaged on a position-sensitive detector to determine the location of a single event effect (SEE). Due to stringent resolution, intensity, wavelength, decay time, and radiation tolerance demands, an engineered material with very specific properties is required to act as the luminescent film. The requirements for this material are extensive. It must produce a high enough induced luminescent intensity so at least one photon is detected per ion hit. The emission wavelength must match the sensitivity of the detector used, and the luminescent decay time must be short enough to limit accidental coincidences. In addition, the material must be easy to handle and its luminescent properties must be tolerant to radiation damage. Materials studied for this application include plastic scintillators, GaN and GaN/InGaN quantum well structures, and lanthanide-activated ceramic phosphors. Results from characterization studies on these materials will be presented; including photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, ion beam induced luminescence, luminescent decay times, and radiation damage. Results indicate that the ceramic phosphors are currently proving to be the ideal material for IPEM investigations.

  4. Complex hierarchical arrangements of stacked nanoplates in Al-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mikrostrukturanalytik, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Haeussler, D.; Jaeger, W. [Mikrostrukturanalytik, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Piqueras, J.; Fernandez, P. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Al-doped micro- and nanostructures have been grown by an evaporation-deposition method with a mixture of ZnS and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders as precursor. It has been found that the presence of Al is the cause of the growth of complex morphologies, as rods formed by stacks of nanoplates and other complex hierarchical structures. The role of Al in the growth process has been investigated by electron microscopy techniques. Al-rich particles in specific sites of a central rod lead to hierarchical growth. Transmission electron microscopy shows that in some cases the Al-rich zones are clusters of spinel ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles adhered to ZnO nanorods. Al incorporation into the structures and the dopant effect on the luminescence behavior of the ZnO structures were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy and by cathodoluminescence. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Growth and characterization of ZnMgSrO thin films lattice-matched to ZnO and with deep-UV energy band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il-Soo; Park, Jang-Ho; Lee, Byung-Teak, E-mail: btlee@jnu.ac.kr

    2011-07-29

    Quaternary Zn{sub 1-x-y}Mg{sub x}Sr{sub y}O films were grown and characterized in detail, which were observed to be lattice matched to the ZnO by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). Cathodoluminescence measurement showed that near-band UV emission peaks of the samples move toward higher energy as concentration of Mg and Sr increases, to 3.67 eV for the Zn{sub 0.87}Mg{sub 0.08}Sr{sub 0.05}O and to 4.02 eV for the Zn{sub 0.72}Mg{sub 0.17}Sr{sub 0.11}O. It was also observed by the scanning electron microscopy and the XRD that the films are single crystalline. It is believed that the ZnMgSrO films would be one of the important candidate materials for the high quality deep-UV optoelectronic devices.

  6. Structural and luminescent properties of europium doped TiO{sub 2} thick films synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaleta-Alejandre, E; Zapata-Torres, M; Aguilar-Frutis, M; Alarcon-Flores, G; Guzman-Mendoza, J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, Del. Miguel Hidalgo, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C, E-mail: ezaletaa@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07000, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-07

    The structural and luminescent properties of trivalent europium-doped titanium dioxide films synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique at several substrate temperatures are reported. These films are nanocrystalline and present a mixture of tetragonal (anatase and rutile) crystal structures of the titania as determined by x-ray diffraction. The rutile crystal structure became predominant as the substrate temperature during deposition was increased. Under UV and electron beam excitation, these coatings showed strong luminescence due to f-f transitions and the dominant transition was the hypersensitive {sup 5}D{sub 0} {yields} {sup 7}F{sub 2} red emission of Eu{sup 3+}. The photo- and cathodoluminescence characteristics of these films were studied as a function of growth parameters such as substrate temperature and europium concentration. Excitation with a wavelength of 396 nm resulted in photoluminescent emission peaks located at 557, 580, 592, 615, 652 and 703 nm, associated with the electronic transitions of the Eu{sup 3+} ion. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity as a whole is observed to decrease as the deposition temperature is increased. Also, with increasing doping concentration, a quenching of the PL is observed. The chemical composition and surface morphology characteristics of the films are also reported.

  7. {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} emission of Tb doped sol-gel silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Gusowski, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Amorphous silica samples doped with 0.1 and 1 mol% of terbium (Tb) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. In addition to the green light associated with {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, the sample containing 0.1 mol% also emitted blue light as a result of {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions during photoluminescence (PL) measurements. As a result of concentration quenching this blue emission was not observed for the samples doped with the higher concentration (1 mol%). However the blue {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} emission was observed in the 1 mol% doped samples during cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Since a rough calculation indicated that the excitation rate in the CL system where the blue emission is observed may be similar to a laser PL system under conditions where the blue emission is not observed, the difference is attributed to the nature of the excitation sources. It is suggested that during the CL excitation incident electrons can reduce non-luminescent Tb{sup 4+} ions in the silica, substituting for Si{sup 4+} ions, to the excited (Tb{sup 3+}) Low-Asterisk state and that these are responsible for the blue emission, which does not occur during PL excitation.

