WorldWideScience

Sample records for cathodoluminescence

  1. Picosecond cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Merano, Michele; Ganière, Jean-Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We have developed an original time resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) set-up with temporal performances similar to those of conventional time resolved optical techniques, keeping the capability to get structural information through the secondary electron mode of an electron microscope (SEM). This system allows for performing ultrafast spectroscopy on nanostructures leading insight into phenomena like transport, carrier capture and carrier recombination. A traditional TRCL is based on the use...

  2. Picosecond cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Merano, Michele

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an original time resolved cathodoluminescence (TRCL) set-up with temporal performances similar to those of conventional time resolved optical techniques, keeping the capability to get structural information through the secondary electron mode of an electron microscope (SEM). This system allows for performing ultrafast spectroscopy on nanostructures leading insight into phenomena like transport, carrier capture and carrier recombination. A traditional TRCL is based on the use...

  3. Cathodoluminescence in Quaternary carbonate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Colin J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The cathodoluminescent oscillatory and sectoral growth zones common in crystals formed in ancient limestone successions in a variety of putative environments appear to be rare or absent from Recent and Pleistocene marine carbonate sequences. The factors controlling cathodoluminescence and reasons for this disparity are examined. The cathodoluminescent zones in the cements of ancient rocks have been interpreted as responses to variations in the redox potential of formative pore waters during crystal growth; although similar cathodoluminescent behaviour is recorded from some deposits, including travertines and Quaternary speleothems, formed in what are thought to have been strongly oxidizing environments. The apparent absence of cathodoluminescence in the most Recent and Pleistocene marine deposits, that presumably reflect deposition and diagenesis in environments that are also characteristically oxidized, therefore seems anomalous. The controlling influences on cathodoluminescence are reviewed, together with evidence relating to observations of Pleistocene marine deposits and likely conditions of formation but, where it is present, the mechanism(s) for its development remain elusive.

  4. Characteristics of Solid State Cathodoluminescence of PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲崇; 徐征; 滕枫; 徐叙瑢

    2003-01-01

    Based on our previous discovery [Chem. Phys. Lett. 325 (2000) 420] of the solid-state cathodoluminescence from organic luminescent materials in inorganic/organic heterojunction, we study characteristics of this new kind of electric-field-induced luminescence by means of examining its oscillogram. We prepared three devices with different structures in which PPV was used as luminescent layer, and SiO2 was used as accelerating layer. The experimental results might be understood only by means of the existence of solid-state cathodoluminescence.This new kind of luminescence makes it possible to produce new type of flat panel display.

  5. Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The device described exploits cathodoluminescence to generate intense light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. In this device, the material to be excited to luminescence is a layer of quartz or alumina powder on an electrically conductive plate exposed to a low-pressure plasma discharge. The plate is electrically biased positively to collect electron current.

  6. Cathodoluminescence Microscopy of nanostructures on glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez, A.C.; Weppelman, I.G.C.; Moerland, R.J.; Liv, N.; Zonnevylle, A.C.; Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy is an emerging analysis technique in the fields of biology and photonics, where it is used for the characterization of nanometer sized structures. For these applications, the use of transparent substrates might be highly preferred, but the detection of CL from nan

  7. Cathodoluminescence of oxyfluoride glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tb, Ce, Eu activated oxyfluoride glass-ceramics with the composition SiO2 · Al2O3 · Li2O · LaF3 have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL). We compared CL intensities and decay times of the Tb, Ce, Eu activated glass-ceramic samples and observed that the Tb activated sample has the most intense luminescence, but the Ce activated sample has the shortest decay times. Induced optical absorption and thermostimulated luminescence have been observed after X-ray irradiation of samples. -- Highlights: ►We have studied Tb, Ce and Eu activated oxyfluoride glass-ceramics. ► Ce activated sample has the fastest cathodoluminescence decay times. ► X-ray excited luminescence shows, that Tb activated sample is the most intense. ► Intensity of Tb activated sample is 10 times smaller than intensity of CsI(Tl)

  8. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Clara I; Brenny, Benjamin; Polman, Albert; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) allows characterizing light emission in bulk and nanostructured materials and is a key tool in fields ranging from materials science to nanophotonics. Previously, CL measurements focused on the spectral content and angular distribution of emission, while the polarization was not fully determined. Here we demonstrate a technique to access the full polarization state of the cathodoluminescence emission, that is the Stokes parameters as a function of the emission angle. Using this technique, we measure the emission of metallic bullseye nanostructures and show that the handedness of the structure as well as nanoscale changes in excitation position induce large changes in polarization ellipticity and helicity. Furthermore, by exploiting the ability of polarimetry to distinguish polarized from unpolarized light, we quantify the contributions of different types of coherent and incoherent radiation to the emission of a gold surface, silicon and gallium arsenide bulk semiconductor...

  9. Cathodoluminescence Imaging Using Nanodiamond Color Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David; Zhang, Huiliang; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Trifonov, Alexei; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate a nanoscale imaging technique based on cathodoluminescence (CL) emitted by color centers in nanodiamonds (NDs) under excitation by an electron beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). We have identified several classes of color centers that are spectrally distinct at room temperature and can be obtained with high reliability in NDs with diameters on the order of 50 nm or smaller. Compared to standard CL markers, ND color centers are bright and highly stable under SEM excitation. In conjunction with appropriate functionalization of the ND surfaces, ND-CL will provide nanoscale information about molecular function to augment the structural information obtained with standard SEM techniques. We discuss an exciting application of this approach to neuroscience, specifically in the generation of high-resolution maps of the connections between neurons (``Connectomics'').

  10. Cathodoluminescence of ZnSe(Bi) : Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on cathodoluminescence (CL) in the ZnSe crystals, annealed at the temperature of 1200 K in the Bi melt, containing aluminium admixture, are carried out. The spectra are taken at different levels of excitation and delay times by the t0 registration. With the t0 increase the orange band intensity with λmax = 630 nm (1.968 eV) in the CL spectrum decreases as compared to the intensity of the dominating yellow-green band with λmax = 550 nm (2.254 eV). It is shown that such a behaviour of the yellow-green band is conditioned by competition of two processes: recombination of donor-acceptor pairs and free electrons with holes localized on the acceptors. The first mechanism dominates at low temperatures and the second one - at high temperatures. The contribution of both mechanisms in the area of T ∼ 120 mK becomes equal

  11. Thermo- and cathodoluminescence properties of Sepiolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez L, Y. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la cultura Amado Nervo s/n, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J., E-mail: yamilet.lazcano@uan.edu.mx [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Sepiolite, Si{sub 12}Mg{sub 8}O{sub 30}(OH){sub 4}(OH{sub 2}){sub 4}·8H{sub 2}O, has been well studied from the chemical and structural point of view; however, studies on their luminescence properties have been scarcely reported. This work focuses on the thermoluminescence (Tl) and cathodoluminescence (Cl) response of a natural sepiolite from Madrid, Spain previously characterized by means of environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence (X RF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The complexity of the thermoluminescence glow curves of non-irradiated and irradiated samples suggests a structure of a continuous trap distribution involving multi-order kinetics. UV-IR Cl spectral emission shows five peaks centered at 330, 400, 440, 520 and 770 nm. Such emission bands could be due to (i) structural defects, [AlO{sub 4}] or non bridging oxygen hole centers, and (II) the presence of point defects associated with Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}. Sepiolite, which has different household applications such as: moisture control, containment of accidental liquid spillages, in ashtrays to avoid smoke odor, control of liquid leakages, and odours in dustbins and cat litters; is a good candidate for personal dosimetry in the case of radiation accident or radiological terrorism. in situations where knowledge of doses to individuals is required, but monitoring was not planned. (Author)

  12. Fabrication and Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy of Optical Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbo, Gregory Finley

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents the fabrication of buried optical nanostructures in III-V materials by modifying semiconductor quantum wells using an implantation enhanced interdiffusion (IEI) technique. An investigation of the effect of fabrication parameters on the resulting nanostructures is carried out, and the characteristics of the fabricated structures are measured using room temperature and low temperature cathodoluminescence (CL). IEI using protons is reported for the first time in this work and is found to increase the diffusion length of Al in GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum wells. The enhanced diffusion lengths compare favorably to Ga^ {+} IEI studies and the enhanced interdiffusion mechanism is determined to be due to implantation generated point defects. The use of H^{+} IEI for laterally patterning 100-nm optical nanostructures is demonstrated and is found to be limited by the lateral straggle of the light ions during implantation. Optical quantum wires with widths down to 40 nm are fabricated using low energy Ga^{+ } and electron beam lithography generated metal masks on GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. Single nanostructures are measured with low temperature CL, and an increasing blue shift of wire emission with decreasing mask size is measured. The lateral extent of intermixing is found to be 30 nm, independent of Ga^{+} implantation energy. Based on a model of emission energy shift, a lateral quantization energy of ~3 meV for carriers is achieved in these structures. Optical nanostructures are also fabricated with direct write IEI using a Ga^{+ } focused ion beam (FIB) and are compared to the quantum wires. A larger effective lateral extent of intermixing of 200 nm is found with the FIB. IEI patterning of strained InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells is demonstrated and a model of the resulting lateral bandgap profile leads to a lateral defect diffusion length of ~1 mum. Strain enhanced lateral diffusion of defects during IEI cause this length to be substantially larger than that

  13. Cathodoluminescence characterization of ion implanted GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, M. L.

    1980-03-01

    The unique properties of GaAs make it possible to construct integrated circuit devices that are impossible in Si. The Air Force Avionics Laboratory/AADR has been developing this technology for a number of years. The difficulty of introducing dopants by diffusion has lead ion implantation to play an increasing role in the fabrication process. The present production technique for high performance devices is to fabricate large quantities and select those few that meet the desired specifications. Having a nondestructive technique that can be used to characterize the implantation process during fabrication of the device so as to reject faulty device structures can save valuable time as well as money. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence is a process that can be used for this purpose. This research develops and verifies a model of cathodoluminescence in ion implanted GaAs. This model can now be used as a tool for further study of ion implanted GaAs. This is the first step in developing cathodoluminescence as a tool for deducing the shape of the ion implanted depth profile in semiconductor materials.

  14. Correction: β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juntong; Huang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yangai; Fang, Minghao; Chen, Kai; Huang, Yaoting; Huang, Saifang; Ji, Haipeng; Yang, Jingzhou; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-07-01

    Correction for `β-Sialon nanowires, nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures: morphology control, growth mechanism and cathodoluminescence properties' by Juntong Huang, et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 424-432.

  15. Usage of cathodoluminescence and Raman analyses in shock metamorphic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies of in this dissertation have focused on shock metamorphic and cathodoluminescence (combination with Raman spectroscopy) properties of experimentally and naturally shock-metamorphosed minerals, such as zircon, quartzite, a tektite, and impact glasses. The purpose of these investigations is to further investigate the capability of the Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) technique including BSE/CL images and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to document shock deformations and to determine whether specific CL or Raman effects in zircon/scheelite-structure, quartz, tektite and impact glasses can be utilised to determine particular shock pressure stages. The CL spectra of unshocked and shocked (20, 38, 40, 60 and 80 GPa) zircon samples are dominated by narrow emission lines and broad bands in the region of visible light and in the near-ultraviolet range. The emission lines result from rare earth element activators and the broad bands might be associated with lattice defects. Raman spectra revealed that the unshocked and 20 GPa samples represent zircon-structure material, whereas the 38, 40, 60, 80 GPa samples yielded additional peaks with relatively high peak intensities, which are indicative of the presence of the scheelite-type high-pressure phase. According to the Raman measurements, the naturally shock-deformed zircons from the Ries impact structure might be related to the low-shock regime (4 groups. According to the Raman spectra, the stretching (symmetric and antisymmetric) vibrational modes are characteristic for quartz in the unshocked and 12 GPa samples. In the 25 and 28 GPa samples, the background fluorescence is higher compared to the other samples. The energy diagrams of the cathodoluminescence emission centers confirm that recombination centers or traps are closely-spaced in the band gap between conduction and valance bands of quartz as a function of the increasing shock pressure causing non

  16. Pulsed cathodoluminescence and γ-luminescence of scintillation crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, V. A.; Ochkin, V. N.; Pestovskii, N. V.; Petrov, A. A.; Savinov, S. Yu; Zagumennyi, A. I.; Zavertyaev, M. V.

    2015-11-01

    The spectra and decay time of pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) of a scintillating crystals excited by the electron beam is compared to the spectra and decay time of the luminescence of the same crystals initiated by γ-rays (GL). It is shown that spectra and decay time of PCL and GL are identical within the experimental errors. The explanation of these results is based on taking into account the physical processes within the crystal media under the irradiation by high-energy particles. The results of this study confirm that the PCL method may be used for the rapid analysis of the luminescent properties of scintillators.

  17. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Min; Choi, Kyung Cheol; Kim, Dong Hyuk; Jeon, Duk Young

    2011-07-01

    We elucidate that the luminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor excited by the electron collision can be modified on location near the metallic nanoparticles. The Eu3+-doped phosphor was fabricated on the nanoscaled Ag particles ranging of 5 nm to 30 nm diameter. As a result of the cathodoluminescence measurements, the phosphor films on the Ag particles showed up to twofold more than that of an isolated phosphor film. Enhanced cathodoluminescence originated from the resonant coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag nanoparticles and radiating energy of the phosphor. Cathodoluminescent phosphor for high luminous display devices can be addressed by locating phosphor near the surface of metallic nanoparticles. PMID:21747476

  18. Cathodoluminescence of yttrium oxide and yttrium and zinc silicate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the cathodoluminescent properties of Y2SiO5:Ce, Zn2SiO4:Ti, Zn2SiO4:Mn, Y2O3:Eu thin films obtained by high-frequency magnetron sputtering. Based on measurements of the luminescence spectra, we have shown that the films can be used as luminophores with blue emission (Y2SiO5:Ce, Zn2SiO4:Ti), green emission (Zn2SiO4:Mn), and red emission (Y2O3:Eu). We have studied the dependences of the luminescence intensity on the energy of the exciting electrons, the electron beam current density, and the exposure time. We hypothesize that the decrease in the luminescence intensity during electron bombardment is connected with formation of new oxide layers as a result of an electron-stimulated surface chemical reaction. (authors)

  19. APPLICATIONS OF CATHODOLUMINESCENCE OF QUARTZ AND FELDSPAR TO SEDIMENTARY PETROLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.

    1987-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL), the emission of visible light during electron bombardment, was first used in sandstone petrology in the mid-1960's. CL techniques are especially useful for determining the origin and source of quartz and feldspar, two of the most common constituents in clastic rocks. CL properties of both minerals are dependent on their temperature of crystallization, duration of cooling, and/or history of deformation. Detrital quartz and feldspar are typically derived from igneous and metamorphic sources and luminesce in the visible range whereas authigenic quartz and feldspar form at low temperatures and do not luminesce. Quantification of luminescent and non-luminescent quartz and feldspar with the scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, or a commercial CL device can allow for the determination of origin, diagenesis, and source of clastic rocks when used in conjunction with field and other petrographic analyses.

  20. Cathodoluminescent properties of Tb3+-doped yttria nanocrystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Psuja; D.Hreniak; W.Str(e)k

    2009-01-01

    The Tb3+-doped Y2O3 nanopowders were synthesized using the modified Pechini method.The average size of nanocrystallites was controlled by different sintering temperatures.The structure and morphology of obtained nanopowders were examined using the XRD and SEM analyses.The Cr:Al2O3 was mixed with Tb3+:Y2O3 powders and its normalized emission was used.to measure a relative intensity of Tb3+:Y2O3.The mixtures were electrophorefically deposited on ITO-glass slides.The cathodoluminescence spectra of obtained layers were recorded and analysed.The discussion over an influence of average grains size on phosphor efficiency was presented.

  1. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenny, B. J. M.; Osorio, C. I.; Polman, A., E-mail: polman@amolf.nl [Center for Nanophotonics, FOM Institute AMOLF, Science Park 104, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dam, D. van [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gómez Rivas, J. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, P.O. Box 6336, 5600 HH Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-11-16

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InP nanowires by using cathodoluminescence polarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rings depending on the wire height. The data agree well with a model in which spontaneous emission from the wire emitted into the far field interferes with emission reflected off the substrate. From the model, the depth range from which the emission is generated is found to be up to 400 nm below the top surface of the wires, well beyond the extent of the primary electron cloud. This enables a probe of the carrier diffusion length in the InP nanowires.

  2. Cathodoluminescence : an imaging technique for the search of extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramboz, C.; Rubert, Y.; Bost, N.; Westall, F.; Lerouge, C.

    2012-04-01

    Solids irradiated by a 10-20 keV electron beam emit ligth in the UV-visible range, which is called cathodoluminescence (CL). CL imagery is a powerful tool for visualizing minerals and their internal structures (lattice defects, zoning). For example, terrestrial calcite, either of sedimentary or biogenic origin, often display a bright orange CL, as a result of the incorporation of trace Mn2+ in its lattice. Aragonite can also be discriminated from calcite by its green CL. Carbonates are a major target for the search of life on Mars, and CL imagery could contribute to reveal carbonates in situ. Thomas et al. [1] have validated the concept of an electron lamp to make CL imagery of a rock surface placed in a martian CO2 atmosphere. We present 2 examples of terrestrial bacterial microstructures that are revealed by CL. (1) In Sinemurian sediments from the Montmiral borehole (Valence Basin, France), banded wavy calcite in contact with pyrite represents fossilized biofilms of sulfato-reducing bacteria, as confirmed by the sulfur isotopic composition of pyrite ~+36 %0 PDB. (2) At l'Ile Crémieux, north of the Valence basin, a dense filamentous microbial/fungal community with a bright orange CL signature is embedded in vuggy calcite from a tectonic vein. The mat is anchored 1-2 mm deep in the oolitic veinwall and emerges at right angle in the 'open' fracture space. Finally, carbonate vesicles and exhalite crusts from the Svalbard basalt in Groendland, with orange CL, are shown as analogues to carbonates from the martian ALH84001 igneous meteorite. [1]Thomas et al. (2009) in A. Gucsik (Ed.) "Cathodoluminescence and Its Application in the Planetary Sciences"

  3. Variations in Cathodoluminescent Intensity of Spacecraft Materials Exposed to Energetic Electron Bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Dekany, Justin; Christensen, Justin; Dennison, JR; Evans, Amberly; Wilson, Greg; Schneider, Todd; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Various highly insulating materials used in spacecraft construction can exhibit glow (electron-induced luminescence or cathodoluminescence) when exposed to the space plasma environment. Measurements of the absolute and relative cathodoluminescent intensity per incident electron flux of spacecraft materials are essential to predict and mitigate consequences for optical detection and for stray light contamination in space-based observatories. They also provide important information about the ...

  4. Quantitative cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy of minerals: possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence spectrum of a mineral contains complex information related to the intrinsic crystal and the defect structure. For quantitative analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) the spectra have to be deconvoluted by fitting and filtering procedures to identify and measure individual peaks. Peak-width, peak-position and transition probability of the luminescence centers are influenced by effects such as interactions within the defects themselves, and interaction between defects and the surrounding crystal lattice. For calcite and feldspar a linear correlation between the defect concentration of manganese and the Mn2+-activated CL-intensity is documented. Combined micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and CL-spectroscopy analyses of REE-doped synthetic calcite suggest a linear correlation between REE-activated CL intensity and REE-concentration at REE-concentration levels below approximately 500 ppm. Sensitizing and quenching by other REE are dominant effects yielding strong variations in the correlation between the REE-activated CL-intensity and the REE-content. (author)

  5. Cathodoluminescence Emission Studies for Selected Phosphor-Based Sensor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedeke, Shawn [ORNL; Hollerman, William Andrew [ORNL; Allison, Stephen W [ORNL; Gray, P A [Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation - Huntsville, AL; Lewis, Linda A [ORNL; Smithwick III, Robert W [ORNL; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Glasgow, David C [ORNL; Ivanov, Ilia N [ORNL; Wise, H. [Integrated Concepts and Research Corporation - Huntsville, AL

    2005-01-01

    The current interest in returning to the Moon and Mars by 2030 makes cost effective and low mass health monitoring sensors essential for spacecraft development. In space, there are many surface measurements that are required to monitor the condition of the spacecraft including: surface temperature, radiation dose, and impact. Through the use of phosphors, these conditions can be monitored. Practical space-based phosphor sensors will depend heavily upon research investigating the resistance of phosphors to ionizing radiation and the ability to anneal or self-heal from damage caused by ionizing radiation. The cathodoluminescence (CL) testing was performed using the low energy electron system located at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. For the materials tested, several interesting results were observed. For most materials, increases in both beam energy and current density improved the CL fluorescence yield. It was also noted that YAG:Nd,Ce has the greatest near infrared intensity for any of the tested materials. The evaluation of dopant concentration in YPO{sub 4}:Nd showed minimal differences in spectral shape and intensity. While the total electron dose was small, the intention was to maximize the number of irradiated materials.

  6. Origin and Characteristics of Blue Light Emission in Solid State Cathodoluminescence of MEH-PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Chong; XU Zheng; TENG Feng; QIAN Lei; YU Wen-Ge; QUAN Shan-Yu; XU Xu-Rong

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous study [Chin. Phys. Lett. 20 (2003) 1144] on the solid-state cathodoluminescence from organic luminescent materials, here we study the origin and characteristics of blue light emission in solid-state cathodoluminescence of Poly [(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinyene] (MEH-PPV) and the dependence of each spectral peak on electric field strength. The results demonstrate that the blue spectral shift benefits from field ionization of excitons, and three regions of electric field are found, in which there are pure exciton emission, coexistence of exciton emission and radiative recombination, and pure radiative recombination.

  7. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  8. Cathodoluminescence of quartz and feldspar in provenance research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Carita; Reker, Annalena; Scholonek, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Quartz often dominates in siliciclastic sandstone and feldspar mostly is present. Despite this, the use of quartz and feldspar in provenance research is limited. Feldspar is less stable than both quartz and many other minerals that are used to trace sources rocks, such as zircon and rutile. Nevertheless, particularly quartz and zircon may survive many sedimentary recycling phases. Therefore they do not necessarily give information about first-cycle sources. Hence, the wide occurrence of feldspar and quartz in sedimentary rocks is an excellent condition to trace both first-cycle and multi-cycle sediment sources. The cathodoluminescence (CL) technique enables the consideration of both minerals. We analysed ca. 1000 quartz crystals and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals in ca. 60 samples each for their CL colour spectra to investigate their provenance potential. They originate from different plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic rocks. The CL colours of quartz vary from red over violet to different shades of blue and brown. They are due to lattice defects and trace element contents that are caused by different crystallisation conditions and later lattice reorganisation. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by two apparent intensity peaks at 470-490 nm (blue) and at 600-640 nm (red). Distinctive relative intensity differences in these two peaks occur for (1) quartz of volcanic origin, (2) felsic plutonic and high-temperature metamorphic quartz, and (3) low-temperature metamorphic quartz. Feldspar often luminesces in different shades of blue, green, yellow, and red due to substitution elements. Alkali feldspar usually has a bright blue colour and plagioclase often is green. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 420-500 nm (blue), 540-570 nm (green) and 690-760 nm (red to infrared). The CL is particularly useful for the distinction of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. Here, a dominance of the peak in green over the peak

  9. FIB-SEM cathodoluminescence tomography: practical and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, D A M; Lebbink, M N; Wiggers De Vries, D F; Post, J A; Drury, M R

    2011-09-01

    Focused ion beam-scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM) tomography is a powerful application in obtaining three-dimensional (3D) information. The FIB creates a cross section and subsequently removes thin slices. The SEM takes images using secondary or backscattered electrons, or maps every slice using X-rays and/or electron backscatter diffraction patterns. The objective of this study is to assess the possibilities of combining FIB-SEM tomography with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. The intensity of CL emission is related to variations in defect or impurity concentrations. A potential problem with FIB-SEM CL tomography is that ion milling may change the defect state of the material and the CL emission. In addition the conventional tilted sample geometry used in FIB-SEM tomography is not compatible with conventional CL detectors. Here we examine the influence of the FIB on CL emission in natural diamond and the feasibility of FIB-SEM CL tomography. A systematic investigation establishes that the ion beam influences CL emission of diamond, with a dependency on both the ion beam and electron beam acceleration voltage. CL emission in natural diamond is enhanced particularly at low ion beam and electron beam voltages. This enhancement of the CL emission can be partly explained by an increase in surface defects induced by ion milling. CL emission enhancement could be used to improve the CL image quality. To conduct FIB-SEM CL tomography, a recently developed novel specimen geometry is adopted to enable sequential ion milling and CL imaging on an untilted sample. We show that CL imaging can be manually combined with FIB-SEM tomography with a modified protocol for 3D microstructure reconstruction. In principle, automated FIB-SEM CL tomography should be feasible, provided that dedicated CL detectors are developed that allow subsequent milling and CL imaging without manual intervention, as the current CL detector needs to be manually retracted before a slice can be milled

  10. Cathodoluminescence of diamond as an indicator of its metamorphic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Longo, Micaela; Ryder, John; Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa

    2010-05-01

    Diamond displays a supreme resistance to chemical and mechanical weathering, ensuring its survival through complex and prolonged crustal processes, including metamorphism and exhumation. For these reasons, volcanic sources and secondary and tertiary collectors for detrital placer diamonds, like Ural or Bingara diamonds, may be difficult to determine. If metamorphic processes leave their marks on diamond, they can be used to reconstruct crustal geologic processes and ages of primary diamondiferous volcanics. Four diamond suites extracted from metamorphic rocks have been characterized using optical CL, infrared and CL spectroscopy, and photoluminescence at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The studied diamonds are from the ~2.7 Ga sedimentary conglomerate and lamprophyric breccia metamorphosed in the greenschist facies (Wawa, Northern Ontario, Canada) during the 2.67 Ga Kenoran orogeny, and from the ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes of Kokchetav (Kazakhstan) and Erzgebirge (Germany) exhumated in the Paleozoic. Wawa diamonds (Type IaAB and Type II) displayed green, yellow, orange, and red CL colours controlled by the CL emittance at 520, 576 nm, and between 586 and 664 nm. The UHP terranes diamonds show much weaker CL; few luminescent stones display CL peaks at 395, 498, 528 nm and a broad band at 580-668 nm. In contrast, most common diamonds found in unmetamorphosed rocks, i.e. octahedrally grown Type IaAB stones, luminescence blue emitting light at ~415-440 nm and 480-490 nm. There is a noticeable difference between cathodoluminescence of these diamonds and diamonds in metamorphic rocks. The studied diamonds that experienced metamorphism show a shift of CL emission to longer wavelengths (above 520 nm) and to green, yellow and red CL colours. Photoluminescence has the high resolution necessary to assign luminescence to specific optical centers of diamond. Diamonds in metamorphic rocks contain H3 (pairs of substitutional nitrogen atoms separated by a vacancy) and NVo

  11. Influence of parameters of field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources on their technical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations of the influence of geometrical and electrical parameters of field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources on their lighting and electronic characteristics have been carried out. On the basis of the simplest model triode cathodoluminescence light source, the dependence of the electron stream configuration in such system versus its geometric and electrical parameters has been obtained. Based on the analysis of this dependence and on experimental data obtained by the authors earlier, the original design of the field-emission cathodoluminescence light source has been developed. Advantages of this design over existing analogs have been proven and optimal materials for its components have been selected. Conditions are described and geometrical and electrical parameters are determined at which this design operates in the most effective manner. In accordance with the design developed, field-emission cathodoluminescence light sources have been manufactured and tested. During the tests of the light sources, the uniformity of the luminous flux over working surfaces and the luminescence stability over time have been observed. A brightness value of 13,780 cd/m2 from the working area of 0.95 cm2 at the field-emission current of 300 μA and an accelerating voltage of 8.0 kV has been obtained during operation of the light sources

  12. Spatially and angularly resolved cathodoluminescence study of single ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyao; Gao, Min; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Peng, Lian-Mao; Chen, Qing

    2010-11-01

    Single ZnO nanorods were studied with cathodoluminescence at high spatial and angular resolution. A newly developed luminescence detector consisting a fiber probe controlled by a nano-manipulator is attached to a scanning electron microscope to carry out the cathodoluminescence measurements. Excitonic emission from the sidewalls and redshifted near band edge emission guided along the nanorod axis are observed as the fiber probe axis is aligned to be perpendicular and parallel to the nanorod axis, respectively, demonstrating the angular resolving power of the experimental setup and waveguiding behavior of the nanorods. High spatial resolution cathodoluminescence measurement shows that the near band edge emission can propagate parallel and perpendicular to the nanorod axis and an increased propagation distance results in more redshift of the guided luminescence. In addition, the high spatial resolution and temperature dependent cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrate the important role of free exciton-longitudinal optical phonon interaction in the waveguiding behavior and the propagation of the near band edge emission in ZnO nanorods. PMID:21137887

  13. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, B. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INP, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d' Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  14. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  15. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Obraztsov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electron beams without energy consumption. The nano-graphite film material was produced by using chemical vapor deposition techniques. Prototypes of cathodoluminescent lamp devices with a construction optimized for the usage of nano-graphite cold cathodes were developed, manufactured and tested. The results indicate prospective advantages of this type of lamp and the possibility to provide advanced power efficiency as well as enhanced spectral and other characteristics.

  16. Study of point defects in CdTe and CdTe:V by cathodoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, U.; Piqueras de Noriega, Javier; Fernández Sánchez, Paloma; M.D. Serrano; Diéguez, E.

    1994-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope has been used to investigate the relationship of point defects in CdTe and CdTe:V with luminescence bands at 1.40 and 1.13 eV. V has been found to inhibit the 1.40 eV luminescence. Annealing experiments indicate that Cd and Te vacancies are involved in the mentioned emission bands.

  17. A nano-graphite cold cathode for an energy-efficient cathodoluminescent light source

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander N. Obraztsov; Kleshch, Victor I.; Smolnikova, Elena A

    2013-01-01

    The development of new types of light sources is necessary in order to meet the growing demands of consumers and to ensure an efficient use of energy. The cathodoluminescence process is still under-exploited for light generation because of the lack of cathodes suitable for the energy-efficient production of electron beams and appropriate phosphor materials. In this paper we propose a nano-graphite film material as a highly efficient cold cathode, which is able to produce high intensity electr...

  18. Modeling the Energy Dependent Cathodoluminescent Intensity of a Carbon Composite Material

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Justin; Peterson, Kelby T.; Dekany, Justin; Dennison, JR

    2014-01-01

    When highly disordered insulating materials are subjected to energetic electron bombardment they can emit photons. This process is termed “cathodoluminescence.” This occurs in the space plasma environment and is an important phenomenon to understand when designing any object to be put into space. Light emitted from spacecraft materials can affect optical detection, and can cause stray-light contamination in space-based observatories. The Materials Physics Group at Utah State University uses a...

  19. Cathodoluminescence study of ArF excimer laser-induced planarization of large grain diamond films

    OpenAIRE

    Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, J.; Solís Céspedes, Javier

    1996-01-01

    Planarization of large grain diamond films has been induced by 193 nm excimer laser irradiation. Secondary emission images and cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope have been used to characterize the irradiated area. Irradiation causes changes in the structure of defects involving nitrogen and vacancies. Evolution of the CL signal with the number of pulses indicates that the luminescence intensity tends to stabilize when a smooth film surface is obtained. © 1996 America...

  20. ESR and cathodoluminescence studies of radiation defects in clays and quartz fromsome U deposits

    OpenAIRE

    ブランディーヌ; 小室 光世; 中嶋, 悟; 永野 哲志; 正木 信行; 林 久人

    1992-01-01

    Rock samples from different world U deposits mainly in sedimentary rocks have been studied by Electron Spin Resonancc (ESR) spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement in order to characterize radiation damage centers in clays and quartz. The presence of kaolinite-like radiation centers ill ESR spectra in some of the samples containing kaolin group minerals suggests that this type of radiation damages can be used as an indicator of U behavior during supergene and hydrothermal altera...

  1. Synthesis and cathodoluminescence characterization of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Hernández, A.; Guzmán-Mendoza, J. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); Rivera-Montalvo, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Guzmán-Olguín, J.C. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Legaria, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 México, D. F. (Mexico); García-Hipólito, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 México, D. F. (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 México, D.F., México (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Trivalent erbium doped zirconium oxide films were deposited by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. Films were deposited using zirconium tetrachloride octahydrate (ZrCl{sub 4}O·8H{sub 2}O) and erbium nitrate hexahydrate ((NO{sub 3}){sub 3}Er·6H{sub 2}O) as precursors and deionized water as solvent. The dopant concentrations in the spray solution were 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 at% in ratio to zirconium content. The films were deposited on corning glass substrates at different temperatures from 400 up to 550 °C. Films deposited at temperatures lower than 400 °C were amorphous, however, as substrate temperatures are increased, the ZrO{sub 2} films presented a better crystallinity and showed a tetragonal phase. Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission spectra showed bands centred at 524, 544 and 655 nm associated with the electronic transition of Er{sup 3+}. - Highlights: • The films of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} were obtained by spray pyrolysis. • Emission spectra of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films were reported. • Cathodoluminescence of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films was analyzed. • Cathodoluminescence of ZrO{sub 2}:Er{sup 3+} films showed strong dependence on substrate temperature and electron voltage.

  2. Cathodoluminescence studies of GaAs nano-wires grown on shallow-trench-patterned Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ling; Fan, Wen-Chung; Ku, Jui-Tai; Chang, Wen-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kuo; Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chih-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, You-Ru; Wann, Clement H [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chao-Wei; Chen, Yung-Feng; Su, Yan-Kuin, E-mail: acceptor.ep89g@nctu.edu.tw, E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-19

    The optical properties of GaAs nano-wires grown on shallow-trench-patterned Si(001) substrates were investigated by cathodoluminescence. The results showed that when the trench width ranges from 80 to 100 nm, the emission efficiency of GaAs can be enhanced and is stronger than that of a homogeneously grown epilayer. The suppression of non-radiative centers is attributed to the trapping of both threading dislocations and planar defects at the trench sidewalls. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of growing nano-scaled GaAs-based optoelectronic devices on Si substrates.

  3. Measuring temperature in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we performed a high-resolution measurement of channel temperature rise in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in the scanning electron microscope was used to probe the temperature rise with several tens of nanometers spatial resolution and accuracy better than ±8 °C. We also determined the temperature distribution and peak temperature change with the power density in active AlGaN/GaN HEMTs in the source–gate and gate–drain openings. The measured results agree reasonably well with physical 2D electrothermal simulations and Raman thermography. (paper)

  4. Transient demonstration of exciton behaviours in solid state cathodoluminescence under different driving voltage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Fu-Jun; Zhao Su-Ling; Xu Zheng; Huang Jin-Zhao; Xu Xu-Rong

    2007-01-01

    In the solid state cathodoluminescence (SSCL), organic materials were excited by hot electrons accelerated in silicon oxide (SiO2) layer under alternating current (AC). In this paper exciton behaviours were analysed by using transient spectra under different driving voltages. The threshold voltages of SSCL and exciton ionization were obtained from the transient spectra. The recombination radiation occurred when the driving voltage went beyond the threshold voltage of exciton ionization. Prom the transient spectrum of two kinds of luminescence (exciton emission and recombination radiation), it was demonstrated that recombination radiation should benefit from the exciton ionization.

  5. Cathodoluminescence of single quantum wires and vertical quantum wells grown on a submicron grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, A.; Samuelson, L.; Malm, J.-O.; Vermeire, G.; Demeester, P.

    1994-02-01

    We present cathodoluminescence (CL) investigations of a corrugated GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well (QW) structure grown on a submicron grating. The CL spectra have four distinct emission peaks. Using plan-view and cross-sectional CL imaging together with cross-sectional transmission electron microscope imaging, we have assigned the four peaks: They originate in the nominal QW, a quantum wire (QWR), a vertical quantum well (VQW), and the barrier, respectively. We have CL-imaged and -characterized single QWRs and VQWs.

  6. Combinatorial Ion Synthesis and Cathodoluminescence Analyses of Materials Libraries on Thermally Grown SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Ming Chen; H.C.Pan; D.Z. Zhu; J.Hu; M.Q.Li

    2000-01-01

    We first report a method combining ion implantationand physical masking to generate material libraries of various ion-implanted samples. This approach offers rapid synthesis of samples with potential new compounds formed in the matrix, which may have specific luminescent properties. The depthresolved cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements, accompanied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and proton elastic scattering (PES) revealed some specific optical properties in the samples correlated with implanted ion distributions. These measurements are capable of nondestructively and rapidly characterizing the composition and the inhomogeneity of the combinatorial film libraries, which may determine their physical properties.

  7. Microstructure and cathodoluminescence study of sprayed Al and Sn doped ZnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hichou, A.; Addou, M.; Bubendorff, J. L.; Ebothé, J.; El Idrissi, B.; Troyon, M.

    2004-02-01

    Here we report on the study of ZnS and X-doped ZnS (with 4 at% of X = Al, Sn) thin films, prepared by spray pyrolysis technique using chloride precursors. Cathodoluminescence imaging and spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and spectrophotometry have been used for their characterization. Deposited at their optimal substrate temperature (Ts = 773 K), these films are polycrystalline and consist of mixed hexagonal (agr) and cubic (bgr) phases with a predominance of the cubic phase. Their growth is preferentially oriented along the (111)bgr direction and their optical bandgap always remains close to 3.56 eV regardless of the sample considered. The cathodoluminescence spectra of ZnS and Al-ZnS films are similar and are characterized by a blue emission peak at 407 nm (3.05 eV) and a broad blue-green one located at 524 nm (2.36 eV) due to the presence of chlorine. The insertion of Sn2+ ions in the ZnS material leads to the formation of the SnCl2 compound and to the disappearance of the blue-green emission associated with Cl ionized donors.

  8. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. - Highlights: • Contrast enhancement are observed in secondary electron and cathodoluminescent images of phosphor particles sitting on top of others. • Backscattered electrons largely explain the observed contrast enhancement. • After glow effects in CL-micrographs of phosphors enable the determination of decay times. • Phosphor saturation can be used to determine the decay time of individual spectral transitions

  9. Cathodoluminescence and Raman Spectromicroscopy of Forsterite in Tagish Lake Meteorite: Implications for Astromineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Gucsik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tagish Lake meteorite is CI/CM2 chondrite, which fell by a fireball event in January 2000. This study emphasizes the cathodoluminescence (CL and Raman spectroscopical properties of the Tagish Lake meteorite in order to classify the meteoritic forsterite and its relation to the crystallization processes in a parent body. The CL-zoning of Tagish Lake meteorite records the thermal history of chondrules and terrestrial weathering. Only the unweathered olivine is forsterite, which is CL-active. The variation of luminescence in chondrules of Tagish Lake meteorite implies chemical inhomogeneity due to low-grade thermal metamorphism. The blue emission center in forsterite due to crystal lattice defect is proposed as being caused by rapid cooling during the primary crystallization and relatively low-temperature thermal metamorphism on the parent body of Tagish Lake meteorite. This is in a good agreement with the micro-Raman spectroscopical data. A combination of cathodoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopies shows some potentials in study of the asteroidal processes of parent bodies in solar system.

  10. Contrast and decay of cathodoluminescence from phosphor particles in a scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelsen, Daniel den; Harris, Paul G.; Ireland, Terry G., E-mail: terry.ireland@brunel.ac.uk; Fern, George R.; Silver, Jack

    2015-10-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies are reported on phosphors in a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). ZnO: Zn and other luminescent powders manifest a bright ring around the periphery of the particles: this ring enhances the contrast. Additionally, particles resting on top of others are substantially brighter than underlying ones. These phenomena are explained in terms of the combined effects of electrons backscattered out of the particles, together with light absorption by the substrate. The contrast is found to be a function of the particle size and the energy of the primary electrons. Some phosphor materials exhibit a pronounced comet-like structure at high scan rates in a CL-image, because the particle continues to emit light after the electron beam has moved to a position without phosphor material. Image analysis has been used to study the loss of brightness along the tail and hence to determine the decay time of the materials. The effect of phosphor saturation on the determination of decay times by CL-microscopy was also investigated. - Highlights: • Contrast enhancement are observed in secondary electron and cathodoluminescent images of phosphor particles sitting on top of others. • Backscattered electrons largely explain the observed contrast enhancement. • After glow effects in CL-micrographs of phosphors enable the determination of decay times. • Phosphor saturation can be used to determine the decay time of individual spectral transitions.

  11. Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Blue Luminescence in Undoped Semi-insulating GaN and n-GaN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qi-Feng; WANG Xiao-Liang; XIAO Hong-Ling; WANG Cui-Mei; YANG Cui-Bai; YIN Hai-Bo; LI Jin-Min; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Yellow and blue luminescence in undoped GaN layers with different resistivities are studied by cathodoluminescence. Intense yellow and blue luminescence bands are observed in semi-insulating GaN, while in n-GaN the yellow luminescence and blue luminescence bands are very weak. The stronger yellow and blue luminescences in semi-insulating GaN are correlated to the higher edge-type dislocation density. The scanning cathodoluminescence image reveals strong defect-related luminescence at the grain boundaries where the dislocations accumulate.It is found that the relative intensity of the blue luminescence band to the yellow luminescence band increases with the cathodoluminescence beam energies and is larger in n-GaN with a lower density of edge-type dislocations. An approximately 3.35eV shoulder next to the near-band-edge peak is observed in n-GaN but not in semi-insulating GaN. A redshift of the near-band-edge peak with cathodoluminescence beam energy is observed in both samples and is explained by internal absorption.

  12. Cathodoluminescence of Yellow and Blue Luminescence in Undoped Semi-insulating GaN and n-GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qi-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Xiao, Hong-Ling; Wang, Cui-Mei; Yang, Cui-Bai; Yin, Hai-Bo; Li, Jin-Min; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-03-01

    Yellow and blue luminescence in undoped GaN layers with different resistivities are studied by cathodoluminescence. Intense yellow and blue luminescence bands are observed in semi-insulating GaN, while in n-GaN the yellow luminescence and blue luminescence bands are very weak. The stronger yellow and blue luminescences in semi-insulating GaN are correlated to the higher edge-type dislocation density. The scanning cathodoluminescence image reveals strong defect-related luminescence at the grain boundaries where the dislocations accumulate. It is found that the relative intensity of the blue luminescence band to the yellow luminescence band increases with the cathodoluminescence beam energies and is larger in n-GaN with a lower density of edge-type dislocations. An approximately 3.35 eV shoulder next to the near-band-edge peak is observed in n-GaN but not in semi-insulating GaN. A redshift of the near-band-edge peak with cathodoluminescence beam energy is observed in both samples and is explained by internal absorption.

  13. Optical Defect in GaN-Based Laser Diodes Detected by Cathodoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lu-Bing; WU Jie-Jun; XU Ke; BAO Sui; YANG Zhi-Jian; PAN Yao-Bo; HU Xiao-Dong; ZHANG Guo-Yi

    2008-01-01

    @@ GaN-based laser diodes (LDs) with 399 nm wavelength are grown on sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD).Electroluminescence spectra of the fabricated LDs show that the LDs from some grown wafers failed to emit laser.The SEM and XRD results show the similar surface morphology and interface qualities of multi quantum wells (MQWs) and super-lattices between LDs that succeed and fail to emit laser.However, the cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements reveal a kind of optical defect rather than structural defect in un-emitted LDs.Further depth-dependent CL imaging observation indicates that such optical defects originate from the MQWs to the surface of LDs as a non-irradiative recombination centre that should cause the failure of laser emitting of LDs.

  14. Ion beam induced charge and cathodoluminescence imaging of response uniformity of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; Galbiati, A; Maghrabi, M; Townsend, P D

    2002-01-01

    The uniformity of response of CVD diamond radiation detectors produced from high quality diamond film, with crystallite dimensions of >100 mu m, has been studied using ion beam induced charge imaging. A micron-resolution scanning alpha particle beam was used to produce maps of pulse height response across the device. The detectors were fabricated with a single-sided coplanar electrode geometry to maximise their sensitivity to the surface region of the diamond film where the diamond crystallites are highly ordered. High resolution ion beam induced charge images of single crystallites were acquired that demonstrate variations in intra-crystallite charge transport and the termination of charge transport at the crystallite boundaries. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the same crystallites shows an inverse correlation between the density of radiative centres and regions of good charge transport.

  15. Cathodoluminescence characterization of polystyrene-BaZrO3 hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchyn, V. P.; Popov, A. I.; Aksimentyeva, O. I.; Klym, H.; Horbenko, Yu. Yu.; Serga, V.; Moskina, A.; Karbovnyk, I.

    2016-07-01

    The radiation properties and the electronic structure of hybrid composites based on suspension polystyrene (PS) and nanocrystals of BaZrO3 (BZO) (d < 50 nm) have been studied using luminescent spectroscopy and x-ray analysis. A strong cathodoluminescence (CL) in BZO-nanocrystals is observed in temperature range 80-293 K. It is modified in BZO-PS composites: both the low- and a high-energy bands (near 4 eV) appear, together with a significant reduction in the CL intensity. A decrease of the lattice parameter a for BZO phase in the composite and the modification of CL spectra indicate for changes in the nanocrystalline structure induced by the polymer.

  16. Excitation and Imaging of Resonant Optical Modes of Au Triangular Nano-Antennas Using Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Anil; Mabon, James C; Chow, Edmond; Fang, Nicholas X

    2010-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging spectroscopy is an important technique to understand resonant behavior of optical nanoantennas. We report high-resolution CL spectroscopy of triangular gold nanoantennas designed with near-vacuum effective index and very small metal-substrate interface. This design helped in addressing issues related to background luminescence and shifting of dipole modes beyond visible spectrum. Spatial and spectral investigations of various plasmonic modes are reported. Out-of-plane dipole modes excited with vertically illuminated electron beam showed high-contrast tip illumination in panchromatic imaging. By tilting the nanostructures during fabrication, in-plane dipole modes of antennas were excited. Finite-difference time-domain simulations for electron and optical excitations of different modes showed excellent agreement with experimental results. Our approach of efficiently exciting antenna modes by using low index substrates is confirmed both with experiments and numerical simulations....

  17. Dislocation related droop in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes investigated via cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozina, Galia [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Ciechonski, Rafal [GLO AB, Scheelevägen 22, SE-22363 Lund (Sweden); Bi, Zhaoxia [Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Samuelson, Lars [GLO AB, Scheelevägen 22, SE-22363 Lund (Sweden); Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Monemar, Bo [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); TokyoUniversity of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-21

    Today's energy saving solutions for general illumination rely on efficient white light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the output efficiency droop experienced in InGaN based LEDs with increasing current injection is a serious limitation factor for future development of bright white LEDs. We show using cathodoluminescence (CL) spatial mapping at different electron beam currents that threading dislocations are active as nonradiative recombination centers only at high injection conditions. At low current, the dislocations are inactive in carrier recombination due to local potentials, but these potentials are screened by carriers at higher injection levels. In CL images, this corresponds to the increase of the dark contrast around dislocations with the injection (excitation) density and can be linked with droop related to the threading dislocations. Our data indicate that reduction of droop in the future efficient white LED can be achieved via a drastic reduction of the dislocation density by using, for example, bulk native substrates.

  18. Intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence using the energy loss distribution of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Inami, Wataru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present an intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) excited with a focused electron beam in a luminescent thin film. The energy loss distribution is applied to the developed analysis method in order to determine the arrangement of the dipole locations along the path of the electron traveling in the film. Propagating light emitted from each dipole is analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. CL distribution near the film surface is evaluated as a nanometric light source. It is found that a light source with 30 nm widths is generated in the film by the focused electron beam. We also discuss the accuracy of the developed analysis method by comparison with experimental results. The analysis results are brought into good agreement with the experimental results by introducing the energy loss distribution. PMID:26550930

  19. Influence of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and cathodoluminescence of ZnS nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L. Y.; Zhang, D.; Liu, B. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of as-synthesized and Cu ion implanted ZnS nanostructures with branched edges are studied by using high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence measurement. Obvious crystalline deterioration has been observed in Cu-doped ZnS nanostructures due to the invasion of Cu ions into ZnS lattice. It was found that the optical emissions of ZnS nanostructures can be selectively modified through the control of Cu ion dose and subsequent heat treatment. An increase of Cu dopant content will lead to an apparent red-shift of the intrinsic band-gap emission in the UV range and the broadening of defect-related emission in visible range. The influences of Cu ion implantation on the microstructure and related optical properties were discussed.

  20. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy of micro- and nanodiamonds: an implication for laboratory astrophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucsik, Arnold; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Ninagawa, Kiyotaka; Ott, Ulrich; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Kayama, Masahiro; Simonia, Irakli; Boudou, Jean-Paul

    2012-12-01

    Color centers in selected micro- and nanodiamond samples were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy at 298 K [room temperature (RT)] and 77 K [liquid-nitrogen temperature (LNT)] to assess the value of the technique for astrophysics. Nanodiamonds from meteorites were compared with synthetic diamonds made with different processes involving distinct synthesis mechanisms (chemical vapor deposition, static high pressure high temperature, detonation). A CL emission peak centered at around 540 nm at 77 K was observed in almost all of the selected diamond samples and is assigned to the dislocation defect with nitrogen atoms. Additional peaks were identified at 387 and 452 nm, which are related to the vacancy defect. In general, peak intensity at LNT at the samples was increased in comparison to RT. The results indicate a clear temperature-dependence of the spectroscopic properties of diamond. This suggests the method is a useful tool in laboratory astrophysics.

  1. High-resolution photocurrent microscopy using near-field cathodoluminescence of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heayoung P. Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a fast, versatile photocurrent imaging technique to visualize the local photo response of solar energy devices and optoelectronics using near-field cathodoluminescence (CL from a homogeneous quantum dot layer. This approach is quantitatively compared with direct measurements of high-resolution Electron Beam Induced Current (EBIC using a thin film solar cell (n-CdS / p-CdTe. Qualitatively, the observed image contrast is similar, showing strong enhancement of the carrier collection efficiency at the p-n junction and near the grain boundaries. The spatial resolution of the new technique, termed Q-EBIC (EBIC using quantum dots, is determined by the absorption depth of photons. The results demonstrate a new method for high-resolution, sub-wavelength photocurrent imaging measurement relevant for a wide range of applications.

  2. Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-10-12

    We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. New Data On The Cathodoluminescence Of White Marbles: Interpretation Of Peaks And Relationships To Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guinea, J.; Crespo-Feo, E.; Correcher, V.; Iordanidis, A.; Charalampides, G.; Karamitrou-Mentessidi, G.

    This work focus on the Thermoluminescence (TL), the Spatially Resolved Spectral Cathodoluminescence (CL) and Raman spectroscopy (Raman) of white marble specimens collected from the archaeological park of Aiani (Greece) and from patterns of Iceland calcite and Macael marble for comparison purposes. The spectra CL were measured with a high sensitivity cathodoluminescence spectrometer MonoCL3 of Gatan (UK) attached to an FEI-ESEM microscope (CL-ESEM). The experimental set of spectra CL curves of Aiani white marbles suggest that the blue band is more resistant to weathering in comparison with the red band which drops down easily under weathering. The comparison among CL spectra of CaCO3 patterns give a slight difference between the small 330 nm peak, detected in marble and not observed in the monocrystal pattern of Iceland calcite. The Backscattering Electron Dispersed (BSED) images of the white marble are similar to the CL monochromatic plots at 330 nm which highlight the surfaces with remarkable clarity, suggesting a CL emission-defect associated to the marble crystal interfaces, such as protons or hydroxyls. Conversely, the 395 nm monochromatic mapping depicts a CL image emitting from bulk and not from interfaces attributable to point defects or cationic activators in Ca2+ positions. The blue band of the spectra luminescence of marble is composed by several peaks associated to very different types of luminescent defects. This statement is not inconsequential since in archaeological TL dating of marbles the regenerated luminescence in the blue region of the spectrum is a serious difficulty and further research on this topic is necessary.

  4. Cathodoluminescence and Raman characteristics of CaSO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+}, Cu phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdal, E. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Guinea, J. Garcia [MuseoNacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Kelemen, A. [Centre for Energy Research, Radiation Safety Laboratory, P.O. Box 49, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Ayvacikli, M. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Canimoglu, A. [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Nigde (Turkey); Jorge, A. [MuseoNacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Karali, T. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, İzmir (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoomail.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Physics Department, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-05-15

    The physical characterization and phosphor emission spectra are presented for CaSO{sub 4} doped with Tm and Cu. All spectral wavelengths are related to electronic transitions of Tm{sup 3+} ions. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the compound exhibits orthorhombic structure and all reflections were indexed without any other secondary impurity phases. Chemical and structural properties of the samples have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (EDS). Group frequencies concept is essential point to the interpretation of the bands due to the main SO{sub 4} vibrational units and these displayed main characteristic intensive Raman bands including typical strong intensity at 1016 cm{sup −1} that corresponds to ν{sub 1}SO{sub 4} vibrational mode. From the spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum, main emission bands of Tm{sup 3+} centered at 346, 362, and 452 nm, due to the respective transitions of {sup 3}P{sub 0}→{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 1}D{sub 2}→{sup 3}F{sub 4} were clearly identified. The study is novel as no such CL-ESEM data are available for this doped compound. - Highlights: • Characteristic and cathodoluminescence properties of CaSO{sub 4}:Tm{sup 3+}, Cu have been investigated. • Several sharp and strong CL emission bands due to rare earth ion were observed for rare earth doped sample. • The nature and limitation of the interaction between CaSO{sub 4} and the activator ions were discussed.

  5. Characterization of kesterite thin films fabricated by rapid thermal processing of stacked elemental layers using spatially resolved cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Künecke, Ulrike; Hetzner, Christina; Möckel, Stefan [Materials Department 6, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Yoo, Hyesun; Hock, Rainer [Crystallography and Structure Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Staudtstr, 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Wellmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.wellmann@fau.de [Materials Department 6, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Martensstr, 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    We report on the microstructure analysis of kesterite (Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4}) layers from rapid thermal processing of sequential elemental layers by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were carried out for the validation of the findings. Special emphasis is put on the discussion of the occurrence of the secondary phases Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se, ZnSe and SnSe. - Highlights: • Spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} • Material analysis with a μm spatial resolution • Determination of secondary phases Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Se, SnSe and ZnSe.

  6. Properties of Cathodoluminescence for Cryogenic Applications of SiO2-based Space Observatory Optics and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Amberly; Dennison, J.R.; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers Charles W.; Meloy, Robert; Heaney, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Disordered thin film SiO2SiOx coatings undergoing electron-beam bombardment exhibit cathodoluminescence, which can produce deleterious stray background light in cryogenic space-based astronomical observatories exposed to high-energy electron fluxes from space plasmas. As future observatory missions push the envelope into more extreme environments and more complex and sensitive detection, a fundamental understanding of the dependencies of this cathodoluminescence becomes critical to meet performance objectives of these advanced space-based observatories. Measurements of absolute radiance and emission spectra as functions of incident electron energy, flux, and power typical of space environments are presented for thin (60-200 nm) SiO2SiOx optical coatings on reflective metal substrates over a range of sample temperatures (40-400 K) and emission wavelengths (260-5000 nm). Luminescent intensity and peak wavelengths of four distinct bands were observed in UVVISNIR emission spectra, ranging from 300 nm to 1000 nm. A simple model is proposed that describes the dependence of cathodoluminescence on irradiation time, incident flux and energy, sample thickness, and temperature.

  7. Red, green and blue low-voltage cathodoluminescence of rare-earth doped BaWO4 phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. L.; Wang, Z. L.; Hao, J. H.

    2009-02-01

    Spherical phosphors BaWO4 doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu, Tb, Tm) were prepared by the polyol method. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy. The as-prepared BaWO4-based phosphors processed as low as 160 °C show mono-dispersive and highly crystalline nanostructure. The optical characteristics of the phosphors were investigated using low-voltage cathodoluminescence. Efficient energy transfer between the host and RE ions were revealed in the spectra. Red, green and blue cathodoluminescence were observed corresponding to sharp dominant emission peaks located at 616 nm, 545 nm and 473 nm for Eu3+, Tb3+ and Tm3+ doped phosphors, respectively. Those peaks are attributed to the characteristic emission from Eu3+ (5D0 - 7FJ transitions), Tb3+ (5D3 - 7FJ and 5D4 - 7FJ transitions) and Tm3+ (1D2 - 3F4 and 1D2 - 3H4 transitions) under low-voltage (<=5 kV) excitation of electron beam. Luminescent intensities in the annealed BaWO4-based phosphors were significantly enhanced. The characteristics of the phosphors are investigated in terms of luminance, chromaticity and color purity. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the low-voltage cathodoluminescence of BaWO4-based phosphors are discussed.

  8. Potential of Cathodoluminescence Microscopy and Spectroscopy for the Detection of Prokaryotic Cells on Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2010-11-01

    Detecting mineral-hosted ecosystems to assess the extent and functioning of the biosphere from the surface to deep Earth requires appropriate techniques that provide, beyond the morphological criteria, indubitable clues of the presence of prokaryotic cells. Here, we evaluate the capability of cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy, implemented on a scanning electron microscope, to identify prokaryotes on mineral surfaces. For this purpose, we used, as a first step, a simple model of either unstained or stained cultivable cells (Escherichia coli, Deinococcus radiodurans) deposited on minerals that are common in the oceanic crust (basaltic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and magnetite). Our results demonstrate that the detection of cells is possible at the micrometric level on the investigated minerals through the intrinsic fluorescence of their constituting macromolecules (aromatic amino and nucleic acids, coenzymes). This allows us to distinguish biomorph inorganic phases from cells. This easily implemented technique permits an exploration of colonized rock samples. In addition, the range of spectrometric techniques available on a scanning electron microscope can provide additional information on the nature and chemistry of the associated mineral phases, which would lead to a simultaneous characterization of cells, their microhabitats, and a better understanding of their potential relationships.

  9. Cathodoluminescence spectrum imaging analysis of CdTe thin-film bevels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Guthrey, Harvey L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Burst, James M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Duenow, Joel N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Ahrenkiel, Richard K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA; Metzger, Wyatt K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

    2016-09-09

    We conducted T = 6 K cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging with a nanoscale electron beam on beveled surfaces of CdTe thin films at the critical stages of standard CdTe solar cell fabrication. We find that the through-thickness CL total intensity profiles are consistent with a reduction in grain-boundary recombination due to the CdCl2 treatment. The color-coded CL maps of the near-band-edge transitions indicate significant variations in the defect recombination activity at the micron and sub-micron scales within grains, from grain to grain, throughout the film depth, and between films with different processing histories. We estimated the grain-interior sulfur-alloying fraction in the interdiffused CdTe/CdS region of the CdCl2-treated films from a sample of 35 grains and found that it is not strongly correlated with CL intensity. A kinetic rate-equation model was used to simulate grain-boundary (GB) and grain-interior CL spectra. Simulations indicate that the large reduction in the exciton band intensity and relatively small decrease in the lower-energy band intensity at CdTe GBs or dislocations can be explained by an enhanced electron-hole non-radiative recombination rate at the deep GB or dislocation defects. Simulations also show that higher GB concentrations of donors and/or acceptors can increase the lower-energy band intensity, while slightly decreasing the exciton band intensity.

  10. [Cathodoluminescent characteristics of green-emitting ZnAl2O4:Mn thin film phosphors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zhi-dong; Xu, Zheng; Yi, Lan-jie; Yang, Sheng-yi

    2008-06-01

    Green electroluminescence was obtained from thin films of ZnAl2O4: Mn prepared by rf magnetron sputtering onto thick insulating ceramic sheets. Photoluminescence and stress-stimulated luminescence was obtained for Mn-doped ZnAl2O4 powder synthesized by the solid phase reaction. Since it is extremely stable chemically and thermally, ZnAl2O4 may emerge as an alternative choice to sulphide-based phosphors. In the present paper, thin films of ZnAl2O4: Mn were grown on aluminosilicate ceramic plates using spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions. The cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of the films under low to medium excitation voltage (spinel structure. The chromaticity coordinates were x = 0.150 and y = 0.734 with a dominant wavelength of 525 nm and an 82% color purity. The CL luminance and efficiency depended on the excitation voltage and current density. Saturation effects were observed as the current density increased. A luminance of 540 cd x m(-2) and an efficiency of 4.5 lm x W(-1) were obtained at an excitation voltage of 4 kV with a current density of 38 microA x cm(-2). PMID:18800691

  11. Pulsed Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Solid Oxides with Low Concentrations of Optically-Active Impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V A; Pestovskii, N V; Petrov, A A; Savinov, S Yu; Zavartsev, Yu D; Zavertyaev, M V; Zagumenniy, A I

    2016-01-01

    Pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) spectra of ultra-pure SiO2, GeO2, SnO2, TiO2, La2O3, Y2O3, Sc2O3, CaCO3 powders and {\\alpha}-quartz, Ca:YVO4, LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals were studied under the same experimental conditions. It was found that PCL spectra of SiO2, SnO2, GeO2, TiO2, La2O3 and CaCO3 powders contain a common band with maximum intensity at 500 nm, PCL spectra of samples Y2O3, Sc2O3, PbWO4 and Ca:YVO4 contain a common band at 490 nm and PCL spectra of LiNbO3 and Sc:LiNbO3 crystals contain a common band at 507 nm. It was found that the average intensity of the PCL spectra and position of the maximum intensity of these common bands depend on the type of a band gap transition of the material. We suppose that these common bands have the same origin in PCL spectra of all the materials studied and are related to recombination of O2--O-oxygen complexes. These complexes appear in the vicinities of anionic and cationic vacancies, where the geometry and orientation of coordination polyhedrons are violated d...

  12. Cathodoluminescence spectrum imaging analysis of CdTe thin-film bevels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Burst, James M.; Duenow, Joel N.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted T = 6 K cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging with a nanoscale electron beam on beveled surfaces of CdTe thin films at the critical stages of standard CdTe solar cell fabrication. We find that the through-thickness CL total intensity profiles are consistent with a reduction in grain-boundary recombination due to the CdCl2 treatment. The color-coded CL maps of the near-band-edge transitions indicate significant variations in the defect recombination activity at the micron and sub-micron scales within grains, from grain to grain, throughout the film depth, and between films with different processing histories. We estimated the grain-interior sulfur-alloying fraction in the interdiffused CdTe/CdS region of the CdCl2-treated films from a sample of 35 grains and found that it is not strongly correlated with CL intensity. A kinetic rate-equation model was used to simulate grain-boundary (GB) and grain-interior CL spectra. Simulations indicate that the large reduction in the exciton band intensity and relatively small decrease in the lower-energy band intensity at CdTe GBs or dislocations can be explained by an enhanced electron-hole non-radiative recombination rate at the deep GB or dislocation defects. Simulations also show that higher GB concentrations of donors and/or acceptors can increase the lower-energy band intensity, while slightly decreasing the exciton band intensity.

  13. Photo and cathodoluminescence characteristics of dysprosium doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles prepared by Polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balderas-Xicohténcatl, R., E-mail: rbalderas@fis.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07360, México, D.F. (Mexico); Martínez-Martínez, R. [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Carretera a Acatlima Km. 2.5, Huajuapan de León, Oaxaca 69000 (Mexico); Rivera-Alvarez, Z.; Santoyo-Salazar, J.; Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados-IPN, Departamento de Física, Apdo, Postal 14-470, Del. Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07360, México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-02-15

    The luminescent characteristics of Dy{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanopowders synthesized using the polyol method are reported. The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles presented a cubic phase crystalline structure of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} after an annealing treatment in oxygen ambient at temperatures above 600 °C. The averaged crystallite size determined from the X-ray diffraction peaks width was in the 20–32 nm range depending on the annealing temperature. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy studies indicate the formation of nanoparticle aggregates up to 175 nm in diameter. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements show a predominant emission at 573 nm, which is attributed to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} of the Dy{sup 3+} ion. The luminescence emission dependence with the dopant concentration and post-annealing temperatures is discussed. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Dy{sup 3+} have been successfully synthesized by the polyol method. • XRD shows a grain size from 20 to 32 nm which is in agreement with SEM and TEM. • Electronic micrographs indicate the formation agglomerates of ∼175 nm. • The method used in the synthesis is industrial scalable and a low cost. • CL emission is observed at naked eye.

  14. Tunable photoluminescent and cathodoluminescent properties of ZnO and ZnO:Zn phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenling; Lin, Cuikun; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Guangzhi; Luo, Yan; Quan, Zewei; Xiang, Hongping; Lin, Jun

    2006-05-18

    ZnO and ZnO:Zn powder phosphors were prepared by the polyol-method followed by annealing in air and reducing gas, respectively. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, respectively. The results indicate that all samples are in agreement with the hexagonal structure of the ZnO phase and the particle sizes are in the range of 1-2 microm. The PL and CL spectra of ZnO powders annealed at 950 degrees C in air consist of a weak ultraviolet emission band (approximately 390 nm) and a broad emission band centered at about 527 nm, exhibiting yellow emission color to the naked eyes. When the sample was reduced at the temperatures from 500 to 1050 degrees C, the yellow emission decreased gradually and disappeared completely at 800 degrees C, whereas the ultraviolet emission band became the strongest. Above this temperature, the green emission ( approximately 500 nm) appeared and increased with increasing of reducing temperatures. According to the EPR results and spectral analysis, the yellow and green emissions may arise from the transitions of photogenerated electron close to the conduction band to the deeply trapped hole in the single negatively charged interstitial oxygen ion (Oi(-)) and the single ionized oxygen vacancy (V.O) centers, respectively. PMID:16686492

  15. Cathodoluminescence of N-doped SnO2 nanowires and microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Montalvo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a cathodoluminescence (CL study of the point defects in N-doped SnO2 nanowires and microcrystals synthesized by thermal evaporation at different growth temperatures and N concentrations. SnO2:N nanowires were grown at temperatures higher than 1150 °C with N concentrations below of about 3 at.%, while irregular microcrystals were obtained at lower temperatures increasing their N concentration gradually with the growth temperature. EELS and XPS measurements confirmed that N atoms were incorporated into the SnO2 lattice as substitutional impurities (NO. TEM and EDS measurements revealed that the nanowires grew along the [001] direction by a self-catalyzed growth mechanism. CL measurements showed that the nanowires and microcrystals generated a broad emission composed by three components centered at about 2.05, 2.47 and 2.75 eV. CL spectra obtained at 300 and 100 K showed that the component of 2.05 eV decreased in intensity proportionally to the nitrogen content of samples. We attribute this effect to a decrease of oxygen vacancies in the SnO2 nanowires and microcrystals, generated by the incorporation of nitrogen in their lattice.

  16. Simultaneous cathodoluminescence and electron microscopy cytometry of cellular vesicles labeled with fluorescent nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sounderya; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Fang, Chia-Yi; Bertrand, Jean-Rémi; Le Cam, Eric; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Kociak, Mathieu

    2016-06-01

    Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of both techniques. Here we propose an alternative in which the electron beam of a scanning TEM (STEM) is used to excite concomitantly the luminescence of nanoparticle labels (a process known as cathodoluminescence, CL), and image the cell ultrastructure. This CL-STEM imaging allows obtaining luminescence spectra and imaging ultrastructure simultaneously. We present a proof of principle experiment, showing the potential of this technique in image cytometry of cell vesicular components. To label the vesicles we used fluorescent diamond nanocrystals (nanodiamonds, NDs) of size ~150 nm coated with different cationic polymers, known to trigger different internalization pathways. Each polymer was associated with a type of ND with a different emission spectrum. With CL-STEM, for each individual vesicle, we were able to measure (i) their size with nanometric resolution, (ii) their content in different ND labels, and realize intracellular component cytometry. In contrast to the recently reported organelle flow cytometry technique that requires cell sonication, CL-STEM-based image cytometry preserves the cell integrity and provides a much higher resolution in size. Although this novel approach is still limited by a low throughput, the automatization of data acquisition and image analysis, combined with improved intracellular targeting, should facilitate applications in cell biology at the subcellular level.Light and Transmission Electron Microscopies (LM and TEM) hold potential in bioimaging owing to the advantages of fast imaging of multiple cells with LM and ultrastructure resolution offered by TEM. Integrated or correlated LM and TEM are the current approaches to combine the advantages of

  17. Cathodoluminescence and green-thermoluminescence response of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman-Lopez, J., E-mail: holand_jeos@hotmail.com [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, D.F. 11500, Mexico, CIEMAT, Av., Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av., Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rivera, T.; Lozano, I.B. [CICATA-IPN, Legaria 694, D.F. 11500 (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    We herein report on the cathodoluminescence (CL) and green-thermoluminescence (TL) emission of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films deposited by the spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures. The samples have been previously structurally and chemically characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The CL spectra show (i) a broad emission band centered at 374 nm that corresponds to the intrinsic emission of (SO{sub 4}){sup 2-} and (ii) emission bands centered on 486, 574, 668, 758 nm assigned to the electronic transitions of the Dy{sup 3+} ions. The TL glow curves of the films showed three groups of components peaked at around of 98, 152 and 300 Degree-Sign C that exhibit a gradual and progressively linear shifting of the T{sub max} as function of T{sub stop}. This TL behavior is related to a continuum in the trap distribution associated with general or multi-order kinetics and involving continuous processes of trapping-detrapping. The activation energy in the range of 0.97-1.53 eV has been estimated using the initial rise method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CaSO{sup 4}:Dy,P films were prepared by using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence spectra of the CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films display the emission bands of the ions (SO{sub 4}){sup 2-} and Dy{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CaSO{sub 4}:Dy,P films were irradiated with a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y beta source. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TL intensity of the films depends on the temperature of deposit.

  18. Diagenetic history of lower Pliocene rhodoliths of the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic): Application of cathodoluminescence techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, A C; Meireles, R P; Barbin, V; Neto, A I; Melo, C; Ávila, S P

    2016-01-01

    The diagenetic history of calcareous fossils is required for their application as palaeoenvironmental indicators. In this study, cathodoluminescence-microscopy (CL microscopy) and back scatter electron image-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (BSE-EDS microscopy) were applied to Pliocene rhodoliths from the Azores Archipelago (NE Atlantic) in order to gain additional insight regarding the trace element content distribution throughout the algae thalli, and to ascertain palaeoenvironmental interpretations. Two types of luminescence were obtained: (1) high and (2) low luminescence. Rhodoliths with high luminescence are related with high concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater and low luminescence rhodoliths are related with low concentrations of Mn(2+) in seawater. When the rhodoliths were deposited at about 4.0-4.5 Ma, the shoreline configuration of Santa Maria Island was much different than today. The influence of volcanic activity due to the extrusion of lavas and associated products and/or the presence of active shallow-water hydrothermal vents, was reflected in the sea water chemistry, with penecontemporaneous palaeoshores of the island featuring a high sea water concentration of Mn(2+), which mirrored on the rhodolith Mn(2+) high concentration. By contrast, rhodoliths located about 2.8 and 2.9 km from the shore, in areas with low seawater Mn(2+) concentration, had low luminescence, reflecting the low Mn(2+) concentration in seawater. Rhodoliths chemical data and the geological history of the island proved to be congruent with the palaeogeographical reconstruction of Santa Maria Island at the time of the formation of the rhodoliths.

  19. Red, green and blue low-voltage cathodoluminescence of rare-earth doped BaWO{sub 4} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H L; Wang, Z L [Department of Applied Physics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Hao, J H, E-mail: apjhhao@polyu.edu.hk

    2009-02-01

    Spherical phosphors BaWO{sub 4} doped with rare-earth ions (RE = Eu, Tb, Tm) were prepared by the polyol method. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were investigated using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy. The as-prepared BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors processed as low as 160 {sup 0}C show mono-dispersive and highly crystalline nanostructure. The optical characteristics of the phosphors were investigated using low-voltage cathodoluminescence. Efficient energy transfer between the host and RE ions were revealed in the spectra. Red, green and blue cathodoluminescence were observed corresponding to sharp dominant emission peaks located at 616 nm, 545 nm and 473 nm for Eu{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+} doped phosphors, respectively. Those peaks are attributed to the characteristic emission from Eu{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 0} - {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions), Tb{sup 3+} ({sup 5}D{sub 3} - {sup 7}F{sub J} and {sup 5}D{sub 4} - {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions) and Tm{sup 3+} ({sup 1}D{sub 2} - {sup 3}F{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} - {sup 3}H{sub 4} transitions) under low-voltage ({<=}5 kV) excitation of electron beam. Luminescent intensities in the annealed BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors were significantly enhanced. The characteristics of the phosphors are investigated in terms of luminance, chromaticity and color purity. Fundamental mechanisms responsible for the low-voltage cathodoluminescence of BaWO{sub 4}-based phosphors are discussed.

  20. Native point defect formation in flash sintered ZnO studied by depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hantian; Asel, Thaddeus J.; Cox, Jon W.; Zhang, Yuanyao; Luo, Jian; Brillson, L. J.

    2016-09-01

    Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy studies of flash sintered ZnO reveal that thermal runaway induces the formation of native point defects inside individual grains. Defects associated with oxygen vacancies (VO) form preferentially, contributing additional donors that increase conductivity within the grains of the polycrystalline material. Hyperspectral imaging of the granular cross sections shows filaments of increased VO following thermal runaway between the capacitor anode and cathode, supporting a heating mechanism localized on a granular scale. Within the grains, these defects form preferentially inside rather than at their boundaries, further localizing the dominant heating mechanism.

  1. Long-Term Cathodoluminescent Characterization of Thin-Film Oxide Phosphors in a Wide Range of Electron Excitation Densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Dubov, Y G; Chakhovskoi, A G

    2001-05-06

    Long-term processes of cathodoluminescence degradation of thin film phosphors Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Ti and Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn were investigated in a wide range of e-beam energies, current and power densities. The time dependencies describing decreasing of emission intensity have been found. At high-level densities of e-beam irradiation the specific behavior of long-term degradation processes was observed, which is characteristic with rapid degradation at initial stage and slow consequent decrease of intensity. The most probable mechanisms responsible for long-term processes of degradation in investigated phosphors are proposed.

  2. Long-Term Cathodoluminescent Characterization of Thin-Film Oxide Phosphors in a Wide Range of Electron Excitation Densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Dubov, Y G; Chakhovskoy, A G

    2001-04-09

    Long-term processes of cathodoluminescence degradation of thin film phosphors Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Ti and Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn were investigated in a wide range of e-beam energies, current and power densities. The time dependencies describing decreasing of emission intensity have been found. At high-level densities of e-beam irradiation the specific behavior of long-term degradation processes was observed, which is characteristic with rapid degradation at initial stage and slow consequent decrease of intensity. The most probable mechanisms responsible for long-term processes of degradation in investigated phosphors are proposed.

  3. Cathodoluminescence microscopy of superconducting and non-superconducting Tl2Ba2CuO6+x polycrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Guerra, C.; Piqueras, J.; Opagiste, Christine

    1996-01-01

    International audience Luminescence properties of Tl2Ba2CuO6+x samples with different superconducting transition temperatures have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. Independent of the crystal structure, tetragonal or orthorhombic, the CL spectra show two resolved bands at about 430 nm (2.9 eV) and 540 nm (2.3 eV), respectively. The results show that the 2.3 eV emission is related to oxygen content and is more intense in low-oxygen content superco...

  4. Fluid inclusion and cathodoluminescence studies on fluorite from the Kerio valley, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogola, J. S.; Behr, H. J.; van den Kerkhof, A. M.

    1994-04-01

    The Kerio valley lies between the Elgeyo escarpment and the Tugen hills which mark the western margin of the Kenya rift valley. The main fluorite deposits are located in the southern part of the valley at Kimwarer, Choff and Kamnaon. Three types of inclusion fillings were identified: Liquid+Vapour, Liquid+Daughter Minerals and Liquid. The L+V type is dominant. Inclusions occur as clusters, trails along the crystal growth zones and as isolated ones. Low salinities, apparently lower than the 5% wt. NaCl equivalent, were established. Homogenization temperatures suggest that fluorite mineralization took place at different stages and at temperatures between 120 and 180 °C. Isolated readings above 180°C may be referring to the original inclusions in limestone. These measurements and the absence of CO 2 in the inclusions, as well as the occurrence of vugs and crustifications with fluorite, suggest that mineralization took place at relatively shallow depths. Emission spectrum lines representing Eu 2+, Dy 3+, Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ in fluorite were identified. Sm 3+ was detected only in the pinkish luminescence of veined fluorite, whereas the pinkish zone in banded fluorite contains Tb 3+. Eu 2+ which gives the strongest emission lines in the blue part of the visible spectrum, apparently is responsible for the strong blue cathodoluminescence (CL) in fluorite. The dominance of Eu 2+ peaks further points to the fact that fluorite mineralization in the Kerio valley took place in an environment that was enriched in Lanthanide Rare Earth Elements (LREE). The presence of rare earths and radioactive elements in fluorite points towards their enrichment in the environment of fluorite mineralization. A juvenile origin of mineral forming solutions is proposed. Two generations of fluorite were established: allotriomorphic fluorite, forming the matrix, and the idiomorphic variety, occurring either in barite or in druzes in early fluorite. Barite in turn forms idiomorphic crystals in

  5. Comparison of thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (ESEM-CL) properties between hydrothermal and metamorphic quartzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topaksu, M., E-mail: mtopaksu@adiyaman.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Topak, Y. [Adiyaman University, Vocational High School, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Goeksu, H.Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Art, Adiyaman University, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    This paper reports on the Thermoluminescence (TL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky quartz specimens from Hakkari in Turkey, labeled THQ, and Madrid in Spain, labeled SHQ, and metamorphic quartz from Madrid, in Spain, labeled SMQ. Both hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples display similar UV-IR CL spectra consisting of five groups of components centered at 330 nm and 380 nm linked to [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers, 420 nm due to intrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies, lattice defects, and impurities which modify the crystal structure, 480 nm associated with [AlO{sub 4}] Degree-Sign centers of substitutional Al{sup 3+}, and a red broad band related to the hydroxyl defects in the quartz lattice as precursors of non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) and substitutional point defects. The Turkish quartz specimen exhibits higher CL intensity in the UV region (up to 330 nm) than the Spanish specimens probably linked to the presence of Ca (0.95% in THQ and less than 0.1% in SHQ and SMQ). At wavelengths greater than 330 nm, SMQ (formed at high pressure 6000 bars and temperatures over 500-600 Degree-Sign C) shows higher intensity than the hydrothermal (growth at 2000 bars and temperatures 200-300 Degree-Sign C) samples associated with the formation process. The natural blue TL glow curves of both THQ and SHQ display a weaker TL intensity than the SMQ, attributable to the Al (0.32%), Ti (0.14%), K (0.01%) and Zr (76 ppm) content. It is shown that mineralogical formation, crystallinity index and the content of the impurities seem to be the main parameters of influence in the shape intensity of the CL and TL glow curve emission. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reported on the TL and CL emission of well-characterized hydrothermal milky and metamorphic quartz specimens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal and metamorphic quartz samples displayed similar UV-IR CL spectra. Black

  6. UHP-Metamorphic Pyrope Quartzites From Dora Maira: Cathodoluminescence of Silica and Twinning of Coesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertl, H.; Medenbach, O.; Neuser, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    Since the first discovery of metamorphic coesite in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks from the Dora Maira Massif/Western Alps, much attention was drawn on its characteristics: the paragenesis, influence of OH on the kinetics of the coesite-quartz transition, present day overpressure in coesite inclusions, features like palisade-quartz as typical breakdown product, experimental studies on the rheology of polycrystalline coesite, oxygen isotope signatures, etc. Here we would like to focus on the cathodoluminescence (CL) of coesite and its breakdown products. Since luminescence is triggered even by minor differences in composition or structure of a mineral, in this study the CL microscope is employed not only as a powerful tool to distinguish between different mineral phases but also to characterize different generations of a coesite breakdown product. A second topic concerns the twinning of coesite which is very rarely observed in nature. The investigations were made on pyrope quartzite previously representing a pyrope coesitite at UHP metamorphic conditions (Chopin, 1984; Schertl et al., 1991). Main constituent phases are pyrope, quartz, phengite, talc, and kyanite with minor amounts of coesite and jadeite. The rock can be subdivided in a fine-grained type containing pyropes up to about 1.5 cm and a coarse-grained type with pyrope crystals up to 25 cm. The boundaries between both types are irregular, but they exhibit significant differences concerning their mineral inclusions: inclusions of coesite/quartz (in paragenesis with kyanite and phengite) are only observed in small pyropes whereas in big pyropes no silica phase occurs. Typical mineral inclusions in big pyropes essentially are kyanite, talc, and chlorite with minor amounts of ellenbergerite, Mg-dumortierite and sodic amphibole. Coesite typically shows bluish-green luminescence colours, whereas palisade-like quartz as breakdown product (interpreted to be formed at high temperatures) surrounding coesite is

  7. Blue Cathodoluminescence from Highly Er-Doped ZnO Thin Films Induced by the Phonon Bottleneck Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜田; 刘益春; 马剑刚; 吕有明; 申德振; 许武; 钟国柱; 范希武

    2003-01-01

    The room-temperature blue cathodoluminescence (CL) from highly Er-doped ZnO thin films has been studied by using different electron beam currents (EBCs). The ZnO:Er thin films used in our experiment were prepared by simultaneous evaporation from two sources. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the thin films have a strong preferential c-axis (0002) orientation with a hexagonal crystalline structure. The blue emission at 455 nm originating from the intra-4 f shell transition (4F5/2.4I15/2) in Er3+ ions was observed at room temperature. The nonlinear dependence of the CL intensity on the EBC shows a more intense blue emission above the threshold EBC of 0. 6 μA, which is attributed to the phonon bottleneck effect.

  8. Spatially Resolved Cathodoluminescence in the Vicinity of Defects in the High-Efficiency InGaN/GaN Blue Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh-Ha Doan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the standard 447 nm blue emission from the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells, a high-energy shoulder is clearly observed in cathodoluminescence spectra of the high-efficiency InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Monochromatic cathodoluminescence images of the samples measured at low temperature reveal a competition between the two emissions in the vicinity of the dislocations. The high-energy emission is dominant at the regions near the dislocation cores, while the blue emission is enhanced around the dislocation edges. The high-energy emission region is considered as a potential barrier that prevents the carriers for the blue emission from nonradiatively recombining at the dislocations.

  9. Cathodoluminescence Phenomena of Treated Rubies%优化处理红宝石的阴极发光特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬敬

    2012-01-01

    使用阴极发光仪对热处理红宝石、染色处理红宝石、充填处理红宝石样品进行发光现象观察,并与天然红宝石、合成红宝石的阴极发光现象对比,得知优化红宝石的阴极发光现象与天然红宝石相近,而处理红宝石的发光强度比天然红宝石及合成红宝石要弱,但处理特征在阴极发光仪下清晰可见.%In this paper,experiments were made on series of rubies with the help of cathodoluminescence instrument;and luminous phenomena of heat-treated ruby,dyed ruby ,and filling processing ruby samples were discussed. Conclusions are drawn that luminous phenomenon of enhancing rubies is similar to that of natural rubies, yet luminous intensity of treated rubies is poorer than that of natural and synthetic rubies.

  10. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of single GaN/AlN quantum dots directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Frank; Schmidt, Gordon; Mueller, Marcus; Petzold, Silke; Veit, Peter; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Das, Aparna; Monroy, Eva [CEA/CNRS Group Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, INAC/SP2M, CEA-Grenoble (France)

    2013-07-01

    In this study we will present a nanoscale optical and structural characterization of a III-nitride based quantum dot (QD) heterostructure. A 1 μm thick AlN layer grown on a sapphire substrate using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) serves as template for the further growth process. Subsequent, a stack of 10 GaN QD layers, each embedded in 50 nm thick AlN barrier, were grown under an optimized plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy process on an AlN-MOVPE/sapphire template. The cross-section high angle annular dark field image (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) clearly reveals the GaN QD layers. The comparison of the HAADF image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic cathodoluminescence mapping at 16 K exhibits a spot like luminescence distribution of the upper six QD layers solely, indicating no formation of the first four intentionally grown QD layers. Addressing a very few to single QDs we observe a broad luminescence between 3.0 eV and 4.0 eV originating from the superposition of the single emission lines.

  11. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Friis, Henrik

    2014-03-01

    The Ordovician deltaic to shallow marine Khabour Formation in Northern Iraq consists mainly of sandstone with minor siltstone and interbedded shale. The sandstones are pervasively cemented by quartz that resulted in very little preserved primary porosity. Cathodoluminescence and petrographic studies showed that the silica cementation occurred in five successive phases which can be distinguished by their luminescence pattern. The precipitations of two phases have predated the major compaction process while the other phases are younger. The successive phases represent a sequence of changes in silica supply which were classified as very early and early, derived from dissolved biogenic silica that precipitated as opal/microquartz, possibly pre-compactional and of non-luminescent quartz overgrowth type. This was followed by phases whose silica supply derived from pressure solution of quartz, dissolution of feldspar, and hydrothermal fluids related to major thrust fault event. These successive quartz cement phases showed an increase in luminescence and the development of complicated zonation pattern in late-stage quartz cementation.

  12. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  13. Trace elements and cathodoluminescence of detrital quartz in Arctic marine sediments – a new ice-rafted debris provenance proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The records of ice-rafted debris (IRD provenance in the North Atlantic – Barents Sea allow the reconstruction of the spatial and temporal changes of ice-flow drainage patterns during glacial and deglacial periods. In this study a new approach to characterisation of the provenance of detrital quartz grains in the fraction > 500 μm of marine sediments offshore of Spitsbergen is introduced, utilizing scanning electron microscope backscattered electron and cathodoluminescence (CL imaging, combined with laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Based on their micro-inclusions, CL and trace element characteristics the investigated IRD grains can be classified into five distinct populations. Three of the populations are indicative of potential IRD provenance provinces in the Storfjord area including Barentsøya and Egdeøya. The results imply that under modern (interglacial conditions IRD deposition along the western Spitsbergen margin is mainly governed by the East Svalbard Current controlling the ice-drift pattern. The presence of detrital quartz from local provinces, however, indicates that variations in IRD supply from western Spitsbergen may be quantified as well. In this pilot study it is demonstrated that this new approach applied on Arctic continental margin sediments, bears a considerable potential for the definition of the sources of IRD and thus of spatial/temporal changes in ice-flow drainage patterns during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  14. Cathodoluminescence degradation of SiO2:Ce,Tb powder phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study the CL intensity degradation of SiO2:Cb,Tb powder phosphors prepared by a sol-gel process. The AES and the CL data were collected simultaneously when the powders were bombarded for 10 h with a beam of electrons of current density of 54 mA/cm2, accelerated by 2 kV in a vacuum chamber containing either 1x10-8 or 1x10-7 Torr O2. A decrease of CL intensity was simultaneous with desorption of oxygen (O) from the surface, i.e., there is a correlation between the degradation of CL intensity and desorption of O. The AES and the XPS data suggest that a nonluminescent oxygen-deficient layer of SiOx (x<2) that could decrease the CL intensity was formed on the surface. Mechanisms by which oxygen desorption leads to a reduction of the CL intensity are discussed

  15. Cathodoluminescence, laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis and electron paramagnetic resonance analyses of natural sphalerite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, M.; Hagni, R.D.; Koenig, A.; Ciftc, E.

    2008-01-01

    Natural sphalerite associated with copper, silver, lead-zinc, tin and tungsten deposits from various world-famous mineral deposits have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL), laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the relationship between trace element type and content and the CL properties of sphalerite. In general, sphalerite produces a spectrum of CL colour under electron bombardment that includes deep blue, turquoise, lime green, yellow-orange, orange-red and dull dark red depending on the type and concentration of trace quantities of activator ions. Sphalerite from most deposits shows a bright yellow-orange CL colour with ??max centred at 585 nm due to Mn2+ ion, and the intensity of CL is strongly dependent primarily on Fe2+ concentration. The blue emission band with ??max centred at 470-490 nm correlates with Ga and Ag at the Tsumeb, Horn Silver, Balmat and Kankoy mines. Colloform sphalerite from older well-known European lead-zinc deposits and late Cretaceous Kuroko-type VMS deposits of Turkey shows intense yellowish CL colour and their CL spectra are characterised by extremely broad emission bands ranging from 450 to 750 nm. These samples are characterised by low Mn (behaviour of sphalerite serves to characterise ore types and help detect technologically important trace elements.

  16. Phosphorous doped ZnO nanowires: acceptor-related cathodoluminescence and p-type conducting FET-characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B. Q.; Lorenz, M.; von Wenckstern, H.; Czekalla, C.; Brandt, M.; Lenzner, J.; Benndorf, G.; Biehne, G.; Grundmann, M.

    2008-02-01

    Phosphorous-doped ZnO (ZnO:P) nanowires were prepared by a high-pressure pulsed laser deposition process. To extend the size range of available wires, μm-thick ZnO:P microwires were grown additionally by a direct carbothermal deposition process. Low-temperature cathodoluminescence of single ZnO:P nanowires grown by both processes exhibit characteristic phosphorus acceptor-related peaks: neutral acceptor-bound exciton emission ((A 0, X), 3.356 eV), free-electron to neutral-acceptor emission ((e, A 0), 3.314 eV), and donor-to-acceptor pair emission (DAP, ~3.24 and ~3.04 eV). This proves that stable phosphorus acceptor levels have been induced into the ZnO:P nano- and microwires. From the quantitative evaluation of the spectroscopic features we deduct an acceptor binding energy of 122 meV. The ZnO:P microwires were used as channels in bottom-gate field effect transistors (FET) built on Si substrates with SiO II gate oxide. The electrical FET-characteristics of several wires show reproducibly clear qualitative indication for p-type conductivity for variation of gate voltage. This behavior is opposite to that of nominally undoped, n-type conducting wires investigated for comparison. The p-type conductivity was found to be stable over more than six months.

  17. Quantitative Determination of Grain Boundary Recombination Velocity in CdTe by Combination of Cathodoluminescence Measurements and Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanevce, Ana; Moseley, John; Kuciauskas, Darius; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    We developed a 2D numerical model simulating cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in CdTe. Using this model we analyze how various material parameters impact the CL contrast and intensity observed in the measured signal, and determine if and when we can accurately determine the value of grain boundary recombination rate. In addition to grain boundary (GB) recombination, the grain size and its ratio to the carrier diffusion length impact the results of the measurement. Holding the grain interior and GB recombination rates constant, we find that as the grain size increases and becomes larger than the diffusion length, the observed CL contrast is larger. In a small grain size material the surface recombination lowers the overall intensity of the signal, but does not impact the observed contrast significantly. In a large grain size material, high surface recombination velocity can lower the observed contrast in a measurement. This model in combination with an experiment is used to quantify the grain boundary recombination velocity in polycrystalline CdTe before and after the CdCl2 treatment.

  18. Cathodoluminescence property of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser ablation in plasma circumstance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) with energy-controlled electron beams was used to study the inner structure of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated by YAG laser ablation under oxygen gas and oxygen plasma circumstances. Varying accelerating voltages of electron beams from 1.0 to 3.0 kV, it was clearly seen that the CL spectrum in the case of ZnO nano-phosphors fabricated under the oxygen gas background changed from a broad one centered at approximately 500 nm to a narrow one peaked at 380∼400 nm. This result indicates that there is an oxygen vacancy-rich shell in the surface area and a fine crystalline ZnO structure in the inner core region. Under the oxygen plasma circumstance at 500 Pa, however, we found that there is a crystalline structure in the surface layer of ZnO nano-phosphors due to the sufficient supply of oxygen ions and atoms and suppression of the formation of oxygen vacancy.

  19. Signatures of Fano interferences in the electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence of symmetry-broken nanorod dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Nicholas W; Vaschillo, Alex; Camden, Jon P; Masiello, David J

    2013-05-28

    Through numerical simulation, we predict the existence of the Fano interference effect in the electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) of symmetry-broken nanorod dimers that are heterogeneous in material composition and asymmetric in length. The differing selection rules of the electron probe in comparison to the photon of a plane wave allow for the simultaneous excitation of both optically bright and dark plasmons of each monomer unit, suggesting that Fano resonances will not arise in EELS and CL. Yet, interferences are manifested in the dimer's scattered near- and far-fields and are evident in EELS and CL due to the rapid π-phase offset in the polarizations between super-radiant and subradiant hybridized plasmon modes of the dimer as a function of the energy loss suffered by the impinging electron. Depending upon the location of the electron beam, we demonstrate the conditions under which Fano interferences will be present in both optical and electron spectroscopies (EELS and CL) as well as a new class of Fano interferences that are uniquely electron-driven and are absent in the optical response. Among other things, the knowledge gained from this work bears impact upon the design of some of the world's most sensitive sensors, which are currently based upon Fano resonances. PMID:23594310

  20. Temperature and vacuum ambient effects on the cathodoluminescent degradation of sulfide-based thin film and powder phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Billie Lynn

    Changes in the cathodoluminescent (CL) brightness, surface chemistry and morphology of SiO2-coated and uncoated ZnS:Ag,Cl powder, and ZnS:Mn thin films have been investigated using scanning Auger electron spectrometry (AES), optical spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water partial pressure, surface coatings and temperature were controlled as parameters critical to degradation. In the case of an oxidizing ambient (i.e., high water partial pressure) a non-luminescent oxide layer formed on all materials. In the case of a reducing ambient (i.e., low water and high hydrogen) hydrogen removes S as H2S, leaving elemental Zn which evaporates due to its high vapor pressure. In the case of SiO2-coated ZnS:Ag,Cl, morphological changes were observed on the surface after extended electron beam exposure. This erosion of ZnS is more rapid at higher power densities. Uncoated ZnS:Ag,Cl phosphors exhibited no change in the surface morphology. The SEM images of SiO-coated samples after degradation and reaction rate data suggest that the SiO 2 particles acted as a catalyst for CL and morphological degradation. Temperature effects on degradation were isolated by measuring thermal quenching behavior. Upon heating, the CL intensity decreased, the spectral shape changed and shifted to higher wavelengths. This shift was attributed to band gap narrowing and copper contamination. Full recovery of the CL occurred upon cooling. Evaporation of Zn and degradation of ZnS is accelerated by elevated temperatures caused by electron beam heating. CL loss at high temperatures with constant electron beam exposure was less than that at RT for the same coulombic dose. This supports the predictions of the ESSCR model that elevated temperatures causes a decrease in the residence time of physisorbed species, reducing the rate of surface reactions. After elevated temperature degradation, morphological erosion occurred for uncoated ZnS. At the combined temperature due to electron beam

  1. Cathodoluminescence characterization of quartz grains from the Upper Cretaceous of dinosaur fossil localities in the Gobi desert, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneyoshi, M.; Nishido, H.; Masuda, R.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Chinzorig, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous eolian sediments in Mongolia's Gobi desert are one of the most important occurrences of the dinosaurs in the world. Large numbers of confiscated dinosaur fossils illegally worked out by poachers has been stored in the Mongolian Paleontological Center at Ulaanbaatar. In most cases, their localities are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify their localities by cathodoluminescence (CL) features of quartz grains attached to the dinosaur specimens by comparing to the quartz samples collected from the sediments of circumjacent resources in this area. This study focuses on the confiscated specimen which makes up the nest with the babies' Protoceratops. Most of all Protoceratops in every growth process, have been discovered from the Djadokhta Formation in the Gobi desert. This formation crops out at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak in the central part of the Gobi desert, and is derived from medium- to fine-grained sand mainly composed of quartz grains, of which sedimentary environments should be obvious to be eolian. The formation age of the sand beds at Tugrikin Shireh and Bayn Dzak has been estimated to be Middle Campanian. CL spectra of quartz have been demonstrated to show different features between the quartz from hydrothermal, plutonic, volcanic and metamorphic origins, suggesting the spectra reflect the condition of the quartz formation and the local environment. Therefore, we have applied the CL characterization of quartz grains to the evaluation of the provenance of the desert sediments. The quartz grains after sieving (#60-80 mesh size) were embedded in the brass holders with non-luminescent epoxy resin, and their surfaces were polished with 1 μm diamond abrasive. Color CL images obtained by the Luminoscope exhibit blue, violet and red emissions in the grains, suggesting various types of emission centers in the quartz. SEM-CL analysis was conducted using an SEM (JSM-5410) combined with a grating monochromator (Mono CL2) to measure

  2. Cathodoluminescence characterization of [11 anti 20]-oriented InGaN/GaN thin films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the cathodoluminescence (CL) characterization of nonpolar [11 anti 20]-oriented InGaN/GaN thin films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. The epitaxial GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates frequently show facet surface morphology. The CL peak wavelength and local indium composition of InGaN grown on them were gradually varied with the probed position from the facet summit to valley. In a-plane InGaN, the facet summit was In-rich area while the valley was In-poor area. This is due to the material transport issue during epitaxial growth. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Direct evidence of single quantum dot emission from GaN islands formed at threading dislocations using nanoscale cathodoluminescence: A source of single photons in the ultraviolet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gordon, E-mail: Gordon.Schmidt@ovgu.de; Berger, Christoph; Veit, Peter; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Bläsing, Jürgen; Dadgar, Armin; Strittmatter, André; Christen, Jürgen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Callsen, Gordon; Kalinowski, Stefan; Hoffmann, Axel [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technical University Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-22

    Intense emission from GaN islands embedded in AlN resulting from GaN/AlN quantum well growth is directly resolved by performing cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Line widths down to 440 μeV are measured in a wavelength region between 220 and 310 nm confirming quantum dot like electronic properties in the islands. These quantum dot states can be structurally correlated to islands of slightly enlarged thicknesses of the GaN/AlN quantum well layer preferentially formed in vicinity to dislocations. The quantum dot states exhibit single photon emission in Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments with a clear antibunching in the second order correlation function at zero time delay.

  4. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  5. Nanometer scale correlation of optical and structural properties of individual InGaN/GaN nanorods by scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Veit, Peter; Petzold, Silke; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Albert, Steven; Bengoechea-Encabo, Ana Maria; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel Angel; Calleja, Enrique [ISOM e Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    A potential benefit of nanorods as light emitters, aside from their very high crystal quality, relies on better light extraction efficiency as compared to thin films, because of the high surface to volume ratio. In this study we present a direct nano-scale correlation of the optical properties with the actual crystalline structure of ordered InGaN/GaN nanorods using low temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM-CL). Direct comparison of the high-angle annular dark field image with the simultaneously recorded panchromatic CL mapping at 15 K reveals a weak luminescence from the bottom GaN layer. We observe the highest CL intensity in the middle of the InGaN region. The spectral position of the InGaN emission shifts continuously red from the GaN/InGaN interface (λ=409 nm) to the NR top (λ=446 nm) due to lattice pulling effects and InGaN partial decomposition. Additionally, optical active basal stacking faults in the GaN layer emitting at 366 nm can be found.

  6. Distinction between amorphous and healed planar deformation features in shocked quartz using composite color scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Maartje F.; Pennock, Gill M.; Herwegh, Marco; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-08-01

    Planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz are one of the most reliable and most widely used forms of evidence for hypervelocity impact. PDFs can be identified in scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) images, but not all PDFs show the same CL behavior: there are nonluminescent and red luminescent PDFs. This study aims to explain the origin of the different CL emissions in PDFs. Focused ion beam (FIB) thin foils were prepared of specific sample locations selected in composite color SEM-CL images and were analyzed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The FIB preparation technique allowed a direct, often one-to-one correlation between the CL images and the defect structure observed in TEM. This correlation shows that composite color SEM-CL imaging allows distinction between amorphous PDFs on one hand and healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins on the other: nonluminescent PDFs are amorphous, while healed PDFs and basal Brazil twins are red luminescent, with a dominant emission peak at 650 nm. We suggest that the red luminescence is the result of preferential beam damage along dislocations, fluid inclusions, and twin boundaries. Furthermore, a high-pressure phase (possibly stishovite) in PDFs can be detected in color SEM-CL images by its blue luminescence.

  7. Cathodoluminescence and Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy Studies for Deformation Behaviors of GaN Thin Films Under Berkovich Nanoindentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng I-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, details of Berkovich nanoindentation-induced mechanical deformation mechanisms of metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition-derived GaN thin films have been systematic investigated with the aid of the cathodoluminescence (CL and the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM techniques. The multiple “pop-in” events were observed in the load-displacement (P–h curve and appeared to occur randomly by increasing the indentation load. These instabilities are attributed to the dislocation nucleation and propagation. The CL images of nanoindentation show very well-defined rosette structures with the hexagonal system and, clearly display the distribution of deformation-induced extended defects/dislocations which affect CL emission. By using focused ion beam milling to accurately position the cross-section of an indented area, XTEM results demonstrate that the major plastic deformation is taking place through the propagation of dislocations. The present observations are in support to the massive dislocations activities occurring underneath the indenter during the loading cycle. No evidence of either phase transformation or formation of micro-cracking was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy and XTEM observations. We also discuss how these features correlate with Berkovich nanoindentation produced defects/dislocations structures.

  8. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-02-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1-100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics.

  9. Arbitrary cross-section SEM-cathodoluminescence imaging of growth sectors and local carrier concentrations within micro-sampled semiconductor nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Takahiro; Oh, Seungjun; Wakayama, Yutaka; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Volk, János; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Future one-dimensional electronics require single-crystalline semiconductor free-standing nanorods grown with uniform electrical properties. However, this is currently unrealistic as each crystallographic plane of a nanorod grows at unique incorporation rates of environmental dopants, which forms axial and lateral growth sectors with different carrier concentrations. Here we propose a series of techniques that micro-sample a free-standing nanorod of interest, fabricate its arbitrary cross-sections by controlling focused ion beam incidence orientation, and visualize its internal carrier concentration map. ZnO nanorods are grown by selective area homoepitaxy in precursor aqueous solution, each of which has a (0001):+c top-plane and six {1–100}:m side-planes. Near-band-edge cathodoluminescence nanospectroscopy evaluates carrier concentration map within a nanorod at high spatial resolution (60 nm) and high sensitivity. It also visualizes +c and m growth sectors at arbitrary nanorod cross-section and history of local transient growth events within each growth sector. Our technique paves the way for well-defined bottom-up nanoelectronics. PMID:26881966

  10. Correlation between the structural and cathodoluminescence properties in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells with large number of quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics on 30-period InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) solar cell structures are investigated, revealing the relationship between optical and structural properties of the MQW structures with a large number of quantum wells. In the bottom MQW layers, a blueshift of CL peak along the growth direction is found and attributed to the decrease of indium content due to the compositional pulling effect. An obvious split of emission peak and a redshift of the main emission energy are found in the top MQW layers when the MQW grows above the critical layer thickness. They are attributed to the segregation of In-rich InGaN clusters rather than the increase of indium content in quantum well layer. The MQW structure is identified to consist of two regions: a strained one in the bottom, where the indium content is gradually decreased, and a partly relaxed one in the top with segregated In-rich InGaN clusters

  11. The origin of bimodal luminescence of β-SiAlON:Eu2+ phosphors as revealed by fluorescence microscopy and cathodoluminescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bimodal emission is originated from β-SiAlON grains with z ≥ 2. • Coexistence of two kinds of emission centers in the β-SiAlON phase is definite. • Fluorescence microscopy shows influence of the z value on emission of β-SiAlON. - Abstract: Eu2+-doped SiAlON phosphors with the composition of EuxSi6−zAlzOzN8−z (0.5 ≤ z ≤ 3) at a fixed x = 0.01 were synthesized by the gas pressure sintering method. Dependence of luminescence properties on the phase compositions in β-SiAlON:Eu2+ phosphors has been examined via fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with a cathodoluminescence spectrometer and an energy dispersive spectrometer. Bimodal emission (green and violet) from β-SiAlON phase is observed in the samples with z ≥ 2, indicating co-existence of two different kinds of coordination for Eu2+ ions in the host lattice

  12. Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of the Distribution of defects induced in fused silica by UV laser pulses and after damage mitigation treatment with a CO2 laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Kalceff, M; Wong, J

    2004-03-10

    Point defects are induced in high quality optical-grade fused silica by high fluence (>30 J/cm{sup 2}) 355nm laser pulses. The microscopic depth distribution of laser irradiation induced defects has been nondestructively determined using Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis. CL emissions have been observed at 1.9eV, 2.2eV, 2.7eV and 4.4eV. In addition following CO{sup 2} laser treatment for damage mitigation an emission at 3.2eV is also observed. The CL emissions have been identified with the NBOHC (non-bridging oxygen hole center), the STE (self-trapped exciton), an ODC (oxygen-deficient center) and an aluminum impurity centre. The spatially resolved CL data is consistent with damage initiation at the exit surface. The concentration of 355 nm laser induced defects is greatest at the surface and monotonically decays to pre-irradiation levels at {approx}10 {micro}m depth below the surface. With CO{sup 2} processing to mitigate damage, the defect concentration and spatial distribution is reduced to a maximum depth of {approx}6{micro}m. CL microanalysis provides a sensitive and nondestructive method of assessing the magnitude and submicron distribution of irradiation induced damage in technologically important materials.

  13. Correlative near-infrared light and cathodoluminescence microscopy using Y2O3:Ln, Yb (Ln = Tm, Er) nanophosphors for multiscale, multicolour bioimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, S.; Furukawa, T.; Niioka, H.; Ichimiya, M.; Sannomiya, T.; Tanaka, N.; Onoshima, D.; Yukawa, H.; Baba, Y.; Ashida, M.; Miyake, J.; Araki, T.; Hashimoto, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new correlative bioimaging technique using Y2O3:Tm, Yb and Y2O3:Er, Yb nanophosphors (NPs) as imaging probes that emit luminescence excited by both near-infrared (NIR) light and an electron beam. Under 980 nm NIR light irradiation, the Y2O3:Tm, Yb and Y2O3:Er, Yb NPs emitted NIR luminescence (NIRL) around 810 nm and 1530 nm, respectively, and cathodoluminescence at 455 nm and 660 nm under excitation of accelerated electrons, respectively. Multimodalities of the NPs were confirmed in correlative NIRL/CL imaging and their locations were visualized at the same observation area in both NIRL and CL images. Using CL microscopy, the NPs were visualized at the single-particle level and with multicolour. Multiscale NIRL/CL bioimaging was demonstrated through in vivo and in vitro NIRL deep-tissue observations, cellular NIRL imaging, and high-spatial resolution CL imaging of the NPs inside cells. The location of a cell sheet transplanted onto the back muscle fascia of a hairy rat was visualized through NIRL imaging of the Y2O3:Er, Yb NPs. Accurate positions of cells through the thickness (1.5 mm) of a tissue phantom were detected by NIRL from the Y2O3:Tm, Yb NPs. Further, locations of the two types of NPs inside cells were observed using CL microscopy.

  14. Interface properties of Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A. P.; Dmitriev, V. A.; Drozd, V. E.; Prokofiev, V. A.; Filatova, E. O. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Samarin, S. N. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2016-02-07

    We studied formation of the SiO{sub 2}-T{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface in the Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure using Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy (CLS). Analyzing the evolution of CLS spectrum of the Si-SiO{sub 2} structure while depositing the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer allowed to estimate an optical transmittance of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer and its band gap. Spectral features related to the formation of the SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} interface were identified by comparison of the experimental CL spectrum of the Si-SiO{sub 2}-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structure and its simulated counterpart. This formation involves a decomposition of silanol groups at the outer surface of the SO{sub 2} layer and creation of the Si{sub x}Ta{sub y}O-type layer containing luminescence centers with the emission band centered at 3 eV photon energy.

  15. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Peng; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emission located at 615 nm was observed in all the samples. • The Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest PL properties. • The CIE chromaticity coordinate of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was (0.647,0.352). • The color purity of Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor was 92.8%. • Strong CL properties were observed in the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor. - Abstract: Eu{sup 3+}-activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors were synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra as well as X-ray diffraction patterns were measured to characterize the fabricated samples. Under 393 nm excitation, strong red emissions located at ∼615 nm corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+} ions were observed in all the samples. Compared with other Eu{sup 3+} ions activated AMoO{sub 4} (A = Mg, Sr, Ba) phosphors, Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor exhibited the strongest red emission intensity with better Commission Internationale de L’Eclairage chromaticity coordinate and higher color purity. Furthermore, the CL results indicated that the Eu{sup 3+}-activated CaMoO{sub 4} phosphor had excellent luminescence properties.

  16. Geochemistry of the Spor Mountain rhyolite, western Utah, as revealed by laser ablation ICP-MS, cathodoluminescence, and electron microprobe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, S. R.; Christiansen, E. H.; Dorais, M.; Fernandez, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Miocene topaz rhyolite at Spor Mountain in western Utah hosts one of the largest beryllium deposits in the world and was responsible for producing 85% of the beryllium mined worldwide in 2010 (Boland, 2012). The Spor Mountain rhyolite is composed primarily of Ca-poor plagioclase (An8), sodic sanidine (Or40), Fe-rich biotite (Fe/(Fe+Mg)>0.95; Al 1.2-1.4 apfu), and Ti-poor quartz, along with several trace-element rich accessory phases including zircon, monazite, thorite, columbite, and allanite. Cathodoluminescence (CL) studies of quartz show oscillatory zoning, with 80% of the examined crystals displaying euhedral edges and slightly darker rims. CL images were used to guide laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS analysis of quartz, along with analyses of plagioclase, sanidine, biotite, and glass. Ti concentrations in quartz are 20±6 ppm; there is no quantifiable variation of Ti from core to rim within the diameter of the laser spot (53 microns). Temperatures, calculated using Ti in quartz (at 2 kb, aTiO2=0.34), vary between 529±10 C (Thomas et al., 2011), 669±13 C (Huang and Audetat, 2012), and 691±13 C (Wark and Watson, 2006). Two feldspar thermometry yield temperatures of 686±33 C (Elkins and Grove, 1990) and 670±41 C (Benisek et al., 2010). Zr saturation temperatures (Watson and Harrison, 1983) average 711±28 C. Analysis of the glass reveal the Spor Mountain rhyolite is greatly enriched in rare elements (i.e. Li, Be, F, Ga, Rb, Nb, Mo, Sn, and Ta) compared to average continental crust (Rudnick and Gao, 2003). Be in the glass can have as much as 100 ppm, nearly 50 times the concentration in continental crust. REE partition coefficients for sanidine are 2 to 3 times higher in the Spor Mountain rhyolite when compared to other silicic magmas (Nash and Crecraft, 1985; Mahood and Hildreth, 1983), although plagioclase tends to have lower partition coefficients; biotite has lower partition coefficients for LREE and higher partition coefficients for HREE. The patterns of

  17. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence nanoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Coenen

    2014-01-01

    The field of microscopy is an important cornerstone of physical and biological sciences. The development of high-resolution microscopy/nanoscopy techniques has enabled a revolution in science and technology, greatly improving our understanding of the microscopic world around us, and forming the basi

  18. Hydrothermal Evolution of the Giant Cenozoic Kadjaran porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Tethyan metallogenic belt, Armenia, Lesser Caucasus: mineral paragenetic, cathodoluminescence and fluid inclusion constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovakimyan, Samvel; Moritz, Robert; Tayan, Rodrik; Rezeau, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    stockwork. One of them is the east-west-oriented 6th vein zone in the northern part of the deposit, which contains quartz-molybdenite veins and late quartz-galena-sphalerite veins. This is interpreted as a telescoping between porphyry and epithermal environments. It is supported by microscopic studies of mineral paragenesis, which reveal the presence of enargite and tennantite-tetrahedrite, luzonite, sphalerite, and galena, generally in a gangue of quartz, followed by a late carbonate and gypsum stage. On-going fluid inclusion studies are being carried out on quartz samples from the different mineralization stages. Five types of fluid inclusions were distinguished according to their nature, bubble size, and daughter mineral content: vapor-rich, aqueous-carbonic, brine, polyphase brine and liquid-rich inclusions. Cathodoluminescence images from the porphyry veins reveal four generations of quartz. Molybdenite and chalcopyrite are associated with two different dark luminescent quartz generations, which contain typical brine, aqueous-carbonic and vapour-rich H2O fluid inclusions, with some of them coexisting locally as boiling assemblages. Epithermal veins are mainly characterized by liquid-rich H2O fluid inclusions. Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions reveal a major difference in homogenisation temperatures between the early quartz-molybdenite- chalcopyrite stage (Thtotal between 3600 and 4250C) and the late quartz-galena-sphalerite vein stage (Thtotal 300-2700C), which is attributed to the transition from a porphyry to an epithermal environment in the Kadjaran deposit.

  19. Cathodoluminescence of Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 phosphor under continuous electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → GSO:Ce is stable under continuous electron irradiation. → GSO:Ce has high luminescence efficiency. → GSO:Ce has rigid crystal structure. - Abstract: Cathodoluminescence was studied on well crystallized Ce-doped Gd2SiO5 (GSO:Ce) and Gd9.33(SiO4)6O2 (GSAP:Ce) prepared by calcining the hydrolyzed alkoxides at 1573 K because GSO:Ce is easily contaminated with GSAP:Ce impurity in solid state reaction. The luminescence efficiency of GSO:Ce was much higher than that of GSAP:Ce, and Stokes shift of the former was smaller than that of the latter, due to the crystal structural difference between the compounds in Gd2O3 and SiO2 binary chemical composition. The luminescence of GSO:Ce degraded much less than that of GSAP:Ce under the continuous electron irradiation (CL degradation). The CL degradation was related to the formation of the carbon overlayer on the phosphor particles from the vacuum ambient during the irradiation in the present manuscript. The amount of the deposited carbon was influenced by the luminescence efficiency.

  20. Temperature dependence of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling in Ag, Au, and Al films on In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN quantum wells studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H., E-mail: danrich@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics and The Ilse Katz Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B 653, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Departments, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States)

    2015-01-28

    The optical properties and coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in Ag, Au, and Al-coated In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) were probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence. Excitons were generated in the metal coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films. The Purcell enhancement factor (F{sub p}) was obtained by direct measurement of changes in the temperature-dependent radiative lifetime caused by the SQW exciton-SPP coupling. Three chosen plasmonic metals of Al, Ag, and Au facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for energy ranges in which the SP energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the excitonic transition energy for the InGaN/GaN QW emitter. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, F{sub p}, included the effects of ohmic losses of the metals and changes in the dielectric properties due to the temperature dependence of (i) the intraband behavior in the Drude model and (ii) the interband critical point transition energies which involve the d-bands of Au and Ag. We show that an inclusion of both intraband and interband effects is essential when calculating the ω vs k SPP dispersion relation, plasmon density of states (DOS), and the dependence of F{sub p} on frequency and temperature. Moreover, the “back bending” in the SPP dispersion relation when including ohmic losses can cause a finite DOS above ω{sub sp} and lead to a measurable F{sub p} in a limited energy range above ω{sub sp}, which can potentially be exploited in plasmonic devices utilizing Ag and Au.

  1. Emission properties of hydrothermal Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods: upconversion, cathodoluminescence and assessment of waveguide behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Elixir William; Pujol, MarIa Cinta; DIaz, Francesc [Fisica i Cristal.lografia de Materials, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sescelades c/ Marcel.lI Domingo s/n, E-43007 Tarragona (Spain); Choi, Soo Bong; Rotermund, Fabian [Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, 443-749 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Ho [Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center, 443-270 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Mun Seok [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 500-712 Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cascales, Concepcion, E-mail: ccascales@icmm.csic.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3 Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-18

    Yb{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} (Ln{sup 3+} = Er{sup 3+} or Tm{sup 3+}) codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with cubic Ia3-bar symmetry have been prepared by low temperature hydrothermal procedures, and their luminescence properties and waveguide behavior analyzed by means of scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Room temperature upconversion (UC) under excitation at 980 nm and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were studied as a function of the Yb{sup +} concentration in the prepared nanorods. UC spectra revealed the strong development of Er{sup 3+4}F{sub 9/2} {yields} 4I{sub 15/2} (red) and Tm{sup 3+1}G{sub 4} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6} (blue) bands, which became the pre-eminent and even unique emissions for corresponding nanorods with the higher Yb{sup 3+} concentration. Favored by the presence of large phonons in current nanorods, UC mechanisms that privilege the population of {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} and {sup 1}G{sub 4} emitting levels through phonon-assisted energy transfer and non-radiative relaxations account for these observed UC luminescence features. CL spectra show much more moderate development of the intensity ratio between the Er{sup 3+4}F{sub 9/2} {yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (red) and {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} {yields} {sup 4}I{sub 15/2} (green) emissions with the increase in the Yb{sup 3+} content, while for Yb{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods the dominant CL emission is Tm{sup 3+1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 4} (deep-blue). Uniform light emission along Yb{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}-codoped Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} rods has been observed by using SNOM photoluminescence images; however, the rods seem to be too thin for propagation of light.

  2. Cathodoluminescence Instrumentation for Analysis of Martian Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Roger; Barbin, Vincent; Ramboz, Claire; Thierkel, Laurent; Gille, Paul; Leveille, Richard; Ramseyer, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The morphologic study of the surface of Mars reveals that liquid water existed during the first few hundred millions of years of the planet's history (e.g. Smith et al. 1999). The flow of water produced extensive erosion in some place, but also large sedimentary basins. With a long enough duration of the presence of liquid water and the oxidation of basalts, the emergence of biological activity may have eventually occurred, as on Earth. The detection of biomarkers at the surface of Mars is on...

  3. Cathodoluminescence investigation of relaxor-based ferroelectrics Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-0.3PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-0.3PT) single-crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge Wanyin, E-mail: wanyinge@gmail.co [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Zhu Wenliang [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan); Pezzotti, Giuseppe, E-mail: pezzotti@kit.ac.j [Ceramic Physics Laboratory and Research Institute for Nanoscience (RIN), Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Matsugasaki, 606-8585 Kyoto (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Relaxor-based ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) possesses ultrahigh electromechanical coefficients near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). In this paper, the electro-stimulated emission characteristics of a [0 0 1]-oriented PMN-0.3PTsingle-crystal were studied using high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at room temperature. Four luminescence bands were observed in the range of 200-900 nm and they were assigned to polaron, nanometre cluster emission, interband emission and structure-related emission. Besides, it was found that the residual stress field ahead of a crack tip of a Vickers indentation had a considerable influence on these luminescence bands. The relationship between the intensities of CL bands and the residual stress field has been investigated and discussed in this paper.

  4. Azimuthally polarized cathodoluminescence from InP nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenny, B. J. M.; van Dam, D.; Osorio, C. I.; Rivas, Gomez; Polman, A.

    2015-01-01

    We determine the angle and polarization dependent emission from 1.75 µm and 2.50 µm long InPnanowires by using cathodoluminescencepolarimetry. We excite the vertical wires using a 5 keV electron beam, and find that the 880 nm bandgap emission shows azimuthally polarized rings, with the number of rin

  5. Probing light emission at the nanoscale with cathodoluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J.M. Brenny

    2016-01-01

    Nanophotonics, the study of light at the nanoscale, is a vibrant field of research with a wide variety of applications. To mold and control light at the nanoscale, it is essential to measure and characterize nanostructures and their interaction with light at this subwavelength scale. This thesis des

  6. Cathodoluminescence in doped CdP2 and CdSiP2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some general features of the behaviour of Cu, Zn, Bi, and Mn impurities in CdSiP2 and CdP2 crystals are studied by analyzing electron beam-excited luminescence spectra measured in a temperature range of 6 to 300 K, as well as by determining their electrical parameters. The impurities are established to substitute mainly the cadmium in the crystalline lattice and to promote the formation of complexes of defects, which are radiative recombination centers. Cadmium vacancies as well participate in the defect complex formation processes. A radiation ascribed to interstitial cadmium-type defects, is discovered in CdSiP2 crystals. (author)

  7. Cathodoluminescence studies of defects and piezoelectric fields in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Henley, S

    2002-01-01

    dislocations were observed to generate in-plane dislocation half-loops, which moved under the influence of the stress present. These dislocation half loops were shown to act as non-radiative recombination centres. observed in CL and photoluminescence (PL) experiments. It is suggested that separation across the well of charge carriers of opposite signs screened the piezoelectric field. The blue shift of the QW luminescence was observed to remain after high electron dose irradiation in the SEM. This effect was not observed in PL measurements after high laser power exposure. The CL blue shift could be removed by irradiation with a UV lamp. It was shown that the minority carrier diffusion length (MCDL) increased from 200nm at low electron beam irradiation doses to 330nm after higher dose irradiation in the SEM. It is proposed that the change in the MCDL and the prolonged nature of the blue shift of the QW CL peak can be explained by the filling of trap states in the vicinity of the QW. It is suggested that these ...

  8. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan region, northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    in silica supply which were classified as very early and early, derived from dissolved biogenic silica that precipitated as opal/microquartz, possibly pre-compactional and of non-luminescent quartz overgrowth type. This was followed by phases whose silica supply derived from pressure solution of quartz...

  9. Thermal growth and cathodoluminescence of Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods have been grown by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method with precursors containing either ZnO and Bi2O3 or ZnS and Bi2O3 powders. The use of ZnS as a precursor was found to lead to a higher density of nano- and microstructures at lower temperatures than by using ZnO. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the Bi content in the wires and rods is in the range 0.15-0.35 at%. Bi incorporation was found to induce a red shift of the near band gap luminescence but no quantitative correlation between the shift and the amount of Bi, as measured by EDS, was observed. The I-V curves of single Bi doped wires had linear behaviour at low current and non-linear behaviour for high currents, qualitatively similar to that of undoped wires.

  10. Thermal growth and cathodoluminescence of Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, B.; Hidalgo, P.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2009-11-01

    Bi doped ZnO nanowires and rods have been grown by a catalyst free evaporation-deposition method with precursors containing either ZnO and Bi2O3 or ZnS and Bi2O3 powders. The use of ZnS as a precursor was found to lead to a higher density of nano- and microstructures at lower temperatures than by using ZnO. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) shows that the Bi content in the wires and rods is in the range 0.15-0.35 at%. Bi incorporation was found to induce a red shift of the near band gap luminescence but no quantitative correlation between the shift and the amount of Bi, as measured by EDS, was observed. The I-V curves of single Bi doped wires had linear behaviour at low current and non-linear behaviour for high currents, qualitatively similar to that of undoped wires.

  11. Cathodoluminescence investigations on quartz cement in the sandstones of Khabour Formation from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, Muhamed Fakhri; Friis, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    in silica supply which were classified as very early and early, derived from dissolved biogenic silica that precipitated as opal/microquartz, possibly pre-compactional and of non-luminescent quartz overgrowth type. This was followed by phases whose silica supply derived from pressure solution of quartz...

  12. ZnGa2 O4 and ZnGa2 O4: Mn2+ for potential use in vacuum fluorescent displays

    OpenAIRE

    Shea, Lauren Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Zinc gallate and Mn2+ -activated zinc gallate were identified as potential low-voltage cathodoluminescent phosphors for use in vacuum fluorescent displays. The stability of these oxide phosphors in high-vacuum and absence of corrosive gas emission under electron bombardment, offer advantages over commonly used sulfide phosphors. A low-voltage cathodoluminescence spectrophotometer was _ developed for phosphor characterization. Sample brightness was measured as a function of ...

  13. Luminescent research of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ blue phosphor used for electron beam excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lan; YANG Ruixia; DU Zhong; ZOU Kaishun; ZHANG Xiaosong

    2003-01-01

    Eu2+-activated strontium choloro-phosphate has been used for lamp phosphor traditionally with high efficiency. In this paper, the cathodoluminescent properties of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ have been investigated for application in field emission display. The influence of Ba2+, Ca2+ impurities on the cathodoluminescent spectrum of Sr5(PO4)3Cl:Eu2+ has also been measured. When operate voltage varied from mid- to low-voltage, the relative brightness and saturation behavior of phosphor was observed at different current density.

  14. Identification of conduction and hot electron property in ZnS, ZnO and SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact excitation and ionization is the most important process in layered optimization scheme and solid state cathodoluminescence. The conduction property (semiconductor property) of SiO2, ZnS and ZnO is studied based on organic/inorganic electroluminescence. The hot electron property (acceleration and multiplication property) of SiO2 and ZnS is investigated based on the solid state cathodoluminescence. The results show that the SiO2 has the fine hot electron property and the conduction property is not as good as ZnO and ZnS

  15. Deterministic radiative coupling between plasmonic nanoantennas and semiconducting nanowire quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Jeannin, Mathieu; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Kheng, Kuntheak; Nogues, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the deterministic coupling between single semiconducting nanowire quantum dots emitting in the visible and plasmonic Au nanoantennas. Both systems are separately carefully characterized through microphotoluminescence and cathodoluminescence. A two-step realignment process using cathodoluminescence allows for electron beam lithography of Au antennas near individual nanowire quantum dots with a precision of 50 nm. A complete set of optical properties are measured before and after antenna fabrication. They evidence both an increase of the NW absorption, and an improvement of the quantum dot emission rate up to a factor two in presence of the antenna.

  16. Structural and optical properties of self-catalytic GaAs:Mn nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy on silicon substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gas, Katarzyna; Sadowski, Janusz; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2013-01-01

    Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements. The tra......Mn-doped GaAs nanowires were grown in the self-catalytic growth mode on the oxidized Si(100) surface by molecular beam epitaxy and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence, and electron transport measurements...

  17. Diverse Electron-Induced Optical Emissions from Space Observatory Materials at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J.R.; Jensen, Amberly Evans; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  18. Band alignment and defects of the diamond zinc oxide heterojunction; Bandstruktur und Defekte der Diamant-Zinkoxid-Heterostruktur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geithner, Peter

    2008-09-12

    Zinc oxide films were grown on diamond single crystals by rf sputtering of zinc oxide. The valence and conduction band offset was determined by photoelectron spectroscopy. A deep defect occurring in the zinc oxide films on diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  19. Crystallization and uplift path of late Variscan granites evidenced by quartz chemistry and fluid inclusions: Example from the Land's End granite, SW England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, Kristian; Larsen, Rune Berg; Müller, Axel; Sørensen, Bjørn Eske

    2016-05-01

    The megacrystic, coarse-grained granite of the Land's End granitic complex, SW England, has been investigated by analyzing fluid inclusions, trace elements, and cathodoluminescence textures of quartz. By applying the TitaniQ geothermobarometer together with the cathodoluminescence textures, a two-stage emplacement process is proposed. K-feldspar and quartz phenocrysts crystallized in a deep magma chamber at ca. 18-20 km depth. The phenocrysts were transported together with the melt to a shallow emplacement depth at ca. 5-9 km in multiple intrusive events, causing the composite appearance of the granitic complex. This model of emplacement concurs with similar granites from the Erzgebirge. At the emplacement level, the magma exsolved an aqueous fluid with average salinity of 17.3% m/m NaCl and 9.7% m/m CaCl2. Fluids with higher salinities were exsolved deeper in the system, as the magma experienced stages of water saturation and water undersaturation during ascent from the deep magma chamber. The complex fluid inclusion textures are the results of multiple stages of entrapment of aqueous fluids in the host phases as multiple recharge events from the deeper magma chamber supplied fresh melts and aqueous volatiles. Titanium contents in quartz are closely related to the panchromatic cathodoluminescence intensity, and the Al/Ti ratio is reflected by the 3.26 eV/2.70 eV ratio of hyperspectral cathodoluminescence.