  8. Investigation of indium gallium nitride facet-dependent nonpolar growth rates and composition for core-shell light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gîrgel, Ionut; Edwards, Paul R.; Le Boulbar, Emmanuel; Coulon, Pierre-Marie; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Allsopp, Duncan W. E.; Martin, Robert W.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Shields, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    Core-shell indium gallium nitride (InGaN)/gallium nitride (GaN) structures are attractive as light emitters due to the large nonpolar surface of rod-like cores with their longitudinal axis aligned along the c-direction. These facets do not suffer from the quantum-confined Stark effect that limits the thickness of quantum wells and efficiency in conventional light-emitting devices. Understanding InGaN growth on these submicron three-dimensional structures is important to optimize optoelectronic device performance. In this work, the influence of reactor parameters was determined and compared. GaN nanorods (NRs) with both {11-20} a-plane and {10-10} m-plane nonpolar facets were prepared to investigate the impact of metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy reactor parameters on the characteristics of a thick (38 to 85 nm) overgrown InGaN shell. The morphology and optical emission properties of the InGaN layers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The study reveals that reactor pressure has an important impact on the InN mole fraction on the {10-10} m-plane facets, even at a reduced growth rate. The sample grown at 750°C and 100 mbar had an InN mole fraction of 25% on the {10-10} facets of the NRs.

  9. Microstructural dependency of optical properties of m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells grown on 2° misoriented bulk GaN substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-polar m-plane structure consisting of five InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QWs) was grown on ammonothermal bulk GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. Surface step bunches propagating through the QW stack were found to accommodate the 2° substrate miscut towards the -c direction. Both large steps with heights of a few tens of nanometres and small steps between one and a few atomic layers in height are observed, the former of which exhibit cathodoluminescence at longer wavelengths than the adjacent m-plane terraces. This is attributed to the formation of semi-polar facets at the steps on which the QWs are shown to be thicker and have higher Indium contents than those in the adjacent m-plane regions. Discrete basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs) were occasionally initiated from the QWs on the main m-plane terraces, but groups of BSFs were frequently observed to initiate from those on the large steps, probably related to the increased strain associated with the locally higher indium content and thickness

  10. Investigation of the influence of InGaN underlying layers on the optical properties of InGaN quantum well structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical properties of InGaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with InGaN underlying layers (UL) on sapphire substrates have been comprehensively investigated by highly spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL) at He temperature and by temperature dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The Indium content of the UL was systematically varied from 1% to 4% between the samples. SEM and AFM measurements were used to examine the sample morphology. The evaluation of the temperature dependent PL measurements shows a rising activation energy of nonradiative centers with increasing In content. CL investigations of the sample surface show elongated structures in the integral intensity images and peak wavelength images, which becomes more spot-like with rising In content. The peak energy of the MQW luminescence shows a blueshift with rising In content which may be caused by a possible reduction of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). At the same time the FWHM of the MQW emission is reduced from 27 meV to about 18 meV when introducing ULs.

  11. Characterization of CdZnTe after argon ion beam bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensalah, H., E-mail: hakima.bensalah@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, V. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Plaza, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, O. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Crocco, J.; Zheng, Q.; Carcelen, V.; Dieguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After argon irradiation using low fluence, the defects on surface were removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL intensity increases after irradiation. This increase should be related to the improved quality of the CdZnTe surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation process lead to an elimination of Te precipitates from the surfaces of the CdZnTe samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of argon ion irradiation process on the structure and distribution of Te inclusions in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals. The samples were treated with different ion fluences ranging from 2 to 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The state of the samples before and after irradiation were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cathodoluminescence, Photoluminescence, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the irradiation on the surface of the samples was clearly observed by SEM or AFM. Even for small fluences a removal of polishing scratches on the sample surfaces was observed. Likely correlated to this effect, an important enhancement in the luminescence intensity of the irradiated samples was observed. An aggregation effect of the Te inclusions seems to occur due to the Ar bombardment, which are also eliminated from the surfaces for the highest ion fluences used.

  12. Optoelectronic properties of eutectic-metal-bonded (EMB) GaAs-AlGaAs structures on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M. L.

    1994-11-01

    Device-quality GaAsAlGaAs thin-film hetero-structures have been obtained on Si substrates using a novel approach called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB). The optoelectronic material properties of the thin-films have been evaluated by a variety of techniques including, Raman spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. Transient PL measurement indicates that the minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs-on-Si thin-film is about 40 times higher than that in state-of-the-art hetero-epitaxial GaAs-on-Si layer. The PL characteristics of the EMB GaAs-on-Si structures have been used to obtain the long-wavelength dispersion values for GaAs thin-film structures. The minority carrier device quality of these thin-films have been evaluated using dark log I- V measurements on n+- p GaAs diodes, spectral-response characterization and solar cell performance data.