  20. Scanning electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reimer, Ludwig

    1998-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscopy provides a description of the physics of electron-probe formation and of electron-specimen interations The different imaging and analytical modes using secondary and backscattered electrons, electron-beam-induced currents, X-ray and Auger electrons, electron channelling effects, and cathodoluminescence are discussed to evaluate specific contrasts and to obtain quantitative information

  1. Raman-in-SEM, a multimodal and multiscale analytical tool: performance for materials and expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Guillaume; Bourrat, Xavier; Maubec, Nicolas; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2014-12-01

    The availability of Raman spectroscopy in a powerful analytical scanning electron microscope (SEM) allows morphological, elemental, chemical, physical and electronic analysis without moving the sample between instruments. This paper documents the metrological performance of the SEMSCA commercial Raman interface operated in a low vacuum SEM. It provides multiscale and multimodal analyses as Raman/EDS, Raman/cathodoluminescence or Raman/STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) as well as Raman spectroscopy on nanomaterials. Since Raman spectroscopy in a SEM can be influenced by several SEM-related phenomena, this paper firstly presents a comparison of this new tool with a conventional micro-Raman spectrometer. Then, some possible artefacts are documented, which are due to the impact of electron beam-induced contamination or cathodoluminescence contribution to the Raman spectra, especially with geological samples. These effects are easily overcome by changing or adapting the Raman spectrometer and the SEM settings and methodology. The deletion of the adverse effect of cathodoluminescence is solved by using a SEM beam shutter during Raman acquisition. In contrast, this interface provides the ability to record the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum of a phase. In a second part, this study highlights the interest and efficiency of the coupling in characterizing micrometric phases at the same point. This multimodal approach is illustrated with various issues encountered in geosciences.

  2. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguin, R.

    2008-01-28

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Coexistence of optically active radial and axial CdTe insertions in single ZnTe nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, P; Płachta, J; Zaleszczyk, W; Kret, S; Sanchez, Ana M; Rudniewski, R; Raczkowska, K; Szymura, M; Karczewski, G; Baczewski, L T; Pietruczik, A; Wojtowicz, T; Kossut, J

    2016-03-14

    We report on the growth, cathodoluminescence and micro-photoluminescence of individual radial and axial CdTe insertions in ZnTe nanowires. In particular, the cathodoluminescence technique is used to determine the position of each emitting object inside the nanowire. It is demonstrated that depending on the CdTe deposition temperature, one can obtain an emission either from axial CdTe insertions only, or from both, radial and axial heterostructures, simultaneously. At 350 °C CdTe grows only axially, whereas at 310 °C and 290 °C, there is also significant deposition on the nanowire sidewalls resulting in radial core/shell heterostructures. The presence of Cd atoms on the sidewalls is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Micro-photoluminescence study reveals a strong linear polarization of the emission from both types of heterostructures in the direction along the nanowire axis. PMID:26903109

  4. Role of structural defects in the ultraviolet luminescence of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Aurélie; Nong, Hanond; Fossard, Frédéric; Loiseau, Annick, E-mail: annick.loiseau@onera.fr [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures (LEM), ONERA-CNRS, BP 72, 92322 Châtillon cedex (France); Attal-Trétout, Brigitte [DMPH, ONERA, Chemin de la Hunière et des Joncherettes, BP 80100, 91123 Palaiseau (France); Xue, Yanming; Golberg, Dmitri [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan); Barjon, Julien, E-mail: julien.barjon@uvsq.fr [Groupe d' Etude de la Matière Condensée, University of Versailles St-Quentin and CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 45 Avenue des Etats-Unis, 78000 Versailles (France)

    2015-12-21

    BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are structurally similar to their carbon counterparts, though much less investigated. New synthesis methods have been recently reported, enabling the production of industrial quantities and stimulating the search of new applications for the BNNTs. In this paper, we investigate the luminescence of multiwall BNNTs. By performing cathodoluminescence experiments on single tubes at 10 K, we show that the tube luminescence is highly heterogeneous (i) from tube to tube and (ii) spatially along a single tube. By combining cathodoluminescence measurements with a nanometer excitation and transmission electron microscopy on the same tube, we correlate luminescence and structural features. We conclude that the near-band-edge luminescence of BNNTs (≈5.4 eV) is related to the presence of extended structural defects, such as dislocations or ruptures in the wall stacking.

  5. Role of structural defects in the ultraviolet luminescence of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Aurélie; Nong, Hanond; Fossard, Frédéric; Attal-Trétout, Brigitte; Xue, Yanming; Golberg, Dmitri; Barjon, Julien; Loiseau, Annick

    2015-12-01

    BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are structurally similar to their carbon counterparts, though much less investigated. New synthesis methods have been recently reported, enabling the production of industrial quantities and stimulating the search of new applications for the BNNTs. In this paper, we investigate the luminescence of multiwall BNNTs. By performing cathodoluminescence experiments on single tubes at 10 K, we show that the tube luminescence is highly heterogeneous (i) from tube to tube and (ii) spatially along a single tube. By combining cathodoluminescence measurements with a nanometer excitation and transmission electron microscopy on the same tube, we correlate luminescence and structural features. We conclude that the near-band-edge luminescence of BNNTs (≈5.4 eV) is related to the presence of extended structural defects, such as dislocations or ruptures in the wall stacking.

  6. Investigation of ageing characteristics and identification of surface chemical changes on SrGa2S4:Ce3+ display phosphor under electron beam bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescent ageing characteristics of SrGa2S4:Ce3+ under prolonged electron beam bombardment was studied and the data are presented. The cathodoluminescent intensity with an increasing Coulomb loading was observed to degrade under different primary electron beam voltages. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to monitor the surface chemical changes during electron beam bombardment and after the degradation process. Auger peak to peak heights monitored during the ageing process suggest a loss in S and C and an initial increase in oxygen concentration on the surface. XPS results indicate the formation of a SrO overlayer due to electron stimulated surface chemical reactions (ESSCRs).

  7. Electronic fine structure and recombination dynamics in single InAs quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the work at hand single InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are examined via cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A thorough analysis of the spectra leads to an unambiguous assignment of the lines to the decay of specific excitonic complexes. A special aspect of the Coulomb interaction, the exchange interaction, gives rise to a fine structure in the initial and final states of an excitonic decay. This leads to a fine structure in the emission spectra that again is unique for every excitonic complex. The exchange interaction is discussed in great detail in this work.QDs of different sizes are investigated and the influence on the electronic properties is monitored. Additionally, the structure is modified ex situ by a thermal annealing process. The changes of the spectra under different annealing temperatures are traced. Finally, recombination dynamics of different excitonic complexes are examined by performing time-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. (orig.)

  8. Le diamant dopé au bore pour la bioélectronique: Biocompatibilité et Fonctionnalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to produce electrodes for bioelectronic applications, polycrystalline and homoepitaxial (100) and (111) boron doped diamond films were synthesized. Those films were grown by plasma enhanced CVD and characterized by cathodoluminescence, Raman, and SEM. First, diamond biocompatibility was studied according to different parameters (doping, roughness and crystalline orientation), through the culture of two different cell lines: fibroblasts and pre-osteoblasts. Biotin was locally grafted ...

  9. Determinaci??n de las variaciones de la temperatura del agua marina en el L??as en la Cuenca Vasco-Cant??brica mediante la utilizaci??n de par??metros geoqu??micos (8180, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Idoia; Robles, Sergio; Quesada, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Early Jurassic (Lias) seawater paleotemperatures were determined through analysis of the oxygen isotopic composition of unaltered low-Mg calcitic belemnite rostras from the Basque Cantabrian basin, an area critically located in middle pajeolatitudes- between the Boreal and Tethyan realms. Using optical, cathodoluminescence, and chemical analysis; it has been possible to select very well preserved samples of Pliensbachian-Lower Toarcian belemnite rostra that retain the. original marine isotope...

  10. Luminescence spectroscopy of natural and synthetic REE-bearing minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and ionoluminescence (IL) of natural and synthetic minerals. The natural minerals (fluorapatite, leucophanite, meliphanite and zircon) are mostly from Ilímaussaq Alkaline Complex in South Greenland, Langesundsfjord in Norway and from different localities within Scotland. Synthetic fluorapatite (manufactured as part of the present study) and zircon doped with rare earth elements (REE) were used...

  11. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bertoni; Filippo Fabbri; Marco Villani; Laura Lazzarini; Stuart Turner; Gustaaf Van Tendeloo; Davide Calestani; Silvija Gradečak; Andrea Zappettini; Giancarlo Salviati

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO na...

  12. Comportamiento luminiscente y preservación de la señal paleoambiental en las conchas de inocerámido (Bivalvia). Maastrichtiense inferior. Cuenca Vasco-Cantábrica

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Alday, Juan José; Elorza, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Inoceramid shells from the Basque Arc Domain (Basque-Cantabrian Basin) have been studied to determine their behaviour under cathodoluminescence. The shells exhibit a luminescent zoning intimately related to their microstructure and the development of preferred paths of fluid circulation during diagenesis. The luminescent behaviour allows to establish a first classification of the shells according to their preservation degree that can be related to other geochemical and isotopic ev...

  13. Luminescence Study of Structural-Changes Induced by Laser Cutting in Diamond Films

    OpenAIRE

    Cremades Rodríguez, Ana Isabel; Piquiras, J.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of laser cutting on the structure of a chemical vapor deposited diamond film has been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope. The variation of particle morphology and CL spectra as a function of the distance to the cutting edge is described and possible laser induced structural changes are discussed. At the damaged region total CL emission increases and nitrogen-vacancy centers are detected.

  14. Growth and Structure of Pure ZnO Micro/Nanocombs

    OpenAIRE

    Tengfei Xu; Pengfei Ji; Meng He; Jianye Li

    2012-01-01

    Comb-shaped ZnO micro/nanostructures were grown on copper substrate using a highly repeatable catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition method. The structure of the ZnO micro/nanocombs was analyzed, and the necking-down phenomena of the comb teeth was explained. The cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum was measured on an individual ZnO comb, and a strong deep-level emission centered at about 520 nm was observed.

  15. Rare-Earth Doped Nanocrystalline Phosphors for Field Emission Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Psuja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The cathodoluminescence properties of rare-earth (RE = Ce, Eu, Tb doped nanocrystalline phosphors (Y2O3, Y3Al5O12 were investigated. Their structure and morphology were determined and correlated with optical properties. The effect of grain sizes on emission yield of RE doped nanophosphors has been investigated. A possibility of application of RE doped nanophosphors for efficient field emission display (FED devices has been discussed.

  16. Luminescence of powdered uranium glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, A. G.; Mcgarrity, J. M.; Silverman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence efficiencies in powdered borosilicate glasses having different particle size and different uranium content. Excitation with 100 to 350 keV electrons and with 253.7 nm light was found to produce identical absolute radiant exitance spectra in powdered samples. The most efficient glass was one containing 29.4 wt% B2O3, 58.8 wt% SiO2, 9.8 wt% Na2O and 2.0 wt% UO2.

  17. Luminescent characteristics of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, C.D.; Garcia-Hipolito, M.; Alvarez-Fregoso, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Alvarez-Perez, M.A. [Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Ramos-Brito, F. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DIDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    In this research, we report the cathodoluminescence (CL) and preliminary photoluminescence (PL) properties of praseodymium-doped zinc aluminate powders. ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Pr powders were synthesized by a very simple chemical process. X-ray diffraction spectra indicated a cubic spinel crystalline structure with an average crystallite size of 15 nm. CL properties of the powders were studied as a function of the praseodymium concentration and electron-accelerating potential. In this case, all the cathodoluminescent emission spectra showed main peaks located at 494, 535, 611, 646, and 733 nm, which were associated to the electronic transitions {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 2}, and {sup 3}P{sub 0}{yields}{sup 3}F{sub 4} of the Pr{sup 3+} ions, respectively. A quenching of the CL, with increasing doping concentration, was observed. Also, an increment on cathodoluminescent emission intensity was observed as the accelerating voltage increased. The PL emission spectrum showed similar characteristics to those of the CL spectra. The chemical composition of the powders, as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy, is also reported. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the powders are shown. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Luminescence and tenebrescence of natural sodalites: a chemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoransky, Teresa; Friis, Henrik; Marks, Michael A. W.

    2016-07-01

    Sodalite (Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2) shows a wide range of colours and may exhibit a variety of optical properties including cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence and tenebrescence. These optical peculiarities are not yet fully understood but are of key interest for industry. We provide a detailed study on the photochromic properties of natural sodalite, and we show that S is crucially influencing luminescence of sodalites. A reduced intensity in cathodoluminescence was observed at high S contents for some samples, showing that S can act as cathodoluminescence quencher. Photoluminescent sodalites are generally enriched in S compared to non-photoluminescent samples, although few samples being very low in S still show photoluminescence. Additionally, S was found to enlarge the unit cell in natural sodalites which might have a crucial impact on their photochromic properties. The most efficient tenebrescent samples were found to be low in Fe, Mn and S. They showed the smallest unit-cell dimensions, and a strong link between the atomic structure and the formation of F-centres is proposed. Tenebrescence in natural sodalites appears to be enhanced (1) by S but saturated at too high S concentrations and (2) by a stoichiometry and structure close to the ideal sodalite composition. In contrast to the term self-quenching for luminescence, we propose a saturation of F-centres to explain tenebrescence at different S contents.

  19. Characterization and luminescent properties of thermally annealed olivines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivine is an iron-magnesium solid solution silicate (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 and it is probably one of the most abundant mineral phase in the Solar System, it is present in the primitive carbonaceous meteorites (i.e Allende), and in ordinary chondritic meteorite, comets or terrestrial planets. The olivine grains in those bodies have been exposed to different radiation sources like UV, electrons, cosmic radiation, etc. Here, we explore the effect of ionizing and non ionizing radiation on the luminescence emission of the two well-characterised olivine samples from Mexico and Spain by means of cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The analyses by X-ray dispersive energies in the scanning electron microscopy show differences between the samples in the amount of iron and magnesium and also show traces of rare elements. Olivine exhibits spectral cathodoluminescence emissions of low intensity, explained for the quenching of the luminescence of the iron, and sharp signals assigned as impurities. Cathodoluminescence and thermoluminescence glow curves of the natural, and UV induced olivine samples were obtained. Our results show that thermal treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral molecular structure and the luminescence properties of this mineral phase. These results confirm an active participation of physical factors influencing the luminescent properties of olivine. -- Highlights: ► Luminescent properties of two olivines samples (Mexican and Spanish) were explored. ► EDS show different iron and magnesium content and traces of rare elements on both. ► Olivine exhibits spectral CL emissions of low intensity due to the quenching of iron. ► Treatments at 1100 °C change the mineral structure and its response to UV radiation

  20. Luminescence of high-doped calcium sulfide crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium sulfide crystals grown by high-temperatur mineralization tecnique have been studied. Bands peaked at 2.12 and 2.5-2.7 eV are considered the most invariable features of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra. It has been found that the 2.12 eV band is conditioned by optical electronic transitions in Mn2+ ions substituted for Ca2+ ions in the host lattice. The exciton mechanism of energy transfer to centers, that are responsible for the high-energy luminescence band, is discussed

  1. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Yanagihara; Takayuki Tsuji; Mohd Zamri Yusop; Masaki Tanemura; Shingo Ono; Tomohito Nagami; Kentaro Fukuda; Toshihisa Suyama; Yuui Yokota; Takayuki Yanagida; Akira Yoshikawa

    2014-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3) thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Mor...

  2. Synthesis and features of the structure and luminescence of monodisperse SiO2/(Lu1 - x Eu x )2O3 ( x = 0.07) core-shell heteroparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolaeva, Yu. V.; Masalov, V. M.; Gruzintsev, A. N.; Yakimov, E. E.; Zver'kova, I. I.; Barthou, C.; Tolmachev, A. V.; Emel'Chenko, G. A.

    2010-08-01

    Monodisperse SiO2/Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 core-shell heteroparticles have been obtained using a method developed previously for the synthesis of spherical colloidal particles of silicon dioxide with a size spread of 2-2.5%, followed by the coprecipitation of europium-doped lutetium oxide nanocoating on these spheres. The structure of heteroparticles was studied and their photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra were analyzed. The luminescence decay time in heteroparticles is almost twice that in Lu1.86Eu0.14O3 phosphor powder prepared and treated under the same thermal conditions.

  3. Plasmonic behavior of gold nanorod heterodimers with free-electron feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasmon coupling between metal nanostructures can lead to huge local electric field enhancement and new plasmon modes. Here, we study the effect of the close proximity of two gold nanorod particles on the modification of localized surface plasmon (LSP) modes of the individual on gold nanorod in spectral and spatial domain using cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy and imaging in a high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Significantly enhanced resonant emission is observed from the nanorod dimers when the electron beam is injected around the junction between the rods, where the local density of electromagnetic states is raised

  4. Highly transparent ammonothermal bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, WK; Ehrentraut, D; Downey, BC; Kamber, DS; Pakalapati, RT; Do Yoo, H; D' Evelyn, MP

    2014-10-01

    A novel apparatus has been employed to grow ammonothermal (0001) gallium nitride (GaN) with diameters up to 2 in The crystals have been characterized by x-ray diffraction rocking-curve (XRC) analysis, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and optical spectroscopy. High crystallinity GaN with FWHM values about 20-50 arcsec and dislocation densities below 1 x 10(5) cm(-2) have been obtained. High optical transmission was achieved with an optical absorption coefficient below 1 cm(-1) at a wavelength of 450 nm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Research on Y2O3:Eu Phosphor Coated with In2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Y2O3:Eu red phosphor for FED application was prepared by high temperature solid-state reaction. The In2O3 coating by precipitation method to the phosphor was applied and the analyses of XRD, Zeta potential, SEM, EDS and low voltage cathodoluminescence (CL) were conducted for investigating the coating effect. The results showed that In2O3 coating promoted the low voltage CL of the phosphor efficiently. The promotion was possibly due to the enhancement of the surface conductivity of the phosphor grains.

  6. Transformation optics: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of electron-energy loss spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Matthias; Pendry, J B

    2016-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) play a pivotal role in many of the cutting edge experiments in plasmonics. EELS and CL experiments are usually supported by numerical simulations, which, whilst accurate, may not provide as much physical insight as analytical calculations do. Fully analytical solutions to EELS and CL systems in plasmonics are rare and difficult to obtain. This paper aims to narrow this gap by introducing a new method based on Transformation optics that allows to calculate the quasi-static frequency and time-domain response of plasmonic particles under electron beam excitation.

  7. Design of titania nanotube structures by focused laser beam direct writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enachi, Mihai [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Stefan cel Mare av. 168, Chisinau, MD-2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Sarua, Andrei [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ursaki, Veaceslav [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of); Tiginyanu, Ion, E-mail: tiginyanu@asm.md [National Center for Materials Study and Testing, Technical University of Moldova, Stefan cel Mare av. 168, Chisinau, MD-2004 (Moldova, Republic of); Institute of Electronic Engineering and Nanotechnologies, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, MD-2028 (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-12-21

    In this work, we report on electrochemical fabrication of titania films consisting of nanotubes (NTs) and their treatment by focused laser beam. The results of sample characterization by optical and scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and Raman scattering scanning spectroscopy are compared to those inherent to specimens subjected to thermal treatment in a furnace. The obtained data demonstrate possibilities for controlling crystallographic structure of TiO{sub 2} NTs by focused laser beam direct writing. These findings open new prospects for the design and fabrication of spatial architectures based on titania nanotubes.

  8. Nitrogen-Doped Chemical Vapour Deposited Diamond: a New Material for Room-Temperature Solid State Maser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. A. Poklonski; N. M. Lapchuk; A. V. Khomich; LU Fan-Xiu; TANG Wei-Zhong; V. G. Ralchenko; I. I. Vlasov; M. V. Chukichev; Sambuu Munkhtsetseg

    2007-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) in polycrystalline diamond films grown by dc arc-jet and microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is studied. The films with nitrogen impurity concentration up to 8 × 1018 cm-3 are also characterized by Raman, cathodoluminescence and optical absorption spectra. The ESR signal from P1 centre with g-factor of 2.0024 (nitrogen impurity atom occupying C site in diamond lattice) is found to exhibit an inversion with increasing the microwave power in an H102 resonator. The spin inversion effect could be of interest for further consideration of N-doped diamonds as a medium for masers operated at room temperature.

  9. Acceptors in cadmium telluride. Identification and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that electronic properties of CdTe are determined by impurities more than by intrinsic defects like vacancies or interstitials in Cd or Te contrary to classical theories. These results are based on annealing, diffusion, implantation and electron irradiation at 4 K. Centers appearing in treated samples are accurately identified by photoluminescence, cathodoluminescence infra-red absorption, electrical measurements and magneto-optic properties. Acceptors identified are Li, Na, Cu, Ag and Au impurities in Cd and N, P and As in Te. Energy levels of all acceptors and fine structure of excitons are determined

  10. Black luminescent silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezoldt, Joerg [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologie, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Kups, Thomas [FG Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, Mike [FG Mikromechanische Systeme, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, Michael [FG Elektroniktechnologie, Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, TU Ilmenau, Postfach 1005765, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Black silicon is a fascinating multipurpose modification of bulk silicon which can be fabricated in a selforganized structure formation process during dry etching of bare silicon wafer leading to the formation of a high density of silicon needles. The smallest dimension of the tips approaches values between 1 and 2 nm. The silicon nanostructure exhibits an extremely low diffuse reflectivity. The nanosized tips and their coating with fluorine doped nonstoichiometric silicon dioxide are responsible for cathodoluminescence in the blue-green and red regions of the visible spectra (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Luminescence behavior of turquoise [CuAl{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}(OH){sub 8}.4H{sub 2}O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo-Feo, E., E-mail: ecrespo@geo.ucm.e [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, V.; Prado-Herrero, P. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    We, herein, study the thermoluminescence (TL) and cathodoluminescence (CL-SEM) emissions of a commercial turquoise to determine its possible use as an emergency dosimeter. CL spectrum of bulk sample displays an intense broad emission from {approx}260 to {approx}650 nm together with a weaker narrow band at {approx}710 nm. Through EDS and EMPA chemical analyses, an important amount of rare earth elements (REE) such as Ce, La, Y, Nd, Dy, Yb, Er, Pr, Sm, Gd, Ho, Tb, and Tm have been identified associated with phosphate phases as well as in turquoise itself. Apatite [Ca{sub 5}[OH(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}

  12. Preparation and optical properties of GA(x)IN(1-x)P alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodot, H.; Horak, J.; Rouy, G.; Bourneix, J.

    1986-01-01

    The solution crystallization method was used to obtain Ga(z)In(1-x)P alloys for all values of x desired between zero and 1. The method of preparation makes it possible to crystallize the solid at a constant temperature. The points obtained by cathodoluminescence are nearly in straight lines. The optical absorption thresholds are confirmed in the results and make it possible to define the nature of the transitions except when x is in the neighborhood of 0.65. These determinations agree with those of Hilsum and Porteus (1968), but are not in agreement with those obtained by Lorenz et al, (1968).

  13. Wurtzite-type faceted single-crystalline GaN nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Tang, Chengchun; Shen, Guozhen; Golberg, Dmitri; Xu, Fangfang

    2006-02-01

    We report on the direct fabrication of single-crystalline wurtzite-type hexagonal GaN nanotubes via a newly designed, controllable, and reproducible chemical thermal-evaporation process. The nanotubes are single crystalline, have one end closed, an average outer diameter of ˜300nm, an inner diameter of ˜100nm, and a wall thickness of ˜100nm. The structure and morphology of the tubes are characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The cathodoluminescence of individual nanotubes is also investigated. The growth mechanism, formation kinetics, and crystallography of GaN nanotubes are finally discussed.

  14. Lateral growth of GaN by liquid phase electroepitaxy using mesa-shaped substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Daisuke; Takakura, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masafumi; Iwakawa, Muneki; Mizuno, Yosuke; Maruyama, Takahiro; Naritsuka, Shigeya

    2016-10-01

    GaN microchannel epitaxy (MCE) was performed using a mesa-shaped substrate and liquid phase electroepitaxy. A flat and wide MCE layer was successfully obtained with a rectangular shape, which is formed by ±c-planes on both the top and bottom surfaces. MCE growth proceeded mainly in the lateral direction by the formation of these planes. Cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the laterally grown layers were almost free of dislocations, and that the dislocations in the mesa areas were confined by the vertical sides of the mesas. In the case of inclined sides, the dislocations would be expected to bend and spread into the laterally grown areas.

  15. The effect of annealing on properties of europium doped ZnO nanopowders obtained by a microwave hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska-Kornio, E.; Kaszewski, J.; Witkowski, B. S.; Wachnicki, Ł.; Godlewski, M.

    2016-09-01

    Europium doped ZnO nanopowders made by microwave hydrothermal method are investigated. As zinc oxide precursor zinc nitrate(V) hexahydrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) was used. Two types of nanopowder samples are examined: as grown and annealed at 750 °C in air atmosphere. We investigate the structural, morphological and optical prosperities of europium doped ZnO. Results of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photo- and cathodoluminescence investigations and also CIE1961 chromaticity diagram are presented.

  16. Self-assembled tin-doped ZnO nanowire and nanoplate structures grown by thermal treatment of ZnS powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Y.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2009-05-01

    Sintering of a ZnS-SnO 2 mixture under argon flow leads to the growth of columnar nanoplate arrays as well as arrays of nanowires, nanorods and nanoplates with six-fold symmetry. The six-fold nanoplate structures correspond to a more advanced stage of growth than the nanowire structures. Cathodoluminescence (CL) in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the structures contain Sn, but the amount of this element is normally under the detection limit of X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The formation of branches in the hierarchical structures depends on the presence of Sn and on defects in the mixture powder.

  17. Spectral-kinetic investigation of whiskers and macrocrystals of A1B7 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra and kinetics of cathodoluminescence of NaCl, KCl, KBr, KI whiskers and NaCl, KCl, NaBr, KBr, CsBr, KI single crystals, excited by μs electron pulses (1-10 keV) has been investigated at 67, 80 and 300 K in a oil-free high vacuum system. The luminescence of singlet and triplet self-trapped excitons, as well as emission due to bombardment-induced defects in anion and cation sublattices has been observed under electron excitation. In KI crystals the edge emission of unrelaxed excitons at 5.75 eV has been revealed

  18. In situ growth of blue-emitting thin films of cerium-doped barium chloride hydrate at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hao; LOU, Z; Cocivera, M

    2003-01-01

    Blue emission was observed from thin films of barium chloride hydrate doped with cerium. The films were deposited by spray pyrolysis of aqueous solutions with substrate temperatures between 250 and 450°C. The cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum consists of two peaks at 443 and 485 nm due to 4f-5d transitions of cerium ion. The dependence of the emission band on deposition temperature and Ce/Ba ratio is discussed. The CL luminance and luminous efficiency at 5 kV were 120 cd/m² and 0.48 lm/W, res...

  19. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of GaN and GaN-Mn Blue Nanocrystalline Thin-film Phosphor for FED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondar, V D; Felter, T E; Hunt, C E; Kucharsky, I Y; Chakhovskoi, A G

    2003-04-09

    The technologies of fabrication of thin film phosphors based on gallium nitride using rf-magnetron sputtering are developed and structural properties of films are studied. Luminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of GaN and GaN-Mn thin films have been studied. The correlation between cathodoluminescence intensity and conductivity of GaN films has been found. The nature of emission centers in GaN and GaN-Mn thin films is discussed as well as mechanism of luminescence in these films is proposed.

  20. Micro-analysis of light emission properties of GaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewski, M. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, College of Science, Cardinal S. Wyszynski University, Warsaw (Poland); Bozek, R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Miasojedovas, S.; Jursenas, S.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9, Building III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Phillips, M.R. [Microstructural Analysis Unit, UTS, Sydney (Australia); Czernecki, R.; Targowski, G.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M. [Institute of High Pressure Physics (Unipress), Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Boettcher, T.; Figge, S.; Hommel, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, 28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    In-depth and in-plane changes of emission intensity from GaN-based laser diode structures were studied using cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL and a Kelvin probe (potential fluctuations). We show that even at high excitation density potential fluctuations are not screened in active layers of laser diode structures. Potential fluctuations are enhanced in p-type doped layers. We also found that dislocations are formed there, which can penetrate to active region of LD devices. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Spectroscopic Evidence for Exceptional Thermal Contribution to Electron-Beam Induced Fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Marissa A.; Haynor, Ben; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2010-11-16

    While electron beam induced fragmentation (EBIF) has been reported to result in the formation of nanocrystals of various compositions, the physical forces driving this phenomenon are still poorly understood. We report EBIF to be a much more general phenomenon than previously appreciated, operative across a wide variety of metals, semiconductors and insulators. In addition, we leverage the temperature dependent bandgap of several semiconductors to quantify -- using in situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy -- the thermal contribution to EBIF, and find extreme temperature rises upwards of 1000K.

  2. Grain boundaries in CdTe thin film solar cells: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jonathan D.

    2016-09-01

    The current state of knowledge on the impact of grain boundaries in CdTe solar cells is reviewed with emphasis being placed on working cell structures. The role of the chemical composition of grain boundaries as well as growth processes are discussed, along with characterisation techniques such as electron beam induced current and cathodoluminescence, which are capable of extracting information on a level of resolution comparable to the size of the grain boundaries. Work which attempts to relate grain boundaries to device efficiency is also assessed and gaps in the current knowledge are highlighted.

  3. Light-emitting diode based on mask- and catalyst-free grown N-polar GaN nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert, G; Freund, W; Aschenbrenner, T; Kruse, C; Figge, S; Hommel, D [Institute of Solid State Physics-Semiconductor Epitaxy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Schowalter, M; Rosenauer, A [Institute of Solid State Physics-Electron Microscopy-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Kalden, J; Sebald, K; Gutowski, J [Institute of Solid State Physics-Semiconductor Optics-University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Feneberg, M; Tischer, I; Fujan, K; Thonke, K, E-mail: kunert@ifp.uni-bremen.de [Institute of Quantum Matter-Semiconductor Physics-University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of a light-emitting diode based on GaN nanorods containing InGaN quantum wells. The unique system consists of tilted N-polar nanorods of high crystalline quality. Photoluminescence, electroluminescence, and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence investigations consistently show quantum well emission around 2.6 eV. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements reveal a truncated shape of the quantum wells with In contents of (15 {+-} 5)%.

  4. Effect of low-energy electron irradiation on the optical properties of structures containing multiple InGaN/GaN quantum well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the temperature dependence of the cathodoluminescence intensity in multiple InGaN/GaN quantum-well structures in the temperature range 80–300 K are reported. Unirradiated structures and structures irradiated with electrons with subthreshold energy are studied. It is shown that, upon irradiation, the temperature dependence becomes weaker. From analysis of the results obtained in this study and previously, it can be suggested that electron irradiation initiates the relaxation of strains produced in quantum wells due to the InGaN-GaN lattice mismatch

  5. Adherence Characteristics of Cement Clinker on Basic Bricks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zongqi; Michel Rigaud

    2002-01-01

    Based on the sandwich test, adherence mechanisms of cement clinker on various basic bricks were tackled by microstructural observations with help of cathodoluminescence technique. Doloma based bricks offer sufficient lime to react with clinker, forming C3 S rich layer and initializing superior adherence. However, clinker with low silica ratio leads to MgO agglomeration at the interface of doloma bricks, which reduces adherence strength. On magnesia spinel bricks, fine, crystalline spinel easily reacts with lime containing phases from clinker to form lowmelting phases and belite zone, which shows high adherence performance. Lack of fine spinel in magnesia spinel bricks results in poor adherence.

  6. ZnO-Based Microcavities Sculpted by Focus Ion Beam Milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsu-Chi; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Lai, Ying-Yu; Chou, Yu-Hsun; Wang, Shing-Chung; Lu, Tien-Chang

    2016-12-01

    We reported an easy fabrication method to realize ZnO-based microcavities with various cavity shapes by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The optical characteristics of different shaped microcavities have been systematically carried out and analyzed. Through comprehensive studies of cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra, the whispering gallery mode (WGM) was observed in different shaped microcavities. Up further increasing excitation, the lasing action was dominated by these WGMs and matched very well to the simulated results. Our experiment shows that ZnO microcavities with different shapes can be made with high quality by FIB milling for specific applications of microlight sources and optical devices. PMID:27364999

  7. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels

  8. Dispersive ground plane core-shell type optical monopole antennas fabricated with electron beam induced deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Hakkı; Coenen, Toon; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, Laurens Kobus

    2012-09-25

    We present the bottom-up fabrication of dispersive silica core, gold cladding ground plane optical nanoantennas. The structures are made by a combination of electron-beam induced deposition of silica and sputtering of gold. The antenna lengths range from 300 to 2100 nm with size aspect ratios as large as 20. The angular emission patterns of the nanoantennas are measured with angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and compared with finite-element methods. Good overall correspondence between the the measured and calculated trends is observed. The dispersive nature of these plasmonic monopole antennas makes their radiation profile highly tunable. PMID:22889269

  9. Improved interface quality and luminescence capability of InGaN/GaN quantum wells with Mg pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhengyuan; Shen, Xiyang; Xiong, Huan; Li, Qingfei; Kang, Junyong; Fang, Zhilai [Xiamen University, Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Semiconductors and Efficient Devices, Department of Physics, Xiamen (China); Lin, Feng; Yang, Bilan; Lin, Shilin [San' an Optoelectronics Co., Ltd, Xiamen (China); Shen, Wenzhong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Tong-Yi [Shanghai University, Shanghai University Materials Genome Institute and Shanghai Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2016-02-15

    Interface modification of high indium content InGaN/GaN quantum wells was carried out by Mg pretreatment of the GaN barrier surface. The indium in the Mg-pretreated InGaN layer was homogeneously distributed, making the interfaces abrupt. The improved interface quality greatly enhanced light emission capacity. The cathodoluminescence intensity of the Mg-pretreated InGaN/GaN quantum wells was correspondingly much stronger than those of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells without Mg pretreatment. (orig.)

  10. Deep-Subwavelength Spatial Characterization of Angular Emission from Single-Crystal Au Plasmonic Ridge Nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Coenen, Toon; Polman, Albert; 10.1021/nn204750d

    2013-01-01

    We use spatially and angle-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging spectroscopy to study, with deep subwavelength resolution, the radiation mechanism of single plasmonic ridge antennas with lengths ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. We measure the antenna's standing wave resonances up to the fifth order and measure the dispersion of the strongly confined guided plasmon mode. By directly detecting the emitted antenna radiation with a 2D CCD camera we are able to measure the angular emission patterns associated with each individual antenna resonance. We demonstrate that the shortest ridges can be modeled as a single point dipole emitter oriented either upward (m=0) or in-plane (m=1). The far-field emission pattern for longer antennas (m>2) is well described by two interfering in-plane point dipoles at the end facets giving rise to an angular fringe pattern, where the number of fringes increases as the antenna becomes longer. Taking advantage of the deep subwavelength excitation resolution of the cathodoluminescence tech...

  11. Evaluation of Crack-tip Stress in Titanium Oxide Film Using Piezo-spectroscopy Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Keshu; ZHU Wenliang; PEZZOTTI Giuseppe; MIAO Lei; TANEMURA Sakae

    2004-01-01

    The biaxial piezo-spectroscopic coefficient of 530 nm cathodoluminescence band of polycrystalline anatase titanium oxide film was measured using a local calibration procedure. Firstly, the crack-tip stress intensity factor in titanium oxide was measured from the crack opening displacement of a Vickers indentation crack using both Irwin's formula and Fett's formula, and the validity of these two formulas was evaluated. The obtained value was about Ktip =1 MPa √m. In such a brittle material, the fracture toughness can be considered to be very close to the stress intensity factor measured in an equilibrium indentation crack (Ktip= Kc). From the Ktip value, we calculated the stress distribution ahead of the crack tip using principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. An important finding was that the cathodoluminescence 530 nm band that originated from excitons self-trapped on TiO6 octahedra, is sensitive to stress. Using the shift of this peak and the calculated stress from linear elastic fracture mechanics, the biaxial piezo-spectroscopic coefficient of this band was determined (40 nm/GPa with a 20% error rate). Using this piezo-spectroscopic coefficient, approximate stress maps can be collected of unknown stress fields within thin films with high spatial resolution into the scanning electron microscope. The present experiments provide a vivid example of quantitative micromechanical stress analysis by piezo-spectroscopic techniques.

  12. Optical characterization of nanopillar black silicon for plasmonic and Solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartia, M. R.; Chen, Y.; Xu, Z.; Bordain, Y. C.; Eichorst, J.; Mabon, J. C.; Soares, J. A. N. de T.; Clegg, R. M.; Liu, G. L.

    2011-10-01

    With the goal of improving photo-absorption of photovoltaic device and for plasmonic application we have fabricated nanopillar black silicon devices through etching-passivation technique which does not require any photomask and whole wafer scale uniformity is achieved at room temperature in a short time. We have carried out thorough optical characterization for nanopillar black silicon devices to be used for solar cell and plasmonic applications. Cathodoluminescence (CL), current dependent CL spectroscopy, photoluminescence (at room temperature and 77 K), Raman spectroscopy, reflectance and absorption measurement have been performed on the device. A thin layer of Ag is deposited to render with plasmonic property and the plasmonic effect is probed using surface plasmon enhanced fluorescence, angle dependent reflectance measurements, high resolution cathodoluminescence (CL), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) measurement and Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) experiment. We obtained reduction in optical reflection of ~ 12 times on b-Si substrate from UV to NIR range, the nanostructured fluorescence enhancement of ~40 times and the Raman scattering enhancement factor of 6.4×107.

  13. A stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Soo; Zirkle, Thomas E.; Schroder, Dieter K.

    1992-07-01

    We have demonstrated a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated gallium arsenide (GaAs) using cathodoluminescence (CL), thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC), and low temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Cathodoluminescence shows a local gettering effect around dislocation cores in bulk semi-insulating GaAs qualitatively. This gettering result was confirmed by low temperature FTIR data, which show absorption features resulting from the transition of electrons from the valence band to copper levels. The energy level of each absorption shoulder corresponds to the various copper levels in GaAs. After gettering, the absorption depth at each shoulder decreases. Thermally stimulated current measurements show changes after copper doping. The characteristic returns to that of uncontaminated GaAs after gettering. On the basis of these qualitative and quantitative data, we conclude that copper was gettered, and we propose a stress gettering mechanism in semi-insulating, copper-contaminated GaAs on the basis of dislocation cores acting as localized gettering sites.

  14. Luminescence from Ce in sol-gel SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Nagpure, I.M.; Gusowski, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The sol-gel process provides an attractive low temperature alternative to the melt process for producing Ce-doped silica, but reports of the emission wavelength have not been consistent. In this paper, luminescence measurements using a variety of excitation methods, including cathodoluminescence not yet reported by other researchers, are compared and evaluated in the light of previously published data. Several papers report luminescence around 350 nm but emission near this wavelength was not found from our samples. This luminescence originates from Ce that has not yet been incorporated in the silica and is found in samples that have not undergone high temperature annealing. Our photoluminescence results from samples annealed in a reducing atmosphere suggest that emission from Ce incorporated in the silica lattice occurs near 455 nm, and some indication of the emission from Ce in amorphous clusters at 400 nm is also found. However, our results also confirm earlier indications that intrinsic defects in silica can create photoluminescence near both these wavelengths, which can make identification of the luminescence due to Ce difficult. Finally, it has been found that samples which have been annealed in air, and therefore display poor photoluminescence because most of the Ce occurs in the tetravalent form, are luminescent under electron beam excitation. It is suggested that during cathodoluminescence measurements Ce{sup 4+} ions capture electrons to form excited Ce{sup 3+} ions from which the luminescence originates.

  15. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M.A.; Garcia-Guinea, J. [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Laborda, F. [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors Group, Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, F., E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. - Highlights: • Abandoned mine residues are Tl sources in soils of Madrid catchment area. • Tl was associated to quartz and aluminosilicates in both rocks and soils. • Tl was frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules. • Cathodoluminescence is a suitable technique for Tl detection on soils and rocks.

  16. GaN tubes with coaxial non- and semipolar GaInN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, Dominik; Fikry, Mohamed; Meisch, Tobias; Scholz, Ferdinand [Institute of Optoelectronics, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Aschenbrenner, Timo [Institute of Solid State Physics/Semiconductor Epitaxy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Mueller, Knut; Rosenauer, Andreas [Institute of Solid State Physics/Electron Microscopy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Madel, Manfred; Huber, Florian; Hocker, Matthias; Frey, Manuel; Tischer, Ingo; Neuschl, Benjamin; Thonke, Klaus [Institute of Quantum Matter/Semiconductor Physics Group, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Hommel, Detlef [Institute of Solid State Physics/Semiconductor Epitaxy, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee NW1, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    We present the position-controlled growth of GaN nanotubes with coaxial GaInN quantum wells by using ZnO nanowires grown on top of GaN pyramids as templates. High resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy allows us to perform a detailed structural analysis of individual tubes. In particular, we report about structural properties like indium incorporation, thickness, and homogeneity of quantum wells realized on nonpolar m-plane side facets or on semipolar tips. Additionally, high resolution spatially and spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy performed at low temperature enables us to clearly identify the quantum well luminescence contributions for different kinds of facets on a single tube. The luminescence of the quantum wells deposited at variable temperatures shows a clear spectral shift in the cathodoluminescence signal, yielding an activation energy for the indium desorption from the m-plane side facets of about 1.6 eV. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Facies and disgenesis of the upper Devonian Palliser Formation, Front Ranges of the southern Rocky mountains, Alberta and British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylor, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Famennian Palliser Formation is a thick cabonate ramp unit dominantly composed of subtidal mudstones and wackestones, with lesser peloidal grainstones. The percentage of micritic lithotypes increases westward. In the subsurface, Palliser equivalents locally certain commercial quatities of hydrocarbons and sulfur. Three main types of dolomites are recognized. Early, planar dolomites fill burrows and replace micrite, have heavier oxygen and carbon isotopes, higher Ca/Mg ratios and dull, uniform cathodoluminescence. These sediments likely precipitated as protodolomites in a shallow, subtidal marine environment, and underwent neomorphism during shallow burial diagenesis. Nonplanar dolomites formed after microstylolitization. They have lighter carbon isotopes, generally lighter but variable oxygen iostopes, lower Ca/Mg ratios, and variable cathodoluminescence. Replacive nonplanar dolomites pervasively replaced limestones as shown by relict (ghost) fabrics. White sparry nonplanar dolomites precipitated in secondary voids and fractures in dolostones. Replacive nonplanar dolostones formed during deep burial diagenesis and uplift, with white sparry dolomites occurring simultaneously or soon after. White sparry dolomites also occur in primary and secondary voids in limestones, but their timing not known. Stylotitization occurred both before and after nonplanar dolomitizationn. Sulfide mineralization occurs in nonplanar dolostones at the Munroe-Alpine-Boivin section, British Columbia, and the Oldman River section, Alberta. Sulfides are syn- to post-replacive nonplanar dolomite and syn- to pre-white sparry dolomite. 146 refs., 33 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Defect segregation and optical emission in ZnO nano- and microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, W. T.; Johansen, K. M.; Leedy, K. D.; Look, D. C.; von Wenckstern, H.; Grundmann, M.; Farlow, G. C.; Brillson, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    The spatial distribution of defect related deep band emission has been studied in zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microwires using depth resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) in a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) mode within a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three sets of wires were examined that had been grown by pulsed laser deposition or vapor transport methods and ranged in diameter from 200 nm-2.7 μm. This data was analyzed by developing a 3D DRCLS simulation and using it to estimate the segregation depth and decay profile of the near surface defects. We observed different dominant defects from each growth process as well as diameter-dependent defect segregation behavior.The spatial distribution of defect related deep band emission has been studied in zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and microwires using depth resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) in a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) mode within a UHV scanning electron microscope (SEM). Three sets of wires were examined that had been grown by pulsed laser deposition or vapor transport methods and ranged in diameter from 200 nm-2.7 μm. This data was analyzed by developing a 3D DRCLS simulation and using it to estimate the segregation depth and decay profile of the near surface defects. We observed different dominant defects from each growth process as well as diameter-dependent defect segregation behavior. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR08248J

  19. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  20. Structural point defects in 'Iceland spar' calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trace element concentrations by micro-PIXE, cathodoluminescence (CL) emission spectra and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of Mn2+ in 'Iceland spar' calcite have been measured. The average rare earth elements (REE) abundances of the Iceland spar calcite revealed a concave shape with positive Eu and Tb anomalies. All samples show comparable average REE abundances compared to average chondrites standard. The REE signal in hydrothermal solution seems to be similar for the different locations and age of formation although the absolute REE concentration in the solution was certainly different. The CL-properties of investigated Iceland spar varied from orange to green. The orange luminescence is based on Mn2+ in Ca-position of calcite while this uncommon green luminescence is most likely attributed to UO22+ complex ions associated with electron-hole centres

  1. Comparison of luminescence spectra of natural spodumene under KrCl laser and e-beam excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral characteristics of pulsed photoluminescence (PL) and pulsed cathodoluminescence (PCL) of a natural spodumene were investigated. PL was excited by laser radiation at 222 nm with pulse duration of 10 ns at FWHM. PCL was excited by electron beams with pulse duration from 0.1 up to 4 ns and with current densities of 40-200 A/cm2. There was a dominant broad band at 600 nm due to the manganese impurity in PCL spectra. But in PL spectra, the orange band had the intensity comparable with intensities of intrinsic defect bands. At sample cooling by liquid nitrogen, the intensity of orange band in the PCL spectrum increased by two times and the short-wave shoulder of the band reduced

  2. The influence of annealing conditions on the luminescent and photoelectric properties of pure and Mn2+ activated ZnGa2O4 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescent and photoelectric properties of ZnGa2O4 and ZnGa2O4:Mn thin films deposited by high-frequency ion-plasma sputtering have been investigated depending on conditions and atmosphere of heat treatment. It is found that the annealing at 750 C in the reducing atmosphere leads to an increase of the luminescence intensity and electrical conductivity of the films. It has been shown that after the annealing in the reducing atmosphere ZnGa2O4:Mn thin films show a photoconductivity effect with a maximum at 400 nm, which is associated with electronic transitions from deep levels of Mn2+ to the conduction band. ZnGa2O4:Mn thin film conductivity increasing after the annealing in the reducing atmosphere is associated with the creation of high concentration of oxygen vacancies and interstitial cation defects, which leads to the appearance of n-type conductivity. (author)

  3. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachtel, J. A.; Marvinney, C.; Mouti, A.; Mayo, D.; Mu, R.; Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A. R.; Chisholm, M. F.; Haglund, R. F.; Pantelides, S. T.

    2016-04-01

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows us to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. The approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.

  4. Selective heteroepitaxy on deeply grooved substrate: A route to low cost semipolar GaN platforms of bulk quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendille, Florian; Martin, Denis; Vennéguès, Philippe; Grandjean, Nicolas; De Mierry, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Semipolar GaN crystal stripes larger than 100 μm with dislocation densities below 5 × 106 cm-2 are achieved using a low cost fabrication process. An original sapphire patterning procedure is proposed, enabling selective growth of semipolar oriented GaN stripes while confining the defects to specific areas. Radiative and non-radiative crystalline defects are investigated by cathodoluminescence and can be correlated to the development of crystal microstructure during the growth process. A dislocation reduction mechanism, supported by transmission electron microscopy, is proposed. This method represents a step forward toward low-cost quasi-bulk semipolar GaN epitaxial platforms with an excellent structural quality which will allow for even more efficient III-nitride based devices.

  5. V-pits as Barriers to Diffusion of Carriers in InGaN/GaN Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Sung-Dae; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Shim, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Woon

    2015-11-01

    The luminescence characteristics of V-pits in InGaN/GaN quantum wells (QW) correlated directly with the microstructure of the V-pits, as studied by use of transmission electron microscopy with cathodoluminescence. {10-11}-Faceted V-pits, formed in the QW, produce more intense blue-shifted emission than {0001}-plane QW. A dead emission center seems to be present at the corner of the V-pit which connects the R-plane and C-plane QW. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed formation of indium-deficient QW at the corners of the V-pits. High potential barriers occur because of the lack of indium around the hexagonal V-pit; this effectively blocks diffusion of carriers into the threading dislocations known to be non-radiative recombination centers. V-pits thus have promise for improving the internal quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes.

  6. Excitonic localization in AlN-rich AlxGa1−xN/AlyGa1−yN multi-quantum-well grain boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.

    2014-09-22

    AlGaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-wells (MQW) with AlN-rich grains have been grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The grains are observed to have strong excitonic localization characteristics that are affected by their sizes. The tendency to confine excitons progressively intensifies with increasing grain boundary area. Photoluminescence results indicate that the MQW have a dominant effect on the peak energy of the near-bandedge emission at temperatures below 150 K, with the localization properties of the grains becoming evident beyond 150 K. Cathodoluminescence maps reveal that the grain boundary has no effect on the peak intensities of the AlGaN/AlGaN samples.

  7. Diverse electron-induced optical emissions from space observatory materials at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, J. R.; Evans Jensen, Amberly; Wilson, Gregory; Dekany, Justin; Bowers, Charles W.; Meloy, Robert

    2013-09-01

    Electron irradiation experiments have investigated the diverse electron-induced optical and electrical signatures observed in ground-based tests of various space observatory materials at low temperature. Three types of light emission were observed: (i); long-duration cathodoluminescence which persisted as long as the electron beam was on (ii) short-duration (polyimides, epoxy resins, and silica glasses) and composite dielectric materials (disordered SiO2 thin films, carbon- and fiberglass-epoxy composites, and macroscopically-conductive carbon-loaded polyimides). We conclude that electron-induced optical emissions resulting from interactions between observatory materials and the space environment electron flux can, in specific circumstances, make significant contributions to the stray light background that could possibly adversely affect the performance of space-based observatories.

  8. Present State of Electron Backscatter Diffraction and Prospective Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzer, R A; Field, D P; Adams, B L; Kumar, M; Schwartz, A J

    2008-10-24

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), when employed as an additional characterization technique to a scanning electron microscope (SEM), enables individual grain orientations, local texture, point-to-point orientation correlations, and phase identification and distributions to be determined routinely on the surfaces of bulk polycrystals. The application has experienced rapid acceptance in metallurgical, materials, and geophysical laboratories within the past decade (Schwartz et al. 2000) due to the wide availability of SEMs, the ease of sample preparation from the bulk, the high speed of data acquisition, and the access to complementary information about the microstructure on a submicron scale. From the same specimen area, surface structure and morphology of the microstructure are characterized in great detail by the relief and orientation contrast in secondary and backscatter electron images, element distributions are accessed by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), or cathodoluminescence analysis, and the orientations of single grains and phases can now be determined, as a complement, by EBSD.

  9. Direct experimental determination of the spontaneous polarization of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähnemann, Jonas; Brandt, Oliver; Jahn, Uwe; Pfüller, Carsten; Roder, Claudia; Dogan, Pinar; Grosse, Frank; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Trampert, Achim; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2012-08-01

    We present a universal approach for determining the spontaneous polarization Psp of a wurtzite semiconductor from the emission energies of excitons bound to the different types of stacking faults in these crystals. Employing microphotoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, we observe emission lines from the intrinsic and extrinsic stacking faults in strain-free GaN microcrystals. By treating the polarization sheet charges associated with these stacking faults as a plate capacitor, Psp can be obtained from the observed transition energies with no additional assumptions. Self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger calculations, aided by the microscopic electrostatic potential computed using density-functional theory, lead to nearly identical values for Psp. Our recommended value for Psp of GaN is -0.022±0.007 C/m2.

  10. CL from ZnO nanowires and microneedles Co-doped with N and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) was used to study the luminescence emission of ZnO : N, Mn nanowires and microneedles grown by thermal evaporation. CL spectra acquired at room temperature showed the presence of near band edge and defect-related emissions. The defect related emission comprised two bands centered at 2.28 and 2.5 eV. The first component was attributed to the formation of spinel ZnMn2O4 and the second to the well-known ZnO green emission. CL spectra acquired at 100 K showed two emissions centered at 3.22 and 3.25 eV that were attributed to donor–acceptor pair (DAP) and FA transitions, respectively. It was proposed that substitutional nitrogen (NO) and zinc interstitial (Zni) were acceptor and shallow-donor centers in the DAP transition. (paper)

  11. CL from ZnO nanowires and microneedles Co-doped with N and Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, M.; Morales, A.; Díaz, J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) was used to study the luminescence emission of ZnO : N, Mn nanowires and microneedles grown by thermal evaporation. CL spectra acquired at room temperature showed the presence of near band edge and defect-related emissions. The defect related emission comprised two bands centered at 2.28 and 2.5 eV. The first component was attributed to the formation of spinel ZnMn2O4 and the second to the well-known ZnO green emission. CL spectra acquired at 100 K showed two emissions centered at 3.22 and 3.25 eV that were attributed to donor-acceptor pair (DAP) and FA transitions, respectively. It was proposed that substitutional nitrogen (NO) and zinc interstitial (Zni) were acceptor and shallow-donor centers in the DAP transition.

  12. Decoration of ZnO Nanorods with Coral Reefs like NiO Nanostructures by the Hydrothermal Growth Method and Their Luminescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Ali Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanostructures of coral reefs like p-type NiO/n-type ZnO were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrates by hydrothermal growth. Structural characterization was performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. This investigation shows that the adopted synthesis leads to high crystalline quality nanostructures. The morphological study shows that the coral reefs like nanostructures are densely packed on the ZnO nanorods. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra for the synthesized composite nanostructures are dominated mainly by a broad interstitial defect related luminescence centered at ~630 nm. Spatially resolved CL images reveal that the luminescence of the decorated ZnO nanostructures is enhanced by the presence of the NiO.

  13. In situ characterization of strain distribution in broad-area high-power lasers under operation by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and topography using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimer, U.; Baumbach, T.; Grenzer, J.; Lübbert, D.; Mazuelas, A.; Pietsch, U.; Erbert, G.

    1999-05-01

    The strain distribution in broad-area high-power semiconductor laser diodes is investigated both before and during operation and degradation by high-resolution x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. An inhomogeneous strain distribution along the stripe and at the stripe edges is found due to the mounting and bonding of the laser device. From the current-induced thermal lattice expansion the temperature rise during operation near the active region is estimated. The radius of curvature of the laser changes during operation and a different thermal behaviour on the front and the rear facet is found. The temperature distribution along the laser stripe could be correlated with the defect distribution observed after degradation by cathodoluminescence.

  14. In situ characterization of strain distribution in broad-area high-power lasers under operation by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and topography using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimer, U.; Erbert, G. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Baumbach, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Dresden (Germany); Grenzer, J.; Luebbert, D.; Mazuelas, A. [ESRF Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Pietsch, U. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-05-21

    The strain distribution in broad-area high-power semiconductor laser diodes is investigated both before and during operation and degradation by high-resolution x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. An inhomogeneous strain distribution along the stripe and at the stripe edges is found due to the mounting and bonding of the laser device. From the current-induced thermal lattice expansion the temperature rise during operation near the active region is estimated. The radius of curvature of the laser changes during operation and a different thermal behaviour on the front and the rear facet is found. The temperature distribution along the laser stripe could be correlated with the defect distribution observed after degradation by cathodoluminescence. (author)

  15. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarov, M., E-mail: mihcu@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Pedersen, H., E-mail: henke@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Högberg, H., E-mail: hanho@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Filippov, S., E-mail: stafi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Engelbrecht, J.A.A., E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); O' Connel, J., E-mail: jacques.oconnell@gmail.com [Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Henry, A., E-mail: anne.henry@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp{sup 2}-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  16. In situ monitoring of stacking fault formation and its carrier lifetime mediation in p-type 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bin, E-mail: chenbinmse@gmail.com; Chen, Jun; Yao, Yuanzhao; Sekiguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Matsuhata, Hirofumi; Okumura, Hajime [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-07-28

    Using the fine control of an electron beam (e-beam) in scanning electron microscopy with the capabilities of both electrical and optical imaging, the stacking fault (SF) formation together with its tuning of carrier lifetime was in situ monitored and investigated in p-type 4H-SiC homoepitaxial films. The SFs were formed through engineering basal plane dislocations with the energy supplied by the e-beam. The e-beam intensity required for the SF formation in the p-type films was ∼100 times higher than that in the n-type ones. The SFs reduced the minority-carrier lifetime in the p-type films, which was opposite to that observed in the n-type case. The reason for the peculiar SF behavior in the p-type 4H-SiC is discussed with the cathodoluminescence results.

  17. Boron nitride: A new photonic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhombohedral boron nitride (r-BN) layers were grown on sapphire substrate in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor. Characterization of these layers is reported in details. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used as a routine characterization tool to investigate the crystalline quality of the films and the identification of the phases is revealed using detailed pole figure measurements. Transmission electron microscopy reveals stacking of more than 40 atomic layers. Results from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements are compared with XRD data showing that FTIR is not phase sensitive when various phases of sp2-BN are investigated. XRD measurements show a significant improvement of the crystalline quality when adding silicon to the gas mixture during the growth; this is further confirmed by cathodoluminescence which shows a decrease of the defects related luminescence intensity.

  18. S-induced modifications of the optoelectronic properties of ZnO mesoporous nanobelts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Filippo; Nasi, Lucia; Fedeli, Paolo; Ferro, Patrizia; Salviati, Giancarlo; Mosca, Roberto; Calzolari, Arrigo; Catellani, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    The synthesis of ZnO porous nanobelts with high surface-to-volume ratio is envisaged to enhance the zinc oxide sensing and photocatalytic properties. Yet, controlled stoichiometry, doping and compensation of as-grown n-type behavior remain open problems for this compound. Here, we demonstrate the effect of residual sulfur atoms on the optical properties of ZnO highly porous, albeit purely wurtzite, nanobelts synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of ZnS hybrids. By means of combined cathodoluminescence analyses and density functional theory calculations, we attribute a feature appearing at 2.36 eV in the optical emission spectra to sulfur related intra-gap states. A comparison of different sulfur configurations in the ZnO matrix demonstrates the complex compensating effect on the electronic properties of the system induced by S-inclusion.

  19. Evaluation of subsurface damage in GaN substrate induced by mechanical polishing with diamond abrasives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aida, Hideo, E-mail: h-aida@namiki.net [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan); KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeda, Hidetoshi; Kim, Seong-Woo; Aota, Natsuko; Koyama, Koji [NJC Institute of Technology, Namiki Precision Jewel Co., Ltd., 3-8-22 Shinden, Adachi, Tokyo 123-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro [KASTEC, Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The relationship between the depth of the subsurface damage (SSD) and the size of the diamond abrasive used for mechanical polishing (MP) of GaN substrates was investigated in detail. GaN is categorized as a hard, brittle material, and material removal in MP proceeds principally to the fracture of GaN crystals. Atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence imaging revealed that the mechanical processing generated surface scratches and SSD. The SSD depth reduced as the diamond abrasive size reduced. A comparison of the relationship between the SSD depth and the diamond abrasive size used in the MP of GaN with the same relationship for typical brittle materials such as glass substrates suggests that the MP of GaN substrates proceeds via the same mechanism as glass.

  20. Rare earth doped glass-ceramics containing NaLaF4 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsts, E.; Krieke, G.; Rogulis, U.; Smits, K.; Zolotarjovs, A.; Jansons, J.; Sarakovskis, A.; Kundzins, K.

    2016-09-01

    Oxyfluoride glasses 16Na2O-9NaF-5LaF3-7Al2O3-63SiO2 (mol%) activated with 3% terbium, dysprosium, praseodymium and neodymium fluorides have been prepared and studied by differential thermal analysis, cathodoluminescence, X-ray induced luminescence, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We found out that the presence of crystalline phase enhances the X-ray induced luminescence intensity. X-ray induced luminescence is the most intense for the sample activated with terbium and treated at 700 °C, whereas the praseodymium and neodymium activated samples have the fastest decay times.

  1. Selective area epitaxy of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We investigate selective-area-epitaxy (SAE) as a tool for selectively controlling the physical and optical properties of quantum-dots (QDs), aiming at integration of QD devices. MOCVD growth of InGaAs/lnAs QDs on GaAs wafers patterned with pairs of SiO2 stripes is studied. Atomic force microscopy and cathodoluminescence are used for characterisation of these QDs. We show that InGaAs QD luminescence can be tuned over a range of 100nm by varying the dimensions of and/or spacings between the SiO2 stripes. Growth of InGaAs quantum-well and QDs on different parts of the same wafer, without using etch and regrowth techniques is also demonstrated. Results for the InAs/GaAs system are also presented. Copyright (2005) Australian Institute of Physics

  2. Characterization of submonolayer film composed of soft-landed copper nanoclusters on HOPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Shyamal, E-mail: shyamal.mondal@saha.ac.in; Das, Pabitra; Chowdhury, Debasree; Bhattacharyya, S. R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Preformed Copper nanoclusters are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at very low energy. For the study of chemical composition X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) is performed for a wide range of binding energy without exposing the sample in the ambient. Morphological aspects of the supported clusters are characterized employing high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). Different types of morphology are observed depending on the nature of the substrate surface. Big fractal islands are formed on terraces while at the step edges small islands are found to form. Ex-situ cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement shows peak at 558 nm wavelength which corresponds to the band gap of 2.22 eV which is due to Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals formed due to oxidation of the deposited film in ambient.

  3. Phosphor-free nanopyramid white light-emitting diodes grown on (101¯1) planes using nanospherical-lens photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a high-efficiency and low-cost nano-pattern method, the nanospherical-lens photolithography technique, to fabricate a SiO2 mask for selective area growth. By controlling the selective growth, we got a highly ordered hexagonal nanopyramid light emitting diodes with InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on nanofacets, demonstrating an electrically driven phosphor-free white light emission. We found that both the quantum well width and indium incorporation increased linearly along the (101¯1) planes towards the substrate and the perpendicular direction to the (101¯1) planes as well. Such spatial distribution was responsible for the broadband emission. Moreover, using cathodoluminescence techniques, it was found that the blue emission originated from nanopyramid top, resembling the quantum dots, green emission from the InGaN quantum wells layer at the middle of sidewalls, and yellow emission mainly from the bottom of nanopyramid ridges, similar to the quantum wires

  4. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  5. Resonances of nanoparticles with poor plasmonic metal tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringe, Emilie; Desantis, Christopher J.; Collins, Sean M.; Duchamp, Martial; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Skrabalak, Sara E.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    The catalytic and optical properties of metal nanoparticles can be combined to create platforms for light-driven chemical energy storage and enhanced in-situ reaction monitoring. However, the heavily damped plasmon resonances of many catalytically active metals (e.g. Pt, Pd) prevent this dual functionality in pure nanostructures. The addition of catalytic metals at the surface of efficient plasmonic particles thus presents a unique opportunity if the resonances can be conserved after coating. Here, nanometer resolution electron-based techniques (electron energy loss, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) are used to show that Au particles incorporating a catalytically active but heavily damped metal, Pd, sustain multiple size-dependent localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) that are narrow and strongly localized at the Pd-rich tips. The resonances also couple with a dielectric substrate and other nanoparticles, establishing that the full range of plasmonic behavior is observed in these multifunctional nanostructures despite the presence of Pd.

  6. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M; Christiansen, Silke H; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained.

  7. Creation and characterization of He-related color centers in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, Jacopo; Tchernij, Sviatoslav Ditalia; Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Traina, Paolo; Degiovanni, Ivo; Moreva, Ekaterina; Brida, Giorgio; Grilj, Veljko; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Genovese, Marco; Olivero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Diamond is a promising material for the development of emerging applications in quantum optics, quantum information and quantum sensing. The fabrication and characterization of novel luminescent defects with suitable opto-physical properties is therefore of primary importance for further advances in these research fields. In this work we report on the investigation in the formation of photoluminescent (PL) defects upon MeV He implantation in diamond. Such color centers, previously reported only in electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence regime, exhibited two sharp emission lines at 536.5 nm and 560.5 nm, without significant phonon sidebands. A strong correlation between the PL intensities of the above-mentioned emission lines and the He implantation fluence was found in the 10^15-10^17 cm^{-2} fluence range. The PL emission features were not detected in control samples, i.e. samples that were either unirradiated or irradiated with different ion species (H, C). Moreover, the PL emission lines disappeared i...

  8. Enhanced random lasing in ZnO nanocombs assisted by Fabry-Perot resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungting; Chen, Yangfang

    2011-04-25

    The ultraviolet random lasing behavior of an ensemble of ZnO nanocombs has been demonstrated. It is found that the Fabry-Perot resonance induced by nanocomb geometry can greatly enhance random lasing action with a low threshold condition. Besides, the emission spectra exhibit few sharp lasing peaks with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of less than 0.3 nm and a narrow background emission with a FWHM of about 5 nm. Cathodoluminescence mapping images are utilized to analyze the Fabry-Perot resonance phenomenon. The resonant effect on the lasing system is further confirmed by nanocombs with different resonant cavity lengths. The unique lasing behavior induced by the simultaneous occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonance and random laser action shown here may open up a new possibility for the creation of highly efficient light emitting devices.

  9. Characterization of GaN Nanorods Fabricated Using Ni Nanomasking and Reactive Ion Etching: A Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Large thermal mismatch between GaN surface and sapphire results in compressive stress in Gallium Nitride (GaN layer which degrades the device performance. Nanostructuring the GaN can reduce this stress leading to reduction in Quantum Confined Stark Effect. Aligned GaN nanorods based nanodevices have potential applications in electronics and optoelectronics. This paper describes the fabrication of GaN nanorods using Ni nanomasking and reactive ion etching. The morphology of GaN nanorods was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties of GaN nanorods were studied by Cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy. CL results revealed the existence of characteristic band-edge luminescence and yellow band luminescence.

  10. Dense vertical nanoplates arrays and nanobelts of indium doped ZnO grown by thermal treatment of ZnS-In 2O 3 powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, B.; Fernández, P.; Piqueras, J.

    2010-10-01

    Dense vertical arrays of indium doped ZnO nanoplates have been grown by thermal treatment of compacted ZnS-In 2O 3 powders with 0.35 at% of In. The distribution of nanoplates is related to the grain structure of the substrate. Only a small content of In has been detected in the plates by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, but comparison with previous works shows that its presence in the precursor determines the growth of the nanoplates. Increase in the amount of In in the precursor leads to the growth of long indium doped ZnO nanobelts. Cathodoluminescence spectra of the nanobelts show a 23 meV blue shift of the band edge emission.

  11. Fe solubility, growth mechanism, and luminescence of Fe doped ZnO nanowires and nanorods grown by evaporation-deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, Belén; Ortega, Yanicet; García, José Ángel; Fernández, Paloma; Piqueras, Javier

    2011-07-01

    Fe doped ZnO nanowires, nanorods, and urchin-like nanostructures have been grown using an evaporation-deposition method with compacted mixtures of ZnS and Fe2O3 powders, with different Fe contents as precursors. Treatments at 950 °C under argon flow lead to the growth of iron doped nanowires, nanorods, and other nanostructures on the surface of the compacted sample. The incorporation of iron into the nanostructures has been investigated via energy dispersive spectroscopy as well as by cathodoluminescence in a scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence in an optical microscope. The iron content in the structures is limited to the range of 0.5-0.7 at.% and does not depend on the content in the precursor. Bright and dark field imaging and twist contour analysis via transmission electron microscopy support the possibility of a dislocation driven growth of the nanowires.

  12. Current path in light emitting diodes based on nanowire ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been fabricated using ensembles of free-standing (In, Ga)N/GaN nanowires (NWs) grown on Si substrates in the self-induced growth mode by molecular beam epitaxy. Electron-beam-induced current analysis, cathodoluminescence as well as biased μ-photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical measurements indicate that the electroluminescence of such LEDs is governed by the differences in the individual current densities of the single-NW LEDs operated in parallel, i.e. by the inhomogeneity of the current path in the ensemble LED. In addition, the optoelectronic characterization leads to the conclusion that these NWs exhibit N-polarity and that the (In, Ga)N quantum well states in the NWs are subject to a non-vanishing quantum confined Stark effect. (paper)

  13. Signature of a Fano-resonance in a plasmonic meta-molecule's local density of optical states

    CERN Document Server

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements on plasmonic meta-molecules under local excitation using cathodoluminescence which show a spatial redistribution of the local density of optical states (LDOS) at the same frequency where a sharp spectral Fano-feature in the extinction cross section has been observed. Our analytical model shows that both near- and far-field effects arise due to interference of the same two eigenmodes of the system. We present quantitative insights both in a bare state, and in a dressed state picture that describe plasmonic Fano interference either as near-field amplitude transfer between three coupled bare states, or as interference of two uncoupled eigenmodes in the far field. We identify the same eigenmode causing a dip in extinction to strongly enhance the radiative LDOS, making it a promising candidate for spontaneous emission control.

  14. A combined study of SHRIMP U-Pb dating, trace element and mineral inclusions on high-pressure metamorphic overgrowth zircon in eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiuli; LI Shuguang; HOU Zhenhui1; HONG Jian; YANG Wei1

    2005-01-01

    Methods recently advanced for discrimination on the genesis of metamorphic zircon, such as analysis of mineral inclusions and trace elements, provide us powerful means to distinguish zircon overgrowth during high-pressure metamorphism. Zircons in ultrahigh-pressure eclogite from Qinglongshan in the Sulu terrane were studied by the SHRIMP U-Pb method in combining with trace element and mineral inclusion analyses. No inherited core was identified in the analyzed zircons by means of cathodoluminescence images. The occurrence of high-pressure metamorphic mineral inclusions in zircon, such as garnet, omphacite, rutile, and the flat HREE pattern in zircon indicate that the zircon formed at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Therefore, a weighted average U-Pb age of 227.4 ± 3.5 Ma obtained from such a kind of zircon is interpreted to represent the timing of peak metamorphism for the Qinglongshan eclogite.

  15. Native cation vacancies in Si-doped AlGaN studied by monoenergetic positron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Tenjinbayashi, K.; Tsutsui, T.; Shimahara, Y.; Miyake, H.; Hiramatsu, K.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.; Ishibashi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Native defects in Si-doped AlGaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were probed by monoenergetic positron beams. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation and positron lifetimes were measured, and these were compared with results obtained using first-principles calculation. For Si-doped AlxGa1-xN (4 × 1017 Si/cm3), the vacancy-type defects were introduced at above x = 0.54, and this was attributed to the transition of the growth mode to the Stranski-Krastanov mechanism from the Frank-van der Merwe mechanism. For Si-doped Al0.6Ga0.4N, the vacancy concentration increased with increasing Si concentration, and the major defect species was identified as Al vacancies. A clear correlation between the suppression of cathodoluminescence and the defect concentration was obtained, suggesting the cation vacancies act as nonradiative centers in AlGaN.

  16. Short-living centers of color and luminescence in LiNbO3 crystals irradiated by pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents data on investigation into spectra of short-living optical absorption (SOA) and of luminescence inducted in lithium niobate crystals under pulsed electron irradiation (0.25 MeV, 20 ns, 15-160 mJ/Cm2) within 80-350 K temperature range. Within SOA spectra one distinguished anisotropic band with maximums at 1.6 and 4.0 eV resulting from capture of one or two conduction electrons for bunches (NbNb - NbLi) respectively as well as, slightly polarized bands at 2.5 and 3.3 eV caused by holes localized in Li and Nb vacancies. Cathodoluminescence (CL) of lithium niobate crystals is characterized by quick (τ < 4 ns) dying down. Variation of initial defect nature of crystal via their regeneration under 830 K is shown to result in similar for CL and for SOA variation of spectra

  17. Optical and electron beam studies of gamma-irradiated AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anupama; Glasscock, Cameron; Flitsiyan, Elena; Chernyak, Leonid; Lubomirsky, Igor; Khodorov, Sergey; Salzman, Joseph; Meyler, Boris; Coppola, Carlo; Guay, Sebestian; Boivin, Jasques

    2016-03-01

    The impact of 60Co gamma-irradiation on n-channel AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors was studied by means of temperature-dependent electron beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) techniques. For the doses up to ∼250 Gy, an enhancement of minority carrier transport was observed as evident from the EBIC measurements. This enhancement is associated with internal electron irradiation induced by the primary gamma photons. For the doses above ∼250 Gy, deterioration in minority carrier transport was explained by carrier scattering on radiation-induced defects. It is shown that calculated activation energy from the EBIC and CL measurements follows exactly the same trend, which implies that the same underlying phenomenon is responsible for observed findings.

  18. Intensity dependent photoluminescence studies on zinc oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzolov, Marian; Epps, Andrew; Driscoll, Eric; Barcikowski, Zachary

    2012-02-01

    The ZnO nanowires were grown by the chemical vapor transport method using a thin gold film as a catalyst. Their light emission in the visible and near UV spectral range was studied using excitation sources with large variation of the pump intensity, e.g. Xenon lamp, UV LEDs, nitrogen laser. The photoluminescence spectrum consists typically of the exciton emission band and a defect related band in the green spectral range. We have observed drastic change in the photoluminescence spectrum at high pump intensities with drastically decreased intensity of the defect related band. The results have been interpreted within a model accounting for the surface effects and associated band banding at the surface. Cathodoluminescence measurements of ZnO nanowires and bulk films were performed, which support the proposed model.

  19. Cathodo- and photoluminescence increase in amorphous hafnium oxide under annealing in oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, E. V., E-mail: ivanova@mail.ioffe.ru; Zamoryanskaya, M. V. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Pustovarov, V. A. [Ural State Technical University (Russian Federation); Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Yelisseyev, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Cathodo- and photoluminescence of amorphous nonstoichiometric films of hafnium oxide are studied with the aim to verify the hypothesis that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence. To produce oxygen vacancies, hafnium oxide was enriched in surplus metal during synthesis. To reduce the oxygen concentration, the film was annealed in oxygen. A qualitative control of the oxygen concentration was carried out by the refractive index. In the initial, almost stoichiometric films we observed a 2.7-eV band in cathodoluminescence. Annealing in oxygen results in a considerable increase in its intensity, as well as in the appearance of new bands at 1.87, 2.14, 3.40, and 3.6 eV. The observed emission bands are supposed to be due to single oxygen vacancies and polyvacancies in hafnium oxide. The luminescence increase under annealing in an oxygen atmosphere may be a result of the emission quenching effect.

  20. Impact of Mg content on native point defects in Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, J.; Foster, G. M. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Myer, M.; Mehra, S. [Columbus School for Girls, 56 S. Columbia Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43209 (United States); Chauveau, J. M. [Centre de Recherche sur l’Hetero-Epitaxie et ses Applications, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CRHEA-CNRS), Rue B. Gregory, F-06560 Valbonne Sophia Antipolis (France); University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06102 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Hierro, A. [Dpto. Ingeniería Electrónica and ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Redondo-Cubero, A. [Dpto. Física Aplicada y Centro de Micro-Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Windl, W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road N., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Brillson, L. J., E-mail: brillson.1@osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Ave., Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2015 Neil Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1272 (United States); Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We used depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and surface photovoltage spectroscopy to measure the densities, energy levels, and spatial distributions of zinc/magnesium cation and oxygen vacancies in isostructural, single-phase, non-polar Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O alloys over a wide (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.56) range. Within this wide range, both defect types exhibit strong Mg content-dependent surface segregation and pronounced bulk density minima corresponding to unit cell volume minima, which can inhibit defect formation due to electrostatic repulsion. Mg in ZnO significantly reduces native defect densities and their non-polar surface segregation, both major factors in carrier transport and doping of these oxide semiconductors.

  1. Ion beam induced luminescence from diamond using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, A.A.; Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Allen, M.G. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Analysis of the luminescence induced by a MeV ion beam offers the potential to provide useful information about the chemical properties of atoms in crystals to complement the information provided by more traditional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) such as Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), ion channeling and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Furthermore, the large penetration depth of the MeV ion beam offers several advantages over the relatively shallow penetration of keV electrons typically employed in cathodoluminescence. An Ion Beam Induced Luminescence (IBIL) detection system was developed for the Melbourne microprobe that allows the spatial mapping of the luminescence signal along with the signals from RBS and PIXE. Homoepitaxial diamond growth has been studied and remarkable shifts in the characteristic blue luminescence of diamond towards the green were observed in the overgrowth. This has been tentatively identified as being due to transition metal inclusions in the epitaxial layers. 8 refs., 2 refs.

  2. Chemical Composition of Nanoporous Layer Formed by Electrochemical Etching of p-Type GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioud, Youcef A.; Boucherif, Abderraouf; Belarouci, Ali; Paradis, Etienne; Drouin, Dominique; Arès, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We have performed a detailed characterization study of electrochemically etched p-type GaAs in a hydrofluoric acid-based electrolyte. The samples were investigated and characterized through cathodoluminescence (CL), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that after electrochemical etching, the porous layer showed a major decrease in the CL intensity and a change in chemical composition and in the crystalline phase. Contrary to previous reports on p-GaAs porosification, which stated that the formed layer is composed of porous GaAs, we report evidence that the porous layer is in fact mainly constituted of porous As2O3. Finally, a qualitative model is proposed to explain the porous As2O3 layer formation on p-GaAs substrate.

  3. Phosphorus Doping of Polycrystalline CdTe by Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Albin, David S.; Guthrey, Harvey; Harvey, Steve; Burst, James; Moutinho, Helio; Farrell, Stuart; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Metzger, Wyatt K.

    2015-06-14

    Phosphorus diffusion in single crystal and polycrystalline CdTe material is explored using various methods. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is used to determine 1D P diffusion profiles. A 2D diffusion model is used to determine the expected cross-sectional distribution of P in CdTe after diffusion anneals. Time of flight SIMS and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence corroborates expected P distributions. Devices fabricated with diffused P exhibit hole concentrations up to low 1015 cm-3, however a subsequent activation anneal enabled hole concentrations greater than 1016 cm-3. CdCl2 treatments and Cu based contacts were also explored in conjunction with the P doping process.

  4. Emission spectra from AlN and GaN doped with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent properties of GaN and AlN based semiconductors containing rare earth metals of Gd and Dy are studied. Cathodoluminescent spectra from AlGdN show a clear and sharp peak at 318 nm following LO phonon satellites. Photoluminescence spectra from GaDyN by the above-gap excitation also show several peaks in addition to the broad luminescence band emission. For GaGdN, the sharp PL peaks are also observed at 650 and 670 nm, and they are assigned to the intra-f orbital transitions by their time decay measurements. The broad band at around 365 nm for AlGdN, 505 nm for GaGdN and GaDyN are commonly observed. The origin of these broad bands is discussed

  5. UV laser controlled quantum well intermixing in InAlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of surface irradiation of GaAs with a KrF excimer laser on the magnitude of the quantum well intermixing (QWI) effect has been investigated on GaAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs/InAlGaAs QWs heterostructures. The selective area irradiation through a SiOx mask was carried out in an atmospheric environment. Following the 1000 pulses irradiation at 100 mJ/cm2, the samples were annealed in a rapid thermal annealing furnace at 900 deg. C. Photoluminescence mapping and cathodoluminescence measurements show that significant laser-induced suppression of the QWI process can be achieved with lateral resolution of the order of 1μm

  6. Optical properties of single ZnTe nanowires grown at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artioli, A.; Stepanov, P.; Den Hertog, M.; Bougerol, C.; Genuist, Y.; Donatini, F.; André, R.; Nogues, G.; Tatarenko, S.; Ferrand, D.; Cibert, J. [Inst NEEL, Universiy of Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Inst NEEL, CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Rueda-Fonseca, P. [Inst NEEL, Universiy of Grenoble Alpes, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Inst NEEL, CNRS, F-38042 Grenoble (France); INAC, CEA and Université de Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Bellet-Amalric, E.; Kheng, K. [INAC, CEA and Université de Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-25

    Optically active gold-catalyzed ZnTe nanowires have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy, on a ZnTe(111) buffer layer, at low temperature (350 °C) under Te rich conditions, and at ultra-low density (from 1 to 5 nanowires per μm{sup 2}). The crystalline structure is zinc blende as identified by transmission electron microscopy. All nanowires are tapered and the majority of them are <111> oriented. Low temperature micro-photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence experiments have been performed on single nanowires. We observe a narrow emission line with a blue-shift of 2 or 3 meV with respect to the exciton energy in bulk ZnTe. This shift is attributed to the strain induced by a 5 nm-thick oxide layer covering the nanowires, and this assumption is supported by a quantitative estimation of the strain in the nanowires.

  7. Morphological dependent Indium incorporation in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells structure grown on 4° misoriented sapphire substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epitaxial layers of InGaN/GaN MQWs structure were grown on both planar and vicinal sapphire substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By comparing the epitaxial layers grown on planar substrate, the sample grown on 4° misoriented from c-plane toward m-plane substrate exhibited many variations both on surface morphology and optical properties according to the scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL spectroscopy results. Many huge steps were observed in the misoriented sample and a large amount of V-shape defects located around the boundary of the steps. Atoms force microscopy images show that the steps were inclined and deep grooves were formed at the boundary of the adjacent steps. Phase separation was observed in the CL spectra. CL mapping results also indicated that the deep grooves could effectively influence the localization of Indium atoms and form an In-rich region.

  8. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  9. Physical properties of carbon films obtained by methane pyrolysis in an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantov, S. K.; Tereshchenko, A. N.; Shteinman, E. A.; Yakimov, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    A method of synthesizing carbon films on single-crystal silicon substrates by methane pyrolysis in an electrical field is suggested. The pressure and temperature arising in a working chamber when the substrate is exposed to C-4 ions during pyrolysis are measured. Ion bombardment generates nuclei in the form of fibers about 2 μm in diameter providing the growth of a polycrystalline film. The resulting material is examined using electron microscopy and photo- and cathodoluminescence. Synthesized films are a composite material the matrix of which contains nanoclusters of a dissimilar crystalline nature. The effect of considerable two-stage decrease in the resistivity of the film material with increasing temperature from 300 to 1750 K is discovered. This points to the semiconducting properties of thick carbon films.

  10. Vacuum Ultraviolet Field Emission Lamp Consisting of Neodymium Ion Doped Lutetium Fluoride Thin Film as Phosphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yanagihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet (VUV field emission lamp was developed by using a neodymium ion doped lutetium fluoride (Nd3+ : LuF3 thin film as solid-state phosphor and carbon nanofiber field electron emitters. The thin film was synthesized by pulsed laser deposition and incorporated into the lamp. The cathodoluminescence spectra of the lamp showed multiple emission peaks at 180, 225, and 255 nm. These emission spectra were in good agreement with the spectra reported for the Nd3+ : LuF3 crystal. Moreover, application of an acceleration voltage effectively increased the emission intensity. These results contribute to the performance enhancement of the lamp operating in the VUV region.

  11. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  12. Four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope with atomic resolution for electrical and electro-optical property measurements of nanosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao; He Xiao-Bo; Lu Jun-Ling; Gao Li; Huan Qing; Shi Dong-Xia; Gao Hong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a special four-probe scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV),which can provide coarse positioning for every probe independently with the help of scanning electron microscope (SEM)and fine positioning down to nanometre using the STM technology. The system allows conductivity measurement by means of a four-point probe method, which can draw out more accurate electron transport characteristics in nanostructures, and provides easy manipulation of low dimension materials. All measurements can be performed in variable temperature (from 30K to 500K), magnetic field (from 0 to 0.1T), and different gas environments. Simultaneously, the cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum can be achieved through an optical subsystem. Test measurements using some nanowire samples show that this system is a powerful tool in exploring electron transport characteristics and spectra in nanoscale physics.

  13. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M.; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, Silke H.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  14. Luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films under synchrotron radiation excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorenko, Yu.; Zorenko, T.; Gorbenko, V.; Savchyn, V.; Voznyak, T.; Fabisiak, K.; Zhusupkalieva, G.; Fedorov, A.

    2016-09-01

    The paper is dedicated to study the luminescent and scintillation properties of the Al2O3:Ce single crystalline films (SCF) grown by LPE method onto saphire substrates from PbO based flux. The structural quality of SCF samples was investigated by XRD method. For characterization of luminescent properties of Al2O3:Ce SCFs the cathodoluminescence spectra, scintillation light yield (LY) and decay kinetics under excitation by α-particles of Pu239 source were used. We have found that the scintillation LY of Al2O3:Ce SCF samples is relatively large and can reach up to 50% of the value realized in the reference YAG:Ce SCF. Using the synchrotron radiation excitation in the 3.7-25 eV range at 10 K we have also determined the basic parameters of the Ce3+ luminescence in Al2O3 host.

  15. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells. PMID:27144767

  16. 碳酸盐岩常用分析技术和方法综述%The Overview of the Techniques of Carbonatite Which Are Commonly Used

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴章志; 胡静; 何塞

    2016-01-01

    with the development of science and technology .The technique of the study of the carbonatite is manifold .This article present some techniques which are commonly used , include: x -ray diffraction analysis , cathodoluminescence microscope, electron probe microanalysis, rare earth elements analysis, stable isotopic analysis, etc.this article emphatically introduces x -ray diffraction analysis , cathodoluminescence microscope , electron probe microanalysis .not only their principles but also their apply and relative merits ,and present some solutions that is combining various technique to analysis carbonatite .In this way the result are more reliable .this article also present the principles and apply of rare earth elements analysis and stable isotopic analysis .%随着科技的发展,对于碳酸盐岩的研究技术和方法也多种多样。本文介绍了几种目前常用的分析技术和方法,包括:x射线衍射分析、阴极发光分析、电子探针分析、稀土元素分析、稳定同位素分析等。其中重点介绍了x射线衍射分析、阴极发光分析、电子探针分析这三种技术的原理,应用及其各自的优缺点。针对其缺点提出了一些解决办法,即将多种技术结合起来综合对碳酸盐岩进行分析。这样可以确保分析结果的准确性和可靠性。对于稀土元素分析和稳定同位素分析,本文简要阐述了其原理及应用。

  17. Assessment of diagenetic alteration of dinosaur eggshells through petrography and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, M. V.; Eagle, R.; Eiler, J. M.; Tripati, A. K.; Ramirez, P. C.; Loyd, S. J.; Chiappe, L.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.; Tuetken, T.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope analysis of fossil eggshells has the potential to constrain both the physiology of extinct animals and, potentially, paleoenvironmental conditions, especially when coupled with isotopic measurements of co-occurring soil carbonates. Eggshell samples from both modern vertebrates and Cretaceous Hadrosaurid, Oviraptorid, Titanosaur, Hypselosaurus, Faveoolithus, dinosaur fossils have been collected from Auca Mahuevo, Argentina and Rousett, France, amongst other locations, for geochemical analysis to determine if isotopic signatures could be used to indicate warm- or cold-bloodedness. In some locations soil carbonates were also analyzed to constrain environmental temperatures. In order to test the validity of the geochemical results, an extensive study was undertaken to establish degree of diagenetic alteration. Petrographic and cathodoluminescence characterization of the eggshells were used to assess diagenetic alteration. An empirical 1-5 point scale was used to assign each sample an alteration level, and the observations were then compared with the geochemical results. Specimens displayed a wide range of alteration states. Some of which were well preserved and others highly altered. Another group seemed to be structural intact and only under cathodoluminescence was alteration clearly observed. In the majority of samples, alteration level was found to be predictably related to geochemical results. From specimens with little evidence for diagenesis, carbonate clumped isotope signatures support high (37-40°C) body temperature for Titanosaurid dinosaurs, but potentially lower body temperatures for other taxa. If these data do, in fact, represent original eggshell growth temperatures, these results support variability in body temperature amongst Cretaceous dinosaurs and potentially are consistent with variations between adult body temperature and size — a characteristic of 'gigantothermy'.

  18. Influence of the spray pyrolysis seeding and growth parameters on the structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Juan, E-mail: jrodriguez@uni.edu.pe [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Feuillet, Guy [CEA Grenoble/LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Donatini, Fabrice [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Onna, Diego [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, Luis [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Candal, Roberto [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, 3iA, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen N° 3100 (1650), San Martín, Pcia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marchi, M. Claudia [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CMA, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bilmes, Sara A. [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chandezon, Frédéric [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-02-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates at low temperatures (90 °C) from Zn{sup 2+} precursors in alkaline media previously seeded with ZnO nanoparticles. These were deposited onto the FTO substrate heated at 350 °C by spray pyrolysis of a Zn acetate solution in a water ethanol mixture. The structure of seeds was tuned by the ethanol to water ratio, Γ, which controls the solvent evaporation rate of drops impinging the substrate. From a detailed characterization using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies, the dependence of the morphology and optical properties of the ZnO NRs on the seeding conditions was demonstrated. NRs grown on seeds deposited from solutions with Γ in the 0.03–0.06 range – i.e. when the surface excess of ethanol in the water–ethanol mixture has a maximum – show thinner average diameters and stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains embedded into an overall wurtzite NR. They furthermore exhibit blue-shifted near band edge emission peak and a high deep level emission in cathodoluminescence. All these findings support the use of spray pyrolysis as a simple and reproducible way to control the seeds deposition, influencing the growth, the structure and the optical properties of the final ZnO NRs. - Highlights: • ZnO pyrolytic seeds tuned by the rate of solvent evaporation. • ZnO NRs grown from tuned pyrolytic seed's structure shows diameter dependence. • ZnO NRs show stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains.

  19. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moreno-Azanza

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  20. Residence, resorption and recycling of zircons in Devils Kitchen rhyolite, Coso Volcanic Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.S.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Zircons from the Devils Kitchen rhyolite in the Pleistocene Coso Volcanic field, California have been analyzed by in situ Pb/U ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) and by detailed cathodoluminescence imaging. The zircons yield common-Pb-corrected and disequilibrium-corrected 206Pb/238U ages that predate a previously reported K-Ar sanidine age by up to 200 kyr, and the range of ages exhibited by the zircons is also approximately 200 kyr. Cathodoluminescence imaging indicates that zircons formed in contrasting environments. Most zircons are euhedral, and a majority of the zircons are weakly zoned, but many also have anhedral, embayed cores, with euhedral overgrowths and multiple internal surfaces that are truncated by later crystal zones. Concentrations of U and Th vary by two orders of magnitude within the zircon population, and by 10-20 times between zones within some zircon crystals, indicating that zircons were transferred between contrasting chemical environments. A zircon saturation temperature of ???750??C overlaps within error a previously reported phenocryst equilibration temperature of 740 ?? 25??C. Textures in zircons indicative of repeated dissolution and subsequent regrowth are probably caused by punctuated heating by mafic magma input into rhyolite. The overall span of ages and large variation in U and Th concentrations, combined with calculated zircon saturation temperatures and resorption times, are most compatible with crystallization in magma bodies that were emplaced piecemeal in the crust at Coso over 200 kyr prior to eruption, and that were periodically rejuvenated or melted by subsequent basaltic injections. ?? Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved.

  1. Interface Trap Density Reduction for Al2O3/GaN (0001) Interfaces by Oxidizing Surface Preparation prior to Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhernokletov, Dmitry M; Negara, Muhammad A; Long, Rathnait D; Aloni, Shaul; Nordlund, Dennis; McIntyre, Paul C

    2015-06-17

    We correlate interfacial defect state densities with the chemical composition of the Al2O3/GaN interface in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures using synchrotron photoelectron emission spectroscopy (PES), cathodoluminescence and high-temperature capacitance-voltage measurements. The influence of the wet chemical pretreatments involving (1) HCl+HF etching or (2) NH4OH(aq) exposure prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 were investigated on n-type GaN (0001) substrates. Prior to ALD, PES analysis of the NH4OH(aq) treated surface shows a greater Ga2O3 component compared to either HCl+HF treated or as-received surfaces. The lowest surface concentration of oxygen species is detected on the acid etched surface, whereas the NH4OH treated sample reveals the lowest carbon surface concentration. Both surface pretreatments improve electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors compared to untreated samples by reducing the Al2O3/GaN interface state density. The lowest interfacial trap density at energies in the upper band gap is detected for samples pretreated with NH4OH. These results are consistent with cathodoluminescence data indicating that the NH4OH treated samples show the strongest band edge emission compared to as-received and acid etched samples. PES results indicate that the combination of reduced carbon contamination while maintaining a Ga2O3 interfacial layer by NH4OH(aq) exposure prior to ALD results in fewer interface traps after Al2O3 deposition on the GaN substrate.

  2. Diagenesis of echinoderm skeletons: Constraints on paleoseawater Mg/Ca reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Krzykawski, Tomasz; Stolarski, Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    One of the most profound environmental changes thought to be reflected in chemical composition of numerous geological archives is Mg/Ca ratio of the seawater, which has varied dramatically throughout the Phanerozoic. Echinoderms that today typically form high magnesium calcite skeletons are increasingly being utilized as a proxy for interpreting secular changes in seawater chemistry. However, accurate characterization of the diagenetic changes of their metastable high magnesium calcite skeletons is a prerequisite for assessing their original, major-element geochemical composition. Here we expand the existing models of diagenesis of echinoderm skeleton by integration of various analytical methods that up to now rarely have been used to assess the diagenetic changes of fossil echinoderms. We validated the preservation of a suite of differently preserved echinoderm ossicles, mostly crinoids, ranging in age from the Cambrian through Recent. In 13 of 99 fossil echinoderm ossicles we found well-preserved porous microstructure (stereom), non-luminescent behaviour or blotchy dark color in cathodoluminescence, and distinct nanostructural features (layered and nanocomposite structure). Moreover, in representatives of such preserved samples, distribution of sulphates associated with organic matter is identical to those in Recent echinoderms. Only such ossicles, despite of local micrometer-scale diagenetic changes, were herein considered well-preserved, retaining their original major-element skeletal composition. By contrast, majority of samples show transformation to the stable low magnesium calcite that leads to obliteration of the primary geochemical and micro/nanostructural features and is accompanied with increase in cathodoluminescence emission intensity. Using only well-preserved fossil echinoderm samples, we found purely random variation in Mg/Ca in echinoderm skeletons through the observed time series; any periodicities in echinoderm skeletal Mg/Ca ratio which might

  3. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.; Li, H.; Kusch, G.; Zhao, C.; Ooi, B.; Edwards, P. R.; Martin, R. W.; Holmes, J. D.; Parbrook, P. J.

    2016-05-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD

  4. Effects of detrital influx in the Pennsylvanian Upper Freeport peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, L.F.; Stanton, R.W.; Blaine, Cecil C.; Eble, C.F.; Dulong, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Quartz cathodoluminescence properties and mineralogy of three sets of samples and vegetal and/ or miospore data from two sets of samples from the Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, show that detrital influence from a penecontemporaneous channel is limited to an area less than three km from the channel. The sets of samples examined include localities of the coal bed where (1) the coal is thin, split by partings, and near a penecontemporaneous fluvial channel, (2) the coal is relatively thick and located approximately three km from the channel, and (3) the coal is thick and located approximately 12 km from the channel. Samples from locality 1 (nearest the channel) have relatively high-ash yields (low-temperature ash average = 27.3% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis) and high proportions of quartz and clay minerals. The quartz is primarily detrital, as determined by cathodoluminescent properties, and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is low. In addition, most of the plant remains and miospores indicate peat-forming plants that required low nutrient levels for growth. In contrast, samples from localities 2 and 3, from the more interior parts of the bed, contained predominantly authigenic quartz grains nd yielded low-temperature ash values of less than 14% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis. The low-temperature ash contains low concentrations of quartz and clay minerals and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is relatively high. Although intact core was not available for paleobotanical analyses, another core collected within 1 km from locality 3 contained plant types interpreted to have required high nutrient levels for growth. These data indicate that mineral formation is dominated by authigenic processes in interior parts of the coal body. Some of the authigenic quartz may have been derived from herbaceous ferns as indicated by patterns in the palynological and paleobotanical data. In contrast, detrital processes appeared to be limited to in areas

  5. Electron beam pumped III-V nitride vertical cavity surface emitting lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Hock Min

    The design and fabrication by molecular beam epitaxy of a prototype vertical cavity laser based on the III-V nitrides were investigated in this work. The bottom mirror of the laser consists of distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) based on quarterwave AlN (or AlxGa1-xN) and GaN layers. Such DBRs were designed for maximum reflectivity in the spectral region from 390--600 nm. The epitaxial growth of these two binaries on each other revealed that while AlN grows on GaN in a two-dimensional mode (Frank-van der Merwe mode), GaN grows on AlN in a three-dimensional mode (Stranski-Krastanov mode). In spite of that, DBRs with peak reflectance up to 99% and bandwidths of 45nm were fabricated. The measured reflectance spectra were compared with simulations using the transmission matrix method. The mechanical stability of these DBR structures due to non-uniform distribution of strain arising from lattice or thermal mismatch of the various components were also addressed. The active region of the laser consists of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs). The existence of up to the third order diffraction peaks in the x-ray diffraction spectra suggests that the interfaces between InGaN and GaN are sharp with little interdiffusion at the growth temperature. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectra were analyzed to determine the optical quality of the MQWs. The best MQWs were shown to have a single emission peak at 397nm with full width half maximum (FWHM) of 11nm. Cathodoluminescence studies showed that there are spatially localized areas of intense light emission. The complete device was formed on (0001) sapphire substrates using the previously described DBRs as bottom mirrors and the MQWs as the active region. The top mirror of the device consists of metallic silver. The device was pumped by an electron beam from the top mirror side and the light output was collected from the sapphire side. Measurements at 100K showed narrowing of the linewidth with increasing pump

  6. Optical investigations on the wide bandgap semiconductors diamond and aluminum nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilov, Nikolai

    2007-07-01

    In the context of this thesis, new results about optical defects and intrinsic properties of diamond, AlN and AlGaN alloys have been obtained. The main experimental techniques used were low temperature cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectroscopy. First, different aspects of intentional and background doping of diamond were discussed. Thus, the most commonly observed green luminescence emission from boron doped HPHT diamonds has been studied by means of temperature dependent CL in a wide temperature range from 10 K to 450 K. One further subject, addressing deep defect nitrogen related luminescence was a study of nitrogen addition in combustion flame grown CVD diamond layers. Two further topics concern intrinsic excitations in diamond, free excitons and electron-hole drops. Several important parameters like the critical density, the critical temperature, and the low-temperature density inside the drops were evaluated. The ground state density of the electron-hole condensate in diamond is about {approx} 42 times larger than that in Si, and the critical temperature takes very high values in the range of 165K.. 173K. Cathodoluminescence investigations on epitaxial wurtzite AlN layers grown on sapphire, SiC, and Si substrates, have shown that although the material is generally of good optical quality, deep level luminescence are still dominating the spectra. Relatively sharp near-band-edge transitions have been observed in all three samples that exhibit significantly reduced line widths for the AlN/sapphire and the AlN/SiC samples. Much broader emission lines in the near band-gap region have been observed for the first time from the AlN sample grown on Si (111) substrate. Temperature dependent CL measurements and numerical line decompositions reveal complicated substructures in the excitonic lines. The temperature dependence of the energy positions and broadening parameters of the transition have been studied and compared with the other materials. Epitaxial Al

  7. CL from impurities and point defects in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is used to investigate the nature of defects and impurities generated in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method. The incorporation of Mn in the ZnO nanorods generated an increase in the surface roughness and the formation of an Mn complex-compound of spinel ZnMn2O4. CL measurements acquired at room temperature revealed two emissions at 3.2 and 2.3 eV, associated with the ZnO near-band-edge emission and the luminescence of spinel ZnMn2O4, respectively. CL spectra at 100 K recorded the Mn2+ ion d–d transitions as a broad CL emission, with energies between 2.6 and 3.1 eV. The well-known ZnO yellow emission (2.0 eV) was also present in the samples, recording a relative intensity ratio I2.0/I2.33 that increased when the temperature was dropped at 100 K. A thermal annealing of the samples at 400 °C, in Ar atmosphere, generated strong decreases in the intensity of the defects and Mn-related emissions, recording an intensity ratio Iband-edge/Idefects of about 15. Diffusion of Mn from the ZnO surface to the bulk is proposed to explain this effect. (paper)

  8. Structural analysis and luminescent study of thin film zinc germanate doped with manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of zinc germanate doped with manganese (Zn2GeO4:Mn) were fabricated by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, and their structural characteristics and luminescent properties were studied. The Zn2GeO4:Mn films exhibited a pronounced absorption edge at around 271 nm and a high optical transparency in the visible wavelength region with a peak transmittance of 0.927 at 691 nm. While the as-deposited Zn2GeO4:Mn films had an amorphous structure, the annealed films possessed a rhombohedral polycrystalline structure with a random crystallographic orientation of grains. The broad-band photoluminescence (PL) emission was observed from the annealed Zn2GeO4:Mn films. The PL emission spectrum showed a peak maximum at around 537 nm in the green range, which was accounted for by the intrashell transition of 3d5 orbital electrons from the 4T1 lowest excitation state to the 6A1 ground state in the divalent manganese ions. Two discrete peaks were observed in the PL excitation spectrum at 256 and 296 nm, which are considered to be associated with the band-to-band absorption of the host and the sub-band absorption from defect states, respectively. The green cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was obtained from the annealed Zn2GeO4:Mn films with a peak centered at around 534 nm, analogous to the PL emission spectrum.

  9. Growth and characterization of Mn-doped In2O3 nanowires and terraced microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mn-doped In2O3 micro- and nanostructures were grown by the thermal evaporation–deposition method using a precursor powder composed of In2O3 and a manganese compound. Terraced microstructures grow at 1200 °C when using Mn2O3 in the precursor powders, while thinner micro- and nanowires have been obtained at temperatures between 560 and 780 °C by using MnCO3 in the precursor mixture. The morphology, as well as the luminescencent, electrical and chemical properties, of the Mn-doped In2O3 micro- and nanostructures were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction, cathodoluminescence (CL), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, remote electron beam induced current (REBIC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The amount of Mn incorporated in these low-dimensional structures is below 1 at.%. The Mn-doped In2O3 structures show luminescence at 1.91 and 2.27 eV, related to defects associated with an excess of oxygen and single ionized oxygen vacancies (VO+), respectively. An emission at 2.94 eV, possibly due to the direct band gap of In2O3, has been also observed. The presence of VO+, which tend to accumulate at the edges of the terraces of the microstructures, has been traced by combined CL–REBIC–XPS techniques, and has been related to the incorporation of manganese as Mn2+

  10. Luminescence characterization and electron beam induced chemical changes on the surface of ZnAl2O4:Mn nanocrystalline phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescence characteristics and surface chemical changes of nanocrystalline Mn2+ doped ZnAl2O4 powder phosphors are presented. Stable green cathodoluminescence (CL) or photoluminescence (PL) with a maximum at ∼512 nm was observed when the powders were irradiated with a beam of high energy electrons or a monochromatic xenon lamp at room temperature. This green emission can be attributed to the 4T1 → 6A1 transitions of the Mn2+ ion. Deconvoluted CL spectra resulted in two additional emission peaks at 539 and 573 nm that may be attributed to vibronic sideband and Mn4+ emission, respectively. The luminescence decay of the Mn2+ 512 nm emission under 457 nm excitation is single exponential with a lifetime of 5.20 ± 0.11 ms. Chemical changes on the surface of the ZnAl2O4:Mn2+ phosphor during prolonged electron beam exposure were monitored using Auger electron spectroscopy. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the chemical composition of the possible compounds formed on the surface as a result of the prolonged electron beam exposure. The XPS data suggest that the thermodynamically stable Al2O3 layer was formed on the surface and is possibly contributing to the CL stability of ZnAl2O4:Mn phosphor.

  11. Age intercalibration of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and chemically distinct U/Pb zircon populations from the Alder Creek Rhyolite Quaternary geochronology standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivera, Tiffany; Storey, Michael; Schmitz, M. D.;

    2013-01-01

    We report results from a 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and CA-TIMS 238U/206Pb zircon dating study of eruption and crystal residence timescales of the Alder Creek Rhyolite (ACR), California, extruded during the Cobb Mountain normal-polarity subchron (C1r.2n). A 40Ar/39Ar ACR sanidine date of 1.1850 ± 0.0016 Ma...... (2σ external uncertainty), determined relative to the astronomically dated A1 tephra sanidine, is interpreted as the ACR eruption age. This age is supported by CA-TIMS U–Pb zircon dating, guided by LA-ICPMS trace element analyses, titanium-in-zircon (TiZR) thermometry, and cathodoluminescence (CL......) imaging. Using these data, two compositionally distinct zircon populations were revealed. “Pre-ACR” Group B zircon exhibit oscillatory zoning, large positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies, high incompatible trace element contents, TiZR temperatures of 650 °C–750 °C, and Th/U disequilibrium corrected 238U...

  12. Nondestructive mapping of chemical composition and structural qualities of group III-nitride nanowires using submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanno, P.L., E-mail: plb2@njit.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Gmili, Y.El.; Moudakir, T. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Sirenko, A.A. [Department of Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kazimirov, A. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cai, Z.-H. [Advanced Photon Source, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Martin, J. [LMOPS + UMI: Laboratoire Matériaux Optiques, Photonique et micro-nano Systèmes, UMR CNRS 7132, Université de Metz et SUPELEC, 2 rue E. Belin, 57070 Metz, France, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Goh, W.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France); Martinez, A.; Ramdane, A.; Le Gratiet, L. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, UPR CNRS 20, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Maloufi, N. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Application aux Matériaux UMR CNRS 7078 Ile du Saulcy 57045 METZ cedex 1 (France); Assouar, M.B. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionisés et Applications, Nancy University, CNRS, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cédex (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology/GTL, UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-08-31

    Submicron beam synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques have been developed and used to accurately and nondestructively map chemical composition and material quality of selectively grown group III-nitride nanowires. GaN, AlGaN, and InGaN multi-quantum-well nanowires have been selectively grown on lattice matched and mismatched substrates, and the challenges associated with obtaining and interpreting submicron beam XRD results are addressed and solved. Nanoscale cathodoluminescence is used to examine exciton behavior, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is used to verify chemical composition. Scanning transmission electron microscopy is later used to paint a more complete picture. The advantages of submicron beam XRD over other techniques are discussed in the context of this challenging material system. - Highlights: ► We used nano selective area growth to create nanowires of GaN, AlGaN and InGaN/GaN. ► We characterized them by synchrotron-based submicron beam X-ray diffraction (XRD). ► This technique accurately determined chemical and crystallographic properties. ► Challenges of XRD are addressed in the context of this challenging material system. ► Advantages of XRD over other characterization methods are discussed.

  13. Properties and behavior of quartz for the silicon process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasly, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    fluorescence light microscopy of polished thin sections, cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Combining high-temperature microthermometry and shock-heating investigations has proved to provide useful knowledge about the effects of high temperatures on quartz. Results from earlier research have been confirmed showing that mica is the cause of the effects seen in the temperature interval 900 - 1000 degrees Celsius. This has been shown by the total absence of tridimite in the samples and the fact that mica has been seen in the unheated reference samples. Cathodoluminescence microscopy and spectroscopy was used to investigate sample from shock-heating experiments and corresponding reference samples. These investigations show that cathodoluminescence is a useful tool for petrographic investigations of quartz. The shock-heated samples showed a significant change in cathodoluminescence characteristics that need to be investigated further to understand the cause of these changes. A spotted red luminescence was seen in two of the samples indicating the formation of cristobalite or the transition phase within these samples. Cristobalite has been shown in samples after heating to different temperatures in the interval 1250 to 1550 degrees Celsius, although in different amount in the different types of quartz. However, the transformation rates seem to be more similar after prolonged heating at the highest temperature. Experiments also indicate that the quartzcristobalite transformation may be a cause of the disintegration of quartz at high temperatures. This is related to the severe volume expansion as the quartz transforms to cristobalite via the amorphous intermediate transition phase. The last paper presented in the thesis presents investigations of two furnaces that have been producing ferrosilicon and silicon metal respectively. The results from these investigations show that cristobalite is formed relatively rapidly inside the furnace, however

  14. Structure and optoelectronic properties of single crystal epitaxial Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} and ordered defect compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockett, A.; Berry, G.; Schroeder, D.; Xiao, H.Z.; Yang, L.C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Epitaxial CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} was grown on As-terminated (111) GaAs between 550 to 735 C with 0 {le} x {le} 1. The Cu/[In+Ga] ratio, y, ranged from y = 0.3 to 1.3. Analysis of the deposited films showed an ordered defect structure that was homogeneous throughout the epitaxial layers when rich in group III for all Ga contents examined. Films grown with y = 0.3 had energy gaps of {approximately}1.2 eV and showed evidence by both cathodoluminescence and optical absorption of band tails. Stacking faults affect both the growth rate and the luminescence but can be converted to dislocations by rapid thermal annealing. The highest hole mobilities to date, > 1,500 cm{sup 2}/V-sec, were measured at 50--75K by Hall-effect in near-stoichiometry samples. Room temperature hole mobilities were > 200 cm{sup 2}/V-sec and increased at low temperatures. Hole concentrations showed evidence of a level 80 meV above the valence band edge at a concentration in excess of 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3} in all p-type samples. A composition-dependent level at {approximately}40 meV and type conversion at {approximately}100 K was also observed.

  15. Nanoscale conductive pattern of the homoepitaxial AlGaN/GaN transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tomás, A; Catalàn, G; Fontserè, A; Iglesias, V; Chen, H; Gammon, P M; Jennings, M R; Thomas, M; Fisher, C A; Sharma, Y K; Placidi, M; Chmielowska, M; Chenot, S; Porti, M; Nafría, M; Cordier, Y

    2015-03-20

    The gallium nitride (GaN)-based buffer/barrier mode of growth and morphology, the transistor electrical response (25-310 °C) and the nanoscale pattern of a homoepitaxial AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) have been investigated at the micro and nanoscale. The low channel sheet resistance and the enhanced heat dissipation allow a highly conductive HEMT transistor (Ids > 1 A mm(-1)) to be defined (0.5 A mm(-1) at 300 °C). The vertical breakdown voltage has been determined to be ∼850 V with the vertical drain-bulk (or gate-bulk) current following the hopping mechanism, with an activation energy of 350 meV. The conductive atomic force microscopy nanoscale current pattern does not unequivocally follow the molecular beam epitaxy AlGaN/GaN morphology but it suggests that the FS-GaN substrate presents a series of preferential conductive spots (conductive patches). Both the estimated patches density and the apparent random distribution appear to correlate with the edge-pit dislocations observed via cathodoluminescence. The sub-surface edge-pit dislocations originating in the FS-GaN substrate result in barrier height inhomogeneity within the HEMT Schottky gate producing a subthreshold current.

  16. Fungal Ferromanganese Mineralisation in Cretaceous Dinosaur Bones from the Gobi Desert, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owocki, Krzysztof; Kremer, Barbara; Wrzosek, Beata; Królikowska, Agata; Kaźmierczak, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Well-preserved mycelia of fungal- or saprolegnia-like biota mineralised by ferromanganese oxides were found for the first time in long bones of Late Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Gobi Desert (Nemegt Valley, Mongolia). The mycelia formed a biofilm on the wall of the bone marrow cavity and penetrated the osteon channels of the nearby bone tissue. Optical microscopy, Raman, SEM/EDS, SEM/BSE, electron microprobe and cathodoluminescence analyses revealed that the mineralisation of the mycelia proceeded in two stages. The first stage was early post-mortem mineralisation of the hyphae by Fe/Mn-oxide coatings and microconcretions. Probably this proceeded in a mildly acidic to circumneutral environment, predominantly due to heterotrophic bacteria degrading the mycelial necromass and liberating Fe and Mn sorbed by the mycelia during its lifetime. The second stage of mineralisation, which proceeded much later following the final burial of the bones in an alkaline environment, resulted from the massive precipitation of calcite and occasionally barite on the iron/manganese-oxide-coated mycelia. The mineral phases produced by fungal biofilms colonising the interiors of decaying dinosaur bones not only enhance the preservation (fossilisation) of fungal remains but can also be used as indicators of the geochemistry of the dinosaur burial sites.

  17. Electron beam induced green luminescence and degradation study of CaS:Ce nanocrystalline phosphors for FED applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green luminescence and degradation of Ce3+ doped CaS nanocrystalline phosphors were studied with a 2 keV, 10 μA electron beam in an O2 environment. The nanophosphors were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Cubic CaS with an average particle size of 42 ± 2 nm was obtained. PL emission was observed at 507 nm and a shoulder at 560 nm with an excitation wavelength of 460 nm. Auger electron spectroscopy and Cathodoluminescence (CL) were used to monitor the changes in the surface composition of the CaS:Ce3+ nanocrystalline phosphors during electron bombardment in an O2 environment. The effect of different oxygen pressures ranging from 1 x 10-8 to 1 x 10-6 Torr on the CL intensity was also investigated. A CaSO4 layer was observed on the surface after the electron beam degradation. The CL intensity was found to decrease up to 30% of its original intensity at 1 x 10-6 Torr oxygen pressure after an electron dose of 50 C/cm2. The formation of oxygen defects during electron bombardment may also be responsible for the decrease in CL intensity.

  18. Position-controlled MOVPE growth and electro-optical characterization of core-shell InGaN/GaN microrod LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Lugauer, H.-J.; Avramescu, A.; Varghese, T.; Koller, A.; Hartmann, J.; Ledig, J.; Waag, A.; Strassburg, M.

    2016-03-01

    Today's InGaN-based white LEDs still suffer from a significant efficiency reduction at elevated current densities, the so-called "Droop". Core-shell microrods, with quantum wells (QWs) covering their entire surface, enable a tremendous increase in active area scaling with the rod's aspect ratio. Enlarging the active area on a given footprint area is a viable and cost effective route to mitigate the droop by effectively reducing the local current density. Microrods were grown in a large volume metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor on GaN-on-sapphire substrates with a thin, patterned SiO2 mask for position control. Out of the mask openings, pencil-shaped n-doped GaN microrod cores were grown under conditions favoring 3D growth. In a second growth step, these cores are covered with a shell containing a quantum well and a p-n junction to form LED structures. The emission from the QWs on the different facets was studied using resonant temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The crystal quality of the structures was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showing the absence of extended defects like threading dislocations in the 3D core. In order to fabricate LED chips, dedicated processes were developed to accommodate for the special requirements of the 3D geometry. The electrical and optical properties of ensembles of tens of thousands microrods connected in parallel are discussed.

  19. Integrated single crystal laser ablation U/Pb and (U-Th)/He dating of detrital accessory minerals - Proof-of-concept studies of titanites and zircons from the Fish Canyon tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Alexandra M.; van Soest, Matthijs C.; Hodges, Kip V.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Hourigan, Jeremy K.

    2016-04-01

    Excimer laser technologies enable a rapid and effective approach to simultaneous U/Pb geochronology and (U-Th)/He thermochronology of a wide range of detrital accessory minerals. Here we describe the 'laser ablation double dating' (LADD) method and demonstrate its viability by applying it to zircon and titanite crystals from the well-characterized Fish Canyon tuff. We found that LADD dates for Fish Canyon zircon (206Pb/238U - 28.63 ± 0.11 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 28.38 ± 0.73 Ma) are statistically indistinguishable from those obtained through established, traditional methods of single-crystal dating. The same is true for Fish Canyon titanite LADD dates: 206Pb/238U - 28.08 ± 0.90 Ma; (U-Th)/He - 27.98 ± 0.86 Ma. As anticipated, given that LADD involves the analysis of smaller amounts of material than traditional methods, it yields dates with higher analytical uncertainty. However, this does not substantially reduce the utility of the results for most applications to detrital datasets. An important characteristic of LADD is that it encourages the chemical characterization of crystals by backscattered electron, cathodoluminescence, and/or Raman mapping prior to dating. In addition, by permitting the rapid and robust dating of crystals regardless of the degree of their abrasion during sedimentary transport, the method theoretically should yield dates that are more broadly representative of those of the entire population of detrital crystals in a natural sample.

  20. Optical and structural properties of microcrystalline GaN on an amorphous substrate prepared by a combination of molecular beam epitaxy and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  1. Site controlled red-yellow-green light emitting InGaN quantum discs on nano-tipped GaN rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M; Li, H; Kusch, G; Zhao, C; Ooi, B; Edwards, P R; Martin, R W; Holmes, J D; Parbrook, P J

    2016-06-01

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips' broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD's confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates. PMID:27174084

  2. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS and enhanced visible-light photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Yuhua

    2013-09-11

    Doped-graphene has attracted considerable attention in many fields because doping element can alter the electrical properties of graphene. In this paper, we synthesized ZnSe·xN2H4/graphene (ZnSe·xN2H4/GS) and ZnSe/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnSe/N-GS) nanocomposites with p-n junctions via one-pot solvothermal process. The structure, morphologies and catalytic performance of the ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS are characterized by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and cathodoluminescence spectrum (CL), respectively. Our experiments show that the as-prepared nanocomposites ZnSe·xN2H4/GS and ZnSe/N-GS exhibit remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities for methylene blue (MB) dye under visible light irradiation. Even importantly, ZnSe/N-GS would make this degradation process more effective. Overall, this facile and catalyst-free synthesize method in this work could provide new insights into the fabrication of other composites based on doped graphene with high performance photocatalysts, which show their potential applications in producing of hydrogen through water splitting, environmental protection issues. PMID:23945131

  3. Optimization of the luminescence emission of Si nanocrystals synthesized from non-stoichiometric Si oxides using a Central Composite Design of the deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morana, B. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sande, J.C.G. de [Dpto. Ingenieria de Circuitos y Sistemas, E.U.I.T. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: andres.rodriguez.dominguez@upm.es; Sangrador, J.; Rodriguez, T. [Dpto. Tecnologia Electronica, E.T.S.I. de Telecomunicacion, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Avella, M.; Jimenez, J. [Dpto. Fisica de la Materia Condensada, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-02-15

    Si oxide films with a controlled excess of Si were deposited on Si wafers by LPCVD using Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} and O{sub 2}, thermally annealed to 1100 deg. C for 1 h to form Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO{sub 2} and subsequently annealed at 450 deg. C in forming gas. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. The excess of Si in the as-deposited samples, ranging from 0 to 70% in volume, was obtained from the ellipsometry data analysis. After annealing at 1100 deg. C, the samples show a luminescence band (peaking at 665 nm) at 80 K and at room temperature which is associated to the presence of Si nanocrystals. The growth rate, the excess of Si incorporated to the films and the intensity of the luminescence band were modelled using a Face-Centered Central Composite Design as a function of the main deposition variables (pressure, 185-300 mTorr; temperature, 250-400 deg. C; Si{sub 2}H{sub 6}/O{sub 2} flow ratio, 2-5) aiming to control the growth process and the incorporation of Si in excess as well as to determine the experimental conditions that yield the samples with the maximum intensity of the luminescence emission.

  4. Wafer-scale epitaxial lift-off of optoelectronic grade GaN from a GaN substrate using a sacrificial ZnO interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Akhil; Rogers, David J.; Ton-That, Cuong; Zhu, Liangchen; Phillips, Matthew R.; Sundaram, Suresh; Gautier, Simon; Moudakir, Tarik; El-Gmili, Youssef; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Sandana, Vinod E.; Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Bove, Philippe; Prior, Kevin A.; Djebbour, Zakaria; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2016-08-01

    Full 2 inch GaN epilayers were lifted off GaN and c-sapphire substrates by preferential chemical dissolution of sacrificial ZnO underlayers. Modification of the standard epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process by supporting the wax host with a glass substrate proved key in enabling full wafer scale-up. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction confirmed that intact epitaxial GaN had been transferred to the glass host. Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis of the bottom surface of the lifted-off GaN layer revealed strong near-band-edge (3.33 eV) emission indicating a superior optical quality for the GaN which was lifted off the GaN substrate. This modified ELO approach demonstrates that previous theories proposing that wax host curling was necessary to keep the ELO etch channel open do not apply to the GaN/ZnO system. The unprecedented full wafer transfer of epitaxial GaN to an alternative support by ELO offers the perspective of accelerating industrial adoption of the expensive GaN substrate through cost-reducing recycling.

  5. Spectral and surface investigations on SrZnO2:Tb3+ nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SrZnO2: Tb3+ nanophosphor was synthesized through a combustion process using metal nitrates as precursors and urea as fuel. The nanocrystals have sizes ranging from 25 nm to 30 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra were utilized to characterize the present samples. Under UV excitation, it shows several bands centered at 487, 544, 588 and 624 nm, which result from 5D4→7FJ (J = 6, 5, 4 and 3) transitions of Tb3+, and the green emission band (5D4→7F5) located at 544 nm is dominant. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique was used to study oxygen related defects and the surface chemical composition. Surface chemical study suggests that oxygen vacancies may be generated by surface shrinkage due to the size reduction. A surface sensitive analytical technique namely time of flight-secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), respectively was used for imaging which shows an uniform distribution of Tb3+ in the SrZnO2. (author)

  6. Study of the Distribution of Radiative Defects and Reabsorption of the UV in ZnO Nanorods-Organic Hybrid White Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Soomro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the low temperature aqueous chemical growth (ACG method was employed to synthesized ZnO nanorods to process-organic hybrid white light emitting diodes (LEDs on glass substrate. Electroluminescence spectra of the hybrid white LEDs demonstrate the combination of emission bands arising from radiative recombination of the organic and ZnO nanorods (NRs. Depth resolved luminescence was used for probing the nature and spatial distribution of radiative defects, especially to study the re-absorption of ultraviolet (UV in this hybrid white LEDs structure. At room temperature the cathodoluminescence (CL spectra intensity of the deep band emission (DBE is increased with the increase of the electron beam penetration depth due to the increase of defect concentration at the ZnO NRs/Polyfluorene (PFO interface and probably due to internal absorption of the UV. A strong dependency between the intensity ratio of the UV to the DBE bands and the spatial distribution of the radiative defects in ZnO NRs has been found. The comparison of the CL spectra from the PFO and the ZnO NRs demonstrate that PFO has a very weak violet-blue emission band, which confirms that most of the white emission components originate from the ZnO NRs.

  7. Observations of exciton-surface plasmon polariton coupling and exciton-phonon coupling in InGaN/GaN quantum wells covered with Au, Ag, and Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Y.; Rich, D. H.; Keller, S.; DenBaars, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    The coupling of excitons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and longitudinal optical (LO) phonons in Au-, Ag-, and Al-coated InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple and single quantum wells (SQWs) was studied with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) and CL wavelength imaging techniques. Excitons were generated in the metal-coated SQWs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures which are opaque to laser/light excitation. The Purcell enhancement factor (Fp) at low temperatures was obtained by the direct measurement of changes in the carrier lifetime caused by the SQW excitonSPP coupling. The deposition of thin films of Al, Ag, and Au on an InGaN/GaN QW enabled a comparison of excitonSPP coupling for energy ranges in which the surface plasmon energy is greater than, approximately equal to, and less than the QW excitonic transition energy. We investigated the temperature dependence of the Huang-Rhys factors for exciton-to-LO phonon coupling for the metal-covered and bare samples. CL imaging and spectroscopy with variable excitation densities are used to examine the spatial correlations between CL emission intensity, carrier lifetime, QW excitonic emission energy, and the Huang-Rhys factor, all of which are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the In composition and formation of InN-rich centers.

  8. Improvement of doping efficiency in Mg-Al0.14Ga0.86N/GaN superlattices with AlN interlayer by suppressing donor-like defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ning-Yang; Chen Wei-Hua; Hu Xiao-Dong; Liu Lei; Wang Lei; Yang Wei; Li Ding; Li Lei; Cao Wen-Yu; Lu Ci-Mang; Wan Cheng-Hao

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism for the improvement of p-type doping efficiency in Mg-Al0.14Gao.86N/GaN superlattices (SLs).It is shown that the hole concentration of SLs increases by nearly an order of magnitude,from 1.1 × 1017to 9.3×1017 cm-3,when an AlN interlayer is inserted to modulate the strains.Schr(o)dinger-Poisson self-consistent calculations suggest that such an increase could be attributed to the reduction of donor-like defects caused by the strain modulation induced by the AlN interlayer.Additionally,the donor-acceptor pair emission exhibits a remarkable decrease in intensity of the cathodoluminescence spectrum for SLs with an AlN interlayer.This supports the theoretical calculations and indicates that the strain modulation of SLs could be beneficial to the donor-like defect suppression as well as the p-type doping efficiency improvement.

  9. Determination of the Optimal Shell Thickness for Self-Catalyzed GaAs/AlGaAs Core-Shell Nanowires on Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songmuang, R; Giang, Le Thuy Thanh; Bleuse, J; Den Hertog, M; Niquet, Y M; Dang, Le Si; Mariette, H

    2016-06-01

    We present a set of experimental results showing a combination of various effects, that is, surface recombination velocity, surface charge traps, strain, and structural defects, that govern the carrier dynamics of self-catalyzed GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) grown on a Si(111) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Time-resolved photoluminescence of NW ensemble and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence of single NWs reveal that emission intensity, decay time, and carrier diffusion length of the GaAs NW core strongly depend on the AlGaAs shell thickness but in a nonmonotonic fashion. Although 7 nm AlGaAs shell can efficiently suppress the surface recombination velocity of the GaAs NW core, the influence of the surface charge traps and the strain between the core and the shell that redshift the luminescence of the GaAs NW core remain observable in the whole range of the shell thickness. In addition, the band bending effect induced by the surface charge traps can alter the scattering of the excess carriers inside the GaAs NW core at the core/shell interface. If the AlGaAs shell thickness is larger than 50 nm, the luminescence efficiency of the GaAs NW cores deteriorates, ascribed to defect formation inside the AlGaAs shell evidenced by transmission electron microscopy.