  13. Composition and luminescence studies of InGaN epilayers grown at different hydrogen flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium gallium nitride (InxGa1−xN) is a technologically important material for many optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and solar cells, but it remains a challenge to incorporate high levels of InN into the alloy while maintaining sample quality. A series of InGaN epilayers was grown with different hydrogen flow rates (0–200 sccm) and growth temperatures (680–750 °C) to obtain various InN fractions and bright emission in the range 390–480 nm. These 160-nm thick epilayers were characterized through several compositional techniques (wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The compositional analysis with the different techniques shows good agreement when taking into account compositional gradients evidenced in these layers. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the gas flow at lower growth temperatures is shown to maintain a high surface quality and luminescence homogeneity. This allowed InN fractions of up to ∼16% to be incorporated with minimal peak energy variations over a mapped area while keeping a high material quality. (paper)

  14. Optical Emission of Individual GaN Nanocolumns Analyzed with High Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, A; Müller, M; Karbaum, C; Schmidt, G; Veit, P; Malindretos, J; Bertram, F; Christen, J; Rizzi, A

    2015-08-12

    Selective area growth has been applied to fabricate a homogeneous array of GaN nanocolumns (NC) with high crystal quality. The structural and optical properties of single NCs have been investigated at the nanometer-scale by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and highly spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) at liquid helium temperatures. TEM cross-section analysis reveals excellent structural properties of the GaN NCs. Sporadically, isolated basal plane stacking faults (BSF) can be found resulting in a remarkably low BSF density in the almost entire NC ensemble. Both, defect-free NCs and NCs with few BSFs have been investigated. The low defect density within the NCs allows the characterization of individual BSFs, which is of high interest for studying their optical properties. Direct nanometer-scale correlation of the CL and STEM data clearly exhibits a spatial correlation of the emission at 360.6 nm (3.438 eV) with the location of basal plane stacking faults of type I1. PMID:26225541

  15. Influence of CVD process duration on morphology, structure and sensing properties of carbonaceous-palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the nanocomposite carbonaceous-palladium (C-Pd) thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used to study the topography, morphology and structure of carbon and palladium nanograins contained in these films. The quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of C-Pd films was determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The initial PVD films were modified in a CVD quartz reactor using xylene (the mixture of isomers) as a modifying factor at different times (5, 10 and 30 minutes) at a constant temperature of 650°C in atmospheric pressure. It was observed that the average size of palladium nanograins increased with an increasing duration of modification process. The differences in microstructures observed in the CVD films modified at different times, affect their response in measurements of resistance changes in the gas containing H2 in various concentrations. All samples were measured by cathodoluminescence (CL) method. In CL studies a large amount of objects with high intensity of CL was found. Some of them show the emission bands both at 450 nm and 750 nm. Other reveals emission band only at 450 nm. CL observations show that Pd nanograins coated by graphite shells exhibit optical activity

  16. GaAs/Si epitaxial integration utilizing a two-step, selectively grown Ge intermediate layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Jeffrey G.; Leonhardt, Darin; Sheng, Josephine J.; Li, Qiming; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Han, Sang M.

    2010-04-01

    We describe efforts to epitaxially integrate GaAs with Si, using thin, relaxed Ge layers. The Ge films are deposited by molecular beam epitaxy using a self-assembled, selective-area growth technique, where atomic Ge etches an SiO 2 mask layer and then grows from pores extending to the Si substrate. The resulting Ge film coalesces over the SiO 2 mask and is planarized, using H 2O 2-based chemical-mechanical polishing. We subsequently deposit a GaAs/AlAs heterostructure on the polished Ge on Si substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. While the initial Ge films were completely relaxed and dislocation-free, they contain a high density of stacking faults that propagate through the GaAs/AlAs heterostructure. These stacking faults create phase domains that appear as non-radiative recombination centers in cathodoluminescence images. Further development of two-step Ge epitaxy with an anneal near the Ge melting point eliminates stacking faults in the Ge, but decomposes the SiO 2 mask allowing threading dislocations to form and propagate through the GaAs/AlAs heterostructure. We discuss our strategy to prevent the loss of the SiO 2 mask and thus reduce threading dislocations.

  17. Characterisation of defects in p-GaN by admittance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, O. S.; Vernon-Parry, K. D.; Evans-Freeman, J. H.; Airey, R. J.; Kappers, M.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2012-08-01

    Mg-doped GaN films have been grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire using metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Use of different buffer layer strategies caused the threading dislocation density (TDD) in the GaN to be either approximately 2×109 cm-2 or 1×1010 cm-2. Frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements at temperatures up to 450 K have been used to study the electronic states associated with the Mg doping, and to determine how these are affected by the TDD. Admittance spectroscopy of the films finds a single impurity-related acceptor level with an activation energy of 160±10 meV for [Mg] of about 1×1019 cm-3, and 120±10 eV as the Mg precursor flux decreased. This level is thought to be associated with the Mg acceptor state. The TDD has no discernible effect on the trap detected by admittance spectroscopy. We compare these results with cathodoluminescence measurements reported in the literature, which reveal that most threading dislocations are non-radiative recombination centres, and discuss possible reasons why our admittance spectroscopy have not detected electrically active defects associated with threading dislocations.

  18. Faceting control in core-shell GaN micropillars using selective epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Krylyuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of large-area, vertically aligned GaN epitaxial core-shell micropillar arrays. The two-step process consists of inductively coupled plasma (ICP etching of lithographically patterned GaN-on-Si substrate to produce an array of micropillars followed by selective growth of GaN shells over these pillars using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE. The most significant aspect of the study is the demonstration of the sidewall facet control in the shells, ranging from {1 1 ̄ 01} semi-polar to {1 1 ̄ 00} non-polar planes, by employing a post-ICP chemical etch and by tuning the HVPE growth temperature. Room-temperature photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and Raman scattering measurements reveal substantial reduction of parasitic yellow luminescence as well as strain-relaxation in the core-shell structures. In addition, X-ray diffraction indicates improved crystal quality after the shell formation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of selective epitaxy on micro-/nano- engineered templates for realizing high-quality GaN-on-Si devices.

  19. Optimization of inductively coupled plasma deep etching of GaN and etching damage analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of GaN with an etching depth up to 4 μm is systemically studied by varying ICP power, RF power and chamber pressure, respectively, which results in etch rates ranging from ∼370 nm/min to 900 nm/min. The surface morphology and damages of the etched surface are characterized by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, cathodoluminescence mapping and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Sub-micrometer-scale hexagonal pits and pillars originating from part of the structural defects within the original GaN layer are observed on the etched surface. The density of these surface features varies with etching conditions. Considerable reduction of PL band-edge emission from the etched GaN surface indicates that high-density non-radiative recombination centers are created by ICP etching. The density of these non-radiative recombination centers is found largely dependent on the degree of physical bombardments, which is a strong function of the RF power applied. Finally, a low-surface-damage etch recipe with high ICP power, low RF power, high chamber pressure is suggested.

  20. Electron Backscatter Diffraction: An Important Tool for Analyses of Structure-Property Relationships in Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Ras, D.; Kavalakkatt, J.; Nichterwitz, M.; Schäfer, N.; Harndt, S.; Wilkinson, A. J.; Tsyrulin, K.; Schulz, H.; Bauer, F.

    2013-09-01

    The present work gives an overview of the application of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the field of thin-film solar cells, which consist of stacks of polycrystalline layers on various rigid or flexible substrates. EBSD provides access to grain-size and local-orientation distributions, film textures, and grain-boundary types. By evaluation of the EBSD patterns within individual grains of the polycrystalline solar cell layers, microstrain distributions also can be obtained. These microstructural properties are of considerable interest for research and development of thin-film solar cells. Moreover, EBSD may be performed three-dimensionally, by alternating slicing of cross sections in a focused ion-beam machine and EBSD acquisition. To relate the microstructural properties to the electrical properties of individual layers as well as to the device performances of corresponding solar cells, EBSD can be combined with electron-beam-induced current and cathodoluminescence measurements and with various scanning-probe microscopy methods such as Kelvin-probe force, scanning spreading resistance, or scanning capacitance microscopy on identical specimen positions. Together with standard device characterization of thin-film solar cells, these scanning microscopy measurements provide the means for extensive analysis of structure-property relationships in solar-cell stacks with polycrystalline layers.

  1. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  2. Comparative study of radiation-induced damage in magnesium aluminate spinel by means of IL, CL and RBS/C techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Iwona; Jagielski, Jacek; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Jozwik, Przemyslaw; Ratajczak, Renata; Panczer, Gerard; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Wajler, Anna; Sidorowicz, Agata; Thomé, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of damage accumulation in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) has been conducted using ionoluminescence (IL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry/channeling (RBS/C) techniques. MgAl2O4 single crystal and polycrystalline samples were irradiated with 320 keV Ar+ ions at fluencies ranging from 1 × 1012 to 2 × 1016 cm-2 in order to create various levels of radiation damage. RBS/C measurements provided quantitative data about damage concentration in the samples. These values were then compared to the luminescence measurements. The results obtained by IL and RBS/C methods demonstrate a two-step character of damage buildup process. The CL data analysis points to the three-step damage accumulation mechanism involving the first defect transformation at fluencies of about 1013 cm-2 and second at about 1015 cm-2. The rate of changes resulting from the formation of nonluminescent recombination centers is clearly nonlinear and cannot be described in terms of continuous accumulation of point defects. Both, IL and CL techniques, appear as new, complementary tools bringing new possibilities in the damage accumulation studies in single- and polycrystalline materials.