  10. Strain Loading Mode Dependent Bandgap Deformation Potential in ZnO Micro/Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuewen; Liao, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ren; Lin, Fang; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Liu, Yingkai; Guo, Wanlin; Yu, Dapeng

    2015-12-22

    The electronic-mechanical coupling in semiconductor nanostructures under different strain loading modes can modulate their photoelectric properties in different manners. Here, we report the systematic investigation on the strain mode dependent bandgap deformation potential of ZnO micro/nanowires under both uniaxial tensile and bending strains at room temperature. Uniaxial stretching-photoluminescence results show that the deformation potential of the smaller ZnO nanowire (with diameter d = 260 nm) is -30.6 meV/%, and is close to the bulk value, whereas it deviates the bulk value and becomes to be -10.6 meV/% when the wire diameter is increased to d = 2 μm. This unconventional size dependence stems from surface effect induced inhomogeneous strain in the surface layer and the core of the ZnO micro/nanowires under uniaxial tension. For bending load mode, the in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscope analysis reveals that the local strain distributes linearly in the bending cross section. Further cathodoluminescence measurements on a bending ZnO microwire (d = 1.8 μm) demonstrate that the deformation potential is -27 meV/%, whose absolute value is much larger than that of the ZnO microwire under uniaxial tension. Further analysis reveals that the distinct deformation potentials originate from the different deforming modes in ZnO micro/nanowires under bending or uniaxial tensile strains. Our results should facilitate the design of flexible optoelectronic nanodevices. PMID:26517647

  11. Characterization of novel powder and thin film RGB phosphors for field emissions display application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectral response, brightness and outgassing characteristics of new, low-voltage phosphors for application in field-emission flat-panel displays, are presented. The tested phosphor materials include combustion synthesized powders and thin films prepared by RF-diode or magnetron sputtering, laser ablation and molecular beam epitaxy. These cathodoluminescent materials are tested with e-beam excitation at currents up to 50 μA within the 200-2000V (e.g. open-quotes low-voltageclose quotes) and 3-8 kV (e.g. open-quotes medium voltageclose quotes) ranges. The spectral coordinates are compared to commercial low-voltage P22 phosphors. Phosphor outgassing, as a function of time is measured with a residual gas analyzer at fixed 50 μA beam current in the low-voltage range. We find that levels of outgassing stabilize to low values after the first few hours of excitation. The desorption rates measured for powder phosphor layers with different thickness are compared to desorption from thin films

  12. Bright, water-soluble CeF3 photo-, cathodo-, and X-ray luminescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, water-soluble CeF3 nanoparticles with small size and narrow size distribution have been synthesized using a simple co-precipitation method without any ligands. Size control of nanoparticles from 13 ± 2 to 9 ± 2 nm was achieved by varying the reaction time. Colloidal properties have been found to vary with pH and, independently, with dilution. The photoluminescence of the as-synthesized nanoparticles shows a highly photostable UV/Visible fluorescence band due to allowed 5d–4f transitions, also observed in the X-ray luminescence spectrum. This band is suitable for X-ray excitation of a range of photosensitizers. The photoluminescence quantum yield of nanoparticles was also determined to be 31 %. Using the measured fluorescence decay time of 25 ns, the radiative lifetime of Ce in CeF3 was found to be 80.6 ns. Both photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence emission are affected by the reaction time and measurement temperature. Electron-beam-induced defect annealing is also observed

  13. Effect of Au/SiO2 substrate on the structural and optical properties of gallium nitride grown by CVD

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Ramos-Carrazco; R Garcia-Gutierrez; M Barboza-Flores; R Rangel; O E Contreras; D Berman-Mendoza

    2014-12-01

    The improvement of the growth of thick GaN films using a fused silica wafer covered with a thin gold layer by chemical vapour deposition at 800 °C is reported. In order to compare the surface properties, crystalline quality, micromilling performance and luminescence, the characterization of a GaN film grown on a silicon wafer is presented as well. The different morphologies of the surface observed on the GaN films are compared on each substrate and the resulting microstructures are presented in detail. High resolution TEM images of the GaN films show the main crystallographic planes characterizing these structures. The wurtzite structure was determined for each sample using the substrates of Au/SiO2 and Si (100) from the XRD patterns. Also, the re-deposition effect after ion milling of the GaN films is reported. The performance of ionic beam on the surface of the GaN thick films for the geometries patterning of rectangular, circular and annular with two different ion doses was compared. Cathodoluminescence spectra showed that the top surfaces of the samples emit strong UV emissions peaked at 3.35 and 3.32 eV which are related to the Y4 and Y6 transitions.

  14. Facile synthesis of Bi/BiOCl composite with selective photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongling; Zhang, Min; Lu, Qiuju; Chen, Junfang [Research Institute for New Material Technology, Department of Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Science, Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Liu, Bitao, E-mail: liubitao007@163.com [Research Institute for New Material Technology, Department of Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Science, Chongqing University of Arts and Science, Chongqing 402160 (China); Wang, Zhaofeng, E-mail: zhaofeng.wang@uconn.edu [Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering and Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a novel and facile method to fabricate Bi/BiOCl composites with dominant (001) facets in situ via a microwave reduction route. Different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission scanning electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR), cathodoluminescence spectrum (CL), and lifetime, have been employed to investigate the structure, optical and electrical properties of the Bi/BiOCl composites. The experimental results show that the introduction of Bi particles can efficiently enhance the photocatalytic performance of BiOCl for the degradation of several dyes under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, especially for negative charged methyl orange (MO). Unlike the UV photocatalytic performance, such Bi/BiOCl composite shows higher degradation efficiency towards rhodamine B (RhB) than MO and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. This special photocatalytic performance can be ascribed to the synergistic effect between oxygen vacancies and Bi particles. This work provides new insights about the photodegradation mechanisms of MO, MB and RhB under UV and visible light irradiation, which would be helpful to guide the selection of an appropriate catalyst for other pollutants. - Highlights: • Bi/BiOCl composites were synthesized via a microwave reduction. • Tunable selectivity photocatalytic activity can be achieved. • Photodegradation mechanism under UV and visible light were proposed.

  15. Vibrational and optical spectroscopies integrated with environmental transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we present a measurement platform for collecting multiple types of spectroscopy data during high-resolution environmental transmission electron microscopy observations of dynamic processes. Such coupled measurements are made possible by a broadband, high-efficiency, free-space optical system. The critical element of the system is a parabolic mirror, inserted using an independent hollow rod and placed below the sample holder which can focus a light on the sample and/or collect the optical response. We demonstrate the versatility of this optical setup by using it to combine in situ atomic-scale electron microscopy observations with Raman spectroscopy. The Raman data is also used to measure the local temperature of the observed sample area. Other applications include, but are not limited to: cathodo- and photoluminescence spectroscopy, and use of the laser as a local, high-rate heating source. - Highlights: • Broadband, high-efficiency design adaptable to other electron microscopes. • Raman spectroscopy integrated with environmental transmission electron microscopy. • Raman spectra peak frequency shifts enable measurement of local sample temperature. • Multiple types of optical spectroscopy enabled, e.g. cathodoluminescence

  16. Origin of modern quartzarenite beach sands in a temperate climate, Florida and Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Joseph L.; McBride, Earle F.

    2007-10-01

    Quartzarenite coastal sands extending from eastern Louisiana eastward to Apalachee Bay, Florida, are anomalous: their position 7° north of the Tropic of Cancer contrasts with most other known modern quartzarenites, most of which are in a tropical setting. To determine the origin of these quartzarenite beach sands, we compared the mineralogy of samples taken from Alabama and Florida beaches, rivers that supply sand to the coast, and well cuttings representative of sandstone bedrock exposed in the Alabama coastal plain. To help assess the abundance of recycled quartz, and accepting the conventional wisdom that rounded sand-size quartz grains are recycled, we quantified the roundness of quartz grains in thin sections of river, beach, and well samples. We also determined the abundance of recycled grains with authigenic quartz using cathodoluminescence. River sands on Precambrian and Paleozoic bedrock in the study area have subarkose and sublitharenite compositions. However, as far as 200 km inland from the coast, river sands have attained quartzarenite composition and all rivers are presently delivering sand with at least 97% quartz to the coast. Rivers develop quartzarenite sand composition where they traverse poorly consolidated Tertiary sandstones, all of which we sampled are composed of > 95% quartz. Published experimental work indicates that abrasional rounding of sand-size quartz by rivers is insignificant and rounding in beaches is extremely slow. Hence, the abundance of quartz grains with some degree of rounding (96% for beaches; > 75% for rivers) further attests to the abundance of recycled quartz.

  17. Luminescence spectra of lead tungstate, spodumene and topaz crystals Thermoluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, V

    2002-01-01

    A detailed set of thermoluminescence, cathodoluminescence and radioluminescence (TL, CLTL and RLTL) data of lead tungstate, Spodumene and Topaz have been reported for the first time over a wide temperature range from 25 to 500K. Lead tungstate (PbWO sub 4), a widely known scintillating material, gives TL glow peaks which are related to complex defect centres. Doping of this crystal with trivalent rare earth ions (La sup 3 sup + , Y sup 3 sup +) reduces the slow component of the emission thereby making it more suitable for its applications. The pentavalent dopants on the other hand, enhance the green emission and quench the blue emission at temperatures 100K. The origin and the irradiation temperature definitely have an effect on the spectrum. No strong relationship could be derived from the dose dependence data. Two less studied minerals, Spodumene and Topaz have also been investigated with the luminescence techniques. The glow peak near 250degC is thought to have originated from Mn sup 2 sup + centres. As th...

  18. Low defect InGaAs quantum well selectively grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on Si(100) 300 mm wafers for next generation non planar devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipro, R.; Gorbenko, V. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, F-38000 France CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000, France CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Baron, T., E-mail: Thierry.baron@cea.fr; Martin, M.; Moeyaert, J.; David, S.; Bassani, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LTM, F-38000 France CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Bogumilowicz, Y.; Barnes, J. P.; Rochat, N.; Loup, V.; Vizioz, C.; Allouti, N. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000, France CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Chauvin, N. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL)-UMR5270-CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Bao, X. Y.; Ye, Z.; Pin, J. B.; Sanchez, E. [Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Avenue, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of GaAs, InGaAs, and AlGaAs on nominal 300 mm Si(100) at temperatures below 550 °C was studied using the selective aspect ratio trapping method. We clearly show that growing directly GaAs on a flat Si surface in a SiO{sub 2} cavity with an aspect ratio as low as 1.3 is efficient to completely annihilate the anti-phase boundary domains. InGaAs quantum wells were grown on a GaAs buffer and exhibit room temperature micro-photoluminescence. Cathodoluminescence reveals the presence of dark spots which could be associated with the presence of emerging dislocation in a direction parallel to the cavity. The InGaAs layers obtained with no antiphase boundaries are perfect candidates for being integrated as channels in n-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), while the low temperatures used allow the co-integration of p-type MOSFET.

  19. Characterization of the carrot defect in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, J.; Henry, A.; McNally, P. J.; Bergman, J. P.

    2010-05-01

    Characterization of the epitaxial defect known as the carrot defect was performed in thick 4H-SiC epilayers. A large number of carrot defects have been studied using different experimental techniques such as Nomarski optical microscopy, KOH etching, cathodoluminescence and synchrotron white beam X-ray topography. This has revealed that carrot defects appear in many different shapes and structures in the epilayers. Our results support the previous assignment of the carrot defect as related to a prismatic stacking fault. However, we have observed carrot defects with and without a visible threading dislocation related etch pit in the head region, after KOH etching. Polishing of epilayers in a few μm steps in combination with etching in molten KOH and imaging using Nomarski optical microscope has been used to find the geometry and origin of the carrot defects in different epilayers. The defects were found to originate both at the epi-substrate interface and during the epitaxial growth. Different sources of the carrot defect have been observed at the epi-substrate interface, which result in different structures and surfaces appearance of the defect in the epilayer. Furthermore, termination of the carrot defect inside the epilayer and the influence of substrate surface damage and growth conditions on the density of carrot defects are studied.

  20. Effect of GaAs substrate orientation on the growth kinetic of GaN layer grown by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laifi, J.; Chaaben, N.; Bouazizi, H.; Fourati, N.; Zerrouki, C.; El Gmili, Y.; Bchetnia, A.; Salvestrini, J. P.; El Jani, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the kinetic growth of low temperature GaN nucleation layers (LT-GaN) grown on GaAs substrates with different crystalline orientations. GaN nucleation layers were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a temperature range of 500-600 °C on oriented (001), (113), (112) and (111) GaAs substrates. The growth was in-situ monitored by laser reflectometry (LR). Using an optical model, including time-dependent surface roughness and growth rate profiles, simulations were performed to best approach the experimental reflectivity curves. Results are discussed and correlated with ex-situ analyses, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-visible reflectance (SR). We show that the GaN nucleation layers growth results the formation of GaN islands whose density and size vary greatly with both growth temperature and substrate orientation. Arrhenius plots of the growth rate for each substrate give values of activation energy varying from 0.20 eV for the (001) orientation to 0.35 eV for the (113) orientation. Using cathodoluminescence (CL), we also show that high temperature (800-900 °C) GaN layers grown on top of the low temperature (550 °C) GaN nucleation layers, grown themselves on the GaAs substrates with different orientations, exhibit cubic or hexagonal phase depending on both growth temperature and substrate orientation.

  1. Structural origin of V-defects and correlation with localized excitonic centers in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. H.; Elsass, C. R.; Abare, A.; Mack, M.; Keller, S.; Petroff, P. M.; DenBaars, S. P.; Speck, J. S.; Rosner, S. J.

    1998-02-01

    In the growth of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures, a novel defect (called the "V-defect") initiates at threading dislocations in one of the first quantum wells in a MQW stack. This defect is common to almost all InGaN MQW heterostructures. The nature of the V-defect was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning TEM (STEM), and low-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) on a series of In0.20Ga0.80N/GaN MQW samples. The structure of the V-defect includes buried side-wall quantum wells (on the {101¯1} planes) and an open hexagonal inverted pyramid which is defined by the six {101¯1} planes. Thus, in cross section this defect appears as an open "V". The formation of the V-defect is kinetically controlled by reduced Ga incorporation on the pyramid walls ({101¯1} planes). The V-defect is correlated with the localized excitonic recombination centers that give rise to a long-wavelength shoulder in photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. This long-wavelength shoulder has the following characteristics: (i) its intensity is correlated with the side-wall quantum wells; (ii) the temperature independence of the full width at half maximum strongly supports a localized exciton recombination process.

  2. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A.; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies.

  3. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system. PMID:26218566

  4. Influence of Rare Earth Elements on Luminescent Properties of Y2SiO5:Tb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Huan; Liao Fuhui; Zhou Jingjing; Jing Xiping

    2005-01-01

    Photoluminescent(PL) and cathodoluminescent(CL) properties of rare earths (Sc3+, La3+, Gd3+ and Lu3+) doped (Y0.97Tb0.03)2SiO5 were studied. Rare earth doping clearly influences PL and CL properties of Y2SiO5:Tb. For La3+ doped system, PL intensity increases nearly 10% at x=0.05 whereas for Lu3+ doped system, the intensity increases about 20% at x=0.20. Gd3+ doping and Sc3+ doping reduce the intensity; at x=0.3, it is reduced about 30% for Gd3+ doped system and about 15% for Sc3+ doped system, respectively. Quenching concentration of activator became higher in rare earth doped samples, which may be understood by that the rare earth dopants might dilute the concentration of the activator. Additionally, doping also influences the color saturation of Y2SiO5:Tb. Sc3+, La3+, and Gd3+ doping improve the color saturation, whereas Lu3+ doping decreases the color saturation. CL measurements show that CL intensity increases for all rare earths doped systems. The energy transfer from Gd3+ to Tb3+ was discussed.

  5. Improved performance of semi-polar (11-22) GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on SiNx interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joocheol; Jang, Jongjin; Hwang, Jungwhan; Jung, Chilsung; Kim, Jinwan; Lee, Kyungjae; Lim, Hyoungjin; Nam, Okhyun

    2013-05-01

    We report on the effectiveness of the in-situ SiNx nanomask in reducing defects in semipolar (11-22) GaN films grown on m-plane sapphire. The properties of the semipolar InGaN/GaN double quantum well (DQW) LEDs were improved with a high-quality (11-22) GaN epilayer grown on the SiNx interlayer. High resolution X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum of both on-axis and off-axis planes on SiNx interlayer. The room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) band-edge emission intensity of (11-22) GaN grown on the SiNx interlayer was approximately 4 times higher than that of GaN without the SiNx interlayer, which suggests reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers. The optical power of LEDs with the SiNx interlayer was 200% and 270% higher at injection currents of 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively, compared to the reference LEDs.

  6. Electronic coupling in ZnO/MgZnO double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zippel, Jan; Lange, Martin; Benndorf, Gabriele; Lenzner, Joerg; Hochmuth, Holger; Lorenz, Michael; Grundmann, Marius [Universitaet Leipzig (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II

    2009-07-01

    The band-gap of ZnO can be tuned from about 3 eV to 4.5 eV by alloying with Cd or Mg, respectively. This allows the realization of quantum well (QW) structures emitting between the blue and the near UV (NUV) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this contribution we focus on the electronic coupling of ZnO/Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O double quantum well (DQW) structures. Besides structures with two identical wells, we fabricated DQW*s with different thickness. All samples were grown by pulsed-laser deposition on a-plane sapphire substrate. The thickness of the barrier between the two QWs was varied from 1 nm up to 6 nm for well widths of 2 nm and 4.5 nm. The magnesium content (x) in the barrier was determined by photoluminescence measurements to be about 14% for all samples. All samples are investigated using cathodoluminescence at room temperature and at 10 K. With decreasing barrier thickness between the two QWs we observed a clear red shift of the QW luminescence proving the coupling between the QWs at room temperature. The observed shift is in good agreement with effective mass theory. For the structures with different well width, an additional peak between the two direct excitonic transitions occurs.

  7. Characterisation of irradiation damage and dopant distribution in synthetic diamonds by luminescence micro-spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, S J

    2002-01-01

    ground and two excited states. The lower energy excited state has a slow rate of decay and the second, higher energy excited state, which is thermally populated, has a high rate of decay to the ground state. The higher energy excited state has a spectrum with a local mode and the centre is metastably enhanced by exposure to UV light. DBI is not dependent on the isotope of boron used to elope the diamonds. The lines at 650.2 nm and 667.8 nm also come from the same centre as each other, designated DB2. The CVD B-doped diamond samples showed changes in boron level by approximately an order of magnitude on scales smaller than 5 mu m. These differences in boron level are due to different surface facet orientations of the grains that comprise the sample, and different facets have different rates of uptake of boron during growth. A simple, qualitative, way of showing the differences in boron level has been shown by using cathodoluminescence (CL) topography, which agrees with results from UV CL spectroscopy. Raman sp...

  8. Surface state of Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb phosphor under electron beam bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, A.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2012-06-01

    The surface state of Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb phosphor was determined before and after 27 h of prolonged electron beam exposure. The electron irradiation was carried out at a base pressure of 2.3 × 10-8 Torr and an oxygen pressure of 1.0 × 10-6 Torr. New surface layers were formed after the chemisorbed species were removed as a result of electron stimulated surface chemical reactions. The rate of the removal of the chemisorbed species from the phosphor's surface during prolonged electron irradiation was affected by the background working atmosphere as measured with Auger electron spectroscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The CL intensity of the Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb stabilized after removal of the chemisorbed species and stayed constant during further electron irradiation, indicating that this phosphor is good for the technology used in field emission displays. There was an increase in the Al, Y, O and Tb Auger peak intensities pointing to the formation of a complicated surface structure that was probably a combination of more than one chemical compound. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggested electron-beam induced formation of new interleave oxide layers, such as AlOx, YOx and Y(Al,Ga)O3 on the surface. These oxide layers acted as a protective layer inhibiting further CL intensity degradation during prolonged electron irradiation.

  9. Luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-activated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshabalala, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Cho, S.-H.; Park, J.-K. [Nano-Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Cheongryang, Seoul 130-650 (Korea, Republic of); Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I.M.; Kroon, R.E.; Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M., E-mail: ntwaeab@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+} co-activated ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 Degree-Sign C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub 5} transitions of Tb{sup 3+}. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Tb{sup 3+}. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  10. Luminescence enhancement of ZnGa 2O 4:Mn 2+ by Ge 4+ and Li + doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. S.; Park, H. L.; Kim, G. C.; Kim, T. W.; Hwang, Y. H.; Kim, H. K.; Mho, S. I.; Han, S. D.

    2003-05-01

    Structural and optical properties of ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+ and ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The XRD patterns show that Ge-doped ZnGa 2O 4 has a spinel phase and its lattice constant increases with respect to ZnGa 2O 4. Emission wavelength shifts from 400 to 360 nm in comparison with ZnGa 2O 4 when Ge is doped in ZnGa 2O 4 and a peak related with oxygen defect was observed in Ge-doped ZnGa 2O 4. The CL luminance of ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors is seven times brighter than that of ZnGa 2O 4:Mn 2+. This drastic luminance improvement can be attributed to Ge doping in ZnGa 2O 4 acting as donor ion and Li doping resulting in increasing conductivity of ZnGa 2O 4. These results indicate that ZnGa 2O 4:Ge 4+, Li +, Mn 2+ phosphors hold promise for potential applications in field-emission display devices with high brightness operating in green spectral regions.

  11. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshabalala, K. G.; Cho, S.-H.; Park, J.-K.; Pitale, Shreyas S.; Nagpure, I. M.; Kroon, R. E.; Swart, H. C.; Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce3+-Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 °C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl2O4. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce3+ and Tb3+ show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  12. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a solution combustion method was used to prepare green emitting Ce3+–Tb3+ co-activated ZnAl2O4 phosphor. The samples were annealed at 700 °C in air or hydrogen atmosphere to improve their crystallinity and optical properties. X-ray diffraction study confirmed that both as-prepared and post-preparation annealed samples crystallized in the well known cubic spinel structure of ZnAl2O4. An agglomeration of irregular platelet-like particles whose surfaces were encrusted with smaller spheroidal particles was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluorescence data collected from the annealed samples with different concentrations of Ce3+ and Tb3+ show the enhanced green emission at 543 nm associated with 5D4→7F5 transitions of Tb3+. The enhancement was attributed to energy transfer from Ce3+ to Tb3+. Possible mechanism of energy transfer via a down conversion process is discussed. Furthermore, cathodoluminescence (CL) intensity degradation of this phosphor was also investigated and the degradation data suggest that the material was chemically stable and the CL intensity was also stable after 10 h of irradiation by a beam of high energy electrons.

  13. Intrinsic and impurity luminescence and multiplication of excitations in complex oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission bands at 5.1 and 5.0 eV have been detected at 9 K in the cathodoluminescence spectra of pure and doped with Eu2+ ions BaMgAl10O17 and SrMgAl10O17 phosphors, respectively. A comparison of these emissions with the spectra of pure and doped MgO, α-Al2O3 and MgAl2O4 crystals allowed to interpret the VUV emissions of phosphors as the recombination of conduction electrons with the holes localized at oxygen ions near Mg2+ substituting Al3+ in spinel blocks. The creation regions of two or three electron-hole pairs by one photon of 22-32 eV that causes the ionization of the 2p6 or 2s2 shells of oxygen in spinel blocks, has been separated in the excitation spectra of blue and UV emissions of BaMgAl10O17 at 9 K. Besides thoroughly investigated 4f7→ 4f65d1 electron transitions in Eu2+ centres (absorption at 3.5-6.2 eV), the creation region of the electronic excitations connected with the excitation and ionization of oxygen ions nearby Eu2+ or Mg2+ ions (6.6-7.8 eV) can be tentatively separated in the excitation spectra of steady luminescence and recombination phosphorescence of SrMgAl10O17:Eu

  14. Ultraviolet emission and Fano resonance in doped nano-alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Oliveira, Samuel L.; Rand, Stephen C.; Azurdia, Jose A.; Hinklin, Tom R.; Marchal, Julien C.; Laine, Richard M.

    2007-03-01

    Emission properties of Al2O3 nanopowders, synthesized by flame spray pyrolysis with Mg, Cr, and Sc dopants, are investigated, principally in the protein lysing range of 250-290nm (UV-C band). As expected, point defect densities depend on crystal phase and irradiation history and strongly influence emission properties at short wavelengths. Ultraviolet and visible emission intensities of aggregated point defect centers change upon electron beam exposure at high current densities, but ultraviolet emission from point defects is persistently enhanced over a narrow range of Mg-doped Al2O3 compositions slightly off spinel stoichiometry. At 40% Mg concentration, emission intensities at 320nm rise by over an order of magnitude after beam exposure. Quantum efficiency for cathodoluminescence in the 250-300nm range nevertheless remains low. Point defect ionization at high currents shifts the emission of Al2O3 nanopowders to the infrared and is shown to be correlated with a ubiquitous Fano resonance in ionized Cr-vacancy complexes. This base line spectroscopy permits us to attribute the very high quantum efficiency of UV-C luminescence in annealed Sc3+:Al2O3 primarily to the formation of α-phase Al2O3.

  15. Systematic Tuning of the Luminescent Properties of Self-Activated ZnGa 2O 4 Phosphors by Cd Ion Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Ming; Chen, Y.-W.

    2000-02-01

    The effect of host compositions on the luminescent properties of spinel-type ZnGa2O4 phosphors was investigated by systematic substitution of Cd2+ for Zn2+ in the host lattice. A continuous solid solution with the composition (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 (0≤x≤1.0) was synthesized at 950°C as self-activated phosphors, as indicated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. With increasing substitution of Cd2+ the emission and excitation wavelengths (λem and λexc) of self-activated (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 were observed to exhibit a red shift, as indicated by photoluminescence spectral analysis. Similar results were also confirmed by cathodoluminescence data. Our observations are attributed to the systematic narrowing of the energy gap of the host attributed to expanding lattice dimensions induced by Cd2+ substitution. A CIE chromaticity diagram manifests the effect of Cd2+ doping on variation of hue for the (Zn1-xCdx)Ga2O4 gallate phosphors.

  16. CL from impurities and point defects in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A.; Herrera, M.

    2013-03-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is used to investigate the nature of defects and impurities generated in ZnO:Mn nanorods grown by the hydrothermal method. The incorporation of Mn in the ZnO nanorods generated an increase in the surface roughness and the formation of an Mn complex-compound of spinel ZnMn2O4. CL measurements acquired at room temperature revealed two emissions at 3.2 and 2.3 eV, associated with the ZnO near-band-edge emission and the luminescence of spinel ZnMn2O4, respectively. CL spectra at 100 K recorded the Mn2+ ion d-d transitions as a broad CL emission, with energies between 2.6 and 3.1 eV. The well-known ZnO yellow emission (2.0 eV) was also present in the samples, recording a relative intensity ratio I2.0/I2.33 that increased when the temperature was dropped at 100 K. A thermal annealing of the samples at 400 °C, in Ar atmosphere, generated strong decreases in the intensity of the defects and Mn-related emissions, recording an intensity ratio Iband-edge/Idefects of about 15. Diffusion of Mn from the ZnO surface to the bulk is proposed to explain this effect.

  17. Manganese-activated luminescence in ZnGa2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Feng; Lin, Pang

    1996-05-01

    Manganese-activated ZnGa2O4, prepared at a sintering temperature of 1375 °C with 0.1% MnO dopant, emitted red and green light with peaks at 666 and 508 nm when excited with a laser source (325 nm). The luminescence centers of red emission were ascribed to Mn4+ ions in the octahedral (B) sites of spinel-structure zinc gallate. Monitored at these two peaks, the sample exhibited absorption bands at 342 and 464 nm (for red) and 245 and 290 nm (for green) when excited with radiation from a xenon discharge lamp, indicating an excitation process occurring in Mn4+ ions distinct from that of Mn2+ ions (in A sites) which were known to be responsible for the green emission. Cathodoluminescence spectra showed that the integrated intensity of an UV band (peak at 349 nm) increased steadily with beam current while the green light intensity saturated at high current ranges. Several possible saturation mechanisms were discussed. The variation of the intensities versus current was interpreted and formulated based on an energy process between Ga-O groups and Mn2+ ions. Good fittings between the calculated curves and measured intensity data were attained with appropriate parameter values in the calculation. Assuming a resonant transfer process with electric dipole-dipole interaction prevailing between the Mn2+ and Ga3+ ions, a critical interaction distance of ˜9.9 Å for the ions was derived from an associated relation and the parameters used.

  18. Comparative study of radiation-induced damage in magnesium aluminate spinel by means of IL, CL and RBS/C techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwik, Iwona; Jagielski, Jacek; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Jozwik, Przemyslaw; Ratajczak, Renata; Panczer, Gerard; Moncoffre, Nathalie; Wajler, Anna; Sidorowicz, Agata; Thomé, Lionel

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study of damage accumulation in magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) has been conducted using ionoluminescence (IL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry/channeling (RBS/C) techniques. MgAl2O4 single crystal and polycrystalline samples were irradiated with 320 keV Ar+ ions at fluencies ranging from 1 × 1012 to 2 × 1016 cm-2 in order to create various levels of radiation damage. RBS/C measurements provided quantitative data about damage concentration in the samples. These values were then compared to the luminescence measurements. The results obtained by IL and RBS/C methods demonstrate a two-step character of damage buildup process. The CL data analysis points to the three-step damage accumulation mechanism involving the first defect transformation at fluencies of about 1013 cm-2 and second at about 1015 cm-2. The rate of changes resulting from the formation of nonluminescent recombination centers is clearly nonlinear and cannot be described in terms of continuous accumulation of point defects. Both, IL and CL techniques, appear as new, complementary tools bringing new possibilities in the damage accumulation studies in single- and polycrystalline materials.

  19. ZnO-Sn:ZnO core-shell nanowires and ZnO-Zn2SnO4 comb-like nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruey-Chi; Hung, Jian-Shiung

    2010-09-01

    Novel single-crystalline ZnO-Sn:ZnO (SZO) core-shell nanowires and ZnO-Zn2SnO4 (ZTO) comb-like nanocomposites were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition at a low temperature of 650 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show the diameters and lengths of the core-shell nanowires are in ranges of 25-60 nm and 300-500 nm, respectively. The atomic ratios of Sn to (Zn + Sn) in the central and shell parts of the nanowire are 0.4 at.% and 6.1 at.%, respectively. The ZnO-ZTO comb-like nanocomposites possess ZnO nanocombs with ZTO nano-layers deposited on both sides of them. The ZnO branches and ZTO layers are single-crystalline wurtzite and spinel structures growing along the [0002] and [111] directions, respectively. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence measurements show the nanocomposites exhibit strong ultraviolet (UV) emissions at 300, 384 nm, and a broad green emission. The novel luminescence shows promising singularity for opto-electronic applications. PMID:21133084

  20. High-power low-droop violet semipolar (303¯1¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with thick active layer design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devices grown on nonpolar and semipolar planes of GaN offer key performance advantages over devices grown on the conventional c-plane, including reduced polarization fields. This allows for a wider design space on semipolar planes for light emitting diodes (LEDs) to address the problem of efficiency droop at high current densities. LED structures with very thick (10–100 nm) InGaN single-quantum-well/double heterostructure active regions were grown using conventional metal organic chemical vapor deposition on semipolar (303¯1¯) free-standing GaN substrates and processed and packaged using conventional techniques. Simulated band diagrams showed reduced polarization fields on the (303¯1¯) plane. The calculated critical thickness for misfit dislocation formation is higher on the (303¯1¯) plane than on other semipolar planes, such as (202¯1¯), allowing for thicker active regions than our previous work to further reduce droop. The higher critical thickness was confirmed with defect characterization via cathodoluminescence. A trend is demonstrated in lower efficiency droop for devices with thicker active regions. Thermal droop characteristics of these devices are also presented. These observed results were utilized to demonstrate over 1 W of output power at a current density of 1 kA/cm2 from a single 0.1 mm2 LED device.

  1. {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} emission of Tb doped sol-gel silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Gusowski, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Kroon, R.E., E-mail: KroonRE@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, IB51, Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Amorphous silica samples doped with 0.1 and 1 mol% of terbium (Tb) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. In addition to the green light associated with {sup 5}D{sub 4}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions of Tb{sup 3+}, the sample containing 0.1 mol% also emitted blue light as a result of {sup 5}D{sub 3}{yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} transitions during photoluminescence (PL) measurements. As a result of concentration quenching this blue emission was not observed for the samples doped with the higher concentration (1 mol%). However the blue {sup 5}D{sub 3} {yields}{sup 7}F{sub J} emission was observed in the 1 mol% doped samples during cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Since a rough calculation indicated that the excitation rate in the CL system where the blue emission is observed may be similar to a laser PL system under conditions where the blue emission is not observed, the difference is attributed to the nature of the excitation sources. It is suggested that during the CL excitation incident electrons can reduce non-luminescent Tb{sup 4+} ions in the silica, substituting for Si{sup 4+} ions, to the excited (Tb{sup 3+}) Low-Asterisk state and that these are responsible for the blue emission, which does not occur during PL excitation.

  2. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  3. Multi-Stage Silicification of Pliocene Wood: Re-Examination of an 1895 Discovery from Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Viney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 1895 discovery of a petrified tree near Clover Creek in south-central Idaho, USA, attracted worldwide attention and resulted in the naming of a new species of ancient oak, Quercinium pliocaenicum Schuster. For more than a century, the discovery has largely been forgotten, even though specimens reside in reputable museums. Reinvestigation of the locality in 2014/2015 resulted in newly-collected specimens and a wealth of new data. Optical microscopy confirms the cellular anatomy used for the original taxonomic study. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive electron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence microscopy reveal details of the mineralization, showing the presence of opal-CT as the primary component, with chalcedony as a lesser constituent. This mineralogy suggests petrifaction occurred in at least two stages, beginning with opalization of cellular tissue, leaving open vessels that became filled with chalcedony during a later mineralization episode. Clover Creek oak represents relict flora growing in a wetter climate before the uplift of the Cascade Range created a rain shadow that caused profound desertification of the inland Pacific Northwest.

  4. Characterization of CdZnTe after argon ion beam bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensalah, H., E-mail: hakima.bensalah@uam.es [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, V. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Plaza, J.L. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Martinez, O. [GdS-Optronlab Group, Departamento Fisica Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Edificio I-D, Paseo de Belen 1, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Crocco, J.; Zheng, Q.; Carcelen, V.; Dieguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Laboratorio de Crecimiento de Cristales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After argon irradiation using low fluence, the defects on surface were removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PL intensity increases after irradiation. This increase should be related to the improved quality of the CdZnTe surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Irradiation process lead to an elimination of Te precipitates from the surfaces of the CdZnTe samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to analyze the effects of argon ion irradiation process on the structure and distribution of Te inclusions in Cd{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Te crystals. The samples were treated with different ion fluences ranging from 2 to 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The state of the samples before and after irradiation were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cathodoluminescence, Photoluminescence, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the irradiation on the surface of the samples was clearly observed by SEM or AFM. Even for small fluences a removal of polishing scratches on the sample surfaces was observed. Likely correlated to this effect, an important enhancement in the luminescence intensity of the irradiated samples was observed. An aggregation effect of the Te inclusions seems to occur due to the Ar bombardment, which are also eliminated from the surfaces for the highest ion fluences used.

  5. Optoelectronic properties of eutectic-metal-bonded (EMB) GaAs-AlGaAs structures on Si substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Timmons, M. L.

    1994-11-01

    Device-quality GaAsAlGaAs thin-film hetero-structures have been obtained on Si substrates using a novel approach called eutectic-metal-bonding (EMB). The optoelectronic material properties of the thin-films have been evaluated by a variety of techniques including, Raman spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. Transient PL measurement indicates that the minority-carrier lifetime in an EMB GaAs-on-Si thin-film is about 40 times higher than that in state-of-the-art hetero-epitaxial GaAs-on-Si layer. The PL characteristics of the EMB GaAs-on-Si structures have been used to obtain the long-wavelength dispersion values for GaAs thin-film structures. The minority carrier device quality of these thin-films have been evaluated using dark log I- V measurements on n+- p GaAs diodes, spectral-response characterization and solar cell performance data.

  6. Luminescence behavior and Raman characterization of jade from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncer Arslanlar, Y. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Kibar, R.; Cetin, A.; Ayvacikli, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Results are presented for the cathodoluminescence (CL), radioluminescence (RL) and thermoluminescence (TL) of jade from Turkey. Jade samples show broad band luminescence from green to red, which, using lifetime-resolved CL, reveals seven overlapping emissions, of which two are dominant. Green emission obtained using spatially resolved CL was associated with Mn{sup 2+} and emission bands centered near at 480 and 530 nm were attributed to {sup 3}P{sub 0}-{sup 3}H{sub 4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2}-{sup 3}H{sub 4} transitions of Pr{sup 3+}, respectively. Different shifts of the peak-wavelengths for 326 and 565 nm were observed with varying jade compositions. The incorporation of the larger K ion causes non-linear variations of the cell dimensions and therefore changes in the Fe---O band distance. We suggest that stress of the jade structure can be linked to the luminescence emission at 326 nm. Raman spectra have also been recorded in order to provide an unequivocal identification of the type of jade. The mechanism for the luminescence of the jade is considered. - Highlights: >Jade spectrum displays numerous broad bands at room and low temperatures. >Different luminescence centers contribute to the overall signal. >The Raman spectra and associated vibrational assignments are reported for jadeite. >The TL sensitivity varies depending on the treatment of the samples.

  7. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.re@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giudice, Alessandro Lo [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Torino and Centre of Excellence ' Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces' , Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Angelici, Debora [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino, Via Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita and INFN Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra and Museo di Storia Naturale, Universita di Firenze, Via G. La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  8. Composition and luminescence studies of InGaN epilayers grown at different hydrogen flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indium gallium nitride (InxGa1−xN) is a technologically important material for many optoelectronic devices, including LEDs and solar cells, but it remains a challenge to incorporate high levels of InN into the alloy while maintaining sample quality. A series of InGaN epilayers was grown with different hydrogen flow rates (0–200 sccm) and growth temperatures (680–750 °C) to obtain various InN fractions and bright emission in the range 390–480 nm. These 160-nm thick epilayers were characterized through several compositional techniques (wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The compositional analysis with the different techniques shows good agreement when taking into account compositional gradients evidenced in these layers. The addition of small amounts of hydrogen to the gas flow at lower growth temperatures is shown to maintain a high surface quality and luminescence homogeneity. This allowed InN fractions of up to ∼16% to be incorporated with minimal peak energy variations over a mapped area while keeping a high material quality. (paper)

  9. Influence of CVD process duration on morphology, structure and sensing properties of carbonaceous-palladium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the nanocomposite carbonaceous-palladium (C-Pd) thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods were used to study the topography, morphology and structure of carbon and palladium nanograins contained in these films. The quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of C-Pd films was determined by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The initial PVD films were modified in a CVD quartz reactor using xylene (the mixture of isomers) as a modifying factor at different times (5, 10 and 30 minutes) at a constant temperature of 650°C in atmospheric pressure. It was observed that the average size of palladium nanograins increased with an increasing duration of modification process. The differences in microstructures observed in the CVD films modified at different times, affect their response in measurements of resistance changes in the gas containing H2 in various concentrations. All samples were measured by cathodoluminescence (CL) method. In CL studies a large amount of objects with high intensity of CL was found. Some of them show the emission bands both at 450 nm and 750 nm. Other reveals emission band only at 450 nm. CL observations show that Pd nanograins coated by graphite shells exhibit optical activity

  10. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating and its geological significance of Chibaisong gabbro in Tonghua area, Jilin Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating for Chibaisong No.1 gabbro in the Tonghua area, Jilin Province, is discussed in the paper. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons indicate that they can be divided into two major types, i.e. euhedral-subhedral one with striped absorption and round one with obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results of the zircons suggest that Chibaisong gabbro in the Tonghua area was formed at 134±7Ma-the Early Cretaceous. The concordia ages of 2497±13Ma, 787±35Ma, 321±10Ma, 217±11Ma of zircons imply that the Tonghua area might geologically be located in the convergent region of the Yangtze Block (YB) and the North China Block (NCB) in the early Mesozoic and the zircons should be caught during magma intrusion. The existence of the Early Cretaceous basic dyke swarm in the Tonghua area shows that an intensive extensional environment occurred in the Early Cretaceous. It is suggested that the magmatism and lithospheric extension in the Tonghua area should be related to the subduction of the Pacific plate.

  11. Provenance records of the North Jiangsu Basin,East China:Zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry from the Paleogene Dainan Formation in the Gaoyou Sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Ming; Lin; Xia; Zhang; Ni; Zhang; Shun-Yong; Chen; Jian; Zhou; Yu-Rui; Liu

    2014-01-01

    Detailed zircon U-Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analyses were carried out on the sedimentary rocks of the Paleogene Dainan Formation from Gaoyou Sag in the North Jiangsu Basin,East China.Whole-rock rare earth element characteristics suggest that the provenance was mainly from the Late Proterozoic low-grade metamorphic felsic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,with the parent rocks probably being the I-type high-potassium granite gneiss.Cathodoluminescence images indicate that most of the detrital zircons are originally magmatic.A few zircons show overgrowths,indicating multiple-episode tectonic events.The U-Pb age distribution patterns of the detrital zircons suggest four main magmatic episodes in the provenance:Late Archean-Early Proterozoic(2450-2600 Ma),Early Proterozoic(1700-1900 Ma),Late Proterozoic(700-850 Ma),and Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic(100-300 Ma).These zircon U-Pb age and whole-rock geochemical results suggest that the sediments of the Dainan Formation were mainly sourced from the recycled orogenic belts within and/or around the North Jiangsu Basin,including the basement of the Yangtze Block,the Neoproterozoic rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt,and the Mesozoic igneous rocks in the south part of Zhangbaling Uplift.

  12. Influence of oxygen incorporation on the defect structure of GaN microrods and nanowires. An XPS and CL study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a cathodoluminescence (CL) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study of the influence of oxygen incorporation on the defect structure of GaN microrods and nanowires. The micro- and nanostructures were synthesized by a thermal evaporation method, which enables us to incorporate oxygen at different concentrations by varying the growth temperature. HR-TEM measurements revealed that oxygen generates stacking fault defects and edge dislocations along the GaN nanowires. Amorphous GaOxNy compounds were segregated on the surface of the nanowires. XPS, XRD and CL measurements suggests that the microrods and nanowires were composed of amorphous oxynitride compounds at their surface and GaN at their inner region. CL measurements revealed that the nanostructures generated an emission of 2.68 eV that increased in intensity proportionally to their oxygen content. We have attributed this emission to electronic transitions between donor substitutional-oxygen (ON) and acceptor interstitial-oxygen (Oi) state levels. (paper)

  13. Luminescent properties of aluminum hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, A.P.; Gabis, I.E.; Dmitriev, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Dobrotvorskii, M.A., E-mail: mstislavd@gmail.com [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V.G. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation); Matveeva, O.P. [National Mineral Resources University, Saint Petersburg 199106 (Russian Federation); Titov, S.A. [Petersburg State University of Railway Transport, Saint-Petersburg 190031 (Russian Federation); Voyt, A.P.; Elets, D.I. [Saint-Petersburg State University, Department of Physics, Saint-Petersburg 198504 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    We studied cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence of α-AlH{sub 3}– a likely candidate for use as possible hydrogen carrier in hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Luminescence properties of original α-AlH{sub 3} and α-AlH{sub 3} irradiated with ultraviolet were compared. The latter procedure leads to activation of thermal decomposition of α-AlH{sub 3} and thus has a practical implementation. We showed that the original and UV-modified aluminum hydride contain luminescence centers ‐ structural defects of the same type, presumably hydrogen vacancies, characterized by a single set of characteristic bands of radiation. The observed luminescence is the result of radiative intracenter relaxation of the luminescence center (hydrogen vacancy) excited by electrons or photons, and its intensity is defined by the concentration of vacancies, and the area of their possible excitation. UV-activation of the dehydrogenation process of aluminum hydride leads to changes in the spatial distribution of the luminescence centers. For short times of exposure their concentration increases mainly in the surface regions of the crystals. At high exposures, this process extends to the bulk of the aluminum hydride and ends with a decrease in concentration of luminescence centers in the surface region. - Highlights: • Aluminum hydride contains hydrogen vacancies which serve as luminescence centers. • The luminescence is the result of radiative relaxation of excited centers. • Hydride UV-irradiation alters distribution and concentration of luminescence centers.

  14. Effect of Eu ion incorporation on the emission behavior of Y2O3 nanophosphors: A detailed study of structural and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Y.; Pal, Mou; Herrera, M.; Mathew, X.

    2016-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of doping concentration on the luminescence behavior of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) europium (Eu) doped nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation method. Incorporation of Eu ion in Y2O3 matrix is clearly reflected in structural and optical properties of the doped Y2O3 phosphor. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy proves the presence of strong Eu3+ emissions along with the presence of an additional weak band corresponding to electronic transitions 4f65d1 (7FJ) - 4f7 (8S7/2) of the Eu2+. The presence of Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions in Y2O3 nanoparticles have been additionally confirmed by XPS analysis. Luminescence band corresponding to Eu3+ ions appears in both CL and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, covering the orange-red emissions from 580 to 710 nm. Vibrational properties analyzed through Raman spectroscopy have revealed the evolution of different peaks associated with Eu emission in the doped Y2O3 nanocrystals.

  15. Characterization of luminescent samarium doped HfO{sub 2} coatings synthesized by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon-Roa, C [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman-Mendoza, J [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada-IPN, Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, C.P. 11500, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Fragoso, O [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-360 Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Falcony, C [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, A. P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-01-07

    Trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) doped hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) films were deposited using the spray pyrolysis deposition technique. The films were deposited on Corning glass substrates at temperatures ranging from 300 to 550 deg. C using chlorides as raw materials. Films, mostly amorphous, were obtained when deposition temperatures were below 350 deg. C. However, for temperatures higher than 400 deg. C, the films became polycrystalline, presenting the HfO{sub 2} monoclinic phase. Scanning electron microscopy of the films revealed a rough surface morphology with spherical particles. Also, electron energy dispersive analysis was performed on these films. The photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence characteristics of the HfO{sub 2} : SmCl{sub 3} films, measured at room temperature, exhibited four main bands centred at 570, 610, 652 and 716 nm, which are due to the well-known intra-4f transitions of the Sm{sup 3+} ion. It was found that the overall emission intensity rose as the deposition temperature was increased. Furthermore, a concentration quenching of the luminescence intensity was also observed.

  16. Records of magmatic change as preserved in zircon: examples from the Yellowstone Volcanic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Zircon crystals have been used as proxies for their host magmatic composition and as records of the evolution and differentiation of silicic magma systems through the use of integrated techniques such as cathodoluminescence imaging, LA-ICPMS trace element analysis, thermometry, and high-precision CA-IDTIMS U/Pb dating. This petrochronologic approach can aid in identifying crystal populations arising from discrete pulses of magmatism, reconstructing the growth histories of those populations, quantifying the chemical evolution of the host magma, and determining the timing and tempo of that chemical evolution. The Yellowstone Volcanic Field hosts both large and small volume silicic eruptions whose zircon records can provide insights to magmatic processes using a petrochronologic approach. Morphological and thermochemical trends preserved in zircon grains extracted from the three Yellowstone super-eruptions and a small volume precursory eruption indicate that magmatism in the volcanic field is punctuated, characterized by numerous pulses of melting, differentiation, and solidification occurring prior to eruption. U/Pb zircon dating constrains magma assembly to geologically short timescales, with populations of earlier solidified zircon incorporated into the nascent magma just prior to eruption. This requires punctuated intervals of high magmatic flux be superimposed on longer durations of a much lower background flux. Thus super-eruptions within the Yellowstone Volcanic Field result from rapid production and evolution of magma, and preceded by periods of smaller volume magma production that undergo similar differentiation processes over comparable timescales.

  17. Fault deformation mechanisms and fault rocks in micritic limestones: Examples from Corinth rift normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolotto, M.; Benedicto, A.; Moen-Maurel, L.; Invernizzi, C.

    2015-08-01

    A multidisciplinary study investigates the influence of different parameters on fault rock architecture development along normal faults affecting non-porous carbonates of the Corinth rift southern margin. Here, some fault systems cut the same carbonate unit (Pindus), and the gradual and fast uplift since the initiation of the rift led to the exhumation of deep parts of the older faults. This exceptional context allows superficial active fault zones and old exhumed fault zones to be compared. Our approach includes field studies, micro-structural (optical microscope and cathodoluminescence), geochemical analyses (δ13C, δ18O, trace elements) and fluid inclusions microthermometry of calcite sin-kinematic cements. Our main results, in a depth-window ranging from 0 m to about 2500 m, are: i) all cements precipitated from meteoric fluids in a close or open circulation system depending on depth; ii) depth (in terms of P/T condition) determines the development of some structures and their sealing; iii) lithology (marly levels) influences the type of structures and its cohesive/non-cohesive nature; iv) early distributed rather than final total displacement along the main fault plane is the responsible for the fault zone architecture; v) petrophysical properties of each fault zone depend on the variable combination of these factors.

  18. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnoor, Hatim, E-mail: hatim.alnoor@liu.se; Chey, Chan Oeurn; Pozina, Galia; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, SE-601 74 Norrköping (Sweden); Liu, Xianjie; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, SE-583 81 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL) spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE) to the deep-level emission (DLE) peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h), which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h) will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  19. Bias-voltage dependent ultraviolet photodetectors prepared by GaOx + ZnO mixture phase nanocrystalline thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •GaOx + ZnO thin films sputtered and annealed exhibit interesting and unique optical properties, especially deep UV photo response. •GaOx + ZnO thin films can be used to fabricate efficient deep UV photodetectors. •The mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films is revealed to be responsible for the unique characteristics of the photodetectors. •Two bands in UV range can be adjusted by a applied voltage when the PDs were fabricated using the mixture phase nature of GaOx + ZnO thin films. -- Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors were prepared by using the GaOx + ZnO mixture phase thin films sputtered on sapphire as the photoresponse layer. The devices show good photoresponse in UV range. More interestingly, the device responsivity in the wavelength less than 280 nm range rapidly increases with increasing the applied voltage and becomes dominant for the bias ⩾3.0 V. X-ray diffraction, absorption and cathodoluminescence measurements firmly reveal the mixture phases in the thin films. Electric field dependent detrapping of photo-excited carriers in nanocrystals in the films shall be responsible for the observed bias-voltage dependent deep UV photoresponse of the devices

  20. Excitation dependent Fano-like interference effects in plasmonic silver nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sean M.; Nicoletti, Olivia; Rossouw, David; Ostasevicius, Tomas; Midgley, Paul A.

    2014-10-01

    Surface plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles are an emerging technology platform for nano-optics applications from sensing to solar energy conversion. The electromagnetic near field associated with these resonances arises from modes determined by the shape, size, and composition of the metal nanoparticle. When coupled in the near field, multiple resonant modes can interact to give rise to interference effects offering fine control of both the spectral response and spatial distribution of fields near the particle. Here, we present an examination of experimental electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of silver nanorod monomer surface plasmon modes and present an explanation of observed spatial amplitude modulation of the Fabry-Pérot resonance modes of these silver nanorods using electrodynamics simulations. For these simulations, we identify differences in spectral peak symmetry in light scattering and electron spectroscopies (EELS and cathodoluminescence) and analyze the distinct near-field responses of silver nanorods to plane-wave light and electron beam excitation in terms of a coupled oscillator model. Effects of properties of the material and the incident field are evaluated, and the spatially resolved EELS signals are shown to provide a signature for assessing Fano-like interference effects in silver nanorods. These findings outline key considerations and challenges for interpreting electron microscopy data on plasmonic nanoparticles for understanding nanoscale optics and for characterization and design of photonic devices.

  1. Characterization of thick GaN films directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire by HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick GaN films of high quality are directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire in a vertical hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The optical and structural properties of GaN films are studied using scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Test results show that initial growth of hydride vapour phase epitaxy GaN occurs not only on the mesas but also on the two asymmetric sidewalls of the V-shaped grooves without selectivity. After the two-step coalescence near the interface, the GaN films near the surface keep on growing along the direction perpendicular to the long sidewall. Based on Raman results, GaN of the coalescence region in the grooves has the maximum residual stress and poor crystalline quality over the whole GaN film, and the coalescence process can release the stress. Therefore, stress-free thick GaN films are prepared with smooth and crack-free surfaces by this particular growth mode on wet-etching patterned sapphire substrates. (authors)

  2. Characterization of Thick GaN Films Directly Grown on Wet-Etching Patterned Sapphire by HVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick GaN films of high quality are directly grown on wet-etching patterned sapphire in a vertical hydride vapour phase epitaxy reactor. The optical and structural properties of GaN films are studied using scanning electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence. Test results show that initial growth of hydride vapour phase epitaxy GaN occurs not only on the mesas but also on the two asymmetric sidewalls of the V-shaped grooves without selectivity. After the two-step coalescence near the interface, the GaN films near the surface keep on growing along the direction perpendicular to the long sidewall. Based on Raman results, GaN of the coalescence region in the grooves has the maximum residual stress and poor crystalline quality over the whole GaN film, and the coalescence process can release the stress. Therefore, stress-free thick GaN films are prepared with smooth and crack-free surfaces by this particular growth mode on wet-etching patterned sapphire substrates

  3. Structural and optical properties of low temperature grown AlN films on sapphire using helicon sputtering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Meei-Ru [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chien Hsin University of Science and Technology, Chung-Li 32097, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hou-Guang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kao-Hsiung 84001, Taiwan (China); Kao, Hui-Ling, E-mail: hlkao@cycu.edu.tw; Wu, Ming-Guei; Tzou, An-Jye; Chen, Jyh Shin [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chou, Hsiung [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kao-Hsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    AlN thin films have been deposited directly on c-plane sapphire substrates at low temperatures by a helicon sputtering system. The structural quality of AlN epitaxial films was characterized by x-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The films exhibit smooth surface with root-mean-square roughness as small as 0.7 nm evaluated by atomic force microscope. The optical transmittance spectra show a steep absorption edge at the wavelength of 200 nm and a high transmittance of over 80% in the visible range. The band-edge transition (6.30 eV) of AlN film was observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum recorded at 11 K. The spectral response of metal–semiconductor–metal photodetectors constructed with AlN/sapphire reveals the peak responsivity at 200 nm and a UV/visible rejection ratio of about two orders of magnitude. The results of this low temperature deposition suggest the feasibility of the epitaxial growth of AlN on sapphire substrates and the incorporation of the AlN films in the surface acoustic wave devices and the optical devices at deep ultraviolet region.

  4. Contrasts in sillimanite deformation in felsic tectonites from anhydrous granulite- and hydrous amphibolite-facies shear zones, western Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, S. R.; Mahan, K. H.; Regan, S.; Williams, M. L.; Dumond, G.

    2015-02-01

    The deformation behavior of crustal materials in variably hydrated metamorphic environments can significantly influence the rheological and seismic properties of continental crust. Optical observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses are used to characterize sillimanite deformation behavior in felsic tectonites from two deformation settings in the Athabasca granulite terrane, western Canadian Shield. Under estimated conditions of 0.8-1.0 GPa, 725-850 °C in the Cora Lake shear zone, the data suggest that sillimanite deformed by dislocation creep with slip in the [001] direction accompanied by subgrain rotation recrystallization. Where sillimanite locally remained undeformed, strain was concentrated in surrounding weaker phases. Under hydrated conditions of 0.4-0.6 GPa, 550-650 °C in the Grease River shear zone, textures and cathodoluminescence imaging point to dissolution-precipitation creep as the major deformation mechanism for sillimanite, resulting in synkinematic growth of foliation-parallel euhedral sillimanite in a preferred orientation with [001] parallel to the lineation. The results suggest that temperature, fluid content, and modal mineralogy of the surrounding phases may all have significant influence on sillimanite deformation but that preferential alignment of sillimanite [001] parallel to the lineation persists regardless of contrasts in the conditions or mechanisms of deformation.

  5. Excitonic recombinations in h-BN: From bulk to exfoliated layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, A.; Loayza, J.; Berini, B.; Betz, A.; Plaçais, B.; Ducastelle, F.; Barjon, J.; Loiseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphite are structurally similar but with very different properties. Their combination in graphene-based devices is now of intense research focus, and it becomes particularly important to evaluate the role played by crystalline defects on their properties. In this paper, the cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of hexagonal boron nitride crystallites are reported and compared to those of nanosheets mechanically exfoliated from them. First, the link between the presence of structural defects and the recombination intensity of trapped excitons, the so-called D series, is confirmed. Low defective h-BN regions are further evidenced by CL spectral mapping (hyperspectral imaging), allowing us to observe new features in the near-band-edge region, tentatively attributed to phonon replicas of exciton recombinations. Second, the h-BN thickness was reduced down to six atomic layers, using mechanical exfoliation, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy. Even at these low thicknesses, the luminescence remains intense and exciton recombination energies are not strongly modified with respect to the bulk, as expected from theoretical calculations, indicating extremely compact excitons in h-BN.

  6. Successive selective growth of semipolar (11-22) GaN on patterned sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to the use of two successive selective growths by metal organic chemical vapor deposition reactor, high quality semipolar (11-22) GaN with a homogenous defect repartition over the surface was achieved. The procedure starts with a first selective growth on a patterned sapphire substrate, leading to continuous stripes of three dimensional (3D) GaN crystals of low defect density. Then, a second selective growth step is achieved by depositing a SiNx nano-mask and a low temperature GaN nano-layer on the top of the GaN stripes. Hereby, we demonstrate an original way to obtain a homoepitaxial selective growth on 3D GaN crystals by taking advantage of the different crystallographic planes available. Basal stacking faults (BSFs) are generated during this second selective growth but could be eliminated by using a three-step growth method in which elongated voids are created above the defective area. For a fully coalesced sample grown using the 2 step method, dislocation density of 1.2 × 108 cm−2 and BSFs density of 154 cm−1 with a homogenous distribution have been measured by cathodoluminescence at 80 K. Consequently the material quality of this coalesced semipolar layer is comparable to the one of polar GaN on c-plane sapphire. (paper)

  7. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  8. Diagenetic destruction of primary reservoir porosity in Viola Limestone, south-central Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grammer, M.G.

    1985-02-01

    The Viola Limestone in south-central Oklahoma is a Middle and Upper Ordovician carbonate unit interpreted as being deposited on a carbonate ramp within and peripheral to the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Depositional environments within the study area ranged from anaerobic deep ramp through aerobic middle and shallow ramp. TOC analyses of the lower anaerobic deep-ramp facies suggest that, at least locally, the Viola is a potential hydrocarbon source rock. Detailed petrographic examination of the Viola indicates that primary porosity in the shallow-ramp skeletal packstones and grainstones was initially quite high. This combination of source potential and original porosity should make the Viola an attractive target for hydrocarbons in southern Oklahoma. The Viola, however, has been subjected to a complex sequence of diagenetic events that have extensively altered the sediments and occluded much of the primary porosity. A thorough understanding of the timing and nature of these events can be critical in evaluating the economic potential of the Viola. Petrographic evidence combined with the use of cathodoluminescence indicates that several generations of calcite cementation occurred within the shallow-ramp packstones and grainstones. An initial phase of very early, possibly synsedimentary, marine cementation is evidenced by cloudy, inclusion-rich syntaxial cements on echinoderm fragments. This early phase of cementation was followed by several generations of clear syntaxial calcite, prismatic calcite, blocky mosaic calcite, and bladed mosaic calcite, all of which indicate changes in the pore-water chemistry after precipitation of the inclusion-rich cements.

  9. Thallium occurrence and partitioning in soils and sediments affected by mining activities in Madrid province (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, M A; Garcia-Guinea, J; Laborda, F; Garrido, F

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) and its compounds are toxic to biota even at low concentrations but little is known about Tl concentration and speciation in soils. An understanding of the source, mobility, and dispersion of Tl is necessary to evaluate the environmental impact of Tl pollution cases. In this paper, we examine the Tl source and dispersion in two areas affected by abandoned mine facilities whose residues remain dumped on-site affecting to soils and sediments of natural water courses near Madrid city (Spain). Total Tl contents and partitioning in soil solid phases as determined by means of a sequential extraction procedure were also examined in soils along the riverbeds of an ephemeral and a permanent streams collecting water runoff and drainage from the mines wastes. Lastly, electronic microscopy and cathodoluminescence probe are used as a suitable technique for Tl elemental detection on thallium-bearing phases. Tl was found mainly bound to quartz and alumino-phyllosilicates in both rocks and examined soils. Besides, Tl was also frequently found associated to organic particles and diatom frustules in all samples from both mine scenarios. These biogenic silicates may regulate the transfer of Tl into the soil-water system.

  10. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  11. Petrographic and SHRIMP Studies of Zircons from the Caledonian Xiongdian Eclogite, Northwestern Dabie Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Xiongdian eclogite occurring in the Sujiahe tectonic melange zone at Luoshan County,Henan Province,in the western Dabie Mountains,is typical high-pressure(HP)-ultrahigh-pressure(UHP)and mediumtemperature eclogite.The occurrence,internal texture and surface characteristics of zircons in eclogite were studied rather systematically petrographically combined with the cathodoluminescence(CL)and scaning electron microscope(SEM)methods.Zircons are mainly hosted in granet and other metamorphic growth texture in the interior,thus indicating that they are the product of metamorphism.SHRIMP analyses give zircon206Pb/238U ages of 335 to 424 Ma and show a certain degree of radiogenic Pb loss;therefore it may be inferred that the age of 424+5Ma represents the minimum age of a HP-UHP metamorhphic age.From the above analyses coupled with previous Sm-Nd,40Ar-39Ar,U-Pb and 207Pb/206Pb age data,it is suggested that the peak metamorphic age of the Xiongdian eclogite should be between 424 and 480Ma.This study further validate the view of the existence of a Caledonian HP-UHP metamorphic event in the western Dabie Mountains

  12. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts.

  13. Spatially resolved and orientation dependent Raman mapping of epitaxial lateral overgrowth nonpolar a-plane GaN on r-plane sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Teng; Xu, Sheng-Rui; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Uncoalesced a-plane GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) structures have been synthesized along two mask stripe orientations on a-plane GaN template by MOCVD. The morphology of two ELO GaN structures is performed by Scanning electronic microscopy. The anisotropy of crystalline quality and stress are investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. According to the Raman mapping spectra, the variations on the intensity, peak shift and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of GaN E2 (high) peak indicate that the crystalline quality improvement occurs in the window region of the GaN stripes along [0001], which is caused by the dislocations bending towards the sidewalls. Conversely, the wing regions have better quality with less stress as the dislocations propagated upwards when the GaN stripes are along []. Spatial cathodoluminescence mapping results further support the explanation for the different dislocation growth mechanisms in the ELO processes with two different mask stripe orientations.