  3. Influence of oxygen incorporation on the defect structure of GaN microrods and nanowires. An XPS and CL study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a cathodoluminescence (CL) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of the influence of oxygen incorporation on the defect structure of GaN microrods and nanowires. The micro- and nanostructures were synthesized by a thermal evaporation method, which enables us to incorporate oxygen at different concentrations by varying the growth temperature. HR-TEM measurements revealed that oxygen generates stacking fault defects and edge dislocations along the GaN nanowires. Amorphous GaOxNy compounds were segregated on the surface of the nanowires. XPS, XRD and CL measurements suggests that the microrods and nanowires were composed of amorphous oxynitride compounds at their surface and GaN at their inner region. CL measurements revealed that the nanostructures generated an emission of 2.68 eV that increased in intensity proportionally to their oxygen content. We have attributed this emission to electronic transitions between donor substitutional-oxygen (ON) and acceptor interstitial-oxygen (Oi) state levels. (paper)

  4. Characterisation and luminescence studies of Tm and Na doped magnesium borate phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, structural and luminescence properties of magnesium borate of the form MgB4O7 doped with Tm and Na were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL). The morphologies of the synthetised compounds exhibit clustered granules and road-like materials. As doping trivalent ions into a host with divalent cations requires charge compensation, this effect is discussed. The CL spectra of undoped MgB4O7 shows a broad band emission centred around 350 nm which is postulated to be produced by self-trapped excitons and some other defects. From the CL emission spectrum, main emission bands centred at 360, 455, 475 nm due to the respective transitions of 1D2→3H6,1D2→3F4 and 1G4→3H6 suggest the presence of Tm3+ ion in MgB4O7 lattice site. CL mechanism was proposed to explain the observed phenomena which are valuable in possibility of the developing new luminescent materials for different applications. In addition, the experimental Raman spectrum of doped and undoped MgB4O7 were reported and discussed. - Highlights: • XRD, EDS and ESEM are used for characterizing the samples. • Broad emission band and Tm3+ 4f–4f transition peaks are discussed. • Charge compensation mechanism of MgB4O7:Tm3+, Na+ are discussed

  5. High-purity quartz mineralisation in kyanite quartzites, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Axel; Ihlen, Peter M.; Wanvik, Jan Egil; Flem, Belinda

    2007-06-01

    This study presents an evaluation of Norwegian kyanite quartzites from Gullsteinberget, Knøsberget, Kjeksberget, Sormbrua, Tverrådalen, Juovvačorrú and Nasafjellet as potential deposits of high-purity quartz (HPQ) for use as raw material for special applications in high-technology industries. Fine-grained quartz, which forms 70 to 85 vol.% of these rocks, generally contains less than 50 μg g-1 (total sum) of the structurally incorporated trace elements B, Li, Al, Ge, Ti, Fe, Mn, K and P. The concentrations are in the same range as those found in HPQ products, which are being mined and produced in Norway and elsewhere. Quartz analyses were performed using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Complimentary whole-rock analyses and cathodoluminescence studies of quartz were carried out to reveal processes, which have led to the low trace-element concentrations in quartz. This discovery, together with a better knowledge of the processes leading to the formation of HPQ in kyanite quartzites, could lead to the recognition of a new global type of HPQ resource applicable for industrial use. However, the processing technology necessary to separate HPQ from kyanite quartzite economically has not been developed so far.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ phosphor for field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Wang, Jing

    2012-09-01

    Zn2-2 x Mn2 x GeO4 ( x=0, 0.001, 0.01) phosphors were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the synthesized phosphors. The Mn2+-activated Zn2GeO4 phosphors exhibit narrow emission band at 532 nm under the excitation of ultraviolet light, which due to the 4T1(4G)-6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+ ions. Also it is observed that there exists energy transfer between the Zn2GeO4 host lattice and the activator (Mn2+). Under excitation of low-voltage electron beams, Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ shows strong green emission band dominating at 535 nm, corresponding to the 4T1(4G)-6A1(6S) emission of Mn2+ ions. The emission intensity and chromaticity coordinates of Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ as a function of accelerating voltage and the filament current were also investigated.

  7. Plasmonic effects and optical properties of InN composites with In nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubina, T.V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    Nanocomposites comprising metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) inside a semiconductor matrix are promising materials for plasmonics suggesting a new concept of light manipulation and generation. Optical properties of the nanocomposites are controlled by localized plasmons (Mie resonances) in the MNPs. The basic properties of the nanocomposites have been studied using InN/In with In clusters formed both spontaneously and by the periodic deposition of In insertions. In the specially designed nanocomposites, the spots of intense cathodoluminescence are strongly correlated with the agglomerations of the In MNPs due to plasmon-induced enhancement. Furthermore, a strong difference is discovered between the onsets of thermally detected absorption and photocurrent. This feature is a key to distinguish InN/In from pure InN. To simulate the plasmonic effects in the nanocomposites a model has been proposed, which considers the clusters as spheroids of random shapes and orientations. The calculated dependences are in reasonable agreement with obtained optical data. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Preparation and luminescence properties of Ce 3+ and/or Tb 3+ doped LaPO 4 nanofibers and microbelts by electrospinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhiyao; Wang, Lili; Lian, Hongzhou; Chai, Ruitao; Zhang, Cuimiao; Cheng, Ziyong; Lin, Jun

    2009-04-01

    Ce 3+ and/or Tb 3+ doped LaPO 4 nanofibers and microbelts have been prepared by a combination method of sol-gel process and electrospinning. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), low voltage cathodoluminescence (CL) and time-resolved emission spectra as well as kinetic decays were used to characterize the resulting samples. SEM and TEM results indicate the as-formed precursor fibers and belts are smooth, and the as-prepared nanofibers and microbelts consist of nanoparticles. The doped rare-earth ions show their characteristic emission under ultraviolet excitation, i.e. Ce 3+ 5 d-4 f and Tb 3+5D 4- 7F J ( J=6-3) transitions, respectively. The energy transfer process from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ in LaPO 4:Ce 3+, Tb 3+ nanofibers was further studied by the time-resolved emission spectra. Under low-voltage electron beam excitation, LaPO 4:Ce 3+, Tb 3+ microbelt phosphors have a higher intensity than that of nanofiber phosphors.

  9. A comparative study of photo-, cathodo- and ionoluminescence of GaN nanowires implanted with rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN nanowires (NWs) implanted with Europium, Praseodymium and Erbium ions were analysed by Photoluminescence (PL), Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Ionoluminescence (IL). The red 5D0 → 7F2 and 3P0 → 3F2 luminescence of the Eu3+ (4f6) and Pr3+ (4f2) ions, respectively, was optically activated after the lattice damage was recovered by thermal annealing. On the contrary, for the case of the erbium implanted NWs no intra-4f11 transitions were identified in the visible and infra-red spectral range. Besides the lanthanide luminescence, the heat treated GaN NWs exhibit the band edge recombination and a deep level emission in the yellow spectral range when the samples are excited by photons, electrons and protons with energies of 3.8 eV, 5.0 keV and 2.0 MeV, respectively. At RT, the dependence of GaN NW luminescence intensity with the illumination/irradiation time was analysed using PL, CL and IL. The effects of the different excitation mechanisms are discussed to explain the observation that the broad emission bands suffer a luminescence quenching for the GaN NWs irradiated with energetic particles and photons. The influence of the irradiation on the optical properties of the GaN NWs is discussed and models for the recombination processes are established

  10. Luminescence spectroscopy of scintillating glasses doped with Tb3+/Ce3+ with different concentrations of cerium under photo- and electron excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence of Li2O–B2O3–P2O5–CaF2 scintillation glass doped Tb3+, Ce3+ under electron beam excitation are investigated. Changing the cerium concentration of 0.2–1 wt% leads to an increase in luminescence intensity of Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions. Luminescence decay of cerium time is 30 ns and weakly depends on the ion concentration and the density of the excitation energy. The luminescence spectrum of the Tb3+ ions and excitation spectrum are dependent on the concentration of Ce3+. The radiative level of cerium ion does not participate in the process of energy transfer from the cerium to terbium. The transfer of energy between Ce3+ and Tb3+ occurs non-radiatively. - Highlights: • A series of Li2O–B2O3–P2O5–CaF2:Tb5, Ce (0.2; 0.5; 1 weight %) glasses were prepared. • Effect of cerium ion with different concentrations on absorption, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, decay dynamics was investigated. • The luminescence decay kinetics of cerium was investigated in detail. • The mechanism of energy transfer of lithium–phosphate–borate–fluoride glasses doped with Tb3+ and Ce3+ has been discussed

  11. Fluid inclusions hidden in coesite-bearing zircons in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks from southwestern Sulu terrane in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fulai; XU Zhiqin

    2004-01-01

    Primary fluid inclusions, together with coesite mineral inclusions, are identified in the same zircon domains by laser Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) image and micro-texture analysis in paragneiss and eclogite from the main drilling hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in southwestern Sulu terrane. Most fluid inclusions are characterized by CO2 (gas)-H2O (liquid) two-phase, a few by H2O one-phase liquid inclusions. These features indicate that the eclogite and its country-rocks may be located in the "wet system" rather than in the "dry system" during UHP metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating indicates that the timing of trapping the fluid and coesite inclusions in metamorphic zircon domains is about 233.7 ± 4.3 Ma, which may represent the age of zircon growth in the stage of pressure decrease but temperature increase during the retrograde period of UHP metamorphism thus indicating the fluid activity still under the UHP conditions. The zircons further overgrew at about 213.2 ± 5.2 Ma in response to amphibolite-facies retrogression. Therefore, fluid activity in the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks principally occurred during the exhumation of UHP slab in the Middle to Late Triassic. The present results not only provide insight into the fluid property and fluid-rock interaction mechanism in the Sulu-Dabie UHP terrane, but also present a new means to exactly identify the primary fluid inclusions preserved in zircons from the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  12. Characters of fluid inclusions in quartz veins in pyroclastic rock of Budate Group, Hailar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-tao; LIU Li; GAO Yu-qiao; SHAO Hong-mei; SHEN Guang-zheng