  14. Complex hierarchical arrangements of stacked nanoplates in Al-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mikrostrukturanalytik, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Haeussler, D.; Jaeger, W. [Mikrostrukturanalytik, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet zu Kiel, 24143 Kiel (Germany); Piqueras, J.; Fernandez, P. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Al-doped micro- and nanostructures have been grown by an evaporation-deposition method with a mixture of ZnS and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders as precursor. It has been found that the presence of Al is the cause of the growth of complex morphologies, as rods formed by stacks of nanoplates and other complex hierarchical structures. The role of Al in the growth process has been investigated by electron microscopy techniques. Al-rich particles in specific sites of a central rod lead to hierarchical growth. Transmission electron microscopy shows that in some cases the Al-rich zones are clusters of spinel ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles adhered to ZnO nanorods. Al incorporation into the structures and the dopant effect on the luminescence behavior of the ZnO structures were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy and by cathodoluminescence. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography for deterministic nanophotonic device processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Gschrey, Manuel; Schlehahn, Alexander; Schmidt, Ronny; Schulze, Jan-Hindrik; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven, E-mail: srodt@physik.tu-berlin.de; Reitzenstein, Stephan [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Strittmatter, André [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Otto-von-Guericke Universität Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    We report on an advanced in-situ electron-beam lithography technique based on high-resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy at low temperatures. The technique has been developed for the deterministic fabrication and quantitative evaluation of nanophotonic structures. It is of particular interest for the realization and optimization of non-classical light sources which require the pre-selection of single quantum dots (QDs) with very specific emission features. The two-step electron-beam lithography process comprises (a) the detailed optical study and selection of target QDs by means of CL-spectroscopy and (b) the precise retrieval of the locations and integration of target QDs into lithographically defined nanostructures. Our technology platform allows for a detailed pre-process determination of important optical and quantum optical properties of the QDs, such as the emission energies of excitonic complexes, the excitonic fine-structure splitting, the carrier dynamics, and the quantum nature of emission. In addition, it enables a direct and precise comparison of the optical properties of a single QD before and after integration which is very beneficial for the quantitative evaluation of cavity-enhanced quantum devices.

  16. Facile synthesis of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers by electrospinning and gas-phase sulfidation for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Korczyc, Anna; Sobczak, Kamil; Dłużewski, Piotr; Reszka, Anna; Kowalski, Bogdan J; Kłopotowski, Łukasz; Elbaum, Danek; Fronc, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a new method of passivating ZnO nanofiber-based devices with a ZnS layer. This one-step process was carried out in H2S gas at room temperature, and resulted in the formation of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers. This study presents the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers formed by a 2 nm ZnS sphalerite crystal shell covering a 5 nm ZnO wurtzite crystal core. The passivation process prevented free carriers from capture by oxygen molecules and significantly reduced the impact of O2 on nanostructure conductivity. The conductivity of the nanofibers was increased by three orders of magnitude after the sulfidation, the photoresponse time was reduced from 1500 s to 30 s, and the cathodoluminescence intensity increased with the sulfidation time thanks to the removal of ZnO surface defects by passivation. The ZnO/ZnS nanofibers were stable in water for over 30 days, and in phosphate buffers of acidic, neutral and alkaline pH for over 3 days. The by-products of the passivation process did not affect the conductivity of the devices. The potential of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers for protein biosensing is demonstrated using biotin and streptavidin as a model system. The presented ZnS shell preparation method can facilitate the construction of future sensors and protects the ZnO surface from dissolving in a biological environment.

  17. Characters of fluid inclusions in quartz veins in pyroclastic rock of Budate Group, Hailar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-tao; LIU Li; GAO Yu-qiao; SHAO Hong-mei; SHEN Guang-zheng

    2004-01-01

    It was adopted that the fluorescence microscope, Gas-Flow Heating/Freezing System, Laser-Raman Spectroscopy, etc. are the multimedia techniques for analysing fluid inclusions of quartz veins in Budate Group, Hailar Basin.The results show that fluid inclusions in quartz veins are small (1 ~5 μm) monophase, two-phase (liquid+vapour)aqueous inclusions; the two-phase aqueous inclusions homogeniese to the liquid phase between 120 ~ 180℃, two Laser-Raman Spectroscopy show that both gas phase are enriched in CH4 (94.50% ~99.25% ) and C6H6 (0.75% ~2.70%), under these conditions, inclusions may have come from juvenile fliud followingly the quartz veins formation.While the quartz veins exhibiting different striking luminescence has been proved by cathodoluminescence, it would be belong to secondary hydrocarbon inclusions. The oil inclusions of this stage represent mainly the large scale of oil accumulation, located within the quartz microfracture.

  18. Fluid inclusions hidden in coesite-bearing zircons in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks from southwestern Sulu terrane in eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fulai; XU Zhiqin

    2004-01-01

    Primary fluid inclusions, together with coesite mineral inclusions, are identified in the same zircon domains by laser Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) image and micro-texture analysis in paragneiss and eclogite from the main drilling hole of Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in southwestern Sulu terrane. Most fluid inclusions are characterized by CO2 (gas)-H2O (liquid) two-phase, a few by H2O one-phase liquid inclusions. These features indicate that the eclogite and its country-rocks may be located in the "wet system" rather than in the "dry system" during UHP metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Pb dating indicates that the timing of trapping the fluid and coesite inclusions in metamorphic zircon domains is about 233.7 ± 4.3 Ma, which may represent the age of zircon growth in the stage of pressure decrease but temperature increase during the retrograde period of UHP metamorphism thus indicating the fluid activity still under the UHP conditions. The zircons further overgrew at about 213.2 ± 5.2 Ma in response to amphibolite-facies retrogression. Therefore, fluid activity in the Sulu UHP metamorphic rocks principally occurred during the exhumation of UHP slab in the Middle to Late Triassic. The present results not only provide insight into the fluid property and fluid-rock interaction mechanism in the Sulu-Dabie UHP terrane, but also present a new means to exactly identify the primary fluid inclusions preserved in zircons from the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  19. Surface chemical changes of CaTiO3:Pr3+ upon electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface chemical changes of CaTiO3:Pr3+ phosphor material and their effect on the red emission intensity of the 1D2→3H4 transition of Pr3+, upon electron beam irradiation are presented. Red emission at 613 nm was obtained upon probing the surface with a 2 keV electron beam. The surface chemical changes and Pr3+ red emission were monitored using an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrometer, respectively. The CL intensity decreased with a decrease in O on the surface at 1×10−8 Torr base pressure and decreased with an increase in O on the surface at 1×10−6 Torr O2. The X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that CL degradation at 1×10−6 Torr O2 is due to the formation of CaO and CaOx as well as TiO2/Ti2O3 non-luminescent species on the surface.

  20. Global correlation for strontium isotope curve in the Late Cretaceous of Tibet and dating marine sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG; Sijing; SHI; He; SHEN; Licheng; ZHANG; Meng; WU; Wen

    2005-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios of marine carbonate samples collected from a sedimentary section of the Late Cretaceous in the south of Tibet were measured. Based on the absence of cathodoluminescence and a very low Mn/Sr ratio (average 0.06) of the samples, it is thought that they contain information on the original seawater strontium isotope composition. The strontium isotope evolution curve of the Late Cretaceous in Tibet we established here, is consistent with other coeval curves from Europe, North America and Antarctica, supports the notion that the strontium isotope composition of seawater is governed by global events, which provides a new approach for the inter-continental and inter-basinal correlations of Late Cretaceous in the area and is a complementarity for biostratigraphy. In addition, we attempt to determine the age of the boundaries for Campanian/Santonian and Maastrichtian/Campanian by 87Sr/86Sr ratios for Gamba section in southern Tibet. The two boundaries are located in the thickness of 217 m (83.5 Ma) and 291 m (71.3 Ma), respectively.

  1. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-01

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts. PMID:27124605

  2. Intense Red Catho- and Photoluminescence from 200 nm Thick Samarium Doped Amorphous AlN Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tariq

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samarium (Sm doped aluminum nitride (AlN thin films are deposited on silicon (100 substrates at 77 K by rf magnetron sputtering method. Thick films of 200 nm are grown at 100–200 watts RF power and 5–8 m Torr nitrogen, using a metal target of Al with Sm. X-ray diffraction results show that films are amorphous. Cathodoluminescence (CL studies are performed and four peaks are observed in Sm at 564, 600, 648, and 707 nm as a result of4G5/2 → 6H5/2,4G5/2 → 6H7/2,4G5/2 → 6H9/2, and4G5/2 → 6H11/2transitions. Photoluminescence (PL provides dominant peaks at 600 and 707 nm while CL gives the intense peaks at 600 nm and 648 nm, respectively. Films are thermally activated at 1,200 K for half an hour in a nitrogen atmosphere. Thermal activation enhances the intensity of luminescence.

  3. Structural and optical properties of disc-in-wire InGaN/GaN LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lifan; Jahangir, Shafat; Wight, Scott A; Nikoobakht, Babak; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Millunchick, Joanna M

    2015-03-11

    This study examines the role of the microstructure and optical properties of InGaN/GaN nanowire LED structures on Si(111) having different nanowire coverages. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements show that all samples exhibit broad emission around the intended energy, 1.95 eV (635 nm). While the absolute emission intensity is hard to compare for CL measurement, the bandgap emission (∼3.4 eV) coming from the GaN root is more pronounced as coverage of nanowires decreases, which has less coalescence formation. The width of the emission peak is likely due to variations in the morphology of the InGaN discs within the wires, as faceted layers with different thicknesses and quantum dots are observed by transmission electron microscopy. Nonepitaxial six-fold symmetric lateral branching, called "nanocrowns," emanate from stacking faults within the active regions. These features likely reduce optical emission as a result of grain boundaries between the nanocrown and nanowire. PMID:25658444

  4. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ phosphor for field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Wang, Jing

    2012-09-01

    Zn2-2 x Mn2 x GeO4 ( x=0, 0.001, 0.01) phosphors were prepared by conventional solid state reaction technique. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL), and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the synthesized phosphors. The Mn2+-activated Zn2GeO4 phosphors exhibit narrow emission band at 532 nm under the excitation of ultraviolet light, which due to the 4T1(4G)-6A1(6S) transition of Mn2+ ions. Also it is observed that there exists energy transfer between the Zn2GeO4 host lattice and the activator (Mn2+). Under excitation of low-voltage electron beams, Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ shows strong green emission band dominating at 535 nm, corresponding to the 4T1(4G)-6A1(6S) emission of Mn2+ ions. The emission intensity and chromaticity coordinates of Zn2GeO4:Mn2+ as a function of accelerating voltage and the filament current were also investigated.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Photoluminescence Imaging and Characterization of a Multi-Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Defect Area: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Li, J.; Romero, M. J.; Al-Jassim, M.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-07-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging is used to detect areas in multi-crystalline silicon that appear dark in band-to-band imaging due to high recombination. Steady-state PL intensity can be correlated to effective minority-carrier lifetime, and its temperature dependence can provide additional lifetime-limiting defect information. An area of high defect density has been laser cut from a multi-crystalline silicon solar cell. Both band-to-band and defect-band PL imaging have been collected as a function of temperature from ~85 to 350 K. Band-to-band luminescence is collected by an InGaAs camera using a 1200-nm short-pass filter, while defect band luminescence is collected using a 1350-nm long pass filter. The defect band luminescence is characterized by cathodo-luminescence. Small pieces from adjacent areas within the same wafer are measured by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). DLTS detects a minority-carrier electron trap level with an activation energy of 0.45 eV on the sample that contained defects as seen by imaging.

  7. A carbon fiber-ZnS nanocomposite for dual application as an efficient cold cathode as well as a luminescent anode for display technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arunava; Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the current work we present a simple technique to develop a carbon nanofiber (CNF)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) composite material for excellent FED application. CNFs and ZnS microspheres were synthesized by following a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal procedure, respectively. A rigorous chemical mixture of CNF and ZnS was prepared to produce the CNF-ZnS composite material. The cathodo-luminescence intensity of the composite improved immensely compared to pure ZnS, also the composite material showed better field emission than pure CNFs. For pure CNF the turn-on field was found to be 2.1 V μm-1 whereas for the CNF-ZnS composite it reduced to a value of 1.72 V μm-1. Altogether the composite happened to be an ideal element for both the anode and cathode of a FED system. Furthermore, simulation of our CNF-ZnS composite system using the finite element modeling method also ensured the betterment of field emission from CNF after surface attachment of ZnS nanoclusters.

  8. Early crust of the Podolia Domain of the Ukrainian Shield: Isotopic age of terrigenous zircons from quartzites of the Bug Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikova, E. V.; Fedotova, A. A.; Claesson, S.; Stepanyuk, L. M.

    2015-11-01

    Detrital zircons of the ancient metasedimentary rocks bear important information about the early crust of the Earth. In this work, the early crust in the west of the Ukrainian Shield was studied using U-Pb dating of terrigenous zircons from metasedimentary rocks (quartzites) of the lower parts of the Bug Group (Kosharo-Aleksandrovka Formation) of the Podolia Domain and through Sm-Nd isotopic investigation of these rocks. The Nd model age of rocks is 3.4-3.1 Ga. Detrital zircons were studied in two samples of quartzites. The cathodoluminescent images of most zircons support their clastic origin. More than 150 zircon grains were studied on an ion microprobe. The isotope age of zircons is 3775-2000 Ma. These results were compared with previous results of study of terrigenous zircons from garnet schists of the Zaval'e quarry located closely to the studied area. It is concluded that both Paleoarchean and Meso- to Neoarchean rocks were destroyed during formation of terrigenous rocks of the Bug Group. The different amount of ancient zircons in quartzites and garnet schists indicates the different remoteness of the most ancient rocks from sedimentary basins.

  9. Thermoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn nanocrystalline powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoluminescent ZnS nanocrystals doped with Mn2+ ions were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method. From X-ray diffraction studies it was observed that the synthesized nanoparticles have cubic zinc blende structure with average sizes of about 40–50 nm. Morphology was analyzed by TEM. Photoluminescence studies showed two transitions, one of them close to 396 nm and other close to 598 nm, which is enhanced with increasing dopant concentration, this behavior was also observed in the cathodoluminescence spectrum. The thermoluminescence gamma dose-response has linear behavior over dose range 5–100 mGy, the glow curve structure shows two glow peaks at 436 K and at 518 K that were taken into account to calculate the kinetic parameters using the Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution procedure. - Highlights: • Nanocrystals in powder of ZnS:Mn were synthesized using the co-precipitation method. • The integrated TL spectra has a linear behavior on the dose range 5–100 mGy of γ-radiation. • The kinetic parameters were obtained by the CGCD procedure. • Results support the possible use of nanocrystalline ZnS:Mn as a new γ-dose nanoTLD

  10. Opto-Electronic Characterization CdTe Solar Cells from TCO to Back Contact with Nano-Scale CL Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak M.; Paudel, Naba; Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Kuciauskas, Darius; Guthrey, Harvey L.; Duenow, Joel; Yan, Yanfa; Metzger, Wyatt K.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2015-06-14

    We used cathodoluminescence (CL) (spectrum-per-pixel) imaging on beveled CdTe solar cell sections to investigate the opto-electronic properties of these devices from the TCO to the back contact. We used a nano-scale CL probe to resolve luminescence from grain boundary (GB) and grain interior (GI) locations near the CdS/CdTe interface where the grains are very small. As-deposited, CdCl2-treated, Cu-treated, and (CdCl2+Cu)-treated cells were analyzed. Color-coded CL spectrum imaging maps on bevels illustrate the distribution of the T=6 K luminescence transitions through the depth of devices with unprecedented spatial resolution. The CL at the GBs and GIs is shown to vary significantly from the front to the back of devices and is a sensitive function of processing. Supporting D-SIMS depth profile, TRPL lifetime, and C-V measurements are used to link the CL data to the J-V performance of devices.

  11. Synthesis and Luminescent Properties of Planar-tip and Tapered-tip ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-wen WANG; Jr-hau HE; Lih-juann CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were synthesized on a-plane sapphire via a metal catalyzed vapor phase transport and condensation process in a two-zone vacuum furnace. Planar-tip and tapered-tip ZnO nanorods were successfully synthesized by utilizing different source materials under the same growth conditions. The growth mechanisms were proposed to be vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for planar-tip ZnO nanorods and a combination of VLS and self-catalyzed processes for tapered-tip ZnO nanorods. From cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements, tapered-tip ZnO nanorods have more intense green emission than planar-tip ZnO nanorods, and therefore possess higher oxygen vacancy concentration than planar-tip ZnO nanorods. From CL characteristics, well-aligned planar-tip ZnO nanorods shall serve effectively as laser source, while well-aligned tapered-tip ZnO nanorods are suitable for direction-related optical applications.

  12. Natural defects and defects created by ionic implantation in zinc tellurium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various defects have been studied in ZnTe crystals by transmission electron microscope and by scanning electron microscope in cathodo-luminescence mode: grain boundaries, sub-grain boundaries, twins. Ionic implants of boron (100 keV - 2x1014 and 1015 ions cm-2) were made on these crystals followed by isochrone annealing (30 minutes) of zinc under partial pressure at 550, 650 and 7500C. The nature of the defects was determined by transmission electron microscope: these are interstitial loops (b=1/3) the size of which varies between 20 A (non-annealed sample) and 180A (annealed at 7500C). The transmission electron microscope was also used to make concentration profiles of defects depending on depth. It is found that for the same implant (2x1014 ions.cm-2), the defect peak moves towards the exterior of the crystal as the annealing temperature rises (400 - 1000 and 7000 A for the three annealings). These results are explained from a model which allows for the coalescence of defects and considers the surface of the sample as being the principal source of vacancies. During the annealings, the migration of vacancies brings about the gradual annihilation of the implant defects. The adjustment of certain calculation parameters on the computer result in giving 2 eV as energy value for the formation of vacancies

  13. SIMS U-Pb zircon age of a tuff layer in the Meishucun section, Yunnan, southwest China: Constraint on the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the age of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary is critical in understanding early evolution of life on Earth. SIMS U-Pb zircon analyses of the Bed 5 tuff layer of the Meishucun section were carried out closely following the guidance of cathodoluminescence images, and the majority of analyses were conducted on the oscillatory zircon grains. Thirteen measurements yield a highly reliable Concordia U-Pb age of 536.7 ± 3.9 Ma for the Bed 5 horizon. A grand mean of 206Pb/238U age of 535.2± 1.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.53) is calculated based on 13 concordant SIMS measurements of this study and 4 nano-SIMS measurements of Sawaki et al., which is the best estimate of the deposition age of the tuff layer within Bed 5 in the Meishucun section. This age has provided a robust age constraint on the significant Precambrian-Cambrian boundary strata in southern China, which independently suggested the placement of the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary at the bottom of the Xiaowaitoushan Member (Marker A).

  14. Selective formation of GaN-based nanorod heterostructures on soda-lime glass substrates by a local heating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the fabrication of high-quality GaN on soda-lime glass substrates, heretofore precluded by both the intolerance of soda-lime glass to the high temperatures required for III-nitride growth and the lack of an epitaxial relationship with amorphous glass. The difficulties were circumvented by heteroepitaxial coating of GaN on ZnO nanorods via a local microheating method. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of ZnO nanorods and GaN layers using the microheater arrays produced high-quality GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructures at only the desired regions on the soda-lime glass substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy examination of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures indicated the formation of an abrupt, semicoherent interface. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy was also applied to confirm the high optical quality of the coaxial nanorod heterostructures. Mg-doped GaN/ZnO coaxial nanorod heterostructure arrays, whose GaN shell layers were grown with various different magnesocene flow rates, were further investigated by using photoluminescence spectroscopy for the p-type doping characteristics. The suggested method for fabrication of III-nitrides on glass substrates signifies potentials for low-cost and large-size optoelectronic device applications.

  15. Luminescence and Structure of ZnO Grown by Physical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO was deposited on different substrates (Si, SiO2, and Au/SiO2 by an enhanced physical vapor deposition technique that presents excellent luminescent properties. This technique consists in a horizontal quartz tube reactor that uses ultra-high purity Zn and UHP oxygen as precursors. The morphology and structure of ZnO grown in this work were studied by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The XRD patterns revealed the highly crystalline phase of wurtzite polycrystalline structure, with a preferred (1011 growth direction. Room temperature cathodoluminescence studies revealed two features in the luminescence properties of the ZnO obtained by this technique, first a high-intensity narrow peak centered at 390 nm (~3.2 eV corresponding to a near band-to-band emission, and secondly, a broad peak centered around 517 nm (2.4 eV, the typical green-yellow luminescence, related to an unintentionally doped ZnO.

  16. Strong light scattering and broadband (UV to IR) photoabsorption in stretchable 3D hybrid architectures based on Aerographite decorated by ZnO nanocrystallites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiginyanu, Ion; Ghimpu, Lidia; Gröttrup, Jorit; Postolache, Vitalie; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Stevens-Kalceff, Marion A; Ursaki, Veaceslav; Payami, Nader; Feidenhansl, Robert; Schulte, Karl; Adelung, Rainer; Mishra, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In present work, the nano- and microscale tetrapods from zinc oxide were integrated on the surface of Aerographite material (as backbone) in carbon-metal oxide hybrid hierarchical network via a simple and single step magnetron sputtering process. The fabricated hybrid networks are characterized for morphology, microstructural and optical properties. The cathodoluminescence investigations revealed interesting luminescence features related to carbon impurities and inherent host defects in zinc oxide. Because of the wide bandgap of zinc oxide and its intrinsic defects, the hybrid network absorbs light in the UV and visible regions, however, this broadband photoabsorption behavior extends to the infrared (IR) region due to the dependence of the optical properties of ZnO architectures upon size and shape of constituent nanostructures and their doping by carbon impurities. Such a phenomenon of broadband photoabsorption ranging from UV to IR for zinc oxide based hybrid materials is novel. Additionally, the fabricated network exhibits strong visible light scattering behavior. The developed Aerographite/nanocrystalline ZnO hybrid network materials, equipped with broadband photoabsorption and strong light scattering, are very promising candidates for optoelectronic technologies. PMID:27616632

  17. Novel, low-cost solid-liquid-solid process for the synthesis of α-Si3N4 nanowires at lower temperatures and their luminescence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Hu, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-11-26

    Ultra-long, single crystal, α-Si3N4 nanowires sheathed with amorphous silicon oxide were synthesised by an improved, simplified solid-liquid-solid (SLS) method at 1150 °C without using flowing gases (N2, CH4, Ar, NH3, etc.). Phases, chemical composition, and structural characterisation using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM/HRTEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the nanowires had Si3N4@SiOx core-shell structures. The growth of the nanowires was governed by the solid-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra showed that the optical properties of the α-Si3N4 nanowires can be changed along with the excitation wavelength or the excitation light source. This work can be useful, not only for simplifying the design and synthesis of Si-related nanostructures, but also for developing new generation nanodevices with changeable photoelectronic properties.

  18. Crystal field analysis of Pm$^{3+}$ (4$^{f4}) and Sm$^{3+}$ (4$^{f5}) and lattice location studies of $^{147}$Nd and $^{147}$Pm in w-AlN

    CERN Document Server

    Vetter, Ulrich; Nijjar, Anmol S; Zandi, Bahram; Öhl, Gregor; Wahl, Ulrich; De Vries, Bart; Hofsäss, Hans; Dietrich, Marc

    2006-01-01

    We report a detailed crystal field analysis of Pm3+ and Sm3+ as well as lattice location studies of 147Pm and 147Nd in 2H-aluminum nitride (w-AlN). The isotopes of mass 147 were produced by nuclear fission and implanted at an energy of 60 keV. The decay chain of interest in this work is 147Nd→147Pm→147Sm (stable). Lattice location studies applying the emission channeling technique were carried out using the β− particles and conversion electrons emitted in the radioactive decay of 147Nd→147Pm. The samples were investigated as implanted, and also they were investigated after annealing to temperatures of 873 K as well as 1373 K. The main fraction of about 60% of both 147Pm as well as 147Nd atoms was located on substitutional Al sites in the AlN lattice; the remainder of the ions were located randomly within the AlN lattice. Following radioactive decay of 147Nd, the cathodoluminescence spectra of Pm3+ and Sm3+ were obtained between 500 nm and 1050 nm at sample temperatures between 12 K and 300 K. High-re...

  19. Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, T. T.; Davies, R. M.; Griffin, W. L.; Wathanakul, P.; French, D. H.

    2001-08-01

    Diamonds occur in headless placers at several locations within Myanmar. Twenty-six stones from the Momeik area of northern Myanmar and 111 stones from the Theindaw area of southern Myanmar have been studied to characterise their morphology, crystal forms, colour, degree of resorption, surface features, internal structures, mineral inclusions, and nitrogen content and aggregation state. Most stones grew originally as octahedra, but now show very high degrees of resorption, and highly polished surfaces, reflecting transport in a magma. Etch features are abundant, and breakage and abrasion are common, due to alluvial transport. Brown radiation spots are common, suggesting that these diamonds have a long history in surface environments. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images of plates and whole stones commonly display marked oscillatory zoning of yellow and blue bands, outlining octahedral growth zones. Many other stones show uniform yellow CL. Syngenetic mineral inclusions identified thus far are mainly of peridotitic paragenesis and include olivine, chromite and native iron. Infrared spectroscopy studies show that ˜10% of the diamonds have very low-N contents (Type II diamonds). More N-rich diamonds show high degrees of aggregation (Type IaAB). Both types are consistent with derivation from the upper mantle, rather than from crustal metamorphic sources. The primary source of these diamonds is believed to be an alkaline igneous rock (lamproitic rather than kimberlitic) but they may have reached their present locations via a secondary collector such as a sedimentary rock.

  20. Large-scale fabrication and luminescence properties of GaN nanostructures by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GaN nanorods with a period of 400 nm and diameter of 200 nm, and nano-gratings with a period of 400 nm and gap width of 100 nm are fabricated on wafers by a soft UV-curing nanoimprint lithography. These nanostructures show high periodicity and good morphology. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit that the integral PL intensity of GaN nanorods is enhanced as much as 2.5 times, compared to that of as-grown GaN films. According to finite-difference time-domain simulations and cathodoluminescence mappings, it is concluded that the enhancement for nanorods is due to the improvements of both spontaneous emission rate and light extraction efficiency caused by periodic GaN structures on the surface. By identifying the Raman shift of E1(TO) and E2H modes of GaN films with nano-gratings and nanorods, the normal-plane strain εzz is determined. The PL emission energy is found to be proportional to the εzz, whose linear proportionality factor is calculated to be −27 meV GPa−1. (paper)

  1. Optical and Structural Properties of Microcrystalline GaN on an Amorphous Substrate Prepared by a Combination of Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung-Wook; Hwang, Hyeong-Yong; Kang, Eun-Kyu; Park, Kwangwook; Kim, Ci-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seon; Jho, Young-Dahl; Bae, Si-Young; Lee, Yong-Tak

    2016-05-01

    Microscale platelet-shaped GaN grains were grown on amorphous substrates by a combined epitaxial growth method of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). First, MBE GaN was grown on an amorphous substrate as a pre-orienting layer and its structural properties were investigated. Second, MOCVD grown GaN samples using the different growth techniques of planar and selective area growth (SAG) were comparatively investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cathodoluminescence (CL), and photoluminescence (PL). In MOCVD planar GaN, strong bound exciton peaks dominated despite the high density of the threading dislocations (TDs). In MOCVD SAG GaN, on the other hand, TDs were clearly reduced with bending, but basal stacking fault (BSF) PL peaks were observed at 3.42 eV. The combined epitaxial method not only provides a deep understanding of the growth behavior but also suggests an alternative approach for the growth of GaN on amorphous substances.

  2. Influence of stacking faults on the properties of GaN-based UV light-emitting diodes grown on non-polar substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Q.; Adivarahan, V.; Shatalov, M.; Gaevski, M.E.; Kuokstis, E.; Yang, J.W.; Maruska, H.P.; Gong, Z.; Asif Khan, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina (United States); Liu, R.; Bell, A.; Ponce, F.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We report on the reduction of defect densities in non-polar a-plane GaN films over r-plane sapphire achieved by epitaxial laterally overgrowth (ELOG) approach. A mask pattern was used to produce ELOG GaN with wing region width of about 30 {mu}m. Based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results, the window regions have stacking faults density of {proportional_to}10{sup 6}cm {sup -1} and threading dislocation density of {proportional_to}10 {sup 10} cm {sup -2}. Both ELOG Ga-face and N-face wing regions have stacking fault density of {proportional_to}10 {sup 5} cm {sup -1}, and dislocation density less than 10 {sup 8} cm {sup -2}. Cathodoluminescence studies reveal the difference in defect densities between N-faced and Ga-faced wings. GaN-based UV light-emitting diode formed on Ga-faced wing shows stronger quantum well emission and weaker parasitic emission than that formed on N-faced wing. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Non-catalyst growth and characterization of a-plane AlGaN nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaevski, Mikhail E.; Sun, Wenhong; Yang, Jinwei; Adivarahan, Vinod; Sattu, Ajay; Mokina, Irina; Shatalov, Maxim; Simin, Grigory; Asif Khan, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We report on growth of Al{sub 0.22}Ga{sub 0.78}N/Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N nanorods over a -plane GaN template using low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Nanorods with average diameter of 100 nm were up to 30 {mu}m long. They grew preferentially along the left angle 11 anti 20 right angle crystal direction and possessed excellent optical and mechanical properties. It was shown using monochromatic cathodoluminescence that nanorods emit light both at 320 nm and 350 nm over entire length proving uniform coating of the Al{sub 0.06}Ga{sub 0.94}N rod core by an Al{sub 0.22}Ga{sub 0.78}N shield. The elastic modulus of nanorod material was found to be 185 GPa. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Structural and optical nanoscale analysis of GaN core-shell microrod arrays fabricated by combined top-down and bottom-up process on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Marcus; Schmidt, Gordon; Metzner, Sebastian; Veit, Peter; Bertram, Frank; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Debnath, Ratan; Ha, Jong-Yoon; Wen, Baomei; Blanchard, Paul; Motayed, Abhishek; King, Matthew R.; Davydov, Albert V.; Christen, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Large arrays of GaN core-shell microrods were fabricated on Si(111) substrates applying a combined bottom-up and top-down approach which includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of patterned GaN films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and selective overgrowth of obtained GaN/Si pillars using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The structural and optical properties of individual core-shell microrods have been studied with a nanometer scale spatial resolution using low-temperature cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) directly performed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). SEM, TEM, and CL measurements reveal the formation of distinct growth domains during the HVPE overgrowth. A high free-carrier concentration observed in the non-polar \\{ 1\\bar{1}00\\} HVPE shells is assigned to in-diffusion of silicon atoms from the substrate. In contrast, the HVPE shells directly grown on top of the c-plane of the GaN pillars reveal a lower free-carrier concentration.

  5. A carbon fiber-ZnS nanocomposite for dual application as an efficient cold cathode as well as a luminescent anode for display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Arunava; Sarkar, Sudipta Kumar; Sen, Dipayan; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2015-02-14

    In the current work we present a simple technique to develop a carbon nanofiber (CNF)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) composite material for excellent FED application. CNFs and ZnS microspheres were synthesized by following a simple thermal chemical vapor deposition and hydrothermal procedure, respectively. A rigorous chemical mixture of CNF and ZnS was prepared to produce the CNF-ZnS composite material. The cathodo-luminescence intensity of the composite improved immensely compared to pure ZnS, also the composite material showed better field emission than pure CNFs. For pure CNF the turn-on field was found to be 2.1 V μm(-1) whereas for the CNF-ZnS composite it reduced to a value of 1.72 V μm(-1). Altogether the composite happened to be an ideal element for both the anode and cathode of a FED system. Furthermore, simulation of our CNF-ZnS composite system using the finite element modeling method also ensured the betterment of field emission from CNF after surface attachment of ZnS nanoclusters.

  6. Synthesis and Electrical Prop erties of TiO2 Nanoparticles Emb edded in Polyamide-6 Nanofib ers Via Electrospinning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Nirmala; Jin Won Jeong; R Navamathavan; Hak Yong Kim

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterizations of TiO2 nanoparticles embedded in polyamide-6 composite nanofibers by using electrospinning technique. The influence of substrate on the electrical charac-teristics of polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers was investigated. The resultant nanofibers exhibit good incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles. The doping of TiO2 nanoparticles into the polyamide-6 nanofibers were confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Pho-toluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy were also used to characterize the samples. The PL and CL spectra reveal that the as-spun polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers consisted of overlapping of two broad emission bands due to the contribution of polyamide-6 (centered at about 475 nm), which might originate from organic functional groups of polyamide-6 and TiO2 nanoparticles (centered around 550 nm). The electrical conductivity of the polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers on different substrates was carried out. It was found that the electrical conductivity of the polyamide-6/TiO2 composite nanofibers on silicon substrate was in the range of 1∼3 µA, and about 1 to 20 pA for the paper and glass substrates.

  7. Rare earths in electroluminescent and field emission display phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monochrome electroluminescent flat panel displays based on ZnS:Mn have commercially been available for several years and now multicolor devices are coming to the market. Colors are usually produced by rare earth activators in ZnS or alkaline earth sulfide matrices. The materials studied include ZnS:Tb, ZnS:Sm, ZnS:Tm, CaS:Eu, CaS:Tb, SrS:Ce and thiogallates (Ca, Sr)Ga2S4 doped with Ce or Eu. The most promising approach to full color devices is that with ZnS:Mn (yellow) and SrS:Ce (blue-green) broad band phosphors and color filters. Field emission displays (FED) are based on cathodoluminescence where the electrons used in excitation originate from an addressable array of microtip cathodes. The operation voltage can vary (300 V-8 kV) but green emitting ZnO:Zn is so far the only phosphor which gives applicable luminance efficiency at low voltages. The problems in FED phosphors and the results obtained with rare earth containing phosphors are reviewed. (orig.)

  8. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-01-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications. PMID:27666663

  9. Effect of Eu3+ Concentration on the Luminescent Properties of SrTiO3 Phosphors Prepared by Pressure-Assisted Combustion Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the structural, morphological, and luminescent characterization of pure SrTiO3 and SrTiO3:Eu3+ powders doped with different europium atomic concentrations from 3.0 to 7.0 a.t.%. Those phosphors were prepared by pressure-assisted combustion synthesis using titanium oxide as precursor and were subjected to postannealing at 1200°C. XRD measurements indicated that undoped and Eu3+ doped samples presented a single cubic crystalline phase and SEM images demonstrated that we have particles with sizes in the range of 0.2 µm–1.0 µm. Moreover, the size of the grains increases as the content of Eu3+ dopant increases. A strong red emission from Eu3+ ions was obtained by photoluminescence under excitation at 396 nm and confirmed by cathodoluminescence. All those results indicate that our red phosphors could be useful for potential applications in solid state lighting and field emission displays.

  10. Deep green emission at 570nm from InGaN/GaN MQW active region grown on bulk AlN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Grandusky, J. R.; Jamil, M.; Jindal, V.; Schujman, S. B.; Schowalter, L. J.; Liu, R.; Ponce, F. A.; Cheung, M.; Cartwright, A.

    2005-09-01

    Relatively intense deep-green/yellow photoluminescence emission at ~600 nm is observed for InGaN/GaN multi quantum well (MQW) structures grown on bulk AlN substrates, demonstrating the potential to extend commercial III-Nitride LED technology to longer wavelengths. Optical spectroscopy has been performed on InGaN MQWs with an estimated In concentration of greater than 50% grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy at 750oC. Temperature- and power-dependence, time-resolved photoluminescence as well as spatially resolved cathodoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy have been applied to understand and elucidate the nature of the mechanism responsible for radiative recombination at 600nm as well as higher energy emission band observed in the samples. A comparison between samples grown on bulk AlN and sapphire substrates indicate a lower degree of compositional and/or thickness fluctuation in the latter case. Our results indicate the presence of alloy compositional fluctuation in the active region despite the lower strain expected in the structure contrary to that of low In composition active regions deposited on bulk GaN substrates. Transient photoluminescence measurements signify a stretched exponential followed by a power decay to best fit the luminescence decay indicative of carrier hopping in the active region. Our results point to the fact that at such high In composition (>30%) InGaN compositional fluctuation is still a dominant effect despite lower strain at the substrate-epi interface.

  11. InGaN pyramids: Towards positioned quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waechter, Clemens; Jetter, Michael; Beirne, Gareth; Michler, Peter [Institut fuer Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle Grenzflaechen, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    InGaN quantum dots (QDs) are of high interest for quantum optics due to their large exciton binding energies, even more if the quantity of the QDs is controllable and the position is well known. This can be achieved for example by growing QDs on prepatterned substrates. In the nitride material system this prepattering can be reached by selective epitaxy of hexagonal pyramids on a SiO{sub 2}-masked GaN-template. The InGaN material is then deposited on these substrates, forming low dimensional structures on these pyramids. However, the research regarding these structures is still in progress. In this talk the recent efforts and results will be presented. Samples were prepared with varying InGaN growth temperature, growth pressure, cap structures and pyramid sizes. These samples were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, time resolved (micro-)photoluminescence spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Using all these informations the current status and future developments will be presented.

  12. Characterization of the charge-carrier transport properties of IIa-Tech SC diamond for radiation detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single crystal (SC) diamond has since years demonstrated its interest for the fabrication of radiation detectors, especially where the material properties are providing superior interests with respect to the detection application. Among the industrial suppliers able to provide on a commercial basis high-grade single crystal diamond, IIa-Tech has recently appeared in the market as a new player. The aim of this paper is to assess the quality of one SC sample when characterized under α-particles for the measurement of its carrier transport properties. We observed that full charge collection could be observed at biases as low as 0.11 V/μm with no space charge build-up (conventionally typical bias values used are closer to 1 V/μm). Velocity reached values of 38 μm/ns and 53 μm/ns for electrons and holes, respectively (values probed at 0.33 V/μm). Similarly, the α detection spectrum displays a sharp line demonstrating the good uniformity of the material over its surface. By combining the measurements with more conventional optical observations such as birefringence and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, it comes that the material demonstrates its ability to be used as a detector, with properties that can compare with the highest grade materials today available on the market. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Direct correlation and strong reduction of native point defects and microwave dielectric loss in air-annealed (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Z. Q. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Podpirka, A.; Kirchoefer, S. W. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Asel, T. J. [Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Brillson, L. J., E-mail: brillson.1@osu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Materials Research, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-04

    We report on the native defect and microwave properties of 1 μm thick Ba{sub 0.50}Sr{sub 0.50}TiO{sub 3} (BST) films grown on MgO (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (DRCLS) showed high densities of native point defects in as-deposited BST films, causing strong subgap emission between 2.0 eV and 3.0 eV due to mixed cation V{sub C} and oxygen Vo vacancies. Post growth air anneals reduce these defects with 2.2, 2.65, and 3.0 eV V{sub O} and 2.4 eV V{sub C} intensities decreasing with increasing anneal temperature and by nearly two orders of magnitude after 950 °C annealing. These low-defect annealed BST films exhibited high quality microwave properties, including room temperature interdigitated capacitor tunability of 13% under an electric bias of 40 V and tan δ of 0.002 at 10 GHz and 40 V bias. The results provide a feasible route to grow high quality BST films by MBE through post-air annealing guided by DRCLS.

  14. Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzelak, Przemysław; Głuchowski, Edward; Salamon, Mariusz A.

    2014-08-01

    Muscular articulations in modern stalked crinoids are only present in the arms. Although it has been suggested that certain coiled-stemmed fossil taxa may have been functionally adapted to utilize muscles, evidence supporting this interpretation is lacking. Here, we use cathodoluminescence and SEM to reveal the skeletal microstructure of the enigmatic coiled-stemmed taxon Ammonicrinus (Flexibilia). Based on the well-established link between skeletal microstructure and the nature of infilling soft tissues in modern echinoderms, we reconstructed the palaeoanatomy of the Middle Devonian ammonicrinids. We show that their median columnals with elongated lateral columnal enclosure extensions (LCEE) have stereom microstructure unexpectedly resembling that in the crinoid muscular arm plates. In particular, large ligamentary facets, that are present on each side of a transverse ridge, are mainly comprised of fine galleried stereom that is indicative of the mutable collagenous tissues. In contrast, fine labyrinthic stereom, commonly associated with muscles, is situated in the periphery on each side of the surface of elongated LCEE. Our findings thus strongly suggest that the muscles may have also been present in the stem of ammonicrinids. These results reassess the previous hypotheses about evolution of muscles in crinoids and provide new insights into the mode of life of Ammonicrinus.

  15. Scattering behaviour of a two-dimensional electron gas induced by Al composition fluctuation in AlxGa1-xN barriers in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Shen Bo; Xu Fu-Jun; Huang Sen; Miao Zhen-Lin; Lin Fang; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements have been done to study the alloy fluctuation of the Al0.3Ca0.7N layer in Al0.3Ca0.7N/GaN heterostructures. The CL images and linescanning results demonstrate the existcnce of compositional fluctuation of Al in the Al0.3Ga0.7N barrier. A model using a δ-shape perturbation Hamilton function has been proposed to simulate the scattering probability of the two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) induced by Al composition fluctuation. Two factors, including conduction band fluctuation and polarization electric field variation, induced by the Al composition fluctuation have been taken into account. The scattering relaxation time induced by both factors has been estimated to be 0.31 ns and 0.0078 us, respectively, indicating that the variation of the piezoelectric field is dominant in the scattering of the 2DEG induced by Al fluctuation.

  16. Genetic mechanism and prediction of Paleozoic clastic eureservoirs in platform of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the pore cast and cathodolumines-cence thin sections, diagenesis process, source rock matura-tion history, structural evolution and reservoir quality characteristics, the points of view that the porosities of Pa-leozoic clastic eureservoirs in the platform of the Tarim Ba-sin are mainly secondary, and the dissolution plays an unignorable role in the formation of eureservoirs, are put forward. In this paper, a series of criteria for the recognition of the secondary porosities, the occurrence extent and classi-fication of secondary porosity are introduced, and three kinds of dissolution mechanism--the aluminosilicate dis-solution, the silicon dioxide dissolution and the carbonate dissolution--to generate the secondary porosity are come up with. The formation, distribution, preservation and dis-appearance of eureservoirs are controlled by the paleo- structural framework and evolution, and hydrocarbon filling and discharging. Paleostructural framework manipulate the migration path and direction of the acid fluid so as to deter-mine the position and extent of the dissolution. Paleostruc-ture highs and continuous paleouplifts are in favor of devel-oping the secondary porosity. The hydrocarbon filling made the secondary porosities preserved and the hydrocarbon discharging let the secondary porosities filled by later calcite or quartz overgrowth cements. Paleostructure highs and continuous paleouplifts during the maturation period of Cambrian, Ordovician and Carboniferous source rocks (corresponding to S, P and K) are main areas for eureservoirs developing.

  17. Exciton luminescence in krypton cryocrystals with an admixture of molecular deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data on VUV and UV cathodoluminescence spectra of Kr-based solid mixtures Kr-D2, Kr-D2-O2, and Kr-Xe-O2 for various dopant concentrations are presented. It is shown that introduction of a molecular deuterium impurity into krypton cryocrystals does not result in any new spectral features, suggesting that no excitation or dissociation of D2 takes place upon electron irradiation of the crystals. The intensity of the luminescence of matrix excitations is found to grow with D2 concentration. It is shown that the observed intensity growth is related to localization of matrix excitons in a limited crystal volume due to their quasi-elastic scattering by deuterium impurity molecules which results in a considerable decrease in mean free path and diffusion path length of the excitons, as well as their faster localization. Possible mechanisms of luminescence quenching in pure krypton cryocrystals are discussed. It is concluded that the quenching is due to annihilation of excitons in the process of their interactions with each other and with other electronic excitations of the crystal.

  18. Electron-beam-induced current at absorber back surfaces of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavalakkatt, J.; Abou-Ras, D., E-mail: daniel.abou-ras@helmholtz-berlin.de; Nichterwitz, M.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Unold, T.; Scheer, R.; Schock, H. W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz. 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Haarstrich, J.; Ronning, C. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2014-01-07

    The present work reports on investigations of the influence of the microstructure on electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) thin-film solar cells. For this purpose, ZnO/CdS/CIGSe stacks of these solar cells were lifted off the Mo-coated glass substrates. The exposed CIGSe backsides of these stacks were investigated by means of electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements as well as by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). EBIC and CL profiles across grain boundaries (GBs), which were identified by EBSD, do not show any significant changes at Σ3 GBs. Across non-Σ3 GBs, on the other hand, the CL signals exhibit local minima with varying peak values, while by means of EBIC, decreased and also increased short-circuit current values are measured. Overall, EBIC and CL signals change across non-Σ3 GBs always differently. This complex situation was found in various CIGSe thin films with different [Ga]/([In]+[Ga]) and [Cu]/([In]+[Ga]) ratios. A part of the EBIC profiles exhibiting reduced signals across non-Σ3 GBs can be approximated by a simple model based on diffusion of generated charge carriers to the GBs.

  19. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann

    2016-03-10

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  20. Disentangling the effects of nanoscale structural variations on the light emission wavelength of single nano-emitters: InGaN/GaN multiquantum well nano-LEDs for a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarau, George; Heilmann, Martin; Latzel, Michael; Christiansen, Silke

    2014-10-21

    The scattering in the light emission wavelength of semiconductor nano-emitters assigned to nanoscale variations in strain, thickness, and composition is critical in current and novel nanotechnologies from highly efficient light sources to photovoltaics. Here, we present a correlated experimental and theoretical study of single nanorod light emitting diodes (nano-LEDs) based on InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells to separate the contributions of these intrinsic fluctuations. Cathodoluminescence measurements show that nano-LEDs with identical strain states probed by non-resonant micro-Raman spectroscopy can radiate light at different wavelengths. The deviations in the measured optical transitions agree very well with band profile calculations for quantum well thicknesses of 2.07-2.72 nm and In fractions of 17.5-19.5% tightly enclosing the growth values. The nanorod surface roughness controls the appearance of surface optical phonon modes with direct implications on the design of phonon assisted nano-LED devices. This work establishes a new, simple, and powerful methodology for fundamental understanding as well as quantitative analysis of the strain - light emission relationship and surface-related phenomena in the emerging field of nano-emitters.

  1. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  2. Research on diagenesis of the sandstone-type uranium deposits in Dongsheng area, Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic methods of thin section petrography, scanning electron microscope, electron microprobe, energy spectrum analysis, cathodoluminescence, isotopic analysis and temperature measuring for fluid inclusions were used in analyzing sandstone samples collected from the Zhiluo Formation in order to fully understand the diagenesis evolution and the mineralizing response as well as the genesis of the uranium-bearing sandstone in Dongsheng area. The result shows that (1) the sandstone include lithic silicarenite, feldspathic litharenite and litharenite; (2) the authigenic minerals include clay minerals, carbonate minerals, siliceous and ferric minerals; (3) the physical property of sandstone is obviously controlled by diagenesis; and (4) the sandstone with favorable physical property is propitious to migration and storage of ore-forming fluid, and finally, forming the ore deposit. The sandstone of the Zhiluo Formation had undergone the early diagenetic stage (periods A and B) and the epidiagenetic stage. The evolution of diagenetic environment is in the order of acidic oxidation, alkalescent deoxidization, acidity to transitional environment of oxidation-deoxidization and acidity-alkalescence. The uranium exists in forms of pre-enrichment uranyl ion, active uranyl ion, dispersive adsorptive uranium and uranium mineral, respectively. In addition, the authors also hold that the formation of the sandstone-type uranium is not only related to the oxidation-deoxidization environment, but also closely related to the acidic-alkaline transitional environment, which are propitious to uranium mineralization in sandstone.

  3. Structural and optical properties of ZnO films produced by a modified ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present a modification of the usual ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method and tested its ability to produce good quality films by producing ZnO films. Our method consists of keeping the sprayed substrate at room temperature and, after that, a thermal treatment under a chosen environment and temperature is made. We used this method to produce ZnO films considering two environments, air and air + vapor of zinc acetate, and two temperatures, 400 °C and 450 °C. The ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, thermogravimetry/simultaneum differential thermal analysis and Raman spectroscopy techniques, and results indicated that ZnO films produced under air + vapor of zinc acetate at 400 °C are the best films obtained by our modified method. - Highlights: • A variation of the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique is introduced. • ZnO films were produced using the modification of the USP technique. • High quality ZnO films were produced at a lower temperature than those used in other studies

  4. Analysis of luminescence spectra of substrate-free icosahedral and crystalline clusters of argon

    CERN Document Server

    Doronin, Yu S; Kamarchuk, G V; Tkachenko, A A; Samovarov, V N

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new approach to analysis of cathodoluminescence spectra of substrate-free nanoclusters of argon produced in a supersonic jet expanding into a vacuum. It is employed to analyze intensities of the luminescence bands of neutral and charged excimer complexes (Ar2)* and (Ar4+)* measured for clusters with an average size of 500 to 8900 atoms per cluster and diameters ranging from 32 to 87 {\\AA}. Concentration of the jet substance condensed into clusters, which determines the absolute values of the integrated band intensities, is shown to be proportional to the logarithm of the average cluster size. Analysis of reduced intensities of the (Ar2)* and (Ar4+)* bands in the spectra of crystalline clusters with an fcc structure allows us to conclude that emission of the neutral molecules (Ar2)* comes from within the whole volume of the cluster, while the charged complexes (Ar4+)* radiate from its near-surface layers. We find the cluster size range in which the jet is dominated by quasicrystalline clusters wit...

  5. The influence of substrate temperature on the structural and luminescent properties of as-deposited SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} thin films coated with a TaSi{sub 2} thin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moleme, P.A.; Swart, H.C.; Kumar, Vinod; Terblans, J.J. [University of the Free State, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2016-03-15

    SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} thin films coated with a very thin layer of TaSi{sub 2} were deposited on Si(100) substrates utilizing the pulsed laser deposition system. During the ablation of the targets for thin films preparation, the Si(100) substrate temperature varied in the range of 400-600 C. The as-deposited SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} films showed an orthorhombic crystal structure, and the TaSi{sub 2} coating layer showed a hexagonal structure. The films maintained the crystal structures within the temperature ranges of 400-600 C. The distribution of particles with irregular sizes contributing to a difference in surface roughness of the as-prepared thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy. The films showed a broad photoluminescence (PL) peak at 416 nm, and the maximum PL intensity, as compared to other films, was observed for a film deposited at a substrate temperature of 450 C. Two broad cathodoluminescence peaks (440 and 490 nm) due to Ce{sup 3+} emission were observed for a film deposited at a substrate temperature of 450 C. The presence of the TaSi{sub 2} coating layer on the SrGa{sub 2}S{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} thin films was confirmed with Auger electron spectroscopy surface elemental analysis, and Auger depth profiles showed uniform concentrations of the main elements in the deposited films. (orig.)

  6. Thallium and manganese complexes involved in the luminescence emission of potassium-bearing aluminosilicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The luminescence emission at 285 nm in natural K-feldspar has been studied by Russian groups and associated with thallium ions in structural positions of K+ sites as artificially thallium-doped feldspars display the same emission band. Here attention is focussed on spectra of CL emission bands centered near 285 and 560 nm from paragenetic adularia, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions. With accesorial thallium they show clear resemblances to each other. Associated sedimentary and hydrothermal aluminosilicate samples collected from Guadalix (Madrid, Spain) were analyzed with a wide range of experimental techniques including Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) with an attached X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and a cathodoluminescence probe (CL) and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Differential and Thermogravimetric Analyses (DTA-TG), radioluminescence (RL), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). The luminescence emission bands at 285 and 560 nm seem to be associated with hydrous thallium–manganese complexes bonded to potassium-bearing aluminosilicates since various minerals such as K-feldspar, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions display similar CL spectra, accesorial thallium and hydroxyl groups. The presence of iron introduces a brown color which is attributed to submicroscopic iron oxides detectable in the optical and chemical microanalysis, but this does not contribute to the luminescence emission. The XPS Mn 2p spectrum of the adularia sample at room temperature is composed of a spin–orbit doublet plus clear shake-up satellite structure ∼4 eV above the main photoemision lines and is consistent with Mn2+ in good agreement with the observed luminescence emission at 560 nm for aluminosilicates produced by a 4T1(4G)→6A1(6S) transition in tetrahedrally coordinated Mn2+. Moscovite samples display

  7. Forms of uranium associated to silica in the environment of the Nopal deposit (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, T.; Othmane, G.; Menguy, N.; Vercouter, T.; Morin, G.; Calas, G.; Fayek, M.

    2011-12-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the transfers of uranium in the environment is necessary for the safety assessement of nuclear waste repositories. In particular, several poorly ordered phases (e.g. Fe oxihydroxides) are expected to play an important role in trapping uranium from surface waters. Among them, natural systems containing amorphous silica are poorly documented. A former study from the environment of the Peny mine (France) showed the importance of silica in uranium speciation [1]. The Nopal uranium deposit is located in volcanic tuff from tertiary period. It hosted several hydrothermal alteration episodes responsible for clay minerals formation. A primary uranium mineralisation occurred in a breccia pipe, consisting in uraninite, subsequently altered in secondary uranium minerals among which several silicates. Eventually, opal was formed and coated uranyl silicates such as uranophane and weeksite [2], [3]. Opals also contain minor amounts of uranium. The Nopal deposit is still considered as a natural analogue of high level nuclear waste repository located in volcanic tuff. It may be used to reveal the low temperature conditions of trapping of uranium in systems devoid of iron oxides such as silica-containing ones. The aim of this study is then to determine the uranium speciation, and its possible complexity, associated to these opals that represent a late trapping episode. It will provide insights ranging from the micrometer scale of electron microscopies to the molecular scale provided by fluorescence spectroscopy. Three samples of green or yellow opals have been analysed by a combination of complementary tools including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on cross-sections, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) on focused ion beam (FIB) films, cathodoluminescence and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Uranium speciation was found to be complex. We first evidence U-bearing microparticles of beta-uranophane Ca[(UO2)(Si

  8. Thallium and manganese complexes involved in the luminescence emission of potassium-bearing aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.gomez@mncn.csic.es [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, Javier, E-mail: guinea@mncn.csic.es [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Garrido, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid E-28006 (Spain); Townsend, Peter D., E-mail: pdtownsend@gmail.com [School of Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Marco, Jose-Francisco, E-mail: jfmarco@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química-Física Rocasolano, CSIC, Calle Serrano 119, Madrid E-28006 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    The luminescence emission at 285 nm in natural K-feldspar has been studied by Russian groups and associated with thallium ions in structural positions of K{sup +} sites as artificially thallium-doped feldspars display the same emission band. Here attention is focussed on spectra of CL emission bands centered near 285 and 560 nm from paragenetic adularia, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions. With accesorial thallium they show clear resemblances to each other. Associated sedimentary and hydrothermal aluminosilicate samples collected from Guadalix (Madrid, Spain) were analyzed with a wide range of experimental techniques including Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) with an attached X-Ray Energy-Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) and a cathodoluminescence probe (CL) and Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), Differential and Thermogravimetric Analyses (DTA-TG), radioluminescence (RL), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS). The luminescence emission bands at 285 and 560 nm seem to be associated with hydrous thallium–manganese complexes bonded to potassium-bearing aluminosilicates since various minerals such as K-feldspar, moscovite and quartz micro-inclusions display similar CL spectra, accesorial thallium and hydroxyl groups. The presence of iron introduces a brown color which is attributed to submicroscopic iron oxides detectable in the optical and chemical microanalysis, but this does not contribute to the luminescence emission. The XPS Mn 2p spectrum of the adularia sample at room temperature is composed of a spin–orbit doublet plus clear shake-up satellite structure ∼4 eV above the main photoemision lines and is consistent with Mn{sup 2+} in good agreement with the observed luminescence emission at 560 nm for aluminosilicates produced by a {sup 4}T1({sup 4}G)→{sup 6}A1({sup 6}S) transition in tetrahedrally

  9. Luminescence of dysprosium doped strontium aluminate phosphors by codoping with manganese ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • SrAl2O4:Dy3+, Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized by solid state reaction method. • The roles of Dy3+ and Mn2+ doped into SrAl2O4 were discussed. • The nature of the emission lines is discussed. -- Abstract: The authors report here the luminescence properties of strontium aluminate doped with dysprosium and manganese. The dysprosium, manganese co-doped powders were prepared by a solid state reaction at temperatures at 1600 °C under H2 (15%)–Ar (85%) atmosphere. The dysprosium, manganese co-doped strontium aluminate phosphors have the monoclinic structure with lattice parameters a ≈ 8.440 Å, b ≈ 8.821 Å, c ≈ 5.157 Å and β ≈ 93.4°. The characteristic 4F9/2 → 6H15/2 (blue), 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 (yellow), 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 (red) and 4F9/2 → 6H9/2 (NIR) transitions of Dy3+ for different luminescence techniques (radioluminescence, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence) were detected in the emission spectra at the room temperature. The luminescence of Mn2+ co-doped SrAl2O4:Dy3+ exhibits a broad green–orange emission band (4T1 → 6A1 transition) from the synthesized phosphor particles under different excitation sources. This corresponds to the spin-forbidden transition of the d-orbital electron associated with the Mn2+ ion. Multiple emission lines observed at each of these techniques are due to the crystal field splitting of the ground state of the emitting ions. The nature of the emission lines is discussed

  10. Interface characteristics of spin-on-dielectric SiO{sub x}-buffered passivation layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Pil-Seok; Park, Kyoung-Seok; Yoon, Yeo-Chang [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 100-715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Mi-Hyang [Department of Materials Science Engineering, Seoul National University, 151-742 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sam-Dong, E-mail: samdong@dongguk.edu [Division of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dongguk University, 100-715 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-31

    To reveal the cause for significant enhancement of dc current performance of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with the spin-on-dielectric (SOD) SiO{sub x}-buffered passivation structure compared to the conventional Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation deposited by plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), we characterized the passivation interfaces using the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, capacitance–voltage (C–V) characterizations, and Hall-effect measurements. The interface state density of PECVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation was in the range of 10{sup 12}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, which is one-order higher than that of the SOD (10{sup 11}–10{sup 12} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}) as measured by C–V measurements from the metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors. Higher density of effective oxide charge density (especially dominant contribution of ionic mobile charge) was also derived from the PECVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation. A well-resolved reduction of the electron Hall mobility of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} passivation compared to that of the perhydropolysilazane SOD passivation, which can be due to the higher-density interface states and trap charges, can answer the relative dc current collapse of our HEMT devices. - Highlights: • Spin-on-dielectric (SOD)-buffered passivation for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs • Characterize the charge density and interface states using the C–V measurements • SOD-buffered passivation minimizes surface states at the interface. • DC performance of SOD-buffered structure is due to the interface characteristics.

  11. Low dislocation density InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructures grown on GaN substrates and the effects on gate leakage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Junji; Yamada, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Tetsuro; Tomabechi, Shuichi; Nakamura, Norikazu

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on the electrical characterization of Ni/Au Schottky diodes fabricated on InAlN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown on low dislocation density free-standing GaN substrates. InAlN HEMT structures were grown on sapphire and GaN substrates by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy, and the effects of threading dislocation density on the leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were investigated. Threading dislocation densities were determined to be 1.8 × 104 cm-2 and 1.2 × 109 cm-2 by the cathodoluminescence measurement for the HEMT structures grown on GaN and sapphire substrates, respectively. Leakage characteristics of Ni/Au Schottky diodes were compared between the two samples, and a reduction of the leakage current of about three to four orders of magnitude was observed in the forward bias region. For the high reverse bias region, however, no significant improvement was confirmed. We believe that the leakage current in the low bias region is governed by a dislocation-related Frenkel-Poole emission, and the leakage current in the high reverse bias region originates from field emission due to the large internal electric field in the InAlN barrier layer. Our results demonstrated that the reduction of dislocation density is effective in reducing leakage current in the low bias region. At the same time, it was also revealed that another approach will be needed, for instance, band modulation by impurity doping and insertion of insulating layers beneath the gate electrodes for a substantial reduction of the gate leakage current.

  12. Facile synthesis of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers by electrospinning and gas-phase sulfidation for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowska-Korczyc, Anna; Sobczak, Kamil; Dłużewski, Piotr; Reszka, Anna; Kowalski, Bogdan J; Kłopotowski, Łukasz; Elbaum, Danek; Fronc, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    This study describes a new method of passivating ZnO nanofiber-based devices with a ZnS layer. This one-step process was carried out in H2S gas at room temperature, and resulted in the formation of core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers. This study presents the structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers formed by a 2 nm ZnS sphalerite crystal shell covering a 5 nm ZnO wurtzite crystal core. The passivation process prevented free carriers from capture by oxygen molecules and significantly reduced the impact of O2 on nanostructure conductivity. The conductivity of the nanofibers was increased by three orders of magnitude after the sulfidation, the photoresponse time was reduced from 1500 s to 30 s, and the cathodoluminescence intensity increased with the sulfidation time thanks to the removal of ZnO surface defects by passivation. The ZnO/ZnS nanofibers were stable in water for over 30 days, and in phosphate buffers of acidic, neutral and alkaline pH for over 3 days. The by-products of the passivation process did not affect the conductivity of the devices. The potential of ZnO/ZnS nanofibers for protein biosensing is demonstrated using biotin and streptavidin as a model system. The presented ZnS shell preparation method can facilitate the construction of future sensors and protects the ZnO surface from dissolving in a biological environment. PMID:26313635

  13. High-quality uniaxial In(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, R; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the growth and device characteristics of vertically aligned high-quality uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW)/n-GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The resultant nanowires (NWs), with a diameter of 200-250 nm, have an average length of 2 μm. The feasibility of growing high-quality NWs with well-controlled indium composition MQW structure is demonstrated. These resultant NWs grown on Si(111) substrates were utilized for fabricating vertical-type light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The steep and intense photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are observed, based on the strain-free NWs on Si(111) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis revealed that the MQW NWs are grown along the c-plane with uniform thickness. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these NWs exhibited typical p-n junction LEDs and showed a sharp onset voltage at 2.75 V in the forward bias. The output power is linearly increased with increasing current. The result indicates that the pulsed MOCVD technique is an effective method to grow uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW/n-GaN NWs on Si(111), which is more advantageous than other growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest the uniaxial NWs are promising to allow flat-band quantum structures, which can enhance the efficiency of LEDs. PMID:23432423

  14. Climatic fluctuations and seasonality during the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian) inferred from δ18O of Paris Basin oyster shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Pellenard, Pierre; Vincent, Benoît; Joachimski, Michael M.

    2008-08-01

    Oxygen isotope data from biostratigraphically well-dated oyster shells from the Late Jurassic of the eastern Paris Basin are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of western Tethyan surface waters during the Early Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian interval. Seventy eight oyster shells were carefully screened for potential diagenetic alteration using cathodoluminescence microscopy. Isotope analyses were performed on non-luminescent parts of shells (n = 264). Intra-shell δ18O variability was estimated by microsampling along a transect perpendicular to the growth lines of the largest oyster shell. The sinusoidal distribution of the δ18O values along this transect and the dependence of the amplitude of variations with bathymetry suggest that intra-shell variability reflects seasonal variations of temperature and/or salinity. Average amplitudes of about 5 °C in shallow water environments and of about 2-3 °C in deeper offshore environments are calculated. These amplitudes reflect minimum seasonal temperature variation. Our new data allow to constrain existing paleotemperature trends established from fish tooth and belemnite δ18O data and are in better agreement with paleontological data. More specifically, a warming trend of about 3 °C is reconstructed for oceanic surface waters during the Early to Middle Oxfordian transition, with maximum temperatures reaching 24 °C in the transversarium Zone (late Middle Oxfordian). From the transversarium Zone to the bimmamatum Zone, a cooling of about 7 °C is indicated, whereas from the bimmamatum Zone, temperatures increased again by about 7 °C to reach 24 °C in average during the cymodoce Zone (Early Kimmeridgian).