    2004-01-01

    It was adopted that the fluorescence microscope, Gas-Flow Heating/Freezing System, Laser-Raman Spectroscopy, etc. are the multimedia techniques for analysing fluid inclusions of quartz veins in Budate Group, Hailar Basin.The results show that fluid inclusions in quartz veins are small (1 ~5 μm) monophase, two-phase (liquid+vapour)aqueous inclusions; the two-phase aqueous inclusions homogeniese to the liquid phase between 120 ~ 180℃, two Laser-Raman Spectroscopy show that both gas phase are enriched in CH4 (94.50% ~99.25% ) and C6H6 (0.75% ~2.70%), under these conditions, inclusions may have come from juvenile fliud followingly the quartz veins formation.While the quartz veins exhibiting different striking luminescence has been proved by cathodoluminescence, it would be belong to secondary hydrocarbon inclusions. The oil inclusions of this stage represent mainly the large scale of oil accumulation, located within the quartz microfracture.

  13. High resolution rare-earth elements analyses of natural apatite and its application in geo-sciences: Combined micro-PIXE, quantitative CL spectroscopy and electron spin resonance analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rare-earth element (REE) distribution in natural apatite is analysed by micro-PIXE, cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The micro-PIXE analyses of an apatite crystal from Cerro de Mercado (Mexico) and the summary of 20 analyses of six francolite (conodonts of Triassic age) samples indicate that most of the REEs are enriched in apatite and francolite comparative to average shale standard (NASC). The analyses of fossil francolite revealing the REE-distribution not to be in balance with the REE-distribution of seawater and fish bone debris. Strong inhomogenous lateral REE-distribution in fossil conodont material is shown by CL-mapping and most probably not being a vital effect. Therefore, the resulting REE-signal from fossil francolite is the sum of vital and post-mortem incorporation. The necessary charge compensation for the substitution of divalent Ca by trivalent REE being done by different kind of electron defects and defect ions

  14. Revealing Optical Properties of Reduced-Dimensionality Materials at Relevant Length Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, D Frank; Schuck, P James; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander F; Borys, Nicholas J; Aloni, Shaul; Bao, Wei; Barja, Sara; Lee, Jiye; Melli, Mauro; Munechika, Keiko; Whitelam, Stephan; Wickenburg, Sebastian

    2015-10-14

    Reduced-dimensionality materials for photonic and optoelectronic applications including energy conversion, solid-state lighting, sensing, and information technology are undergoing rapid development. The search for novel materials based on reduced-dimensionality is driven by new physics. Understanding and optimizing material properties requires characterization at the relevant length scale, which is often below the diffraction limit. Three important material systems are chosen for review here, all of which are under investigation at the Molecular Foundry, to illustrate the current state of the art in nanoscale optical characterization: 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides; 1D semiconducting nanowires; and energy-transfer in assemblies of 0D semiconducting nanocrystals. For each system, the key optical properties, the principal experimental techniques, and important recent results are discussed. Applications and new developments in near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and cathodoluminescence in the electron microscope are given detailed attention. Work done at the Molecular Foundry is placed in context within the fields under review. A discussion of emerging opportunities and directions for the future closes the review. PMID:26332202

  15. Controllable synthesis, characterization, and growth mechanism of hollow ZnxCd1−xS spheres generated by a one-step thermal evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel hollow ZnxCd1−xS spheres that are uniform in size are synthesized through the one-step thermal evaporation of a mixture of Zn and CdS powder. From an X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnxCd1−xS is verified, and the Zn mole fraction (x) is determined to be 0.09. According to the experimental results, we propose a mechanism for the growth of Zn0.09Cd0.91S hollow spheres. The results of the cathodoluminescence investigation indicate uniform Zn, Cd, and S distribution of alloyed Zn0.09Cd0.91S, instead of separate CdS, ZnS, or nanocrystals of a core-shell structure. To the best of our knowledge, the fabrication of ZnxCd1−xS hollow spheres of this kind by one-step thermal evaporation has never been reported. This work would present a new method of growing and applying hollow spheres on Si substrates, and the discovery of the Zn0.09 Cd0.91S hollow spheres would make the investigation of ZnxCd1−xS micro/nanostructures more interesting and intriguing. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  16. Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN nanorods with a period of 400 nm and diameter of 200 nm, and nano-gratings with a period of 400 nm and gap width of 100 nm are fabricated on wafers by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography. These nanostructures show high periodicity and good morphology. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit that the integral PL intensity of GaN nanorods is enhanced as much as 2.5 times, compared to that of as-grown GaN films. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations and cathodoluminescence mappings, it is concluded that the enhancement for nanorods is due to the improvements of both spontaneous emission rate and light extraction efficiency caused by periodic GaN structures on the surface. By identifying the Raman shift of E1(TO) and E2H modes of GaN films with nano-gratings and nanorods, the normal-plane strain εzz is determined. The PL emission energy is found to be proportional to the εzz, whose linear proportionality factor is calculated to be −27 meV GPa−1. (paper)