  15. Luminescence characterization of dental ceramics for individual retrospective dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correcher, V.; Gomesdarocha, R. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garcia G, J. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Rivera M, T., E-mail: v.correcher@ciemat.es [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Ceramic materials in general and dental crowns in particular exhibit thermoluminescence (Tl) properties and are of interest in the field of individual retrospective dosimetry. This property could be potentially employed to provide a means of determining cumulative exposure to external gamma radiation arising from accidents or large-scale incidents (radiological terrorism) involving population groups where conventional monitoring has not been established. The thermal stability and dose effect of the UV-blue Tl emission of a well characterized Spanish samples (by means of cathodoluminescence and electron-probe microanalysis) are here reported. It displays (i) an excellent linearity in the range of 0.12 - 9.6 Gy, (II) good stability of the Tl signal of 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4 Gy irradiated samples after 6 months of storage showing an initial rapid decay (ca. 30%) maintaining the stability from 30 days onwards. It means that the electron population decreases asymptotically by the X - axis and the involved electrons are located in deeper traps at room temperature. (III) The reusability performed on the dental ceramic, involving successive cycles of irradiation (1.2 Gy) followed by readout (up to 500 degrees C), exhibited a negligible variation in the Tl response, when measured six times. (IV) The tests of thermal stability at different temperatures (in the range of 100-240 degrees C) confirms a continuum in the trap distribution with progressive changes in the glow curve shape, intensity and temperature position of the maximum peak. Therefore, these preliminary results suggest that dental ceramics could be used as suitable dosimeters in retrospective conditions. (Author)

  16. Synthesis and fabrication of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} thin films for electroluminescent applications: Optical and structural characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón-Flores, G., E-mail: alar_fbeto@yahoo.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); García-Hipólito, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-360, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04150, México D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); Carmona-Téllez, S. [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, C.P. 04150, México D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Martinez, R. [Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Carretera Acatlima Km 2.5, Huajuapan de León Oaxaca, C.P. 69000, México (Mexico); Campos-Arias, M.P. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); Zaleta-Alejandre, E. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo-Escuela Superior de Apan, Carretera Apan-Calpulalpan Km. 8, C.P. 43920, Apan, Hidalgo (Mexico); and others

    2015-01-15

    Terbium, europium and yttrium β diketonates have been synthesized from acetylacetone and inorganic metal salts and used as precursors for the deposition of Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline films by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were deposited on c-Si substrates at temperatures in the 400–550 °C range. The optical and structural characterization of these films as a function of substrate temperature and Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} concentration was carried out by means of photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), infrared (IR), ellipsometry, and UV–visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X ray diffraction (XRD) measurements respectively. The PL intensity from these films was found to depend on deposition temperature. Films deposited above 450 °C exhibited the characteristic PL peaks associated with either Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} intra electronic energy levels transitions. The most intense PL emission was found for dopant concentration of 10 at% for Tb{sup 3+} and at 8 at% for Eu{sup 3+} ions into precursor solution. In both cases concentration quenching of the PL emission was observed for concentrations above these values. The films had a refractive index (1.81), low average surface roughness (∼62 Å) and a UV–Vis. transmission of the order of 90 %T. - Highlights: • Terbium, europium and yttrium β diketonates have been synthesized. • Luminescent thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} were obtained. • Optical and structural characteristics of these thin films are presented. • The films had a refractive index (1.81) and low average surface roughness (∼62 Å)

  17. Microscopic potential fluctuations in Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with various AlN molar fractions and Si concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurai, Satoshi, E-mail: kurai@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoichi [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Nanoscopic potential fluctuations of Si-doped AlGaN epitaxial layers with the AlN molar fraction varying from 0.42 to 0.95 and Si-doped Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with Si concentrations of 3.0–37 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging combined with scanning electron microscopy. The spot CL linewidths of AlGaN epitaxial layers broadened as the AlN molar fraction was increased to 0.7, and then narrowed at higher AlN molar fractions. The experimental linewidths were compared with the theoretical prediction from the alloy broadening model. The trends displayed by our spot CL linewidths were consistent with calculated results at AlN molar fractions of less than about 0.60, but the spot CL linewidths were markedly broader than the calculated linewidths at higher AlN molar fractions. The dependence of the difference between the spot CL linewidth and calculated line broadening on AlN molar fraction was found to be similar to the dependence of reported S values, indicating that the vacancy clusters acted as the origin of additional line broadening at high AlN molar fractions. The spot CL linewidths of Al{sub 0.61}Ga{sub 0.39}N epitaxial layers with the same Al concentration and different Si concentrations were nearly constant in the entire Si concentration range tested. From the comparison of reported S values, the increase of V{sub Al} did not contribute to the linewidth broadening, unlike the case of the V{sub Al} clusters.

  18. Instantaneous healing of micro-fractures during coseismic slip: Evidence from microstructure and Ti in quartz geochemistry within an exhumed pseudotachylyte-bearing fault in tonalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, Michel; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Mostefaoui, Smail; Göken, Mathias; de Wall, Helga

    2016-06-01

    Exhumed faults within the tonalitic Adamello pluton (Southern Alps) were seismic at depth as indicated by the presence of pseudotachylytes (solidified friction-induced melts). During cooling of tonalite, early-formed joints were first exploited by localized ductile shear zones associated with deposition of quartz veins (at ~ 500 °C), and later by pseudotachylyte-bearing cataclastic faults (at ~ 250-300 °C ambient temperature). Adjacent to pseudotachylytes, quartz of the host tonalite shows pervasive thin (1-10 μm wide) healed micro-fractures and ultra-fine (1-2 μm grain size) recrystallized aggregates along micro-shear zones. Under cathodoluminescence (CL) the healed micro-fractures have a darker gray shade than the host "magmatic" quartz that reflects a change in Ti concentrations ([Ti]) as indicated by NanoSIMS measurements. [Ti] vary from 35-55 ppm in the CL-lighter host quartz to 10-13 ppm along the CL-darker healed micro-fractures. These [Ti] were inherited by the ultra-fine recrystallized aggregates that overprinted both the magmatic quartz and the healed micro-fractures during the high temperature transient related to frictional seismic slip. Based on Ti-in-quartz thermometry, we infer that micro-fracture healing occurred at higher temperatures than the ambient temperatures of faulting (250-300 °C at 0.2 GPa), for which [Ti] history, referable to the short-lived (on the order of 104 s) thermal anomaly induced by frictional seismic slip, that includes both micro-fracture healing and recrystallization. This microstructural assemblage of the natural exhumed fault provides a key for understanding the mechanics of an earthquake source.

  19. Enhancement in the excitonic spontaneous emission rates for Si nanocrystal multi-layers covered with thin films of Au, Ag, and Al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrin, Y; Rich, D H; Rozenfeld, N; Arad-Vosk, N; Ron, A; Sa'ar, A

    2015-10-30

    The enhancement in the spontaneous emission rate (SER) for Ag, Au, and Al films on multilayer Si nanocrystals (SiNCs) was probed with time-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL). The SiNCs were grown on Si(100) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Electron-hole pairs were generated in the metal-covered SiNCs by injecting a pulsed high-energy electron beam through the thin metal films, which is found to be an ideal method of excitation for plasmonic quantum heterostructures and nanostructures that are opaque to laser or light excitation. Spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved CL was used to measure the excitonic lifetime of the SiNCs in metal-covered and bare regions of the same samples. The observed enhancement in the SER for the metal-covered SiNCs, relative to the SER for the bare sample, is attributed to a coupling of the SiNC excitons with surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) of the thin metal films. A maximum SER enhancement of ∼2.0, 1.4 and 1.2 was observed for the Ag, Au, and Al films, respectively, at a temperature of 55 K. The three chosen plasmonic metals of Ag, Au, and Al facilitate an interesting comparison of the exciton-SPP coupling for metal films that exhibit varying differences between the surface plasmon energy, ω(sp), and the SiNC excitonic emission energy. A modeling of the temperature dependence of the Purcell enhancement factor, Fp, was performed and included the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of the metals.

  20. Characterization and origin of low-T willemite (Zn2SiO4) mineralization: the case of the Bou Arhous deposit (High Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavien, Choulet; Luc, Barbanson; Martine, Buatier; James, Richard; Torsten, Vennemann; Aomar, Ennaciri; Mohamed, Zouhair

    2016-09-01

    Willemite (Zn2SiO4) usually reported in hypogene non-sulfide deposits is described as the main ore mineral in the carbonate-hosted Bou Arhous zinc deposit. This deposit is located in the High Atlas intracontinental range that formed during the Tertiary. Based on a set of microscopic observations, it was possible to establish that willemite replaces primary sphalerite. On the basis of cathodoluminescence imaging, three successive generations of willemite are distinguished, with evidence of dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Willemite is also variably enriched in Ge (up to 1000 ppm), while Ge contents lower than 100 ppm are reported in the primary sulfide minerals. Depending on the willemite generation, this substitution was positively or negatively correlated to the Zn-Pb substitution. According to the nature of zoning (sector versus oscillatory), the incorporation of Ge was either controlled by crystallographic factors or by the nature of the mineralizing fluids. Willemite is associated with other oxidation-related mineral species, like cerussite (PbCO3) but is not in isotopic equilibrium and therefore not considered to be cogenetic. Oxygen isotope compositions support the formation of willemite at temperatures below 130 °C, from mixed meteoric and deeper, hydrothermal fluids. The formation of the High Atlas Belt during the Tertiary has contributed to the exhumation of the sulfide minerals and the development of vertical conduits for percolation of meteoric water and ascending hydrothermal fluids. In addition to a local contribution of silicate minerals of the host limestone, hydrothermal fluids probably transported Si and Ge that are incorporated in willemite.

  1. Surface state of Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb phosphor under electron beam bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, A. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, Postal Code 11115, Omdurman (Sudan); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein, ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2012-06-15

    The surface state of Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb phosphor was determined before and after 27 h of prolonged electron beam exposure. The electron irradiation was carried out at a base pressure of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} Torr and an oxygen pressure of 1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} Torr. New surface layers were formed after the chemisorbed species were removed as a result of electron stimulated surface chemical reactions. The rate of the removal of the chemisorbed species from the phosphor's surface during prolonged electron irradiation was affected by the background working atmosphere as measured with Auger electron spectroscopy combined with cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The CL intensity of the Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb stabilized after removal of the chemisorbed species and stayed constant during further electron irradiation, indicating that this phosphor is good for the technology used in field emission displays. There was an increase in the Al, Y, O and Tb Auger peak intensities pointing to the formation of a complicated surface structure that was probably a combination of more than one chemical compound. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results suggested electron-beam induced formation of new interleave oxide layers, such as AlO{sub x}, YO{sub x} and Y(Al,Ga)O{sub 3} on the surface. These oxide layers acted as a protective layer inhibiting further CL intensity degradation during prolonged electron irradiation.

  2. Improved luminescence properties of pulsed laser deposited Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb thin films by post deposition annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousif, A. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Physics Department, Faculty of Education, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 321, 11115 Omdurman (Sudan); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, O.M. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA 9300 (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb thin films were successfully deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates in an oxygen working atmosphere by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The as-deposited films were amorphous but crystallized when annealed in air at 400 °C and 800 °C for 1 h as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Three dimensional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the as-deposited film show well defined spherically grains that were uniformly distributed over the surface with a root mean square (RMS) roughness value of 9 nm. After annealing at 800 °C the surface became smooth and the RMS value was reduced to 6 nm. The smooth layer was confirmed to be a surface oxide layer enriched with Ga from the images captured using a nano-scanning Auger electron microprobe (NanoSAM). The PL intensities were observed to increase as a function of annealing temperatures and this was attributed to improvement of the crystallinity of the films and a possible variation of Ga concentration in the thin films. In addition, cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of the films were recorded when the films were irradiated with a beam of electrons in the vacuum chamber of the Auger electron spectrometer. The CL intensity of the deposited film was recorded as a function of electron dose as well as the accelerating voltage. -- Highlights: • Y{sub 3}(Al,Ga){sub 5}O{sub 12}:Tb PLD thin films were successfully deposited. • The as-deposited films were amorphous but crystallized when annealed. • The PL intensities increased as a function of annealing temperatures. • CL properties of the films were recorded. • NanoSEM and SAM were used to determine the variation in the thickness and composition of the films.

  3. Expanding the REE Partitioning Database for Lunar Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. This is taken as evidence of a large-scale differentation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were later derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Some plagioclase grains in a lunar impact rock (60635) have been reported to display a negative Eu anomaly, or in some cases single grains display both positive and neagtive anomalies. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that some crystals have a negative anomaly in the core and positive at the rim, or vice versa, and the negative anomalies are not associated with crystal overgrowths. Oxygen fugacity is known to affect Eu partitioning into plagioclase, as under low fO2 conditions Eu can be divalent, and has an ionic radius similar to Ca2+ - significant in lunar samples where plagioclase compositions are predominantly anorthitic. However, there are very few experimental studies of rare earth element (REE) partitioning in plagioclase relevant to lunar magmatism, with only two plagioclase DEu measurements from experiments using lunar materials, and little data in low fO2 conditions relevant to the Moon. We report on REE partitioning experiments on lunar compositions. We investigate two lunar basaltic compositions, high-alumina basalt 14072 and impact melt breccia 60635. These samples span a large range of lunar surface bulk compositions. The experiments are carried out at variable fO2 in 1 bar gas mixing furnaces, and REE are analysed by and LA-ICP-MS. Our results not only greatly expand the existing plagioclase DREE database for lunar compositions, but also investigate the significance of fO2 in Eu partitioning, and in the interpretation of Eu anomalies in lunar materials.

  4. {sup 14}C chronology of the oldest Scandinavian church in use. An AMS/PIXE study of lime lump carbonate in the mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, Alf, E-mail: alf.lindroos@abo.fi [Geology and Mineralogy, Department of Natural Sciences, Åbo Akademi University (Finland); Art History, Faculty of Art, Åbo Akademi University (Finland); Ranta, Heikki [Diocese of Lund, Church of Sweden (Sweden); Heinemeier, Jan [AMS " 1" 4C Dating Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus (Denmark); Lill, Jan-Olof [Accelerator Laboratory, Turku PET Centre, Åbo Akademi University (Finland)

    2014-07-15

    Mortar dating was applied to newly revealed, original mortar in the church of Dalby in Scania, southern Sweden which is considered to be the oldest still standing church in Scandinavia. Small white lime lumps were sampled by chipping from the supporting pillars in the interior of the church. Special emphasis was in sampling lime lumps because the church is situated in the Scania limestone area and aggregate limestone contamination was anticipated in the bulk mortars. Earlier studies have, however, shown that lime lumps do not contain aggregate material but only possible limestone rests from incomplete calcination. The sampled material was prepared for radiocarbon AMS dating. The carbonate in the lime lumps was hydrolyzed according to the sequential leaching technique developed for the Århus {sup 14}C laboratory in Denmark. Prior to the hydrolysis the lime lumps were examined for dead-carbon contamination using a stereo microscope and cathodoluminescence. The lime lumps displayed heterogeneous carbonate luminescence. This is, however, common and it was not considered a problem because carbonate growth in changing pH/Eh conditions often leads to changing luminescence colors. Two lumps had little dead carbon contamination and an early second millennium {sup 14}C signature. One lump, however, seemed to be heavily contaminated with dead carbon. Since the sample passed the microscopic screening, the leftovers of the lump was subjected to PIXE analysis and compared with the other two lumps. The well-defined, early 2nd millennium {sup 14}C age of the lime lumps of this particular church is an important contribution to the discussion on stone church chronology in Scandinavia.

  5. The central tower of the cathedral of Schleswig - New investigations to understand the alcali-silica reaction of historical mortars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Wanja; Protz, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The damaging alcali-silica reaction leads to crack-formation and structural destruction at noumerous, constructed with cement mortar, buildings worldwide. The ASR-reaction causes the expansion of altered aggregates by the formation of a swelling gel. This gel consists of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) that increases in volume with water, which exerts an expansive pressure inside the material. The cathedral of Schleswig is one of the oldest in northern Germany. The first church was built in 985-965. The Romanesque building part was erected around 1180 and the Gothic nave at the end of the 13th century. The central tower was constructed between 1888 and 1894 with brick and cement mortar. With 112 meters, the tower is the second-largest church spire of the country of Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany. Due to the formation of cracks and damages from 1953 to 1956 first restoration works took place. Further developments of cracks are making restoration necessary again today. For developing a suitable conservation strategy, different investigations were done. The investigation included the determination of the pore space properties, the hygric and thermal dilatation and mercury porosimetry measurements. Furthermore, the application of cathodoluminescence microscopy may give information about the alteration process and microstructures present and reveal the differences between unaltered and altered mortars. An obvious relation between the porosity and the swelling intensity could be detected. Furthermore it becomes apparent, that a clear zonation of the mortar took place. The mortar near the surface is denser with a lower porosity and has a significantly lower swelling or dilatation.

  6. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jun; WEI JunHao; GUO LingLi; ZHANG KeQing; YAO ChunLiang; LU JianPei; LI HongMei

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the altered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes.Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst's mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr203 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GSl and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously published data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula.These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had occurred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  7. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and phenocryst EPMA of dikes, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula: Implications for North China Craton lithosphere evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Widespread dike swarm, including diorite-, monzonite-porphyry and lamprophyre, intruded in the al- tered breccia gold deposits along basin marginal faults, Guocheng, Jiaodong Peninsula. Petrography exhibits biotite enclaves in amphibole phenocrysts and the presence of acicular apatites in these dikes. Electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) show that the amphibole and clinopyroxene phenocryst’s mantle in diorite porphyry and lamprophyre respectively has sharply higher MgO (Mg#) and Cr2O3 contents in contrast to their cores. The plagioclase phenocryst in monzonite porphyry has reverse zoning. These results indicate that the magma mixing between mantle-derived mafic and crust-derived felsic magmas occurred in the original process of the dikes. Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images show well-developed magmatic oscillatory zones and the acquired LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 114±2 Ma (MSDW=1.5) for monzonite porphyry (GS1) and 116±1 Ma (MSDW=0.8) for diorite porphyry (GS2), respectively. Earlier magmatic events in the northwest Jiaodong Peninsula represented by some inherited or captured zircons also occur in these dikes. Magmatic zircons from GS1 and GS2 display consistent chondrite-normalized REE patterns and Nb/Ta values, implying that they may share a similar or same source. HREE enrichment and obvious negative Eu anomalies of these zircons preclude garnet presented in their source. Our results, combined with preciously pub- lished data, indicate that dike intrusion and gold mineralization among quartz vein, altered tectonite and altered breccia gold deposits are broadly contemporaneous throughout the Jiaodong Peninsula. These also imply that the intensive crust-mantle interaction and asthenospheric underplating had oc- curred in the Early Cretaceous in the Peninsula, together with foundering of lower crust in the early Mesozoic, representing the different stages of lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton (NNC).

  8. Low-magnesium uranium-calcite with high degree of crystallinity and gigantic luminescence emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle-Fuentes, Francisco-Jose [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC. Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Guinea, Javier [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: guinea@mncn.csic.es; Cremades, Ana [Departmento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Fisicas, University Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Correcher, Virgilio [CIEMAT, Laboratory Dosimetria de Radiaciones, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Moral, Sergio [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Martin, Rafael [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Munoz, Luis [CIEMAT, Laboratory Dosimetria de Radiaciones, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Arce, Paula [Getty Conservation Institute, 1200 Getty Center Drive, Suite 700, Los Angeles, CA 90049 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Cabrera (Madrid) low-Mg calcites exhibit: (i) an unusual twofold elevation in X-ray diffraction pattern intensity; (ii) a 60-fold elevation of luminescence emission, compared to six common natural calcites selected for comparison purposes; (iii) a natural relatively high radiation level of circa 200 nSv h{sup -1} not detected in 1300 other calcites from the Natural History Museum of Madrid. Calcites were analysed by the X-ray diffraction powder method (XRD), cathodo-luminescence spectroscopy in scanning electron microscopy (CL-SEM), thermoluminescence (TL), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and particle size distribution (PSD). The Cabrera calcite study shows: (i) helicoidally distributed steps along the (0 0 0 1) orientation; (ii) protuberance defects onto the (0 0 0 1) surface, observed by SEM; (iii) XRF chemical contents of 0.03% MgO, 0.013% of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 0.022% of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, with accessory amounts of rare earth elements (REE); (iv) DTA dissociation temperature of 879 {sup o}C; (v) TL maxima peaks at 233 and 297 {sup o}C whose areas are 60 times compared to other calcites; (vi) spectra CL-SEM bands at 2.0 and 3.4 eV in the classic structure of Mn{sup 2+} activators; (vii) a twofold XRD pattern explained given that sample is a low-Mg calcite. The huge TL and CL emissions of the Cabrera calcite sample must be linked with the uranyl group presence. This intense XRD pattern in low-Mg calcites could bring into being analytical errors.

  9. Luminescence and micro-Raman investigations on inclusions of unusual habit in chrysoprase from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayvac Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I kl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I , M., E-mail: mayvacikli@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J.; Jorge, A. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Akal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I n, I.; Kotan, Z. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    Chemical analyses performed on chrysoprase from Turkey have shown many trace elements as well as rare earth impurities. Quantitative chemical analyses of inclusions in minerals can improve our understanding of the chemistry of surface. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system (EDS) is capable of producing rapid and accurate major element chemical analyses of individual inclusions in crystals larger than about 30 {mu}m in diameter. The samples were examined with lifetime-resolved and spatially-resolved cathodoluminescence (CL), and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Spatially resolved CL results at room temperature were recorded for two different areas. Bulk area displays with low CL emission and pores contain iron phases such as chromite, hematite and anatase which cause the green color. For the raw data in the lifetime resolved CL spectrum, at least three broad emission bands were detected in a yellow band of the highest intensity at about 550 nm, a weaker orange band at about 650 nm, and a red band at 720 nm. It is assumed that there are links between the CL emissions and the presence of some transition metal and REE elements, but it is obvious that all trace elements do not play a direct role. Micro-Raman measurements were performed on chrysoprase and these showed a characteristic intensive Raman band peaked at 464 cm{sup -1} which can be inferred to {nu}{sub 2} doubly symmetric bending mode of [SiO{sub 4}/M] centers. Raman spectrum of all inclusions found in the material are also given and discussed in detail. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence and Raman investigations of Chrysoprase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characteristic intensive Raman band peaked at 464 cm{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ironed phases such as chromite, hematite and anatase.

  10. Synthesis of zinc oxide microrods and nano-fibers with dominant exciton emission at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F., E-mail: fro_brito@yahoo.com.m [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C. [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos del Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Ave. de las Americas 2771 Col. Villa Universidad 80010, Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M. [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360, Coyoacan 04510, DF (Mexico); Camarillo, E.; Hernandez A, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico); Falcony, C. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, 07000, DF (Mexico); Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, Alvaro Obregon 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    Employing a simple chemical synthesis method, hexagonal-shaped zinc oxide microrods and zinc oxide nano-fibers were deposited on pyrex-glass and aluminum substrates, respectively. Both kinds of deposits showed zincite crystalline phase with lattice parameters: a=3.2498 A and c=5.2066 A. Microrods showed very uniform wide and large sizes of around 1 and 10 {mu}m, respectively. Both deposits were homogeneous over all substrate surfaces. Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. The principal optical characteristics for both microrods and nano-fibers were: a) room-temperature photo and cathodo-luminescent spectra with strong exciton emission centered around 390 nm and with FWHMs around 125 and 160 meV, respectively, b) poor photo and cathode-luminescent emissions in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, c) energy band gap of 3.32 eV, d) good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission and e) good ZnO stoichiometry endorsed by photoluminescent results. These characteristics make of these microrods and nano-fibers good for potential photonic applications. - Research highlights: {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good optical quality and with preferential crystalline growth in [1 0 1 0]and [0 0 0 1]directions. {yields} Microrods and nano-fibers resulted with good emission efficiency supported by the not-required high energy densities to obtain strong exciton emission. {yields} The wet chemical method is appropriated for deposition of microrods and nano-fibers with the desired optical properties for its possible application in photonics.

  11. Characterization of luminescent praseodymium-doped ZrO{sub 2} coatings deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Brito, F [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DiDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, C.P. 80010 Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Garcia-Hipolito, M [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360 Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Alejo-Armenta, C [Laboratorio de Materiales Optoelectronicos, DiDe, Centro de Ciencias de Sinaloa, Av. De las Americas No. 2771 Nte. Col. Villa Universidad, C.P. 80010 Culiacan, Sinaloa (Mexico); Alvarez-Fragoso, O [Departamento de Materiales Metalicos y Ceramicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-360 Coyoacan 04510 DF (Mexico); Falcony, C [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, 07000 DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-07

    ZrO{sub 2} : Pr films were synthesized by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis process. X-ray diffraction studies, as a function of the deposition temperature, indicate a tetragonal crystal structure of zirconia as the substrate temperature was increased. Luminescence (photo- and cathodoluminescence) properties of the films were studied as a function of growth parameters such as the substrate temperature and the praseodymium concentration. For an excitation wavelength of 290 nm, all the photoluminescent emission spectra show peaks located at 490, 510, 566, 615, 642, 695, 718, 740 and 833 nm, associated with the electronic transitions {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3} H{sub 4}, {sup 3}P{sub 1} + {sup 1}I{sub 6} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 4}, {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 6}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3} H{sub 5}, {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 3} P{sub 0} {yields} {sup 3}F{sub 3,4} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} {yields} {sup 3} F{sub 2} of the Pr{sup 3+} ion. As the deposition temperature is increased, an increasing intensity of the luminescence emission is observed. Also, quenching of the luminescence, with increasing doping concentration, is observed. The chemical composition of the films as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy is reported as well. In addition, the surface morphology characteristics of the films, as a function of the deposition temperature, are presented.

  12. Low-Temperature Plasticity of Naturally Deformed Calcite Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optical, cathodoluminescence and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were conducted onfour groups of calcite fault rocks, a cataclastic limestone, cataclastic coarse-grained marbles from two fault zones, and afractured mylonite. These fault rocks show similar microstructural characteristics and give clues to similar processes ofrock deformation. They are characterized by the structural contrast between macroscopic cataclastic (brittle) andmicroscopic mylonitic (ductile) microstructures. Intragranular deformation microstructures (i.e. deformation twins, kinkbands and microfractures) are well preserved in the deformed grains in clasts or in primary rocks. The matrix materials areof extremely fine grains with diffusive features. Dislocation microstructures for co-existing brittle deformation andcrystalline plasticity were revealed using TEM. Tangled dislocations are often preserved at the cores of highly deformedclasts, while dislocation walls form in the transitions to the fine-grained matrix materials and free dislocations, dislocationloops and dislocation dipoles are observed both in the deformed clasts and in the fine-grained matrix materials. Dynamicrecrystallization grains from subgrain rotation recrystallization and subsequent grain boundary migration constitute themajor parts of the matrix materials. Statistical measurements of densities of free dislocations, grain sizes of subgrains anddynamically recrystallized grains suggest an unsteady state of the rock deformation. Microstructural andcathodoluminescence analyses prove that fluid activity is one of the major parts of faulting processes. Low-temperatureplasticity, and thereby induced co-existence of macroscopic brittle and microscopic ductile microstmctures are attributedto hydrolytic weakening due to the involvement of fluid phases in deformation and subsequent variation of rock rheology.During hydrolytic weakening, fluid phases, e.g. water, enhance the rate of dislocation slip and climb, and

  13. Sm-Nd and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of Huilanshan mafic granulite in the Dabie Mountains and its zircon trace element geochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Zhenhui; LI; Shuguang; CHEN; Nengsong; LI; Qiuli; LIU

    2005-01-01

    The mafic granulites from Huilanshan are outcropped on the center of the Luotian dome in the northern Dabie Mountains. The Sm-Nd isochron defined by granulite-facies metamorphic minerals (garnet + clinopyroxene + hypersthene) yields an age of 136(±)18 Ma indicating the early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of zircons from the granulite show clearly core-mantle-rim structures. The zircon cores are characterized by typical oscillatory zoning and highly HREE enriched patterns, which suggests their magma origin. Some zircon cores among them with little Pb loss give SHRIMP U-Pb ages ranging from 753 to 780 Ma, which suggests that the protolith of Huilanshan granulite is Neoproterozoic mafic rocks. The zircon mantles usually cut across the oscillatory zone of the zircon cores have 3―10 times lower REE, Th, U, Y, Nb and Ta contents than the igneous zircon cores but have high common Pb contents. These characteristics suggest that they were formed by hydrothermal alteration of the igneous zircons. The part of zircon mantles with little Pb loss give a similar SHRIMP U-Pb age (716―780 Ma) to the igneous zircon cores, which implies that the hydrothermal events occurred closely to the magmatic emplacement. In view of the strong early Cretaceous magmatism in the Luotian dome, consequently, the Huilanshan mafic granulite was formed by heating of the Neoproterozoic mafic rocks in mid-low crust, which caused the granulite-facies metamorphism underneath the Dabie Mountains. The similarity between the granulite metamorphic age (136±18 Ma) defined by Sm-Nd isochron and K-Ar age of 123―127 Ma given by amphible from the gneiss in Luotian dome suggests a rapid uplifting of the Luotian dome, which may result in further exhumation of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the Dabie Mountains.

  14. Paleoproterozoic, High-Metamorphic, Metasedimentary Units of Siberian Craton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lena URMANTSEVA; Olga TURKINA

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive, high-resointion ion microprobe zircon U-Pb ages of Paleoproterozoic, high-grade,metasedimentary rocks from the south-western part of the Siberian Craton are reported. Early Precambrian, high-grade complexes, including garnet-biotite, hypersthene-biotite, and cordierite-bearing gneisses compose the Irkut terrane of the Sharyzhalgay Uplift. Protoliths of studied gneisses correspond to terrigenous sediments, ranging from greywacke to shale. The paragneiss model Nd ages of 2.4-3.1 Ga indicate Archean-to-Paleoproterozoic source provinces. Zircons from gneisses show core-rim textures in cathodoluminescence (CL) image. Round or irregular shaped cores indicate detrital origin. Structureless rims with low Th/U are metamorphic in origin. The three age groups of detrital cores are: ≥2.7, -2.3, and 1.95-2 Ga. The ages of metamorphic rims range from 1.86 to 1.85 Ga;therefore, the sediments were deposited between 1.95 and 1.86 Ga and derived from Archean and Paleoproterozoic source rocks. It should be noted that Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Irkut Block are not unique. High-grade metaterrigenons sediments, with model Nd ages ranging from 2.3 to 2.5 Ga, are widely distributed within the AIdan and Anabar Shields of the Siberian Craton. The same situation is observed in the North China Craton, where metasedimentary rocks contain detrital igneous zircon grains with ages ranging from 3 to 2.1 Ga (Wan et al., 2006). All of these sedimentary units were subjected to Late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism. In the Siberian Craton, the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary deposits are possibly marked passive margins of the Early Precambrian crustal blocks, and their high-grade metamorphism was related to the consolidation of the Siberian Craton.

  15. Origin and role of fluids involved in the seismic cycle of extensional faults in carbonate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Berra, Fabrizio; Billi, Andrea; Boschi, Chiara; Carminati, Eugenio; Doglioni, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    We examine the potentially-seismic right-lateral transtensional-extensional Tre Monti Fault (central Apennines, Italy) with structural and geochemical methods and develop a conceptual evolutionary model of extensional faulting with fluid involvement in shallow (≤3 km depth) faults in carbonate rocks. In the analysed fault zone, multiscale fault rock structures include injection veins, fluidized ultracataclasite layers, and crackle breccias, suggesting that the fault slipped seismically. We reconstructed the relative chronology of these structures through cross-cutting relationship and cathodoluminescence analyses. We then used C- and O-isotope data from different generations of fault-related mineralizations to show a shift from connate (marine-derived) to meteoric fluid circulation during exhumation from 3 to ≤1 km depths and concurrent fluid cooling from ∼68 to hydrological system, where prevalently connate fluids circulated within the fault zone at temperatures between 60° and 75 °C. During fault zone exhumation, at depths ≤1 km and temperatures hydrological circulation became open and meteoric-derived fluids progressively infiltrated and circulated within the fault zone. The role of these fluids during syn-exhumation seismic cycles of the Tre Monti Fault has been substantially passive along the whole fault zone, the fluids being passively redistributed at hydrostatic pressure following co-seismic dilatancy. Only the principal fault has been characterized, locally and transiently, by fluid overpressures. The presence of low-permeability clayey layers in the sedimentary sequence contributed to control the type of fluids infiltrating into the fault zone and possibly their transient overpressures. These results can foster the comprehension of seismic faulting at shallow depths in carbonate rocks of other fold-thrust belts involved in post-collisional seismogenic extensional tectonics.

  16. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  17. Influence of laser lift-off on optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN vertical blue light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Doan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influences of the laser lift-off (LLO process on the InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diode (LED structures, grown on sapphire substrates by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, have been comprehensively investigated. The vertical LED structures on Cu carriers are fabricated using electroplating, LLO, and inductively coupled plasma etching processes sequentially. A detailed study is performed on the variation of defect concentration and optical properties, before and after the LLO process, employing high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations, cathodoluminescence (CL, photoluminescence (PL, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD measurements. The SEM observations on the distribution of dislocations after the LLO show well that even the GaN layer near to the multiple quantum wells (MQWs is damaged. The CL measurements reveal that the peak energy of the InGaN/GaN MQW emission exhibits a blue-shift after the LLO process in addition to a reduced intensity. These behaviors are attributed to a diffusion of indium through the defects created by the LLO and creation of non-radiative recombination centers. The observed phenomena thus suggest that the MQWs, the active region of the InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes, may be damaged by the LLO process when thickness of the GaN layer below the MQW is made to be 5 μm, a conventional thickness. The CL images on the boundary between the KrF irradiated and non-irradiated regions suggest that the propagation of the KrF laser beam and an accompanied recombination enhanced defect reaction, rather than the propagation of a thermal shock wave, are the main origin of the damage effects of the LLO process on the InGaN/GaN MQWs and the n-GaN layer as well.

  18. Polarized light from excitonic recombination in selectively etched GaN/AlN quantum dot ensembles on Si(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, O.; Rich, D. H.; Damilano, B.; Massies, J.

    2011-12-01

    Multiple layers of GaN/AlN quantum dot (QD) ensembles were grown by the Stranski-Krastanov method on Si(111) using molecular beam epitaxy. During the subsequent cooling from growth temperature, the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the Si substrate and GaN/AlN film containing the vertically stacked QDs leads to an additional biaxial tensile stress of 20-30 kbar in the III-nitride film. We have selectively modified the thermal stress in the QD layers by etching a cross-hatched pattern into the as-grown sample using inductively coupled Cl2/Ar plasma reactive ion etching. The results show that a suitable choice of stripe width from ˜2 to 10 µm and orientation along [11-20] and [1-100] can create regions of in-plane uniaxial stress that enable a selective and local control of the polarized luminescence from ensembles of QDs which were probed with cathodoluminescence. Experimental results indicate that the polarization anisotropy vanishes at high temperatures (˜300 K) with an increasing e-h pair excitation for the QDs, while the anisotropy decreases more slowly with excitation at low temperatures (˜46 K). A theoretical modelling of the effect of carrier filling on the polarization anisotropy and the excitonic transition energy was performed, as based on three-dimensional self-consistent solutions of the Schrödinger and Poisson equations using the 6{\\times} 6\\ \\bit{k}{\\bdot}\\bit{p} and effective-mass methods for calculations of the e-h wavefunctions and electron and hole quasi-Fermi levels for varying levels of state filling. We attribute carrier filling and a thermal excitation of holes into higher energy QD hole states during e-h pair excitation to account for the observed gradual decrease in the polarization anisotropy with an increasing e-h pair excitation density at T = 300 K.

  19. Luminescence detection of phase transitions in crystals and nanoparticle inclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, P. D. [Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Yang, B. [Physics Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Y. [School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China)]. e-mail: p.d.townsend@sussex.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Luminescence measurements are extremely sensitive to variations in structural environment and thus have the potential to probe distortions of fluorescence sites. Changes can be monitored via luminescence efficiency, emission spectra or excited state lifetimes and these factors are influenced by the local neighbourhood around the emission site, and therefore by structure, composition, pressure and temperature. A rarely exploited approach for condensed matter has been to use the changes in luminescence responses during heating or cooling of a material to provide a rapid survey to detect the presence of phase transitions. One can often differentiate between bulk and surface effects by contrasting results from radioluminescence for bulk responses, and cathodoluminescence or photoluminescence for surface effects. One expects that discontinuous changes in optical parameters occur during temperature changes through phase transitions of insulating materials. In practice, optical signals also exist from surface states of fullerenes and high temperature superconductors etc which identify the presence of structural or superconducting transitions. Numerous examples are cited which match standard documented transitions. Interestingly many examples show the host signals are strongly sensitive to impurity phase transitions from inclusions such as nanoparticles of water, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}. Recent luminescence data reveal many examples of new transitions, hysteresis and irreversible changes. The signals equally respond to relaxations of a structure and surprisingly indicate that in some materials, such as SrTiO{sub 3} or ZnO, ion implantation of the surface triggers relaxations and phase changes throughout the bulk of the material. Luminescence routes to detect phase transitions are powerful tools but have a tiny literature and so the subject is ideal for rapid exploitation and development. (Author)

  20. Titanium and oxygen isotope diffusion in quartz-phenocrysts from a Jurassic rhyolite, Chon Aike Province (Fitz Roy, Patagonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, S.; Putlitz, B.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Escrig, S.; Meibom, A.; Leresche, S.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    The volcanic El Quemado Complex was deposited during the breakup of Gondwana during the Middle and Late Jurassic. It is part of a large silicic igneous province, which includes the Chon Aike Province in Southern Patagonia and related rocks from the Antarctic Peninsula [1]. The Complex consists of rhyolitic and dacitic ignimbrites and air-fall tuffs, intercalated with andesitic to rhyolitic lava flows. New LA-ICPMS U/Pb-dates of zircons from the Fitz Roy area yield ages between 148 and 153Ma. No inherited zircons were found, suggesting that the temperature of 850°C calculated from zircon saturation is a minimum temperature. Lava flows are typically rich in quartz phenocrysts, which preserved magmatic trace element zoning, as revealed by cathodoluminescence (CL): light cores are surrounded by several darker and lighter zones towards the rim. The δ18O-values for quartz of between 11 to 14 ‰ are compatible with a crustal source for the magma and the SIMS analyses of phenocrysts reveal no zoning in O-isotope compositions. High-resolution Ti-profiles were obtained by NanoSIMS with a beam size of ~200 nm and a minimum step size of ~120 nm. Several lines perpendicular to the magmatic zoning of the quartz-phenocrysts were measured. The profiles show sharp changes in the 48Ti/29Si-ratio over a distance of 5 μm, which correlate with CL-intensity changes. The profiles can be used for diffusion chronometry. The distances obtained from NanoSIMS profiles were used to calculate maximum diffusional relaxation times. Assuming a step function as initial condition and extrusion temperatures from zircon saturation of 850°C, we obtain a maximum residence time for the quartz-phenocrysts of 3.5 years. [1] Pankhurst R.J., Riley T.R., Fanning C.M., Kelley S.P., 2000. J. Pet., 41, 605-625.

  1. Spectral and surface investigations of Ca{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} nanophosphors prepared by citrate-gel combustion method: a potential red-emitting phosphor for near-UV light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vinay [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, School of Physics, Katra, J and K (India); University of the Free State, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein (South Africa); Bedyal, A.K.; Sharma, J. [Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, School of Physics, Katra, J and K (India); Kumar, V.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Swart, H.C. [University of the Free State, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein (South Africa)

    2014-09-15

    In the present work, red-emitting Ca{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 7}:xEu{sup 3+} (x = 0.5-6.0 mol%) nanophosphors, in the form of powders, were synthesized by the citrate-gel combustion method using metal nitrates as precursors and citric acid as fuel. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy were used to study the structure, morphology and spectral properties of the samples. The chemical compositions and electronic states of the powders were analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The average crystallite sizes estimated using the XRD data were found to be in the range of 30-45 nm, and were cross verified by TEM. The lattice parameters determined by the POWD program were approximated as a = 7.242 Aa, b = 6.674 Aa, c = 6.932 Aa and V = 291.24 Aa{sup 3}, respectively. Under UV (395 nm) (PL) and electron (CL) excitation, the nanophosphors show characteristic emission from the Eu{sup 3+} ion ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub j}, j = 1-5) with the main peaks at 612 and 616 nm. The maximum emission intensity was recorded from the sample with an Eu{sup 3+} concentration of 4 mol% and a critical energy distance of 19.084 Aa between the donor and the acceptor. Above this concentration, there was a reduction in the intensity due to dipole-dipole induced concentration quenching effects. The potential applications of this phosphor as a high color-purity phosphor in light-emitting diodes are evaluated. (orig.)

  2. Characteristics of the epitaxy of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes grown by nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth using a nitrided titanium buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a buffer layer of nitrided titanium (Ti) achieved through the nitridation of a Ti metal layer on a sapphire substrate was used for the epitaxial growth of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) achieved by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effect of in-situ Ti metal nitridation on the performance of these InGaN-based LEDs was then investigated. It was very clear that the use of the nitrided Ti buffer layer (NTBL) induced the formation of a nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth layer during the epitaxial growth. When evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, this epi-layer exhibited large in-plane compressive stress releasing with a Raman shift value of 567.9 cm-1. Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results indicated that the InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL have improved crystal quality, with a low threading dislocations density being yielded via the strain relaxation in the InGaN-based LEDs. Based on the results mentioned above, the electroluminescence results indicate that the light performance of InGaN-based LEDs with an NTBL can be enhanced by 45% and 42% at 20 mA and 100 mA, respectively. These results suggest that the strain relaxation and quality improvement in the GaN epilayer could be responsible for the enhancement of emission power. - Highlights: • The crystal-quality of InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL by NELOG was improved. • The InGaN-based LEDs with NTBL have strain releases by NELOG. • The optical properties of InGaN-based LEDs were shown by CL and EL measurements

  3. Interface characteristics of spin-on-dielectric SiOx-buffered passivation layers for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal the cause for significant enhancement of dc current performance of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with the spin-on-dielectric (SOD) SiOx-buffered passivation structure compared to the conventional Si3N4 passivation deposited by plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), we characterized the passivation interfaces using the cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, capacitance–voltage (C–V) characterizations, and Hall-effect measurements. The interface state density of PECVD Si3N4 passivation was in the range of 1012–1013 cm−2 eV−1, which is one-order higher than that of the SOD (1011–1012 cm−2 eV−1) as measured by C–V measurements from the metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors. Higher density of effective oxide charge density (especially dominant contribution of ionic mobile charge) was also derived from the PECVD Si3N4 passivation. A well-resolved reduction of the electron Hall mobility of the Si3N4 passivation compared to that of the perhydropolysilazane SOD passivation, which can be due to the higher-density interface states and trap charges, can answer the relative dc current collapse of our HEMT devices. - Highlights: • Spin-on-dielectric (SOD)-buffered passivation for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs • Characterize the charge density and interface states using the C–V measurements • SOD-buffered passivation minimizes surface states at the interface. • DC performance of SOD-buffered structure is due to the interface characteristics

  4. Facile patterning of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) thin films by microcontact printing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong; Yang Piaoping; Cheng Ziyong, E-mail: zycheng@ciac.jl.cn; Wang Wenxin; Ma Pingan; Zhai Xuefeng; Lin Jun, E-mail: jlin@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization (China)

    2012-01-15

    Ordered arrays of luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) films with dot patterns have been successfully fabricated via microcontact printing method. The soft-lithography process utilizes a PDMS elastomeric mold as the stamp combined with a Pechini-type sol-gel process to produce luminescent patterns on quartz plates, in which a GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) precursor solution was employed as ink. The ordered luminescent GdVO{sub 4}:Ln patterns were revealed by optical microscopy and their microstructure, consisting of nanometer-scale particles, as demonstrated by scanning electronic microscopy observations. In addition, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence were carried out to characterize the patterned GdVO{sub 4}:Ln (Ln = Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) samples. Upon UV-light or electron-beam irradiation, the rare earth ions Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, and Sm{sup 3+} in the crystalline GdVO{sub 4} host show their characteristic transitions dominated by {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 7}F{sub 2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 13/2} ,and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2}-{sup 6}H{sub 7/2}, respectively. These results make the combining soft lithography with a Pechini-type sol-gel route have potential applications as rare-earth luminescent pixels for next-generation field-emission display devices.

  5. Luminescent properties of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) thin films of SrGa2S4:Ce3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of different substrate temperatures on the morphological and optical properties of SrGa2S4:Ce3+ thin films prepared by the pulsed reactive cross laser ablation (PRCLA) technique has been investigated for application in flat panel displays. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profile analyses on the films were performed in order to measure the stoichiometric distributions of the deposited material as a function of depth. A depletion of S was obtained for the 600 °C substrate temperature sample. AES coupled with a cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy system and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to measure the CL intensity and the CL intensity degradation as well as the surface chemical changes during and after exposure to 2 keV prolonged electron irradiation. The effect of different pressures on the degradation characteristics of the SrGa2S4:Ce3+ thin films ablated at 400 °C and 600 °C substrate temperatures was also investigated. The rate of degradation was observed to be slower in vacuum compared to oxygen. CL emission of Ce3+ was observed for the 400 °C sample and both the emissions of the 600 °C sample showed a red shift of about 32–33 nm, due to a change in the chemical composition and therefore a change in the crystal field. XPS results obtained for the film prepared at 600 °C substrate temperature suggest that a change in elemental bonding occurred during the degradation process.

  6. Synthesis, luminescence and micro-Raman study of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanobelts and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, P., E-mail: phidalgo@fis.ucm.es; Wilson, Y.; Ortega, Y.; Piqueras, J.

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Luminescence of indium germanate nanostructures grown by VS has been investigated. • Measurements show complex emission bands with several components at 2.4 eV and 3.28 eV. • Some emissions are related to Ge–O features and not to the suggested In–O groups. • Micro-Raman spectra have peaks different from those of germanium or indium oxide. • First results on the waveguiding behaviour of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} wires are also reported. - Abstract: Indium germanate (In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7}) nanobelts and nano- and microwires have been synthesized by a thermal evaporation–deposition method and their luminescence properties have been investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the growth direction of the nanobelts. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence show the existence of a broad complex emission band with several components in the range 1.70–2.80 eV and a band at 3.20–3.30 eV. Comparison of the observed luminescence with the luminescence of GeO{sub 2} suggests that some of the components are related to the presence of Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups in the germanate crystal structure and not to the sheets of InO{sub 6} octahedra of the structure. Waveguiding behaviour of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} nano- and microwires has been demonstrated under excitation with 325 nm light. Raman spectra of the nanobelts have characteristic peaks which could enable to correlate specific Raman features with the presence of In{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 7} and to use this technique for indium germanate assessment.

  7. High-quality uniaxial In(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and light-emitting diode (LED) fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Yong-Ho; Navamathavan, R; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Cheul-Ro

    2013-03-01

    This article describes the growth and device characteristics of vertically aligned high-quality uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQW)/n-GaN nanowires (NWs) on Si(111) substrates grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The resultant nanowires (NWs), with a diameter of 200-250 nm, have an average length of 2 μm. The feasibility of growing high-quality NWs with well-controlled indium composition MQW structure is demonstrated. These resultant NWs grown on Si(111) substrates were utilized for fabricating vertical-type light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The steep and intense photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra are observed, based on the strain-free NWs on Si(111) substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis revealed that the MQW NWs are grown along the c-plane with uniform thickness. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of these NWs exhibited typical p-n junction LEDs and showed a sharp onset voltage at 2.75 V in the forward bias. The output power is linearly increased with increasing current. The result indicates that the pulsed MOCVD technique is an effective method to grow uniaxial p-GaN/InxGa1-xN/GaN MQW/n-GaN NWs on Si(111), which is more advantageous than other growth techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy. These results suggest the uniaxial NWs are promising to allow flat-band quantum structures, which can enhance the efficiency of LEDs.

  8. Nanometer-scale monitoring of quantum-confined Stark effect and emission efficiency droop in multiple GaN/AlN quantum disks in nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagonel, L. F.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Vitiello, G. Z.; Jacopin, G.; Rigutti, L.; Tchernycheva, M.; Julien, F. H.; Songmuang, R.; Ostasevicius, T.; de la Peña, F.; Ducati, C.; Midgley, P. A.; Kociak, M.

    2016-05-01

    We report on a detailed study of the intensity dependent optical properties of individual GaN/AlN quantum disks (QDisks) embedded into GaN nanowires (NW). The structural and optical properties of the QDisks were probed by high spatial resolution cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). By exciting the QDisks with a nanometric electron beam at currents spanning over three orders of magnitude, strong nonlinearities (energy shifts) in the light emission are observed. In particular, we find that the amount of energy shift depends on the emission rate and on the QDisk morphology (size, position along the NW and shell thickness). For thick QDisks (>4 nm), the QDisk emission energy is observed to blueshift with the increase of the emission intensity. This is interpreted as a consequence of the increase of carriers density excited by the incident electron beam inside the QDisks, which screens the internal electric field and thus reduces the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) present in these QDisks. For thinner QDisks (current threshold above which the energy shifts, marking the transition from unscreened to partially screened QCSE. From the threshold value we estimate the lifetime in the unscreened regime. These observations suggest that, counterintuitively, electrons of high energy can behave ultimately as single electron-hole pair generators. In addition, when we increase the current from 1 to 10 pA the light emission efficiency drops by more than one order of magnitude. This reduction of the emission efficiency is a manifestation of the "efficiency droop" as observed in nitride-based 2D light emitting diodes, a phenomenon tentatively attributed to the Auger effect.

  9. In(Ga)As/GaAs site-controlled quantum dots with tailored morphology and high optical quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we describe epitaxial growth and investigations of optical properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs site-controlled quantum dots (QDs) fabricated on (001)-oriented GaAs substrates. The QD nucleation is directed by pre-patterning planar GaAs surfaces with shallow nanoholes. The focus of this work lies on the realization of arrays of site-controlled QDs (SCQDs) with a tailored morphology and optical properties comparable to QDs fabricated on planar substrates. By maximizing the migration length during QD deposition, we were able to increase the QD pitches to values exceeding device dimensions of typical semiconductor microresonators. The introduction of a seeding layer in our growth scheme allows us to extend the vertical distance between the QDs and the etched nucleation centres to about 20 nm without suffering from nanoholes being occupied by multiple QDs. Furthermore, the extended distance between the QD layer and the re-growth interface allows us to preserve excellent optical properties of the single QDs as probed in photoluminescence with an average single QD related linewidth of 133 μeV and minimum values as low as 25 μeV for non-resonant excitation. The high yield of optically active QDs on the pre-defined nucleation positions is studied by cathodoluminescence (CL) with high spatial resolution. We find emission from single SCQDs on more than 90% of the nucleation centres, which is a pre-requisite for any scalable QD-device fabrication scheme. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. The Use and Abuse of Th-U Ratios in the Interpretation of Zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A.; ÓBrien, P. J.; Kennedy, A.; Kröner, A.

    2003-04-01

    In the interpretation of geochronological data the distinction between magmatic and metamorphic zircon is mainly based on morphology, internal zoning or Th-U ratio. This distinction is of doubtful benefit in partially molten high grade metamorphic rocks where partial melting and zircon growth or dissolution may have occurred in several phases. It is proposed that instead of classifying zircon into magmatic and metamorphic groups, differences and changes in chemistry from inherited core to overgrowth can be attributed to growth or recrystallization mechanisms. Taking the distinction literally, only zircon grown by solid state (metamorphic) reactions may be called metamorphic, whereas zircon crystallized from melt is magmatic, and zircon crystallized from fluids is hydrothermal. Trace element characteristics together with the criteria mentioned above may help to link zircon growth to these environments or to other processes altering existing zircon (i.e. metamictisation, annealing, recrystallization, dissolution-reprecipitation). In-situ ion microprobe analysis has been used to track Th-U ratios of zircon through time in polymetamorphic rocks. Several different trends can be distinguished and attributed to different growth mechanisms when combined with cathodo-luminescence and backscatter electron imaging. Unchanged Th/U through time is interpreted to reflect closed system behaviour, lower Th/U in overgrowths can indicate competition for Th with high Th minerals (monazite, allanite etc.), higher Th/U is also observed and interpreted to reflect open system behaviour, breakdown of minerals with high Th/U, or competition with high U minerals (e.g. xenotime). In summary, zircon grown during metamorphic events may not be characterized by low Th/U, and classifying zircon as "metamorphic" solely based on its Th/U as occasionally seen in the literature can lead to gross misinterpretations.

  11. In situ quantification of Br and Cl in minerals and fluid inclusions by LA-ICP-MS: a powerful tool to identify fluid sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Rusk, Brian; Spandler, Carl; Emsbo, Poul; Oliver, Nicholas H.S.

    2013-01-01

    Bromine and chlorine are important halogens for fluid source identification in the Earth's crust, but until recently we lacked routine analytical techniques to determine the concentration of these elements in situ on a micrometer scale in minerals and fluid inclusions. In this study, we evaluate the potential of in situ Cl and Br measurements by LA-ICP-MS through analysis of a range of scapolite grains with known Cl and Br concentrations. We assess the effects of varying spot sizes, variable plasma energy and resolve the contribution of polyatomic interferences on Br measurements. Using well-characterised natural scapolite standards, we show that LA-ICP-MS analysis allows measurement of Br and Cl concentrations in scapolite, and fluid inclusions as small as 16 μm in diameter and potentially in sodalite and a variety of other minerals, such as apatite, biotite, and amphibole. As a demonstration of the accuracy and potential of Cl and Br analyses by LA-ICP-MS, we analysed natural fluid inclusions hosted in sphalerite and compared them to crush and leach ion chromatography Cl/Br analyses. Limit of detection for Br is ~8 μg g−1, whereas relatively high Cl concentrations (> 500 μg g−1) are required for quantification by LA-ICP-MS. In general, our LA-ICP-MS fluid inclusion results agree well with ion chromatography (IC) data. Additionally, combined cathodoluminescence and LA-ICP-MS analyses on natural scapolites within a well-studied regional metamorphic suite in South Australia demonstrate that Cl and Br can be quantified with a ~25 μm resolution in natural minerals. This technique can be applied to resolve a range of hydrothermal geology problems, including determining the origins of ore forming brines and ore deposition processes, mapping metamorphic and hydrothermal fluid provinces and pathways, and constraining the effects of fluid–rock reactions and fluid mixing.

  12. Visualization of trace-element zoning in fluorapatite using BSE and CL imaging, and EPMA and μPIXE/μPIGE mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Munnik, Frans; Götze, Jens; Rhede, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, zonation patterns of trace elements in fluorapatite are discussed that were visualized using four analytical techniques, namely back-scattered electrons (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and micro-proton-induced X-ray/gamma ray emission (μPIXE/μPIGE) mapping. Each method demonstrates the in-grain compositional variations in a slightly different way. Both BSE and CL provide qualitative data, and the internal textures are displayed in most detail. Additionally, CL points to specific elements enriched in certain growth zones. Qualitative EPMA maps show detailed zonation patterns for specific elements (with high spatial resolution), which are in general correspondence with the patterns observed in BSE and CL images. The μPIXE/μPIGE maps are fully quantitative and the detection limits are relatively low compared to EPMA mapping. In present spot measurements μPIXE demonstrates lower detection limits than EPMA, however, the latter could be considerably improved by extending the acquisition times. There is no significant overlap of REE (rare earth elements) peaks in the acquired μPIXE energy spectra, however, when multiple REEs are present with sufficiently high concentrations, peak deconvolution may pose some difficulties. Spatial resolution of μPIXE/μPIGE images is not sufficiently high to reflect minor textural features, which also result from the greater interaction depth of the proton beam. However, major growth zones are distinguishable. Even though each method has their advantages and limitations, when applied together, they provide an almost complete characterization of compositional variability in trace-element-bearing minerals.

  13. Dolomitization of carbonated reservoirs of platforms. From geologic data to modeling. Example of the great Bahama bank; La dolomitisation des reservoirs carbonates de plate-forme. Des donnees geologiques a la modelisation. Exemple du Grand Banc des Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspard, E.

    2002-09-01

    Dolomitization has long been one of the most studied geological processes because of its economic interest (dolomitic rocks form a significant share of hydrocarbon reservoirs) as well as its academic interest, based on the fact that dolomite scarcely forms in current and recent marine environments whereas seawater is highly over-saturated; and that it is still not possible to synthesize it in laboratory under the same conditions. We used data collected by the University of Miami (Bahamas Drilling Project, ODP Leg 166) to understand the geological context of complete dolomitization of a Messinian 60 m thick reef unit. Classical methods of petrographic analysis of thin sections (optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, in situ isotopic analyze using ionic microprobe) showed that the intensity of dolomitization is not controlled by the initial texture of the sediment, that the key parameter for dolomitization is the conservation of the initial mineralogy of magnesian bio-clasts, and that redox conditions, salinity and/or temperature of the precipitation fluid varied significantly during the process. Hydrodynamic modelling showed that during periods of high sea-level, Kohout thermal convection is a viable mechanism for driving marine fluids through the sediments. The key parameter for fluid circulations is the permeability anisotropy on the platform scale. Geochemical modelling showed that seawater is able to induce a complete dolomitization over durations of around one million years. Sensitivity tests showed that the critical parameter (as well as one of the less well-known) to describe diagenetic processes in carbonates is the water/rock reactions kinetics and in particular the precipitation kinetics of carbonate minerals. We finally propose that the dolomitization of the reef unit of the Unda well took place during the high sea-level period which extended over 1,1 My in the early Pliocene, according to the Kohout thermal convection

  14. Chronostratigraphy of Monte Vulture volcano (southern Italy): secondary mineral microtextures and 39Ar-40Ar systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Igor M.; Buettner, Annett

    2009-12-01

    The eruptive history of Monte Vulture has been the subject of several geochronological investigations during the past decades, which reliably dated only a small number of eruptions. Understanding the causes of sub-optimum data yield in the past requires an interdisciplinary approach. We re-analyzed samples from previous works and present new data on samples from the main volcano-stratigraphic units of Monte Vulture, so as to provide an improved, consistent chronostratigraphic database. Imaging of minerals by cathodoluminescence and backscattered electrons reveals that heterochemical, high-temperature deuteric reaction textures are ubiquitous. Such observations are common in metamorphic rocks but had not frequently been reported from volcanic rocks. In view of the mineralogical complexity, we base our chronological interpretation on isochemical steps, defined as steps for which the Cl/K and/or the Ca/K ratios are constant. Isochemical steps carry the isotopic signature of chemically homogeneous mineral phases and therefore allow a well-constrained age interpretation. Comparison of old and new 39Ar-40Ar data proves the reproducibility of age spectra and their shapes. This quantifies the analytical reliability of the irradiation and mass-spectrometric analyses. Anomalous age spectra are a reproducible property of some specific samples and correlate with mineralogical anomalies. The present data allow us to fine-tune the age of the volcanostratigraphic units of Monte Vulture during the known interval of main volcanic activity from ca. 740 to 610 ka. After a very long stasis, the volcanic activity in the Monte Vulture area resumed with diatremic eruptions, one of which (Lago Piccolo di Monticchio, the site of a palynological-paleoclimatological drilling) was dated at ca. 140 ka.

  15. Effect of precursor solutions stirring on deep level defects concentration and spatial distribution in low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim Alnoor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods (NRs with 120-300 nm diameters are synthesized via the low temperature aqueous chemical route at 80 °C on silver-coated glass substrates. The influence of varying the precursor solutions stirring durations on the concentration and spatial distributions of deep level defects in ZnO NRs is investigated. Room temperature micro-photoluminesnce (μ-PL spectra were collected for all samples. Cathodoluminescence (CL spectra of the as-synthesized NRs reveal a significant change in the intensity ratio of the near band edge emission (NBE to the deep-level emission (DLE peaks with increasing stirring durations. This is attributed to the variation in the concentration of the oxygen-deficiency with increasing stirring durations as suggested from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spatially resolved CL spectra taken along individual NRs revealed that stirring the precursor solutions for relatively short duration (1-3 h, which likely induced high super saturation under thermodynamic equilibrium during the synthesis process, is observed to favor the formation of point defects moving towards the tip of the NRs. In contrary, stirring for longer duration (5-15 h will induce low super saturation favoring the formation of point defects located at the bottom of the NRs. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to control the concentration and spatial distribution of deep level defects in ZnO NRs by varying the stirring durations of the precursor solutions.

  16. Identification and Characterization of Performance Limiting Regions in Poly-Si Wafers for PV Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As demand for silicon photovoltaic (PV) material increases, so does the need for cost-effective feedstock and production methods that will allow enhanced penetration of silicon PV into the total energy market. The focus on cost minimization for production of polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) PV has led to relaxed feedstock purity requirements, which has also introduced undesirable characteristics into cast poly-Si PV wafers. To produce cells with the highest possible conversion efficiencies, it is crucial to understand how reduced purity requirements and defects that are introduced through the casting process can impair minority carrier properties in poly-Si PV cells. This is only possible by using multiple characterization techniques that give macro-scale information (such as the spatial distribution of performance-limiting regions), as well as micro and nano-scale information about the structural and chemical nature of such performance-limiting regions. This study demonstrates the usefulness of combining multiple techniques to analyze performance-limiting regions in the poly-Si wafers that are used for PV cells. This is done by first identifying performance-limiting regions using macro-scale techniques including photoluminescence (PL) imaging, microwave photoconductive decay (μPCD), and reflectometry), then using smaller-scale techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), cathodoluminescence (CL), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to understand the nature of such regions. This analysis shows that structural defects as well as metallic impurities are present in performance-limiting regions, which together act to decrease conversion efficiencies in poly-Si PV cells.