  17. Rare earths in electroluminescent and field emission display phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monochrome electroluminescent flat panel displays based on ZnS:Mn have commercially been available for several years and now multicolor devices are coming to the market. Colors are usually produced by rare earth activators in ZnS or alkaline earth sulfide matrices. The materials studied include ZnS:Tb, ZnS:Sm, ZnS:Tm, CaS:Eu, CaS:Tb, SrS:Ce and thiogallates (Ca, Sr)Ga2S4 doped with Ce or Eu. The most promising approach to full color devices is that with ZnS:Mn (yellow) and SrS:Ce (blue-green) broad band phosphors and color filters. Field emission displays (FED) are based on cathodoluminescence where the electrons used in excitation originate from an addressable array of microtip cathodes. The operation voltage can vary (300 V-8 kV) but green emitting ZnO:Zn is so far the only phosphor which gives applicable luminance efficiency at low voltages. The problems in FED phosphors and the results obtained with rare earth containing phosphors are reviewed. (orig.)

  18. Band gap bowing parameter in pseudomorphic Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Anshu; Kapoor, Ashok K.; Raman, R.; Dalal, Sandeep; Mohan, Premila; Muralidharan, R. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2015-06-14

    A method for evaluation of aluminium composition in pseudomorphic Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layer from the measured photoluminescence (PL) peak energy is presented here. The layers were grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and characterized by high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), PL, cathodoluminescence, and atomic force microscopy. We estimated the value of biaxial stress in pseudomorphic Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N layers grown on sapphire and silicon carbide substrates using HRXRD scans. The effect of biaxial stress on the room temperature band edge luminescence in pseudomorphic Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN layers for various aluminium compositions in the range of 0.2 < x < 0.3 was determined. The value of pressure coefficient of band gap was also estimated. The stress corrected bowing parameter in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N was determined as 0.50 ± 0.06 eV. Our values match well with the theoretically obtained value of bowing parameter from the density functional theory.

  19. Determination of the Optimal Shell Thickness for Self-Catalyzed GaAs/AlGaAs Core-Shell Nanowires on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songmuang, R; Giang, Le Thuy Thanh; Bleuse, J; Den Hertog, M; Niquet, Y M; Dang, Le Si; Mariette, H

    2016-06-01

    We present a set of experimental results showing a combination of various effects, that is, surface recombination velocity, surface charge traps, strain, and structural defects, that govern the carrier dynamics of self-catalyzed GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) grown on a Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Time-resolved photoluminescence of NW ensemble and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence of single NWs reveal that emission intensity, decay time, and carrier diffusion length of the GaAs NW core strongly depend on the AlGaAs shell thickness but in a nonmonotonic fashion. Although 7 nm AlGaAs shell can efficiently suppress the surface recombination velocity of the GaAs NW core, the influence of the surface charge traps and the strain between the core and the shell that redshift the luminescence of the GaAs NW core remain observable in the whole range of the shell thickness. In addition, the band bending effect induced by the surface charge traps can alter the scattering of the excess carriers inside the GaAs NW core at the core/shell interface. If the AlGaAs shell thickness is larger than 50 nm, the luminescence efficiency of the GaAs NW cores deteriorates, ascribed to defect formation inside the AlGaAs shell evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. PMID:27081785

  20. Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite Structures through Light and Electron Beam Driven Ion Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haifeng; Debroye, Elke; Janssen, Kris; Naiki, Hiroyuki; Steuwe, Christian; Lu, Gang; Moris, Michèle; Orgiu, Emanuele; Uji-I, Hiroshi; De Schryver, Frans; Samorì, Paolo; Hofkens, Johan; Roeffaers, Maarten

    2016-02-01

    Organometal halide perovskites show promising features for cost-effective application in photovoltaics. The material instability remains a major obstacle to broad application because of the poorly understood degradation pathways. Here, we apply simultaneous luminescence and electron microscopy on perovskites for the first time, allowing us to monitor in situ morphology evolution and optical properties upon perovskite degradation. Interestingly, morphology, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence of perovskite samples evolve differently upon degradation driven by electron beam (e-beam) or by light. A transversal electric current generated by a scanning electron beam leads to dramatic changes in PL and tunes the energy band gaps continuously alongside film thinning. In contrast, light-induced degradation results in material decomposition to scattered particles and shows little PL spectral shifts. The differences in degradation can be ascribed to different electric currents that drive ion migration. Moreover, solution-processed perovskite cuboids show heterogeneity in stability which is likely related to crystallinity and morphology. Our results reveal the essential role of ion migration in perovskite degradation and provide potential avenues to rationally enhance the stability of perovskite materials by reducing ion migration while improving morphology and crystallinity. It is worth noting that even moderate e-beam currents (86 pA) and acceleration voltages (10 kV) readily induce significant perovskite degradation and alter their optical properties. Therefore, attention has to be paid while characterizing such materials using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy techniques. PMID:26804213