  17. Towards a monolithically integrated III–V laser on silicon: optimization of multi-quantum well growth on InP on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-quality InGaAsP/InP multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the isolated areas of indium phosphide on silicon necessary for realizing a monolithically integrated silicon laser is achieved. Indium phosphide layer on silicon, the pre-requisite for the growth of quantum wells is achieved via nano-epitaxial lateral overgrowth (NELOG) technique from a defective seed indium phosphide layer on silicon. This technique makes use of epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) from closely spaced (1 µm) e-beam lithography-patterned nano-sized openings (∼300 nm) by low-pressure hydride vapor phase epitaxy. A silicon dioxide mask with carefully designed opening patterns and thickness with respect to the opening width is used to block the defects propagating from the indium phosphide seed layer by the so-called necking effect. Growth conditions are optimized to obtain smooth surface morphology even after coalescence of laterally grown indium phosphide from adjacent openings. Surface morphology and optical properties of the NELOG indium phosphide layer are studied using atomic force microscopy, cathodoluminescence and room temperature µ-photoluminescence (µ-PL) measurements. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth of InGaAsP/InP MQWs on the NELOG indium phosphide is conducted. The mask patterns to avoid loading effect that can cause excessive well/barrier thickness and composition change with respect to the targeted values is optimized. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope studies show that the coalesced NELOG InP on Si is defect-free. PL measurement results indicate the good material quality of the grown MQWs. Microdisk (MD) cavities are fabricated from the MQWs on ELOG layer. PL spectra reveal the existence of resonant modes arising out of these MD cavities. A mode solver using finite difference method indicates the pertinent steps that should be adopted to realize lasing. (invited paper)

  18. Solubility and crystallographic facet tailoring of (GaN)(1-x)(ZnO)(x) pseudobinary solid-solution nanostructures as promising photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Cho, Yujin; Zhang, Xinglai; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Wu, Aimin; Jiang, Xin

    2016-02-14

    (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanostructures with superior crystallinity, large surface areas and visible light absorption have been regarded as promising photocatalysts for overall water splitting to produce H2. In this work, we report the preparation of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods with a high ZnO solubility up to 95% via a two-step synthetic route, which starts from a sol-gel reaction and follows with a nitridation process. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that the crystallographic facets of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods can be finely tailored from non-polar {10̄10} to semipolar {10̄11} and then finally to mixed {10̄1} and polar {000̄1} by carefully controlling the growth temperature and nitridation time. Correspondingly, the ZnO content in the GaN lattice can be achieved in the range of ∼25%-95%. Room-temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements on the three types of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods indicate that the minimum band-gap of 2.46 eV of the solid-solution nanorods is achieved under a ZnO solubility of 25%. The efficiency and versatility of our strategy in the band-gap and facet engineering of (GaN)1-x(ZnO)x solid-solution nanorods will enhance their promising photocatalytic utilizations like an overall water splitting for H2 production under visible-light irradiation.

  19. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  20. 内蒙古额尔古纳地区早石炭世红水泉组岩石学特征及物源分析①②%Analysis of Inner Mongolia Eergu'Na area in the Early Carboniferous Hongshuiquan formation lithology and source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张满利; 曲希玉; 刘立; 赵国祥

    2014-01-01

    Abstact:Through the nearby Red springs farm in Inner Mongolia area in the Early Carboniferous Hongshuiquan formation sandstone cathodoluminescence and sandstone skeleton analysis, studied the petrological characteristics and provenance. The results show, Inner Mongolia Eergu’Na area in the Early Carboniferous Hongshuiquan formation lithologic sandstone quartz sandstone and quartz sand with gravel; parent rock type is mainly in a high-grade metamorphic rocks, formed in the plutonic or volcano plutonic rocks; rock, a small part of quartz formed in lower (regional) metamorphic rocks; source may be derived from the stability of the through the deep strata uplift.%通过内蒙古地区红水泉农场附近早石炭世红水泉组砂岩阴极发光和砂岩骨架分析,对其岩石学特征及物源进行研究。结果显示,内蒙古额尔古纳地区早石炭世红水泉组砂岩岩性为石英砂岩和含砾石英砂岩;母岩类型主要为中-高级变质岩,少量深成岩;形成于深成岩或火山岩中,少部分石英形成于低级(区域)变质岩中;物源可能来源于稳定的克拉通内部深部地层的隆升。

  1. Rapid digital quantification of microfracture populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Leonel A.; Laubach, Stephen E.

    2006-03-01

    Populations of microfractures are a structural fabric in many rocks deformed at upper crustal conditions. In some cases these fractures are visible in transmitted-light microscopy as fluid-inclusion planes or cement filled microfractures, but because SEM-based cathodoluminescence (CL) reveals more fractures and delineates their shapes, sizes, and crosscutting relations, it is a more effective structural tool. Yet at magnifications of 150-300×, at which many microfractures are visible, SEM-CL detectors image only small sample areas (0.5-0.1 mm 2) relative to fracture population patterns. The substantial effort required to image and measure centimeter-size areas at high-magnification has impeded quantitative study of microfractures. We present a method for efficient collection of mosaics of high-resolution CL imagery, a preparation method that allows samples to be any size while retaining continuous imagery of rock (no gaps), and software that facilitates fracture mapping and data reduction. Although the method introduced here was developed for CL imagery, it can be used with any other kind of images, including mosaics from petrographic microscopes. Compared with manual measurements, the new method increases several fold the number of microfractures imaged without a proportional increase in level of effort, increases the accuracy and repeatability of fracture measurements, and speeds quantification and display of fracture population attributes. We illustrate the method on microfracture arrays in dolostone from NE Mexico and sandstone from NW Scotland. We show that key aspects of microfracture population attributes are only fully manifest at scales larger than a single thin section.

  2. Exhumation of high-P marbles of the Samaná Terrane (Northern Hispaniola): Insights from paleostress and microstructural imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Indira; Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés

    2016-08-01

    Paleostress variations and microstructural imprints of a subducted carbonate slab record changes in mechanical strength during its exhumation. The slab studied here forms part of the high-P Samaná Terrane located on the north-eastern margin of the Hispaniola Island. Cold-cathodoluminescence images reveal relict cataclastic fabrics within the highest-pressure marbles of the Punta Balandra and Santa Bárbara Schists structural units, formed in the early stages of exhumation at P-T conditions ca. 2.0 GPa - 500 °C. Cataclastic flow was triggered after a moderate increase of water content (1.2% < w.t. H2O < 1.8%). Accordingly, grain sizes larger than equivalent radius ri = 40 μm preserve distribution of power law type with fractal dimensions D2 = 2.43 in Punta Balandra unit and D2 = 2.72 in Santa Bárbara unit. After cataclastic flow, the stress dropped and grain comminution conducted the marbles to the dissolution-precipitation domain. Then, as exhumation progressed, the effective stress increased and calcite intracrystalline plasticity process dominated. Calcite-twinning incidence and recrystallized grain-size indicate maximum paleostress ca. 350 MPa and mean flow paleostress ≈ 130 MPa. SEM-EBSD analyses show similar weak type-c calcite fabrics in all high-P carbonate units, even though they record different metamorphic P peak. Therefore, intracrystalline plasticity was probably dominant during the development of the final tectonic fabric. Finer grain-size distributions are out of fractal range, with D1 < 1, because of the further superposed deformation. Most of the data are consistent with an initial forced exhumation model of the carbonate slab in a brittle-ductile rheology of the confined plate interface.

  3. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating from granitoids in southern basement of Songliao basin: Constraints on ages of the basin basement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO FuHong; XU WenLiang; YANG DeBin; PEI FuPing; LIU XiaoMing; HU ZhaoChu

    2007-01-01

    Seven LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb datings from granitoids in the southern basement of the Songliao basin were done in order to constrain the ages of the basin basement. The cathodoluminescence (CL) images of the zircons from seven granitoids indicate that they are euhedral-subhedral ones with striped absorption and obvious oscillatory zoning rims. The dating results show that a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age is 236±3 Ma for quartz diorite (sample No.T6-1) located in the western slope of the basin, that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 319±1 Ma (2126 m) and 361±2 Ma (1994 m) for diorite (sample No.YC1-1) and granite (sample No.YC1-2) located in northern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively, and that weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages are 161±5 Ma, 165±2 Ma, 165±1 Ma and 161±4 Ma for samples Q2-1, SN121, SN122, and SN72 granitoids located in southern part of southeastern uplift of the basin, respectively. The statistical results of ages suggest that the middle Jurassic granitoids constitute the main part of basement granitoids, and that the Hercynian and Indo-Sino magmatisms also occur in the basin basement. It is implied that the Songliao basin should be a rift one formed in the intracontinent or active continental margin settings in the late Mesozoic after the Middle Jurassic orogeny took place.

  4. Ossification Vesicles with Calcium Phosphate in the Eyes of the Insect Copium teucrii (Hemiptera: Tingidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Garcia-Guinea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod eyes are built of repeating units named ommatidia. Each single ommatidium unit contains a cluster of photoreceptor cells surrounded by support cells and pigment cells. The insect Copium eye ommatidia include additional calcium-phosphate deposits, not described in insects to date, which can be examined today using a combined set of modern microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Teucrium gnaphalodes L'Her plants, growing in central Spain, develop galls induced by Copium insects. A survey of C. teucrii adult specimens resulted in surprising environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM images, showing that their bright red eyes contain a calcium-phosphate mineralization. A complete survey of Copium eye specimens was performed by ESEM using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, backscattered electron detector and cathodoluminescence (CL probes, field emission scanning electron microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy in order to learn ommatidia features, such as chemical composition, molecular structure, cell membrane, and internal ommatidium eye fluids and calcium-phosphate distribution deposits. The CL panchromatic images distinguish between the calcium-phosphate ommatidium and calcium-phosphate setae, which are more apatite rich. They show Raman bands attributable to bone tissue apatite biomaterials, such as bone, collagen, lipids, and blood, i.e., peptides, amide-S, amide-II, amide-III, and cytochrome P-450scc. The chemical composition of both galls and leaves of T. gnaphalodes was determined by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS of their extracts. The spectrometric and microscopic images reveal that the calcium-phosphate mineralization is formed and constrained to Copium ommatidia, which are both matrix vesicles generating mixtures of apatite collagen and operational compound eyes of the insect.

  5. Comprehensive Characterization of Extended Defects in Semiconductor Materials by a Scanning Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieckmann, Ellen; Nacke, Markus; Allardt, Matthias; Bodrov, Yury; Chekhonin, Paul; Skrotzki, Werner; Weber, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Extended defects such as dislocations and grain boundaries have a strong influence on the performance of microelectronic devices and on other applications of semiconductor materials. However, it is still under debate how the defect structure determines the band structure, and therefore, the recombination behavior of electron-hole pairs responsible for the optical and electrical properties of the extended defects. The present paper is a survey of procedures for the spatially resolved investigation of structural and of physical properties of extended defects in semiconductor materials with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Representative examples are given for crystalline silicon. The luminescence behavior of extended defects can be investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. They are particularly valuable because spectrally and spatially resolved information can be obtained simultaneously. For silicon, with an indirect electronic band structure, CL measurements should be carried out at low temperatures down to 5 K due to the low fraction of radiative recombination processes in comparison to non-radiative transitions at room temperature. For the study of the electrical properties of extended defects, the electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique can be applied. The EBIC image reflects the local distribution of defects due to the increased charge-carrier recombination in their vicinity. The procedure for EBIC investigations is described for measurements at room temperature and at low temperatures. Internal strain fields arising from extended defects can be determined quantitatively by cross-correlation electron backscatter diffraction (ccEBSD). This method is challenging because of the necessary preparation of the sample surface and because of the quality of the diffraction patterns which are recorded during the mapping of the sample. The spatial resolution of the three experimental techniques is compared.

  6. Diagenesis of the Lisburne Group, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R.C.; Goldstein, R.H.; Enos, P. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Petrographic cathodoluminescence studies of the cement stratigraphy of the Lisburne Group yield insights on its diagenetic history. Crosscutting relationships between features of subaerial exposure and calcite cements show that early generations of nonferroan, nonluminescent and multibanded-luminescent calcites are synchronous with or postdated by subaerial exposure surfaces within the Lisburne. Surfaces of subaerial exposure occur at 18 horizons within the Lisburne and are distinguished by features as laminated crusts, rhizoliths, autoclastic breccia, fissure fills, mud cracks, and erosional surfaces. Crosscutting relationships also occur between calcite cements and clasts in karst breccias and conglomerates that formed along the sub-Permian unconformity at the top of the Lisburne. The sub-Permian unconformity postdates later generations of calcite cement. These cements formed in the following sequence: nonferroan to low-ferroan, dully luminescent calcite; ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite; and second generation of nonferroan, multibanded calcite. The crosscutting relationships not only constrain the timing of cement precipitation, but also suggest that the cements probably were precipitated from meteoric groundwaters introduced during subaerial exposure of the Lisburne platform. Late cements in the Lisburne postdate the Permian Echooka Formation. These cements are low-ferroan, moderately-bright to dully luminescent calcite, followed by a second generation of ferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. Features of compaction and pressure solution are coincident with the precipitation of the late ferroan calcite and further constrain its timing to deep burial of the Lisburne. The youngest phase of calcite cement precipitated in the Lisburne Group is nonferroan, very-dully luminescent calcite. It commonly fills tectonically-induced shear fractures, indicating precipitation after the onset of Cretaceous (and/or Cenozoic) tectonism in the northeastern Brooks Range.

  7. Microstructures and their implications for faulting processes -Insights from DGLab core samples from the Gulf of Corinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, C.; Wenk, H.-R.; Wirth, R.; Morales, L.; Kemnitz, H.; Sulem, J.; Dresen, G.

    2016-05-01

    We have examined microstructures, mineralogical composition, geochemical alteration, and texture of four selected fault rock samples from the Deep Geodynamical Laboratory (DGLab) Gulf of Corinth project using optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy (CL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The fault core is composed of red and gray clayey gouge material and surrounded by a damage zone of brecciated limestones. Pressure solution features, calcite veins and calcite clasts in the breccia and gouge material attest the presence of paleo-fluids and fluid-driven mass transfer during deformation. Differences in CL-colors between the matrix and calcite vein cement and inside the vein cement suggest repeated infiltration of fluids with different composition from various sources (formation water and meteoric water). Twin lamellae densities estimated in calcite veins are used as paleo-piezometer. The deduced differential stress is ∼140 ± 70 MPa for the older vein generation and appears to be higher than stress for the youngest veins (45 ± 23 MPa). In spite of the relatively small clay content in both samples, newly formed clay minerals have been observed in gray as well as red clayey gouge material. Differences between gray and red clay gouge material are found in fault rock composition, porosity and clay fabric. The proportion of chlorite in the red gouge is significantly less than that in the gray gouge whereas the initial porosity is significantly higher than in the gray gouge material. The detection of a well-oriented clay fabric in red clay gouge samples is unique in comparison to other major fault zones.

  8. Trace element and isotopic studies of Permo-Carboniferous carbonate nodules from Talchir sediments of peninsular India: Environmental and provenance implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prosenjit Ghosh; S K Bhattacharya; A M Dayal; J R Trivedi; M Ebihara; M M Sarin; A Chakrabarti

    2002-06-01

    Syngenetic carbonate nodules constitute an interesting feature of the glaciogene sediments of various Talchir basins in peninsular India. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence and sedimentary results suggest that many of these nodules contain primary carbonate precipitates whose geochemical signatures can be used for determining environment of deposition and provenance of the sediments and drainage source. Several nodules were collected from Gondwana basins of east-central India and analyzed for stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios, REE and trace element composition, and Sr isotope ratio. The mean 18O and 13C values of the calcites in the nodules are — 19.5‰ and -9.7‰ (w.r.t. PDB) respectively suggesting a freshwater environment (probably lacustrine) for formation of these objects. Trace element ratios (Eu/Eu∗ and La/Yb) of the nodule samples show that the source of the sediments in the Damodar valley basin was the granites, gneisses and intrusives in the Chotanagpur region. The sediments in the Mahanadi valley were derived from granulites, charnockites and granites of the eastern ghat region. The Sr concentration of the carbonate phase of the nodules is low, ranging from 10-60 ng/g . The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples from the west Bokaro basin and Ramgarh basin vary from 0.735 to 0.748 (mean: 0.739) and from 0.726 to 0.733 (mean: 0.730) respectively. These values are consistent with our proposition that water of these basins drained through the granitic rocks of the Chotanagpur region. In contrast, the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the samples from the Talchir basin (Type area) of Mahanadi valley vary from 0.718 to 0.723 (mean: 0.719). These 87Sr/86Sr ratios are close to those of the granulites in the adjoining eastern ghat belt suggesting that area as the drainage source.

  9. Electrospinning synthesis and luminescent properties of one-dimensional Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microfibers and microbelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microfibers and microbelts were fabricated by a simple and cost-effective electrospinning method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) and decay kinetics were used to characterize the resulting samples. The diameters of the Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microfibers annealed at 1000 °C were in the range of 130–210 nm. The width and the thickness of Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microbelts annealed at 1000 °C were in the range of 290–500 nm and 110–160 nm, respectively. When the samples were excited by ultraviolet (275 nm), intense red emission from Eu3+ ions was observed. The charge transfer band of microbelts was broader than microfibers and the peak of charge transfer band moved to lower energy area. Under low-voltage electron beams (3–5 kV) excitation, the Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microfibers also showed strong red emission. -- Graphical abstract: In the excitation spectra, the charge transfer band of microbelts is broader than microfibers and the peak of charge transfer band moves to lower energy area because the cell volume of microbelts is larger than that of microfibers. Highlights: ► Ca2Gd8(SiO4)6O2:Eu3+ microfibers and microbelts by electronspinning technique. ► The Eu3+–O2− charge transfer band of microbelts is broader than microfibers. ► The optimum concentration of Eu3+ is about 11% in microfibers.

  10. Quantification of Dynamic Water-Rock-Microbe Interactions in a Travertine-Depositing Hot Spring, Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, L. M.; Sivaguru, M.; Fried, G.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.

    2014-12-01

    Filamentous microbial mats in a travertine-depositing hot spring at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park exert primary controls on the growth rate, mineralogy, and crystal fabric of calcium carbonate minerals (travertine) that precipitate in the spring. Filaments directly affect porosity and permeability of travertine by providing a structural framework consisting of "ropes" of microbial cells around which carbonate minerals precipitate, creating a uniquely biogenetic mineral fabric characterized by horizontal layers of large tubular pores. Nanometer scale microscopy reveals that these mineral fabrics may be directly tied to microbial activities, as aragonite crystals precipitating directly on filaments are smaller and more densely packed than crystals precipitating on extra-polymeric substances (EPS) between filaments. In order to more closely examine the processes which control calcium carbonate crystallization dynamics in this system, a high-resolution transect of water and travertine was sampled for geochemistry, microscopy, and microbial biomass along the primary flow path from upstream to downstream of Narrow Gauge spring at Mammoth Hot Springs. Travertine samples were analyzed for petrography using transmitted light, cathodoluminescence, and laser confocal microscopy to examine crystal morphology and associations with microbial filaments and provide insight on pore network distributions. Additionally, travertine and spring water geochemistry was also analyzed for major and trace ions, δ34S, δ13C, and δ18O, to identify any trends that may relate to crystallization rates, microbial biomass, or crystal habit. Total biomass was determined using dried weight. Water-rock-microbe interactions result in upstream-to-downstream variations in travertine crystal morphology and water chemistry that are directly related to systematic changes in microbial biomass and community respiration. Geochemical modeling lends insight into the biogeochemical reactions

  11. Improved luminescence properties of pulsed laser deposited Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb thin films by post deposition annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb thin films were successfully deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrates in an oxygen working atmosphere by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The as-deposited films were amorphous but crystallized when annealed in air at 400 °C and 800 °C for 1 h as confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Three dimensional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the as-deposited film show well defined spherically grains that were uniformly distributed over the surface with a root mean square (RMS) roughness value of 9 nm. After annealing at 800 °C the surface became smooth and the RMS value was reduced to 6 nm. The smooth layer was confirmed to be a surface oxide layer enriched with Ga from the images captured using a nano-scanning Auger electron microprobe (NanoSAM). The PL intensities were observed to increase as a function of annealing temperatures and this was attributed to improvement of the crystallinity of the films and a possible variation of Ga concentration in the thin films. In addition, cathodoluminescence (CL) properties of the films were recorded when the films were irradiated with a beam of electrons in the vacuum chamber of the Auger electron spectrometer. The CL intensity of the deposited film was recorded as a function of electron dose as well as the accelerating voltage. -- Highlights: • Y3(Al,Ga)5O12:Tb PLD thin films were successfully deposited. • The as-deposited films were amorphous but crystallized when annealed. • The PL intensities increased as a function of annealing temperatures. • CL properties of the films were recorded. • NanoSEM and SAM were used to determine the variation in the thickness and composition of the films

  12. A re-examination of petrogenesis and 40Ar/39Ar systematics in the Chain of Ponds K-feldspar: "diffusion domain" archetype versus polyphase hygrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Alex N.; Villa, Igor M.; Hanchar, John M.; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    K-feldspar (Kfs) from the Chain of Ponds Pluton (CPP) is the archetypal reference material, upon which thermochronological modeling of Ar diffusion in discrete "domains" was founded. We re-examine the CPP Kfs using cathodoluminescence and back-scattered electron imaging, transmission electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. 40Ar/39Ar stepwise heating experiments on different sieve fractions, and on handpicked and unpicked aliquots, are compared. Our results reproduce the staircase-shaped age spectrum and the Arrhenius trajectory of the literature sample, confirming that samples collected from the same locality have an identical Ar isotope record. Even the most pristine-looking Kfs from the CPP contains successive generations of secondary, metasomatic/retrograde mineral replacements that post-date magmatic crystallization. These chemically and chronologically distinct phases are responsible for its staircase-shaped age spectra, which are modified by handpicking. While genuine within-grain diffusion gradients are not ruled out by these data, this study demonstrates that the most important control on staircase-shaped age spectra is the simultaneous presence of heterochemical, diachronous post-magmatic mineral growth. At least five distinct mineral species were identified in the Kfs separate, three of which can be traced to external fluids interacting with the CPP in a chemically open system. Sieve fractions have size-shifted Arrhenius trajectories, negating the existence of the smallest "diffusion domains." Heterochemical phases also play an important role in producing nonlinear trajectories. In vacuo degassing rates recovered from Arrhenius plots are neither related to true Fick's Law diffusion nor to the staircase shape of the age spectra. The CPP Kfs used to define the "diffusion domain" model demonstrates the predominance of metasomatic alteration by hydrothermal fluids and recrystallization in establishing the natural Ar distribution among different

  13. Optical properties of Yb ions in GaN epilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwisienczak, W. M.; Lozykowski, H. J.

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, an important effort in semiconductor materials research has been devoted to III-nitrides semiconductors doped with rare earth ions due to the high potential of these materials in light-emitting device applications. Ytterbium (Yb 3+) is one of a few lanthanide ions which have not been investigated as an optically active center in these materials yet. In this paper we report the observation of luminescence from GaN films grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrate by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and doped by implantation with Yb 3+ ions. The high resolution photo- and cathodoluminescence spectra of GaN:Yb 3+ were studied at different excitation conditions in temperatures ranging from 8 to 330 K and revealed weak thermal quenching. The luminescence emission lines are assigned to transitions between the spin-orbit levels 2F 5/2 → 2F 7/2 of Yb 3+ (4f 13). The analysis of the Yb luminescence spectra allowed us to suggest the energy level diagram of the crystal-field-split 4f 13 levels for the Yb ion center. The most probable lattice location of Yb in GaN is the substitutional Ga site. Furthermore, the luminescence kinetics of internal transitions of Yb 3+ incorporated in GaN was investigated by means of decay and time-resolved luminescence measurements. It was found that the ytterbium decay is non-exponential with dominant exponential term of ˜100 μs with little dependence on the ambient temperature. The results indicate that Yb-doped GaN epilayer may be suitable as a material for near infrared optoelectronic devices.

  14. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control

  15. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  16. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Peter Duda

    Full Text Available Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰, are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰ that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies

  17. Leaching of uranyl-silica complexes from the host metapelite rock favoring high radon activity of subsoil air: case of Castanar cave (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanar cave is a subterranean site with an outstanding natural environmental radioactivity. The maintaining of high radon activity of cave air and the detection of spatially anomalies of this gas in some cave emplacements, suggests that some natural geochemical processes are involved on the mobilization of radioactivity sources to cave environment, other than a simple exhalation of radon from the host-rock. The host rocks are interlaid dolostone-metapelite beds with radioactive nuclides of the three actinium, thorium and uranium decay series. In situ measurements on the spatial distribution of radioactivity, uranyl group's luminescence and radon gas concentrations inside cave were main focus of this work to model lixiviation and deposition mechanisms of radioactive elements from the host rock to the karstic system. In addition, collected micro-samples were also analyzed by a multi-approach suite of analytical techniques: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, environmental scanning electron microscopy with an attached X-ray energy dispersive system and spectral cathodoluminescence detector, thermoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential-thermal and thermogravimetry analysis, Alpha-spectrometry and Gamma-spectrometry techniques. The host metapelitic beds contain Zr(Hf)-Th(U)-Ti-P-REE phases such as zircon, xenotime-(Y), monazite-(Ce, La) and poly-metallic mineralization veins of hydrothermal origin. Carbonated host beds and speleothems show frequently chemical elements leaked from the upper host rock masses. The weathering leakage processes are favored by the existence of pyrite and limonite in the dolostone masses. The cave exhibits under UV lamps abundant hydrous silica-uranyl coatings covering carbonated speleothems with radionuclides of 238U natural decay series. The long-lived radio-nuclides of the radium radioactive decay chain are responsible of the continuous regeneration of radon gas inside cave. The experimental work was

  18. Influence of ZnO seed layer precursor molar ratio on the density of interface defects in low temperature aqueous chemically synthesized ZnO nanorods/GaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoor, Hatim; Pozina, Galia; Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Liu, Xianjie; Iandolo, Donata; Willander, Magnus; Nur, Omer

    2016-04-01

    Low temperature aqueous chemical synthesis (LT-ACS) of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) has been attracting considerable research interest due to its great potential in the development of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The influence of the molar ratio of the zinc acetate (ZnAc): KOH as a ZnO seed layer precursor on the density of interface defects and hence the presence of non-radiative recombination centers in LT-ACS of ZnO NRs/GaN LEDs has been systematically investigated. The material quality of the as-prepared seed layer as quantitatively deduced by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is found to be influenced by the molar ratio. It is revealed by spatially resolved cathodoluminescence that the seed layer molar ratio plays a significant role in the formation and the density of defects at the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterostructure interface. Consequently, LED devices processed using ZnO NRs synthesized with molar ratio of 1:5 M exhibit stronger yellow emission (˜575 nm) compared to those based on 1:1 and 1:3 M ratios as measured by the electroluminescence. Furthermore, seed layer molar ratio shows a quantitative dependence of the non-radiative defect densities as deduced from light-output current characteristics analysis. These results have implications on the development of high-efficiency ZnO-based LEDs and may also be helpful in understanding the effects of the ZnO seed layer on defect-related non-radiative recombination.

  19. Investigating high zircon concentrations in the fine fraction of stream sediments draining the Pan-African Dahomeyan Terrane in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen hundred stream sediments (<150 μm fraction) collected during regional geochemical surveys in central and SW Nigeria have high median and maximum concentrations of Zr that exceed corresponding Zr concentrations found in stream sediments collected from elsewhere in the World with similar bedrock geology. X-ray diffraction studies on a sub-set of the analysed stream sediments showed that Zr is predominantly found in detrital zircon grains. However, the main proximal source rocks (Pan-African ‘Older Granites’ of Nigeria and their Proterozoic migmatitic gneiss country rocks) are not enriched in zircon (or Zr). Nevertheless, U–Pb LA-ICP-MS dating with cathodoluminescence imaging on detrital zircons, both from stream sediment samples and underlying Pan-African ‘Older Granites’ confirms a local bedrock source for the stream sediment zircons. A combination of tropical/chemical weathering and continuous physical weathering, both by ‘wet season’ flash flooding and ‘dry season’ unidirectional winds are interpreted to have effectively broken down bedrock silicate minerals and removed much of the resultant clay phases, thereby increasing the Zr contents in stream sediments. The strong correlation between winnowing index (Th/Al) and Zr concentration across the study area support this interpretation. Therefore, ‘anomalous’ high values of Zr, as well as other elements concentrated in resistant ‘heavy’ minerals in Nigeria’s streams may not reflect proximal bedrock concentrations of these elements. This conclusion has important implications for using stream sediment chemistry as an exploration tool in Nigeria for primary metal deposits associated with heavy minerals.

  20. Distribution of Minor Elements in Calcite From the Unsaturated Zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B. D.; Whelan, J. F.

    2001-12-01

    Calcite is sporadically distributed in fractures and cavities in the volcanic rocks that form the 500- to 700-m-thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Previous work has shown that the calcite precipitated from water moving downward through the unsaturated zone since the volcanic rocks were emplaced approximately 13 Ma. Calcite thus serves as a proxy for the chemistry and amounts of past percolation, two parameters that are important in predictions of the future behavior of the potential radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Latest calcite, which began forming between approximately 5 and 2 Ma, typically displays fine-scale growth zoning defined by distributions of Mn (inferred from cathodoluminescence), Mg, and Sr. Electron microprobe (EPMA) mapping of outermost calcite reveals Mg growth zoning1 and higher overall concentrations of Mg in late calcite than in older calcite. Micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) maps were obtained by slow rastering of the samples over a 100-watt X-ray source collimated through a final aperture of 100 μ m. Although the spatial resolution of the micro-XRF mapping is much less than that of EPMA, this technique reveals distributions of some elements to which EPMA is less sensitive. Micro-XRF maps show that Sr is spatially correlated with Mg; Sr concentrations range to 500 μ g/g at the resolution of the 100-μ m collimator. Because both Mg and Sr have similar calcite-water distribution coefficients much less than one, the Mg/Sr in calcite reflects the Mg/Sr of the water that precipitated the calcite. The distribution coefficient for Mn is greater than one and variations in Mn are not correlated with Mg and Sr. Covariation of Mg and Sr in the percolating water may be explained by reactions that affect the rate of uptake of chemical constituents from the overlying rock and soil, and/or evaporation. Late calcite has lower δ 13C values, probably due to a regional change from wetter to drier climate conditions. The higher Mg and

  1. Monzonitic series from the Variscan Tormes Dome (Central Iberian Zone): petrogenetic evolution from monzogabbro to granite magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moro, Francisco-Javier; López-Plaza, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    In the Iberian Massif, rocks of the K-rich plutonic series are not abundant, but towards internal parts of the belt represented by the Central Iberian Zone there are some sectors where shoshonitic plutonism occurs over broad areas. One of these areas is the anatectic Tormes Dome, encompassing two similar studied plutons (Pereruela and Vitigudino). A monzonitic association has been defined, ranging from monzogabbros to quartz monzonites or scarce monzogranites. Enrichment in LREE, P, Sr and Ba, a high water content (up to 5.5%) and a high degree of oxidation (Ni-NiO buffer) are the main features of magmas parental to these monzonitic rocks. These petrographic and geochemical features allow these granitoids to be ascribed to the shoshonitic type ("SH-type"), rather than to the I-type. The minimum emplacement pressure range is 410-230 MPa, whereas the estimated solidus temperature range is 940-765 °C; i.e., above water-saturated solidus. O, Sr, and Nd isotopes point to open-system processes. Apatite cathodoluminescence suggests that magma mixing was unlikely to have occurred for the most enriched rocks. Assimilation/fractional crystallisation (AFC) modelling was performed for both plutons, permitting assimilation/crystallization rates to be estimated between 0.16 and 0.25. Different contaminants have been inferred: a metapelite at upper crustal level for the Vitigudino Pluton and a granulitic orthogneiss for the Pereruela Pluton. A liquid line of descent, linking monzogabbroic members to quartz monzonites/monzogranites, can be reconstructed. Some loss of water and oxygen can be inferred, although water remained in the system below the solidus, giving rise to auto-metamorphism at ca. 500 °C. On the other hand, AFC processes are unlikely to have been the main factor in controlling the characteristic enrichment of the monzonitic series, since the least contaminated samples are the most LILE- and LREE-enriched for both plutons. Thus, a source-controlled chemical

  2. Explanation of red spectral shifts at CdTe grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, John

    The best research-cell efficiencies for CdTe thin-film solar cells have recently increased from 17.3% to 20.4%. Despite these impressive recent gains, many improvements in device technology are necessary to reach the detailed-balance efficiency limit for CdTe-based (single-junction, non-concentrator) solar cells of ~32%. Improvements will increasingly rely on knowledge of the fundamental relationships between processing, electrical properties of defects, and device performance. In this study, scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based cathodoluminescence (CL) spectrum imaging was used to examine these fundamental relationships. In CL spectrum imaging we collect a spectrum per pixel in a 256 x 256 pixel SEM image by synchronizing a cryogenic silicon charge-coupled device with the electron-beam positioning. High spatial resolution photon energy maps obtained with this technique can reveal intricate luminescence phenomena that are not apparent in spectroscopic data. CL spectrum imaging was performed at T= 25 K on the back surface of CSS-deposited CdTe thin-films in a CdTe/CdS/SnO_2/glass configuration without back contacting. Both as-deposited and CdCl2 vapor-treated samples were analyzed. Luminescence emission is detected (bands) at ~1.32 eV and ~1.50 eV, which are consistent with Z- and Y-bands. The importance of the Z-band to CdTe solar cells is discussed. For the grains in the as-deposited films, there is a significant redshift in the transition energies near the grain boundaries. For the Z-band, this behavior is due to the effect of the high GB recombination velocity (sX~1x10 4 cm/s) in as-deposited CSS films on the donor-acceptor pair transition mechanism. The concentration of the shallow donor species participating in the Z-band transition was estimated to be ~1017 cm-3 . Based on this estimate, and the spatial correlation between the Z-band and the A-center (VCd-ClTe) complex transitions, ClTe is proposed as is the shallow donor species.

  3. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  4. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) Analysis and U-Pb Geochronology of the Oldest Lunar Zircon: Constraining Early Lunar Differentiation and Dating Impact-Related Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Nick; Nemchin, Alexander; Grange, Marion; Reddy, Steve; Pidgeon, Bob; Geisler, Thorsten; Meyer, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the early moon was dominated by two processes (i) crystallization of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) and differentiation of potassium-rare earth element-phosphorous-rich residual magma reservoir referred to as KREEP, and (ii) an intense meteorite bombardment referred to as lunar cataclysm . The exact timing of these processes is disputed, and resolution relies on collection and interpretation of precise age data. This study examines the microstructure and geochronology of zircon from lunar impact breccias collected during the Apollo 17 mission. A large zircon clast within lunar breccia 72215,195 shows sector zoning in optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and Raman mapping, and indicates that it was a relict fragment of a much larger magmatic grain. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb analysis of the zircon shows that U and Th concentration correlate with sector zoning, with darkest CL domains corresponding with high-U and Th (approx.150 and approx.100 ppm respectively), and the brightest-CL sectors containing approx.30-50 ppm U and approx.10-20 ppm Th. This indicates that variations in optical CL and Raman properties correspond to differential accumulation of alpha-radiation damage in each sector. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping shows that the quality of electron backscatter patterns (band contrast) varies with sector zoning, with the poorest quality patterns obtained from high-U and Th, dark-CL zones. EBSD mapping also reveals a deformation microstructure that is cryptic in optical, CL and Raman imaging. Two orthogonal sets of straight discrete and gradational low-angle boundaries accommodate approx.12 misorientation across the grain. The deformation bands are parallel to the crystallographic {a}-planes of the zircon, have misorientation axes parallel to the c-axis, and are geometrically consistent with formation by dislocation creep associated with {010} slip. The deformation bands are unlike curved

  5. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Topics covered include; Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites; Coating Thermoelectric Devices To Suppress Sublimation; Ultrahigh-Temperature Ceramics; Improved C/SiC Ceramic Composites Made Using PIP; Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum; Two-Band, Low-Loss Microwave Window; MCM Polarimetric Radiometers for Planar Arrays; Aperture-Coupled Thin-Membrane L-Band Antenna; WGM-Based Photonic Local Oscillators and Modulators; Focal-Plane Arrays of Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors; Laser Range and Bearing Finder With No Moving Parts; Microrectenna: A Terahertz Antenna and Rectifier on a Chip; Miniature L-Band Radar Transceiver; Robotic Vision-Based Localization in an Urban Environment; Programs for Testing an SSME-Monitoring System; Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light; Displaying and Analyzing Antenna Radiation Patterns; Payload Operations Support Team Tools; Space-Shuttle Emulator Software; Soft Real-Time PID Control on a VME Computer; Analyzing Radio-Frequency Coverage for the ISS; Nanorod-Based Fast-Response Pressure-Sensitive Paints; Capacitors Would Help Protect Against Hypervelocity Impacts; Diaphragm Pump With Resonant Piezoelectric Drive; Improved Quick-Release Pin Mechanism; Designing Rolling-Element Bearings; Reverse-Tangent Injection in a Centrifugal Compressor; Inertial Measurements for Aero-assisted Navigation (IMAN); Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems; Improved Path Planning Onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers; Robust, Flexible Motion Control for the Mars Explorer Rovers; Solar Sail Spaceflight Simulation; Fluorine-Based DRIE of Fused Silica; Mechanical Alloying for Making Thermoelectric Compounds; Process for High-Rate Fabrication of Alumina Nanotemplates; Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics; An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System; Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material; Blackbody Cavity for Calibrations at 200 to 273 K; KML Super Overlay to WMS Translator; High-Performance Tiled WMS

  6. Crystal zoning in a large-volume ignimbrite: constraints on the thermal history of a supervolcano magma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, N. E.; Pyle, D. M.; Wilson, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical zoning of crystals provides an important archive of information that allows for the reconstruction of complex thermal histories and changes in melt composition of the magma reservoir during crystallization. Here we investigate cathodoluminescence (CL) and Ti zonation in quartz crystals extracted from pumices from the Whakamaru and Rangitaiki ignimbrite units (part of the large-volume Whakamaru Group Ignimbrites), New Zealand, to reconstruct the thermal history of the parent magma chamber(s). CL intensity images are taken as a proxy for Ti content and temperature variation during crystal growth, and direct estimates of temperature are made using the TitaniQ geothermometer (Wark & Watson 2006 Cont. Min. Pet.) based on Ti concentration in quartz. These results are reviewed in comparison with temperatures from Fe-Ti oxide geothermometry. Quartz zoning is also compared to zonation in feldspars (using BSE imaging) from the same pumice clasts in order to establish the degree to which different crystal species record similar or contrasting magmatic histories. Quartz crystals in Whakamaru pumice display a variety of CL zoning patterns and resorption boundaries. Overgrowths typically appear to truncate CL growth zoning within the crystal core, indicating periods of resorption and subsequent re-growth - consistent with magma recharge causing a marked change in conditions (temperature and/or volatile saturation) and multi-stage crystallisation. Crystals typically display a dark (lower Ti) resorbed core, with an abrupt change to a CL-bright rim, although irregular textures and complex variations between crystals are observed. Core-to-rim profiles of Ti concentration in analysed quartz crystals show Ti variations within the range 50-225 ppm, corresponding to crystallisation temperatures of 733-935°C (assuming TiO2 activity in the melt of 0.6), with the lowest values recorded in the crystal core, increasing in a step-wise pattern towards the rim. These values are

  7. Electron-induced x-ray analysis and imaging of rare earth element-rich materials -technologies, techniques and recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The lanthanides have always presented special challenges in both imaging and microanalysis of bulk samples. Their moderate atomic number excludes primary x-ray (K series) excitation. The increased complexity of the L series coupled with their consecutive atomic number grouping generates a forest of emissions in which the trees are hard to find. Whilst L alpha energy differences range from 189 eV (La-Ce) to 240 eV (Yb-Lu), the associated lesser L series emissions produce complex overlaps and preclude x-ray analysis by conventional energy dispersive spectrometers(130 eV resolution) other than in simple cases. Wavelength dispersive spectrometers (10 eV) are thus required for accurate analysis. Improved user interfaces and instrument reliability particularly for mapping element distributions do however make this data more accessible today. Imaging of rare earth element materials is simple at the macro-scale and difficult at the micro-scale. The moderate atomic number means high backscattered electron (BSE) yields and strong differentiation with lesser phases but again the sequential atomic positioning of these elements mean little variation in average atomic numbers per unit volume where substitution occurs between the elements. A variation of 11 wt% in substitution of Ce for La in a typical monazite is required to produce a 0.1 change in average atomic number, the reported sensitivity of most BSE detectors. Cathodoluminescence (CL) has a far lower sensitivity but in complex cases is not yet well understood, spectral CL techniques are starting to unravel these problems. Simply put, abundance variations can be clearly imaged but intra-group variations are invisible to most current techniques. A promising development is a charge contrast imaging (CCI) technique recently developed in the environmental scanning electron microscope. CCI images show a high sensitivity to lattice state and have been correlated exactly to CL data from zircon, including a response to

  8. Diagenetic evolution of Tortonian temperate carbonates close to evaporites in the Granada Basin (SE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Quirós, A.; Barbier, M.; Martín, J. M.; Puga-Bernabéu, Á.; Guichet, X.

    2016-04-01

    The Granada Basin (SE Spain) is a small basin located in the central part of the Betic Cordillera, structured as such in the late Tortonian and initially connected to the Atlantic Ocean and to the Mediterranean Sea. During the late Tortonian, normal marine conditions prevailed, leading to the deposition of skeletal carbonate sediments on platforms around structural highs. The marine connections were later interrupted, first to the Atlantic Ocean and then to the Mediterranean Sea, and a thick evaporite sequence, marking the transition from marine to continental conditions, was deposited during the latest Tortonian. In this work, the diagenetic evolution of the Tortonian temperate carbonates (TTC), underlying and close to the evaporite bodies, is revealed and discussed. The diagenetic study includes petrographic analyses (conventional petrography, cathodoluminescence, and fluorescence), geochemical analyses (major, minor and trace elements, and δ13C and δ18O stable isotopes), and microthermometry of fluid inclusions. In the TTC, marine diagenetic processes such as micritization and fibrous calcite-cement precipitation and mechanical compaction took place during or just after deposition (Eogenesis). An initial burial event (Mesogenesis 1) is characterized by: 1) stabilization of the temperate-water carbonates by freshwater, and 2) porosity occlusion via precipitation of low-Mg bladed and syntaxial/mosaic calcite cements. The TTC were then subaerially exposed (or got close to the surface) during evaporite deposition and underwent pedogenesis, Mg-smectite infiltration, and pyrite formation (Telogenesis 1). Subsequent brine-related diagenetic alterations, such as dolomitization and silica, halite, and sylvite replacements of carbonate grains occurred during a second burial episode (Mesogenesis 2) concomitant with the Messinian lacustrine deposition, this being followed by chemical compaction (stylolite formation). Finally, the area was uplifted and the TTC exhumed

  9. Silica Transport and Cementation in Quartz Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebble, C.; Farver, J.; Onasch, C.; Winslow, D.

    2008-12-01

    Silica transport and cementation in quartz aggregates have been experimentally investigated. Starting materials include a natural quartz arenite (Pocono sandstone), sized clasts of synthetic quartz, and sized grains of disaggregated natural sandstones. Experimental charges consisted of amorphous silica powder (~25 mg), AlCl3 powder (~3 mg), 25 wt% NaCl brine solution (~20 mg), and the starting material (~150 mg). The charges were weld-sealed in gold capsules and run in cold-seal pressure vessels at 300°C to 600°C at 150 MPa confining pressure for up to 4 weeks. Detailed calibrations of the furnaces indicate the maximum temperature variation across the length of the sample charges (3-7mm) was vacuum impregnated with epoxy containing a blue dye and sawn in half along the long axis of the sample charge. The nature and amount of silica transport and cementation in the samples was determined by a combination of Cathodoluminescence (CL), Light Microscopy (LM), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Photomosaics of the samples were collected and the amount of cement, porosity, and average grain sizes were determined by point-counting. The cement was easily recognized from the quartz grains by the difference in luminescence. The experiments indicate that the presence of amorphous silica results in rapid silica cementation in quartz aggregates (e.g., up to 12% cement by volume in 4 weeks at 450°C). The amount of cementation is a function of substrate type, time, temperature, and ionic strength of the brine. The rate of silica transport through the length of the experimental charge appears to be limited by the silica solubility and its rapid depletion by cementation. Although most of the cement was derived from the amorphous silica, evidence for local dissolution-precipitation was observed. The experiments demonstrate that the mobility of silica, and consequent precipitation of cement, does not require a temperature or pressure gradient as is commonly assumed. Rather

  10. Structural investigation of brittle carbonate fault rocks at various scales: implications for fluid migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröckenfuchs, Theresa-Christina; Bauer, Helene; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    The EW-striking, sinistral Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazell-Puchberg fault system is a prominent feature in the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) in Austria. In particular, within the eastern part of the NCA, in Styria, it creates characteristic fault rocks in carbonates, comparable to fault rocks from similar tectonic regimes in other areas. Furthermore, faults and their characteristic fault rocks in this area play an important role in groundwater filtering, fluid pathways and in initiating karstification; this is of great social and economic importance since most of the drinking water for Vienna is obtained from that area. The fault zones are therefore ideal for investigating reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability evolution. Since detailed studies of such fault rocks on a micro scale are still rare, this work focuses on investigating structures and processes that create typical features in carbonate fault rocks from field- to nano-scale. Additionally, reservoir properties have been characterized. Apart from detailed structural field-work and porosity and permeability-measurements in the laboratory, thin-sections were analysed by optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence microscopy and electron microscopy using backscattered electron pictures and focused ion-beam techniques. The analytical methods provide an insight on processes and features such as grain size reduction, cementation and recrystallization, and point out porosity and permeability differences due to deformation mechanisms and cementation events. The results show that besides the common theory of grain interaction (rotation, gliding), in situ grain size reduction, predominantly controlled by pore fluid, plays an important role in creating cataclastic fabrics. Microscopic observations reveal a high amount of matrix porosity in dolomitic fault-core rocks, such as cataclasites and dilation breccias, which explains the high porosity values for those rocks measured in the laboratory; generally

  11. The Year Leading to a Supereruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Supereruptions catastrophically eject 100s-1000s of km3 of magma to the surface in a matter of days to a few months. In this study, we use zoning in quartz crystals from the Bishop Tuff (California) to assess the timescales over which a giant magma body transitions from relatively quiescent, pre-eruptive crystallization to rapid decompression and eruption. Quartz crystals in the Bishop Tuff have distinctive rims (<200 μm thick), which are Ti-rich and bright in cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and which can be used to calculate Ti diffusional relaxation times. We use synchrotron-based x-ray microfluorescence to obtain quantitative Ti maps and profiles along rim-interior contacts in quartz at resolutions of 1–5 μm in each linear dimension. We perform CL imaging on a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a low-energy (5 kV) incident beam to characterize these contacts in high resolution (<1 μm in linear dimensions). Quartz growth times were determined using a 1D model for Ti diffusion, assuming initial step functions. Minimum quartz growth rates were calculated using these calculated growth times and measured rim thicknesses. Maximum rim growth times span from ~1 min to 35 years, with a median of ~4 days. More than 70% of rim growth times are less than 1 year, showing that quartz rims have mostly grown in the days to months prior to eruption. Minimum growth rates show distinct modes between 10−8 and 10−10 m/s (depending on sample), revealing very fast crystal growth rates (100s of nm to 10s of μm per day). Our data show that quartz rims grew well within a year of eruption, with most of the growth happening in the weeks or days preceding eruption. Growth took place under conditions of high supersaturation, suggesting that rim growth marks the onset of decompression and the transition from pre-eruptive to syn-eruptive conditions. PMID:27438605

  12. Tunable emissions from Dy{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} ions co-activated SrY{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+} nanocrystalline phosphors for LED and FED applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavitra, E.; Seeta Rama Raju, G.; Yu, Jae Su, E-mail: jsyu@khu.ac.kr

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • RE ions triple-doped SrY{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline phosphors were prepared by sol–gel process. • SrY{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Er{sup 3+} ions single-doped phosphor exhibits deep green emission under NUV excitation. • Dy{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions co-doped phosphor shows yellowish-green emission under 365 nm excitation. • Er{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} triple-ions doped phosphor displays pleasant white emission for LEDs. • From CL, the triple-ions doped phosphor gives warm-white emission for FED applications. - Abstract: Er{sup 3+} ions single-doped, Dy{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions co-doped, and Er{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Sm{sup 3+} ions triple-doped SrY{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocrystalline phosphors were synthesized by a citrate sol–gel method. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed their pure orthorhombic structure after annealed at 1300 °C and the morphology of particles was found to be nearly spherical. The Er{sup 3+} ions single-doped phosphor samples showed an intense green emission band around 548 nm and the concentration quenching occurred at dilute concentrations (1 mol%) because the {sup 4}S{sub 3/2} energy state of Er{sup 3+} ions can be easily quenched by means of cross relaxation to a metastable state. The Dy{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions co-doped phosphors exhibited a classic yellowish green emission due to efficient energy transfer from Dy{sup 3+} to Er{sup 3+} ions under 365 nm excitation. By adding a series of Sm{sup 3+} ions to the Dy{sup 3+}/Er{sup 3+} ions co-doped SrY{sub 2}O{sub 4} phosphors, a pleasant white light emission which is essential for white light-emitting diodes was obtained. Likewise, from the cathodoluminescence measurements, a warm white light emission that is required for field-emission displays was achieved with accelerating voltage of 5 kV and filament current of 55 μA. A possible energy transfer mechanism was discussed and the energy transfer efficiencies were also calculated.

  13. PREFACE: European Microbeam Analysis Society's 14th European Workshop on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis (EMAS 2015), Portorož, Slovenia, 3-7 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llovet, Xavier; Matthews, Michael B.; Čeh, Miran; Langer, Enrico; Žagar, Kristina

    2016-02-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering contains papers from the 14th Workshop of the European Microbeam Analysis Society (EMAS) on Modern Developments and Applications in Microbeam Analysis which took place from the 3rd to the 7th of May 2015 in the Grand Hotel Bernardin, Portorož, Slovenia. The primary aim of this series of workshops is to assess the state-of-the-art and reliability of microbeam analysis techniques. The workshops also provide a forum where students and young scientists starting out on a career in microbeam analysis can meet and discuss with the established experts. The workshops have a unique format comprising invited plenary lectures by internationally recognized experts, poster presentations by the participants and round table discussions on the key topics led by specialists in the field.This workshop was organized in collaboration with the Jožef Stefan Institute and SDM - Slovene Society for Microscopy. The technical programme included the following topics: electron probe microanalysis, STEM and EELS, materials applications, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and their applications. As at previous workshops there was also a special oral session for young scientists. The best presentation by a young scientist was awarded with an invitation to attend the 2016 Microscopy and Microanalysis meeting at Columbus, Ohio. The prize went to Shirin Kaboli, of the Department of Metals and Materials Engineering of McGill University (Montréal, Canada), for her talk entitled "Electron channelling contrast reconstruction with electron backscattered diffraction". The continuing relevance of the EMAS workshops and the high regard in which they are held internationally can be seen from the fact that 71 posters from 16 countries were on display at the meeting and that the participants came from as far away as Japan, Canada, USA, and Australia. A selection of participants with posters was invited

  14. Dark-current characteristics of GaN-based UV avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jintong; Chang, Chao; Li, Xiangyang

    2015-04-01

    For UV detecting, it needs high ratio of signal to noise, which means high responsibility and low noise. GaN-based avalanche photodiodes can provide a high internal photocurrent gain. In this paper, we report the testing and characterization of GaN based thin film materials, optimization design of device structure, the device etching and passivation technology, and the photoelectric characteristics of the devices. Also, uniformity of the device was obtained. The relationship between dark current and material quality or device processes was the focus of this study. GaN based material with high aluminum components have high density defects. Scanning electron microscope, cathodoluminescence spectra, X-ray double crystal diffraction and transmission spectroscopy testing were employed to evaluate the quality of GaN-based material. It shows that patterned sapphire substrate or thick AlN buffer layer is more effective to get high quality materials. GaN-based materials have larger hole ionization coefficient, so back incident structure were adopted to maximize the hole-derived multiplication course and it was helped to get a smaller multiplication noise. The device with separate absorption and multiplication regions is also prospective to reduce the avalanche noise. According to AlGaN based material characteristics and actual device fabrication, device structure was optimized further. Low physical damage inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching method was used to etch mesa and wet etching method was employed to treat mesa damage. Silica is passivation material of device mesa. For solar-blind ultraviolet device, it is necessary to adopt a wider bandgap material than AlGaN material. The current-voltage characteristics under reverse bias were measured in darkness and under UV illumination. The distribution of dark current and response of different devices was obtained. In short, for GaN-based UV avalanche photodiode, dark current was related to high density dislocation of

  15. Photoluminescence enhancement from GaN by beryllium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, R.; Ramos-Carrazco, A.; Berman-Mendoza, D.; Hirata, G. A.; Contreras, O. E.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2016-10-01

    High quality Be-doped (Be = 0.19 at.%) GaN powder has been grown by reacting high purity Ga diluted alloys (Be-Ga) with ultra high purity ammonia in a horizontal quartz tube reactor at 1200 °C. An initial low-temperature treatment to dissolve ammonia into the Ga melt produced GaN powders with 100% reaction efficiency. Doping was achieved by dissolving beryllium into the gallium metal. The powders synthesized by this method regularly consist of two particle size distributions: large hollow columns with lengths between 5 and 10 μm and small platelets in a range of diameters among 1 and 3 μm. The GaN:Be powders present a high quality polycrystalline profile with preferential growth on the [10 1 bar 1] plane, observed by means of X-ray diffraction. The three characteristics growth planes of the GaN crystalline phase were found by using high resolution TEM microscopy. The optical enhancing of the emission in the GaN powder is attributed to defects created with the beryllium doping. The room temperature photoluminescence emission spectra of GaN:Be powders, revealed the presence of beryllium on a shoulder peak at 3.39 eV and an unusual Y6 emission at 3.32eV related to surface donor-acceptor pairs. Also, a donor-acceptor-pair transition at 3.17 eV and a phonon replica transition at 3.1 eV were observed at low temperature (10 K). The well-known yellow luminescence band coming from defects was observed in both spectra at room and low temperature. Cathodoluminescence emission from GaN:Be powders presents two main peaks associated with an ultraviolet band emission and the yellow emission known from defects. To study the trapping levels related with the defects formed in the GaN:Be, thermoluminescence glow curves were obtained using UV and β radiation in the range of 50 and 150 °C.

  16. Photoluminescence spectra of thenardite Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated with rare-earth ions, Ce{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidike, Aierken [School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, 830054 Xinjiang (China); Saliqur, Rahman Abu Zayed Mohammad [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); He Juiyang [Graduate School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, 830054 Xinjiang (China); Gong Lanxin [School of Life Science and Chemistry, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, 830054 Xinjiang (China); Atobe, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Yamashita, N., E-mail: yosiko3@io.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Five Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} phosphors activated with rare-earth (RE) ions (RE{sup 3+}=Ce{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) were synthesized by heating natural thenardite Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} from Ai-Ding Salt Lake, Xinjiang, China with small amounts of rare-earth fluorides, CeF{sub 3}, SmF{sub 3}, TbF{sub 3}, DyF{sub 3} and TmF{sub 3}, at 920 {sup o}C in air. The photoluminescence (PL) and optical excitation spectra of the obtained phosphors were measured at 300 and 10 K. In the PL spectrum of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} at 300 K, two overlapping bands with peaks at 335 and 356 nm due to Ce{sup 3+} were first observed. Narrow bands observed in PL and excitation spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Sm{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) phosphors were well identified with the electronic transitions within the 4f{sup n} (n=5, 8, 9 and 12) configurations of RE{sup 3+}. The existence of excitation bands with high luminescence efficiency at wavelengths shorter than 230 nm is characteristic of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Sm{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) phosphors. The obtained results suggest that these phosphors are unfavorable as the phosphor for usual fluorescence tubes, i.e., mercury discharge tubes, but may be favorable as the phosphor for UV-LED fluorescent tubes and as cathodoluminescence, X-ray luminescence and thermoluminescence phosphors. - Highlights: > Five Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+}=Ce{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Tm{sup 3+}) phosphors were synthesized by heating natural thenardite. > The emission and excitation spectra of the obtained phosphors were measured at 300 and 10 K. > In Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:Ce{sup 3+} at 300 K, two overlapping emission bands with peaks at 335 and 356 nm were first observed.

  17. Zircon xenocryst resorption and magmatic regrowth at El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Brenda; Schmitt, Axel K.; Roberge, Julie; Tenorio, Felipe Garcia; Damiata, Brian N.

    2016-02-01

    El Chichón volcano is the only active volcano located within the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc in southern Mexico, which lies between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Central American Volcanic Arc. Previous studies have shown that ~ 12 eruptions have occurred at El Chichón within the last 8000 years, forming a complex of lava domes with a central crater and surrounding pyroclastic deposits. Here, we report the discovery of zircon in Holocene El Chichón rocks, which were analyzed by high spatial resolution imaging (color cathodoluminescence CCL) and isotopic (secondary ionization mass spectrometry SIMS) methods to resolve core and rim crystallization ages. Pumice samples from five proximal pyroclastic flow and fall-out deposits were collected based on published stratigraphy. Two of the samples were further (re-)classified by new 14C dates. In addition, we sampled two lavas from the 1982 eruption and from remnants of the older Somma lava complex. Zircon crystals were dated using 230Th/238U disequilibrium (U-Th) and U-Pb geochronology. U-Th zircon ages fall between near eruption ages and ca. 84 ka, with overlapping ages in all samples. By contrast, zircon core U-Pb ages range between ca. 290 Ma and 1.9 Ga. These ages are consistent with xenocrystic origins and their heterogeneity indicates derivation from clastic country rocks. Strong age contrasts between inherited xenocrystic and young magmatic domains in individual zircon crystals are evidence for arrested assimilation of crustal rocks where initially zircon-undersaturated magmas cooled rapidly to form a crystal mush or subsolidus amalgamate as a crustally contaminated boundary layer. This layer contributed zircon crystals to eruptible magma during episodic recharge events followed by partial melt extraction, mixing and homogenization. Zircon overgrowths are significantly older than major minerals whose U-series ages and sharp zonation boundaries suggest crystallization only within a few ka before eruption

  18. La zaratita de Cabo Ortegal (A Coruña: historia de su descubrimiento y caracterización actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Iglesia, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zaratite, Ni3CO3(OH4.4H2O is one of the few minerals discovered in Spain. Taking into account that it is an amorphous compound with variable chemical composition depending on the ore deposits, the International Mineralogical Association (IMA currently considers zaratita in the Q status (Questionable. In this article we analyze first the nearly simultaneous discoveries of the Spanish zaratite and other material called “Emerald of Nickel” from Texas, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania (USA, of similar chemical composition. Both led to the current zaratite, where the Spanish mineral provides the name and the American one, the chemical composition anc physical properties. In addition, here we also include an experimental characterization of the zaratite historical specimen from Ortegal Cape, by electron microprobe, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermo-gravimetric analyses, micro-Raman, infrared transmission spectroscopy and spectral cathodoluminescence together with a discussion of the analytical results.La zaratita, Ni3CO3(OH4.4H2O es uno de los pocos minerales descubiertos en España. Por ser una fase de baja cristalinidad y presentar una composición química variable según los diferentes yacimientos, la International Mineralogical Association (IMA actualmente la considera con status Q (questioned. En este artículo se analizan en primer lugar los descubrimientos, casi simultáneos, del mineral español y del llamado “Emerald of Nickel” de Texas, Lancaster County, Pennsilvania (USA, de similar composición química, que dieron lugar a la actual zaratita, donde el mineral español aportó el nombre y el americano la composición química y la descripción de las propiedades físicas. En segundo lugar, se presenta una nueva caracterización de la muestra histórica de zaratita de Cabo Ortegal, por microsonda electrónica, microscopia electrónica de barrido, difracción de rayos-X, análisis termo

  19. Luminescence of Strontianite (SrCO{sub 3}) from Strontian (Scotland, UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Guinea, J. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)], E-mail: guinea@mncn.csic.es; Crespo-Feo, E. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Correcher, V. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, Ed 2, Dosimetria de Radiaciones, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Cremades, A. [Departmento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Rubio, J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio (CSIC), C/ Kelsen 5, Campus Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Tormo, L. [Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), C/ Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Townsend, P.D. [Science and Technology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    An historic Strontianite-type specimen from Strontian, Scotland, UK, was characterized to broaden our knowledge on luminescence properties of common carbonates. These fibrous aggregates are Strontianite (Sr{sub x}Ca{sub 1-x}CO{sub 3}) with circa 6% of CaO, interfacial water, hydrosilicate anions and substitutional divalent cations, e.g., Ca{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} in structural Sr{sup 2+} positions. The specimen was analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS) probe, Spatially-resolved Cathodoluminescence under the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-CL), Differential-Thermal Analyses (DTA), Thermogravimetry (TG), Thermoluminescence (TL), Radioluminescence (RL) and High Resolution Spectra Thermoluminescence (3DTL), to gain an overview of the spectral emissions, the defect linkages were modified by heating from room temperature (RT) up to 500 deg. C. Substitutional transition elements are probably responsible for the spectral emission bands from 500 nm to 800 nm and hydrous molecules from 300 nm to 400 nm. DTA-TG analyses performed on little chips, to preserve the fiber interfaces coherence, exhibit minor endothermic peaks attributed to outflow of water groups in fiber interfaces. Both, CL and RL curves show common spectral positions but UV-blue and red emission intensities are counterbalanced since electron irradiation reduces the UV-blue emissions while X-irradiation increases them. The TL curves show a top thermal limit at {approx}300 deg. C for the 300-400 nm TL emissions which become irreversibly destroyed, whereas the longer wavelength region emits at higher temperature. The non-reversible changes observed in the 320 nm and 360 nm bands during the spectra 3DTL emission could be linked with non-bridging oxygen defects, protons and hydroxyl groups and the red emissions to the {sup 4}G ({sup 4}T{sub 1g})-{sup 6}S Mn{sup 2+} ion transition

  20. Solid state synthesis, characterization and optical properties of Tb doped SrSnO{sub 3} phosphor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotan, Z. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova-İzmir (Turkey); Ayvacikli, M.; Karabulut, Y. [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey); Garcia-Guinea, J.; Tormo, L. [Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Canimoglu, A. [Niğde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Niğde (Turkey); Karali, T. [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova-İzmir (Turkey); Can, N., E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 45010 Muradiye-Manisa (Turkey)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •A new stannate phosphor, SrSnO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} was synthesized by solid state reaction method. •The role of Tb{sup 3+} doped into SrSnO{sub 3} was discussed. •A structural phase transition in SrSnO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} at ∼270 K was suggested. -- Abstract: In the present study, the structural and optical properties of SrSnO{sub 3} doped with Tb ions are reported. Novel SrSnO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} phosphors were conventionally synthesized using a solid state reaction process under a mildly reduced atmosphere (5%H{sub 2} and 95%N{sub 2}). The crystal structures, morphologies and optical properties of the resultant materials have been characterised by experimental techniques such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), Photoluminescence (PL), Radioluminescence (RL) and Cathodoluminescence coupled to an ESEM (ESEM-CL). The new phosphor material has good crystallization without any impurity phases, which matches with the standard JCPDS files (No. 22-1442) from XRD analysis. The PL, RL and CL measurements taken at room temperature showed that the transitions of {sup 5}D{sub 4} to {sup 7}F{sub J} (j = 6, 5, 4, 3) corresponding to the typical 4f → 4f dipole forbidden intra-configurational transitions of Tb{sup 3+} are largely independent of the host material. The green emissions of the {sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5} magnetic dipole transition at ∼540 nm are predominant for three types of luminescence. PL emission spectra recorded in the temperature range from 10 K to 300 K were influenced by temperature. We report anomalies in the PL spectra of SrSnO{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} compatible with a structural phase transition at 260 K while simultaneously exciting and cooling the sample. This work clearly confirms the existence of a phase transition discovered by Singh et al. in SrSnO{sub 3} at 270 K.